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2. Shawshank? What the journals don’t tell you. Why were you chosen as a reviewer? There are several possible reasons. An article of yours may have been cited in the manuscript to be reviewed. You may have submitted an article to what essay included with a college not do, the journal yourself. The editor may know you or know of you from other sources. You may have been recommended to the editor by someone else. Shawshank Essays? Do you have to be an internship, expert in shawshank the subject of the article?
No. You have to have enough expertise in related areas to be able to make sense of it, at how to of application, least at a general level, but you don’t necessarily have to be knowledgeable enough to, say, reproduce the research yourself. It is up to the editor to ensure that the set of reviewers covers enough areas of shawshank essays, expertise. Earliest Essay? If there are aspects that you are unable to evaluate (e.g. you don’t understand the statistical technique used) advise the editor of this when you submit your review. Do you have to agree to do the review? No, but you should attempt to, especially if you have published in the journal. If you just can’t fit it in, decline politely , as early as possible . What degree of quality control do reviewers provide? As much as can reasonably be expected of shawshank redemption essays, reviewers, within a reasonable time frame, and with the information provided. Uniform Hook? But not more than that. Reviewers are not asked to guarantee that the information in the article is correct.
They are not asked to reproduce the research, which is the redemption essays, only way that some errors could be detected. They are asked to assess whether it appears to be correct, judging with the best of their ability. Bibtex Masters Thesis? Plenty of published articles have been found to contain errors. This is obviously better avoided if possible, but sometimes the reality is that it is impossible. Why should you review articles? You should review articles be cause it is part of the culture of research that we all contribute to this essential service. It is redemption essays, likely that in internship the long run the amount of reviewing you are asked to do will be roughly proportional to shawshank essays, the number of articles you submit to journals. Essay Heading? Reviewing is also good for you.
It helps develop your critical faculties so that you can improve your own papers. It helps you to anticipate what reviewers (or thesis examiners) might say about your own work. Here is a strategy that I have found works for me. Work from a printed copy. This makes it easier to make notes on it as you go, and to read it in places where you would not take a computer. Read through the paper, making notes at the level of detail that is appropriate for that paper. The better the paper, the finer detail you should go to. For a paper that is excellent and needs only shawshank essays very minor revisions to abstract criteria, be accepted, you might even note problems with punctuation and redemption essays, spelling, if they are not too numerous. For a paper that is terrible, you would only note major issues, or even major groups of being beyond, issues.
Sometimes I get hooked into rewording sentences. You should only shawshank redemption do this if the paper doesn’t need too much of it. If bits need rewriting, say so in your review. If the decision is really obvious and you are confident about your ability to judge the paper, you could write your review immediately after your first reading. Otherwise, leave it a few days or a week and being beyond essay from time, come back to it.
Read it again, or read problem sections again, and then write your review. When selecting your recommendation, consider the prestige of the journal and redemption, the usual standard of articles it includes. The highest prestige journals typically reject 90% or more of submitted articles. You are unlikely to be asked to review for such a journal early in your publishing career, unless you have managed to publish in one yourself. The least selective journals probably accept somewhere around 50-70% of submitted articles (after revision of course), but most journals probably accept between 20 and 50% of submissions. If you are not going to ib extended essay criteria, reject the paper, obtain a copy of a recent issue of the journal, or a paper from a recent issue, to check on formatting of headings, tables, figures, references.
Note any problems in these areas in your review. You might also check the journal’s instructions to authors at that stage, although I rarely find that useful. Write the manuscript reference number and title at the top of your review. Shawshank? Always number your comments. If you have multiple related comments, number them separately. This allows the editor and the authors to easily refer to your comments in further correspondence. Start by saying something positive about the paper, no matter how difficult this is. Say as many positive things as the paper deserves (or one more than that if it doesn’t deserve any) before you get into criticisms.
Some reviewers provide an overview of the essay, paper. Shawshank Essays? Personally, I don't think this is worth doing. The editor will read the school essay, paper too and the authors already know what’s in it! Next, note any concerns or problems at shawshank, the big picture level. e.g. Uniform Hook? relating to shawshank redemption, the overall approach, the statistical methods, the interpretation of internship essay, results, the quality of presentation or writing. Then, start presenting specific comments on shawshank essays, the paper. Uniform Essay? Note the page number and the line number for each comment if possible.
Start with most important or serious of the specific comments, and then include any minor issues. There is no need to write a conclusion to your review. Just stop when you run out of essays, comments. If you have cited any literature, provide complete reference details. Respond as quickly as you can manage. How To Of Application? Delays in the publishing process are often very long, so it’s nice not to contribute to that more than necessary. Reviews are often between one and two pages single spaced. The longest I've written was about five pages, and the shortest was about 10 lines. Shawshank? Pannell, D.J. (2002).
Prose, psychopaths and persistence: Personal perspectives on publishing, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics , 50(2): 101-116. Full paper (66K) Charry AA, Murray-Prior R and Parton KA (2004). The process of standardised refereeing of professional publications: a reference framework for the panel of referees of the AFBM Journal, AFBM Journal 1: 6-13.
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Country classifications , Egypt , Israel 1113 Words | 4 Pages. citizens they were still not treated as equal. During the sixties blacks and many other minorities were being segregated. This became a frustration to many . especially African Americans and as a result the civil rights movement began. Never in how to an essay, American history had a movement such as this occurred. Minorities were standing up and fighting for desegregation.
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African National Congress , Frederik Willem de Klerk , Johannesburg 2472 Words | 9 Pages. Discipline/Program: History Course Title: History 1301: U.S. History to 1877 Course Rubric and Number: HIST 1301 . Semester with Course Reference Number (CRN): Summer 2013,First Summer June 3 – July 2 Course Location/Times: SE, Distance Education Course Semester Credit Hours (SCH): 3 Hours, Lecture Instructor Contact Information: Name: Sheryl Ballard-Smith Phone Number (Office): 713 718-8976 Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Office: Angela Morales Bldg, rm 101 Course Description: The American. Education , Final examination , Grade 2569 Words | 7 Pages. The Manhattan Project and shawshank redemption essays, its Consequences Name: Francis Lolas Date: 15/12/2012 Subject: History Task: investigation about the Manhattan . project Teacher: Ruba Daibes Word count: 808 Research question: What are the causes that led President Truman to take the bibtex thesis, decision of dropping the Atomic bomb, and essays, what are the consequences? In World War II the how to of application, war ended because of the atomic bombs that were dropped on Japan by the United States of shawshank redemption essays America. Why the Americans did begin to build up the. Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Nuclear fission 868 Words | 3 Pages. Bowles, M. (2011). A history of the United States since 1865. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Retrieved from . Internship Essay. https://content.ashford.edu/books Pusch, J. (2004). Star file: Playful and sincere. The Statesman, pp. 1-1. Essays. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/284205367?accountid=32521 Zupon, M. “A Women’s War”: Women in the Civil War: Extracted from, A Concise History , Volume I: To 1877. 4th edition Henretta, J. and Brody, D. What Should A Personal Essay With Application. America: A Concise History , Volume I: To 1877. American Red Cross , Artificial intelligence , Clara Barton 2159 Words | 6 Pages.
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Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking , Human rights , Human rights abuses 513 Words | 5 Pages. ?Luteisha Shelton Professor Molden Global History 108 25 April, 2015 Caesar Augustus became the first emperor of the Roman Empire after his . great-uncle and adopted son after Julius Caesar passed away. Shawshank. When Julius was murdered, Augustus discovered that he was Julius's heir to the throne he was forced to battle the should included with, armies of both Cleopatra Vii and Marc Anthony. Who had their own plans for power following the death of Julius. Shawshank Redemption. Their alliance disintegrated and before Anthony and Cleopatra could thought.
Ancient Rome , Augustus , Battle of Actium 1304 Words | 6 Pages. Miranda Berishaj 1st hour Smith 1/10/15 U.S History midterm review Unit 1 . 1. Heading. Clayton antitrust act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices. Shawshank Redemption Essays. 2. urbanrural population shift people moved from rural areas to urban areas, urbanization. 3. Jane Addams – a pioneer for a personal included a college not do women's rights and a leader of suffrage. 4. Redemption Essays. Sherman antitrust act – broke up trust and prevented monopolies. 5. School Uniform Hook. women's Christian temperance union – first organization devoted to social reform for women. 6. Chi. World War II 1303 Words | 4 Pages. ?Name: Form: Subject: History Topic: Resistance and Revolt-Homework 1. Explain why the whites in the Spanish and shawshank redemption, French Caribbean drew . up laws to how to write, control the slaves 6mks.
In the shawshank essays, Caribbean territories where slavery existed, there were laws to govern the lives of the slaves. The slave laws of the Spanish colonies were based on the thirteenth century code of laws known as the Siete Partidas. Uniform Hook. The French West Indies had as the basis of their slave laws, the Code Noir which was promulgated. Atlantic slave trade , British Empire , Caribbean 1285 Words | 4 Pages. stirring up more opposition to their rule. Shawshank Redemption Essays. Once their power was re-established, the parliament lost the support of the essay hook, major states such as Prussia and . Austria and so simultaneously lost its credibility and power. Redemption Essays. Although an important factor in the history of German Nationalism, the Frankfurt parliament lacked the dedication and co-operation of all the German states that it needed to succeed, and so will forever be remembered as a failure that, at what should a personal essay included not do the time, highlighted the shawshank redemption, complexity of uniting Germany. Austria , Frankfurt Parliament , Frederick William IV of Prussia 955 Words | 3 Pages. be used as the Neolithic gave way to an essay of application, the dawn of civilization? A) B) 7) The first true city to arise in Mesopotamia, in the fourth millennium B.C.E., was . A) B) 8) Which of the following developments marked man’s evolution from prehistory to history ? C) D) 9) Sumerian cuneiform was used for redemption writing long after Sumer disappeared because E) F) 10) What factor helps to what should a personal with a college application, explain Egypt becoming politically unified earlier than Mesopotamia?
G) H) 11) Which of the following technologies was. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Classical Athens 1043 Words | 5 Pages. useful information without having to sort through topics is a key factor when choosing an essays, article. Should Included Application. This source will be very valuable when writing a . research paper. Clutz, Jacob, and redemption essays, Elsie Singmaster. THE BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG . Pennsylvania History . What Application Not Do. no.
3 (1938): (166-178). http://www.jstor.org/stable/2776630 (accessed October 9, 2013). This article tells that the redemption essays, battle fell on a Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. There was excitement in bibtex, Gettysburg some days before the battle happened. There. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Battle of Gettysburg 873 Words | 3 Pages. the individual Feedback/Reference: See p. 614 9. Shawshank. Which of the heading, following best describes what radicals sought to accomplish? To reconstruct society . economically and politically Feedback/Reference: See p. 614 10. The materialist theory of history generated by Marx and Engels taught that what mattered was How goods were produced and redemption essays, how that shaped social relations. Feedback/Reference: See p. 618 11. Insurgents opposed to being beyond essay, powerful colonizing nations generally preached a message that reflected. Hakka people , Hong Xiuquan , House of Saud 513 Words | 3 Pages.
Marketing (MDDA) Computer skills Basic Computer (Word, Excel, PowerPoint Internet) ACHIEVEMENTS AND AWARDS Certificate of appreciation . Inanda FM Best sales person Inanda FM Media representative Ink Business forum Employment History PERMANENT Employer Type of company Brand Communication Company Position held Brand communication consultant Date March 2011 to date Key responsibilities Communication strategy, Media planning and buying Employer Type. Brand , Commercial broadcasting , Community radio 441 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction San Fermin means the shawshank, running of earliest from time bull. [pic] 1. Redemption. History of school hook San Fermin 1.2. Shawshank. Medieval Period in the 19th . century 1.3. Ib Extended. Modern Times 2. Single Day Events 2.1.
Chupinazo 2.2. The Riau-Riau 2.3. San Fermin Procession 2.4. Pobre de mi 3. Daily events 3.1. Running of the bulls 3.2. Shawshank. Giants and big-heads parade 3.3. Traditional sports 3.4. Bullfight 3.5. Fireworks History Of San Fermin [pic] The origin of the fiesta of San Fermin goes back to the middle. 2nd millennium , Basque pelota , Bullfighting 1683 Words | 7 Pages.
the culture of the United States and it allowed Antin to begin speaking openly on the acceptance of earliest time immigration to shawshank redemption essays, the United States. Margaret Sanger . founded a movement in this country that would also institute such a change in the course of our history that continues to have an impact today. Described as a woman rebel, Sanger pioneered the birth control movement in the United States at a time when Victorian oppression through moral standards was at masters its highest. Working her way up from a nurse. African American , Betty Friedan , Feminism 1975 Words | 5 Pages. The Shoah In the 1993 film Schindler’s List directed by Stephen Spielberg the Czech man Oskar Shindler was trying to redemption essays, make a profit during World War II . by ib extended criteria, hiring cheap Jewish laborers. The Shoah is shawshank redemption essays, considered the worst genocide to happen in history , because it was industrialized peoples bodies. The mass killings that occurred allowed for those bodies to internship, be used for other means, which proves how inhumane these killings were. Shindler’s story shows us that one man can change the world and save. Adolf Hitler , Nazi Germany , Nazism 1518 Words | 4 Pages.
?Damian Rodriguez Professor Vasquez U.S History 101 13 February 2014 Exam 1 Does Zinn argue that . the Fourteenth Amendment was an effective tool in protecting African Americans? The Fourteenth Amendment was created to shawshank redemption, “protect” African Americans, but were they really protected? Disenfranchisement, the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and the Cruikshank decision of 1876 shows how the Fourteenth Amendment failed to protect African Americans. When the ib extended abstract criteria, Fourteenth. African American , Afro-Latin American , Black people 882 Words | 3 Pages. be taken for credit by shawshank, students who have received credit for HIST 231. Objectives: Upon successful completion of the course, students shall be able to: . (1) Identify and expound on main themes in the nation’s social, political, and economic history ; (2) Analyze the changing concepts of beyond time race, class, and gender in relations among Americans; (3) Discuss the shawshank redemption, evolution of U.S. foreign policy, engagement in global conflict, and the domestic impact of these global interactions; (4) Elaborate. 1965 , 1967 , 1970 1495 Words | 7 Pages. Brandon Czubak 2/1/14 History 106 Assignment question 2 Question 2: By examining Robber Barons such as Vanderbilt, Rockefeller and . Carnegie, how could you argue for Laissez Faire Economics and against Laissez Faire Economics?
Laissez-Faire is a type of ib extended essay abstract leadership style in which leaders are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. This results in pros and cons of Laissez-Faire leadership. It is effective where group members are highly skilled and motivated. Adam Smith , Austrian School , Capitalism 805 Words | 3 Pages. today?
Greek philosophy is the shawshank essays, origin of uniform western culture and its institutions: art, religion, mathematics, natural sciences, ethics, education, . politics, economics, law, etc. Shawshank. Almost all of the conflicts and solutions that govern the history of the West can be traced to Greek philosophy. In other words, the earliest time, Greeks are our intellectual sources. Shawshank Essays. The ancient Greeks made important discoveries in science. They developed democracy, where people govern themselves rather than. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Athens 396 Words | 3 Pages. My Canadian History Scrapbook 11 June 2013 K. Schweitzer Sagah Radi | ------------------------------------------------- World War . I Canadian soldier Many soldiers suffered from medical illness during and after the masters, war. Essays. Suck us, drunkenness, self inflicted wounds, trench feet, and many more. School Essay. This picture represents a Canadian soldier from WWI, who was the first conflict employ chemical weapons.
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First off, Howard Zinn shows a liberal point of view in The . People’s History of The United States, providing details through the eyes of the bibtex, common people rather than the political upper class. Shawshank Redemption Essays. Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen’s The Patriot’s History of The United States shows a conservative point of view and a counter-part to being beyond earliest time, Howard Zinn’s book, showing details through political upper class. Neither of the. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1249 Words | 4 Pages. half negrified” would stand a chance against the German troops. 8 Hitler slowly realized that US was more powerful and intellectual than he could ever . imagine, this was taken as surprise for him. 9 Evaluation of sources Modern world history written by Norman Lowe (fifth edition) This source is for learning purpose, to learn about historical facts for shawshank essays example what happened during the world war 1 and world war 2. It was written by Norman Lowe who is a author with specialism in historical.
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20 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays. In this blog entry I’m going to talk with you about shawshank, transition words. Beyond From Time! These are the linking words which bind our ideas together and illustrate the relationships between the information in our sentences. I have to be really careful, however, to shawshank essays, make it very clear that they are not magic ‘smart’ words but if you can understand them they can really give you a lot of power to abstract, articulate your ideas. These words are nothing but pretence when you use them carelessly. Nonetheless, it will be valuable to develop your understanding of how to use these words to serve your writing. They can be important tools which enable you to lead your reader through your progression of logic persuasively and succinctly. I want to illustrate this point by sharing with you a funny story about something a very witty woman, with whom I work on campus, told me about transition words and high heels. While marking a number of shawshank redemption, mid-term papers, she turned to how to, me and, with a sigh, lamented her students’ poor use of linking words. She told me that reading them could be like watching young drunk women trying to walk in high heeled shoes.
She cringed as she spoke of how awkward they appeared when they are not accustomed to walking on them when sober, let alone while intoxicated. She added that, in her opinion, women could look striking and shawshank essays, elegant while wearing heels but that young woman often didn’t appreciate that walking in them is criteria, a skill which requires practice. Shawshank Redemption Essays! She surprised me when she likened their attempts to walk to those of newly born calves. Transition words are wonderful tools. Throwing them into essay your essay carelessly can make your writing look worse than it is and if you are not sure how to redemption essays, use them, it is better to essay heading, stick to simpler options. Shawshank Redemption Essays! However, if you learn to use them thoughtfully, they can afford your writing the elegance of top-notch essays. Being Beyond Earliest Essay! It is redemption essays, not that you add them, but that you employ them to support your flow or progression of logic. 20 Examples of Important Transition Words. There are many linking words which can lead us into additional information and how to an essay of application, while it is useful to vary your vocabulary beyond ‘ and ,’ these words are not mere replacements for ‘ and .’ They have nuanced differences, thus, by these particular meanings, we can offer a more delicate illustration of the relationships between our ideas. ‘Furthermore’ is redemption essays, used to add information that expands upon being beyond, the previous point. It precedes information that expands upon that already given.
It usually occurs at the beginning of an independent clause. ‘Moreover’ and ‘More so’ are both similar to shawshank redemption essays, ‘furthermore’ while giving special emphasis to essay criteria, the greater importance of the following clause. “Despite cutting back on shawshank redemption, other staff, her father gave her a position, furthermore , he gave her an how to write an essay of application, enviable office while still not having a role for her.” Writers also sequence additional information. ‘Firstly,’ ‘secondly’ and shawshank redemption essays, ‘thirdly’ are obvious options used to achieve this, however, there are others. For example, we can look into the past with ‘previously,’ ‘until the present’ or ‘preceded by.’ “Present growth in the company was *preceded by several quarters of stagnation”* ‘Meanwhile’ and ‘simultaneously’ talk about things which are happening at the same time as another, while ‘concurrently’ does this while emphasizing that the how to write an essay of application, two ideas have played out in shawshank essays conjunction with one another. Being Earliest From Time! Usually, ‘incidentally’ is shawshank, used to add relevant information while downplaying its significance compared with that of other ideas. School Uniform Hook! “The priority of the zoo had been to protect species’ from extinction. Essays! The panda breeding program was enjoying some rare success, while simultaneously , other programs to increase the numbers of endangered species were being trialed. Meanwhile , the zoo was being visited by an influx of tourists who were, incidentally , able to enjoy seeing the young animals.” ‘Subsequently’ and school uniform essay, ‘afterward’ lead into information after the fact. When writers need to illustrate similarity they can employ words such as ‘in like manner,’ ‘comparatively,’ and ‘correspondingly.’ Whereas , when they wish to highlight difference they have phrases like ‘on the contrary,’ ‘however,’ ‘notwithstanding,’ ‘nevertheless’ and ‘on the other hand.’ Notwithstanding the vehement opposition to online education programs being made available to inmates, considerable improvements were made to the re-employment prospects of shawshank, many offenders who benefited from the trial. Masters! On the contrary, prisoners who were not able to access education while incarcerated were found to shawshank, be more likely to reoffend and return to prison.
When it comes time to clarify an argument or point, some of the transitional phrases which are used are, ‘to reiterate,’ ‘specifically,’ or ‘inasmuch as.’ When we have lead our reader through our flow of logic, there might be nothing more rewarding than driving our point home by showing consequence or concluding our arguments. There are a lot of strong phrases such as ‘accordingly,’ ‘hence,’ ‘thus’ and ‘thereupon’ which can do this. I hope you will feel encouraged, by this article, to continue to further your understanding of how transitional words can work to guide your reader through your flow of logic. When used well, they add power and order to your argument and can add to the result you see from ib extended abstract your work. If it is shawshank redemption, becoming difficult to get everything done before the deadlines, know that help is available. Essay Heading! Your journey to learn how to study and articulate yourself well through your writing should be enjoyable. Throughout your academic and professional career you will continue to improve and you will find new challenges. Don’t let setbacks in your life cause you to lose faith in yourself and give up on shawshank essays, your studies. Ask write your essay from EssayPro and focus your efforts. We can get you out of that hole and help you progress toward your long-term goals again. Our team of professional writers can write any style of academic paper according to your specific criteria.
Share This Article. 10 Most Commonly Confused Words Explained. As students, no matter how smart we are, we can always make small yet embarrassing. Beyond Earliest From Time! As you get closer to redemption, the essay writing, let's get familiar with a definition of. Tips for Writing an being beyond earliest essay from, Admission Essay.
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essay human behavior Read the following essay from the subject Human Behaviour. Click on redemption the blue highlighted numbers to see comments. Words or phrases highlighted in pink are wrong or in some way problematic. Beyond Time! Most of shawshank redemption essays, these have comments attached, but in a few places we leave it to you to think about what is wrong, or how the writing might be improved. 1 Cancer is bibtex masters, still seen by many as an redemption essays incurable disease that slowly takes over healthy human tissue, and ultimately causes death. 2 Through advances in medical science, different physical procedures have been developed to treat cancer for essay heading, example, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. In recent years however, there has been a growing perception by cancer specialists and patients that the redemption essays, onset and treatment of cancer may be affected by psychological factors. A new field of research called psycho-oncology has emerged to investigate how the mind can slow down, or even reverse, the progress of cancer. Essay Heading! The results from such studies however, have not always been conclusive, and in the case of retrospective studies, have often proved contradictory.
3 While it is important that medical science properly investigate the merit of mind-cancer theories, the benefits of alternative therapies and viewpoints should not be overlooked in redemption the debate over cancer research. 4 The essay briefly surveys the school hook, origins of mind-cancer research and the emergence of the field of essays, psycho-oncology, before addressing contemporary research in the area, in particular, the problem of validating results. It concludes by examining the merits of alternative therapies with regard to patient psychology. 5 Before examining the origins of school essay, mind-cancer research, the physiology of cancer will be briefly discussed. Cancer is a general term used to describe a physiological disorder in which cells in the body begin to reproduce as abnormal cells, forming a mass called a tumour. There are different types of cancers and tumours, and the body utilises the immune system to shawshank, destroy the cancerous cells. If the tumour is how to write, malignant, the immune system stops the cancer cells from moving to other areas of the body. The immune system halts the shawshank, spread of the cancer cells by the use of cytotoxic T-cells, also known as 6 natural killer (NK) cells. These cells attack the cancerous cells and destroy them.
This is why much cancer research over the years has concentrated on the immune system because in effect, this system provides the what should with a college, body#039;s own natural cancer treatment. In several studies completed over the last two decades, 7 researchers have found that psychological factors such as stress and bereavement can suppress NK cell activity in the body, and the activity of all T-cells in general 8 (Bartrop, 1977; 9 Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed as a contributing factor in many physiological diseases including allergies, infections, digestive disorders, asthma, heart disease, and cancer 10 (Edelman Kidman, 1997). Redemption Essays! The idea however, that psychological factors could have an influence on cancer was first raised as early as the second century. The Greek physician, 11 Galen, noted that depressed women were more likely to develop cancer than happy women (cited by Sdorow, 1995). Other eminent physicians and surgeons also noted that the personalities of an essay, people who had developed cancer were markedly different to people who had not developed cancer (cited by Kune, 1992); 12 i.e, they concluded that cancer was more likely to develop in people who possessed a #039;melancholy#039; disposition (cited by Horne, 1996). 13 This raised the question of why such psychological factors might influence the shawshank, behaviour of cancer. Studies in the field of psycho-oncology, which combines oncology with psychiatry, therefore tried to show how the mind affected physiological functions. Dedicated experimentation in the field first began with laboratory mice. Uniform! 14 Sklar and Anisman (1979) implanted cancerous cells into mice, and then subjected them to shawshank redemption, a series of escapable and inescapable electric shocks. They reasoned that the mice subjected to the inescapable shocks would be placed under more stress than the mice allowed to escape the shocks.
They further found that the mice in the former category developed exaggerated tumour sizes and did not survive as long as did the ib extended essay abstract, mice in the latter category. Shawshank! Nevertheless, the results were regarded as inconclusive since different tumour systems are differentially influenced by stress (chemically induced tumours are inhibited by increased stress levels), and the experiment involved mice and not humans. 15 Research was then directed to cancer patients. Essay Abstract! Many studies concentrated on women suffering from breast cancer, and consisted of interviewing them after a significant event involving their cancer (such as diagnosis, or an operation). Redemption! The patients were then followed up after a number of years. Masters! However, the results often proved contradictory, as has occurred in several retrospective studies. In one well-known case, 16 Ramirez et al. (1989) found that there was a prognostic association between severe life stressors and the recurrence of breast cancer.
Barraclough et al. (1992) 17 on the other hand, 18 found that psychosocial adversity such as depression, or a severe life event, was not conducive to a relapse of shawshank essays, cancer and this conclusions has since been supported. Ib Extended Essay Abstract Criteria! 19 There is good evidence for any relation between stressful life events and breast cancer (McGee 1999, p.1015). Certain studies found that patients could be classified into different psychological groups, and shawshank essays, that a pattern emerged in the life span of the patients in from time each of the groups. In one study, Greer et al. (1979) classified 20 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into one of redemption essays, four groups , 21 the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of Hopelessness groups. The Denial group consisted of those patients who rejected any evidence of their diagnosis, and 22 didn#039;t consider having cancer as serious. The Fighting Spirit group consisted of how to write of application, patients who possessed a highly optimistic attitude, and sought to learn more information about redemption essays their cancer and to do everything they could to conquer the disease. The Stoic Acceptance group comprised patients who ignored their cancer and any symptoms as much as they could, continuing with their lives as normal. The patients in the Feelings of Hopelessness group considered themselves gravely ill, and were totally preoccupied in masters a negative way with their illness. At the completion of the study, researchers found that the patients classified in shawshank redemption the first two groups were more likely to achieve a favourable outcome than the patients classified in the latter two groups (Greer et al. 1979).
This conclusion was similar to Galen#039;s hypothesis, which claimed that women who had cancer and died from it were more likely to have different personalities than those women who did not develop the disease or were cured of it. Other studies reinvestigated the role of stress in cancer. Medical research had established that stress could cause immunosuppression, and bibtex masters thesis, that in times of stress, people could become sick more readily. Goodkin et al. (1984) postulated that an invasive cervical carcinoma could develop as a result of a mediating mechanism such as the immune system becoming adversely affected by shawshank stress. As mentioned previously, exposure to bibtex thesis, stressful life experiences can also alter T-cell activity in the immune system.
Schleifer et al. (1985) demonstrated that in most people T-cell activity returned to normal after a time, but for others, it remained lower than prior to the stressor event leaving them more susceptible to illness. However, like many other findings, it remains to be determined whether these changes in immune function are specifically related to cancer. 23 Can the shawshank redemption, mind really play a role in cancer onset and cure? While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive, and in some cases, contradictory. Essay Hook! It is also possible that researchers have concluded what they wanted to believe. . Shawshank Redemption Essays! . . In those studies which have directly linked stress to cancer, stress may only be an indirect cause. School Uniform Essay! People in general, when confronted with something that causes stress, tend to isolate themselves and engage in #039;emotion-focused coping behaviour,#039; to prevent being overwhelmed by their negative emotions (Atkinson et al. 1996). Typical examples are behavioural strategies including cigarette smoking and drug and alcohol consumption.
Such behaviour can cause numerous health problems with smoking being especially linked to the development of lung cancer. In turn, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body. These coping factors may in shawshank redemption essays fact, represent the real reason why stress has been linked to cancer. Essay Abstract Criteria! Issues such as these are among the questions that mind-cancer research needs to resolve. The quality of studies conducted has also prevented any definite conclusions being reached about the validity of theories that view the mind as influencing cancer. Many of shawshank essays, these studies for example, have been criticised for poor methodology and design faults (Edelman and Kidman, 1997).
24 Small sample sizes, the use of unvalidated instruments, no control groups, no vital information taken into account and no randomising of treatment groups may have led to what should a personal included with a college not do, errors in the calculation of results, and therefore, to questionable conclusions. Many studies have not been replicated by other researchers to determine the accuracy of their results. Shawshank Essays! . . . Or, they may have been based upon what was in effect, the measurement of feelings. Since feelings cannot be determined quantitatively, it is hard to assess the exact amount of internship essay heading, stress or depression that a person has experienced. . . . In addition, the equipment used in some studies to measure psychological variables may have varied between studies. All these factors can contribute to redemption, inconclusive outcomes. Although verifying mind-cancer studies is problematic, medical personnel need to consider the essay hook, psychology of their patients. For this reason, the benefits offered by a positive mindset or alternative therapies should not be too readily dismissed. It may well be useful for some cancer patients to believe that the mind can be used as a tool to treat, or even, prevent the onset of cancer. Similarly, it may also benefit some cancer patients to attempt alternative treatments such as meditation and positive thinking. No matter how strange a cancer treatment may appear, it should not be immediately discredited. Redemption Essays! One woman with breast cancer was able to keep her malignant tumour localised for a period of seven years, before undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy to finally destroy the cancer.
Over a period of should a personal application not do, seven years, she underwent vibrational healing and redemption, oxygen therapy, took high doses of Vitamin C and Vitamin B17 (Laetrile), but most importantly, adopted a positive attitude toward life and living (Ward 1996). . Write Of Application! . . Such a patient may well be an example of the phenomenon Sarafino (1990) notes of patients who appear to #039;will away#039; cancer. 25 The extent to which the mind can affect cancer still remains unresolved. Specific questions cannot be answered with any certainty due to the ambiguities, inconsistencies and direct contradictions of shawshank essays, some studies. School Uniform Hook! Nevertheless, an examination of the literature that discusses these issues reveals broad findings that are worth emphasising: Stress can negatively affect the shawshank redemption essays, immune system.
Although the evidence is ambiguous, stress can also affect the school uniform essay hook, onset and progression of cancer. An individual#039;s psychological profile can affect the progression of cancer in the body. Such findings should not be ignored, but rather used to shawshank, the patient#039;s advantage. With the being beyond time, advent of newer medical technology, more research and greater knowledge about how the mind works, the answers to questions in the field of psycho-oncology will hopefully be revealed. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E., Bem, D.J., and S. Nolen-Hoeksema . Hilgard#039;s Introduction to Psychology. (12th ed.). USA: Harcourt Brace and Company, 1996. Barraclough, J., Pinder, P., Cruddas, M., Osmond, C., Taylor I., and shawshank redemption essays, M. Perry. Life events and breast cancer prognosis. British Medical Journal, 304, 1078-1081, 1992. Bartrop, R.W., Luckhurst, E., Lazarus.
L., Kiloh, L.G., and R. Penny. Depressed Lymphocyte Function After Bereavement. The Lancet, i, 834-836, 1977. Edelman, S. and A.D. Internship Essay! Kidman. Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - 27 A review of evidence. Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. Goodkin, K., Antoni, M.H., and P.H. Blaney. Stress and hopelessness in the promotion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to redemption essays, invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 30, 67-76, 1986. Greer, S., Morris, T., and K.W. Essay! Pettingale. Psychological response to redemption essays, breast cancer: Effect on outcome. The Lancet, ii, 785-787, 1979.
Home, R. Cancer Proof your Body. Being! Adelaide: Griffin Paperbacks, 1996. Kune, G.A., and S. Redemption Essays! Bannerman. The 1st Slezak Cancer Symposium - The Psyche and masters, Cancer. University of Melbourne, 1992. McGee, R. Does stress cause cancer? There#039;s no good evidence of a relation between stressful events and cancer. British Medical Journal, 319, 1015-1019, 1999.
Ramirez, A.J., Craig, T.K.J., Watson, J.P., Fentiman, I.S., North, W.R.S., and R.D. Reubens. Stress and relapse of breast cancer. British Medical Journal, 298, 291-293, 1989. Sarafino, E.P. Health Psychology-Biosocial Interactions. Canada: 28 1990. Schleifer, S.J., Keller, S.E., and M. Stein.
Central Nervous System Mechanisms and Immunity: Implications for essays, Tumour Response. In S.M. Levy, Behaviour and Cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1985. 29. Sdorow, L.M. Psychology, (3rd ed.). 30 Brown and Benchmark , 1995. Sklar, L.S., and H. Anisman.
Stress and coping factors influence tumour growth. Science, 205, 513-515, 1979. Ward, D. One in 10 - Women living with Breast Cancer. Sydney: Allen and Unwin Pty Ltd, 1996. The first thing to thesis, do in essays a typical introduction is to introduce the topic , and school uniform hook, provide a little relevant background information to orient the reader. The first statement here identifies the broad topic as cancer, with a brief description of what it is. The second stage of a typical introduction limits the scope of the discussion. The next 4 sentences focus on the history of the treatment of redemption essays, cancer, and specifically the role of the mind in controlling the disease. This next stage points out the importance or relevance of the topic. We don#039;t yet know, however, exactly how the bibtex masters thesis, writer is going to tackle the subject. In the final stage of the introduction, the writer gives a brief outline of the shawshank, structure of the essay, and what the what a personal essay included, writer intends to achieve.
Note, however, that this plan avoids using #039;I#039; statements (In this essay I will . Shawshank Redemption! ); to do so would overemphasise what is purely organisational information. Instead it does the same thing in essay a less personal way: This essay . surveys . It concludes by examining . . In general,#039;I#039; is rarely used in scientific writing, where the #039;facts of research#039; are required to speak for themselves. Notice how the topic sentence in this paragraph maintains the overall theme - the effects of the mind on cancer - while at shawshank redemption, the same time moving the discussion forward. If you wish to use an acronym like NK = natural killer in essay your essay, introduce it the first time by shawshank essays using the full term and adding the acronym immediately after it in brackets. Use the essay abstract criteria, active voice and human agent(s) where possible (i.e. Redemption! Researchers have found. instead of impersonal constructions of the type It has been found. Impersonal constructions do not clearly indicate authorship or responsibility. This first use of a reference focuses on internship essay introducing relevant information rather than specific researcher achievements/events/opinions. This is a typical practice in the early stages of an essay. See Citing previous research on the difference between information-prominent and author-prominent citations.
(Sali, 1992, cited by Kune, 1992) is a reference within a reference . In general, you should avoid reporting writers at #039;third-hand#039;; instead go to the original source if possible. If that is not possible, you can use this method to shawshank redemption, cite authors referred to essay abstract, in another source. When using the shawshank redemption essays, Harvard or Author-Date system of referencing, a reference at the end of a sentence is always placed in an essay of application brackets before the full stop, not after it: This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and shawshank redemption essays, cancer (Edelman, 1997). This phenomenon (immunosuppression) has come to be viewed . and cancer. (Edelman, 1997) Galen is uniform hook, a source cited by another author (Sdorow, 1995), as are other eminent physicians and surgeons (cited by redemption Kune, 1992). In formal writing it is preferable to avoid using abbreviations - use #039;that is#039; rather than i.e. and beyond essay, #039;for example#039; rather than e.g. The pronoun this is shawshank, often overused by writers. In this sentence, you may feel it is not clear what #039;this#039; refers to. Essay Criteria! The following sentence is more specific, and you might consider dropping this first sentence altogether. Author-prominent citations (see Citing previous research) are appropriate at this point as the writer#039;s focus has now moved to the work of individual researchers.
Note that if you have cited a particular reference once already in essays a paragraph, it is not necessary to cite that work again in the same paragraph unless a second reference has also been cited, and school uniform essay, you need to clarify any possible ambiguity. In this paragraph only shawshank redemption essays one reference has been cited (Sklar and Anisman 1979), and the reader will naturally assume that any information in the rest of the paragraph comes from the school uniform essay hook, same source. The topic sentence must state the intention behind the paragraph clearly and specifically. In this case the point is the turn from research on redemption animals to research on human patients. Adding a couple more words could clarify this; for example: At that point, therefore, research was directed to cancer in human patients.
et al. is the Latin short form for #039;and others#039; or #039;other writers#039; and is used when more than two writers are referred to. Strictly speaking, it should only be used the second time you refer to the same source - in other words, give the full citation the first time the work is being essay from, cited. Here, therefore, the citation should be to Ramirez, Craig, Watson, Fentiman, North, and Reubens (1989) . (Of course, the authors#039; initials are not included in the citation - except when two of the authors have the same surname.) Note, too, that et al. is plural in reference; so make sure the shawshank essays, verb agrees with its plural subject. Transition markers such as #039;on the other hand#039; are used to organise your argument and to emphasise particular points - e.g. cause ( because , since, etc.), effect ( as a result , therefore , etc.) contrast ( however , on the other hand , etc.), concession ( although , etc.) and example ( for instance , etc.) (see also Linking. Use them strategically and carefully.
It might be better to use #039;claimed#039; here in place of #039;found#039;. Vary your reporting verbs (i.e. A Personal Included Not Do! states , claims , suggests , aintains , demonstrates , etc.), but make sure the appropriate verb is used. #039;Say#039; and #039;tell#039; are not used when reporting written sources. Use a direct quote only when the shawshank essays, wording is exceptional. Being Beyond Essay Time! Otherwise, use a paraphrase instead. Shawshank! A direct quote was not necessary in this case. Direct quotations are generally not used in academic writing; they are a feature of journalistic style. For a direct quote, use quotation marks around the exact words of the original. Use three dots to indicate any omission of word(s), e.g. (between . and essay, cancer). Include the page number in the citation, after the year. A quote longer than three lines should be set out as an shawshank essays indented block, single-spaced, without quotation marks.
Numbers are written as words (one, two . ) up to ten, and thereafter usually as figures. So the criteria, writer here is correct to redemption essays, write 69 patients but four groups. It would be better to use a colon rather than a comma here to school, introduce the shawshank, list that follows like this: In one study, Greer et al. How To Write An Essay Of Application! (1979) classified 69 female patients suffering from breast cancer into redemption essays, one of four groups: the Denial, Fighting Spirit, Stoic Acceptance and Feelings of bibtex, Hopelessness groups. Do not use contractions in formal writing - use full forms (i.e. Redemption! #039;did not#039;
Topic sentences in the form of questions are not appropriate in what essay included with a college formal scientific writing. They look lazy or journalistic. Make a clear statement to shawshank, introduce the topic of the paragraph. In this case the essay, second sentence in this paragraph would make a better topic sentence: While many researchers in the field of psycho-oncology have found positive correlations between cancer and psychological factors, results overall have proved inconclusive. Keep items in a list parallel in grammatical form.
In this case, make them all noun phrases like small sample sizes or the use of unvalidated instruments. Here, rather than using no . it would be better to write: the absence of control groups and the failure to take vital information into account and randomise treatment groups. The conclusion that follows here does what is redemption essays, recommended for concluding an essay: it firstly sums up the being beyond from, argument with appropriate reference to the main points discussed, and shawshank essays, then attempts to indicate further implications or future directions. However, the final statement is rather glib that is, it looks good, but doesn#039;t say very much. This weakens the overall impact. It might be better to offer a more cautious, reasoned statement at internship heading, the end: With the shawshank, advent of better medical technology and continuing research, answers to some of the questions in the field of mind-cancer research may become clarified. In the meantime, the professional desire for verifiable results should always be balanced against the patient#039;s well-being. Notice the being earliest essay from time, use of cautious language here. Academics are generally careful not to make claims that could easily be proved wrong, and shawshank, use qualifiers, modal verbs and hedging expressions (some, may, possibly, etc.) to uniform hook, do this. Remember, too, that the conclusion should never introduce new information.
Make sure you are consistent in the setting out of your bibliography and that you include all relevant information. Once you adopt a particular way of setting out the information, don#039;t chop and change between items. Note that article titles are typically formatted in lower case apart from the initial capital and the capital after the colon: Edelman, S. and A.D. Kidman.
Mind and cancer: Is there a relationship? - A review of evidence. Shawshank Redemption! Australian Psychologist, 32, 79-851, 1997. This is to distinguish them from book and journal titles, especially where italics are not used to identify these, as they are in this case. The name of the publisher must be provided with the being, City of publication. See the entry for Home, R. as an shawshank redemption example. Page numbers must be provided for single chapters in a book, as well as for any journal articles used. City of publication must be provided with the name of the essay abstract, publisher. Shawshank Redemption Essays! See the entry for Home, R. as an example. Problems?
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