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Purdue OWL: Annotated Bibliographies
asian studies resume The School of Russian and Asian Studies (SRAS) is a team of consultants and advisers dedicated to education and educational opportunities offered by Russia and Eurasia. Our team has studied within the Russian educational system and do annotated bibliography, worked closely with institutions for many years to identify and stress essay, develop programs of interest and value to international students. Contact us at: The School of Russian and Asian Studies, 117 Marva Oaks Drive, Woodside, CA 94062. In 1990, we began working with Moscow State University to further develop and promote several of their study abroad programs. We expanded soon after, developing and promoting programs across Eurasia that maximize what the institution and location can offer students of a wide range of subjects. Our often-exclusive curriculums are designed with Western credit transfer requirements in mind. Our partner institutions administer the bibliography research paper programs, providing classrooms and teachers.
SRAS provides those services that international students need but these institutions can't or historically haven't provided. These now include local orientation, insurance , visa support , 24-hour in-country support , preparing documentation for credit transfer , cultural programs , travel options , and arranging internships to name a few. We consolidated our efforts into what is now known as SRAS in 1996, forming a US-based organization and an extensive website to facilitate a range of not-for-profit activities. These now include free online study resources (such as The Library ), online language resources (such as our Mini-Lesson series ), a newsletter , a student blogging site, a journal devoted to student research , and grants to resume name a few. Do Annotated Bibliography. SRAS is proud to resume be one of bibliography research paper a growing number of small businesses world-wide that are driven not by profit, but ideology. We are focused on effectively encouraging the study of Russia and those states formerly a part of the Soviet Union. On Line. This vast stretch of the globe is resource rich , politically strategic, and bibliography research, poorly understood in the West.
We believe that encouraging a better understanding among the next generation of diplomats, business persons, UN and NGO employees, academics, and voters is of vital interest to us at home and in on terrorism in india language, the global interest. In its long-term growth plans, SRAS will continue to expand its services related to professor-led tours and in assisting academics traveling to perform research . Innovative new programs will continue to be developed inside and do annotated bibliography paper, outside Russia in resume, important fields such as regional, ethnic, and security studies. We also continue to develop our series of shorter study abroad experiences aimed at students, educators and enthusiasts. The School of Russian and Asian Studies is an international team. Each of research paper us has personally studied within the military Russian educational system and traveled within Eurasia, giving us first-hand knowledge of this specific geographic area. We've built relationships and a network of contacts that help our students not only with academic programs, but also to travel, seek jobs, pursue hobbies, and bibliography research paper, more and not only while abroad, but long after the program ends. We at in india SRAS are here to help you realize the goals you set for bibliography research paper, yourself.
Renee first visited the Soviet Union in phd dissertations, 1990 to study at MGU after graduating from Boston University with a BS in Biomedical Engineering. After working at a technical translation company in Boston, she returned to Moscow in 1992 for permanent residence until 1998. During that time she worked in the Russian financial markets and finally founded The School of Russian and Asian Studies as well as co-founded Alinga Consulting Group . She has traveled extensively in do annotated bibliography research, and continues to travel to Russia, Central Asia, and the Baltic countries. She is resume work write, a board member of the US-Russia Chamber of Commerce of New England and active in several Russia-oriented business and academic organizations. After many years of living full- or part-time in Russia, she is now based in Woodside, CA. with her family. April Djakoniya decided to immerse herself in Russian language and culture during her second year at Georgetown University. She has taught English in research, Ekaterinburg, worked for an educational exchange in Moscow, and now serves as SRAS’s student coordinator in St. Petersburg.
She also has extensive experience in the nonprofit and higher education fields. Student Essay. She hopes to help all students immerse themselves in the culture and discover their own unique connections with the city. Bibliography Research Paper. April also volunteers with the St. Petersburg International Business Association where she explores her interest in creating opportunities to bring together businesses and phd dissertations, nonprofits for great social impact. Do Annotated Paper. She holds an MS in Communications from Northwestern University. Mikhail Rybalko graduated from Texas Tech University in reflection of english class, 2014 with a PhD in Political Science. He also holds a Russian Candidate’s Degree in History from Irkutsk State University. Mikhail has also studied in New Zealand, Hungary, and Lithuania. He is currently an instructor in History and International Relations at Irkutsk State University. He actively participates in the life of Irkutsk, being a member of a number of ethnic and civil organizations. Mikhail is widely traveled and is very enthusiastic about introducing Russian cultural life to the SRAS students.
Mikhail is coordinating SRAS student arrivals, travels, and activities in Irkutsk. Tanya graduated from Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service with an International Relations degree. Bibliography Research Paper. As a university student, she volunteered for of english, the VSUES International Office for three years. Paper. Tanya’s native language is Vietnamese, but she fluently speaks Russian, English, and is learning Korean. She now works in the International Programs Department and on terrorism, coordinates SRAS student services in Vladivostok. Her key responsibilities are students’ orientation and adaptation, excursion programs, and cultural activities. She loves to work with foreign students and bibliography paper, visiting scholars and delegates, contributing to the development of work write VSUES international relations.
Kendje Aitikeeva , Advisor, Bishkek Coordinator. A free monthly publication delivering all new material on our site for do annotated bibliography, the month: articles and interviews, news and analysis, the Russian pop charts, and free Russian lessons. An academic journal publishing the best of work student research on subjects relevant to Russia or Eurasia. SRAS and its team are actively involved with organizations dedicated to research the study of class Eurasia and its languages. We are also members and participants in various organizations dedicated to promoting cultural and business ties between Russia and the West. Bibliography Research. AATSEEL : American Association of Teachers of Slavic and East European Languages exists to advance the study and reflection class essay, promote the teaching of Slavic and East European languages, literatures, and cultures on all educational levels. ASEEES : The Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies (ASEEES), a nonprofit, non-political, scholarly society, is the leading private organization in the world dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about the former Soviet Union (including Eurasia) and Eastern and Central Europe. ASEEES, known as the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies until 2010, supports teaching, research, and publication relating to the peoples and territories within this area. USRCCNE: The U.S.-Russia Chamber of Commerce of New England, Inc. Bibliography. (USRCCNE) is a non-profit business organization for companies and professional individuals involved with economic activity in Russia and the other republics of the former Soviet Union. SRAS Director, Renee Stillings, is of english class, also a co-founder and partner of Alinga Consulting Group , a Moscow-based company active in the American Chamber of Commerce in Russia and the Association of European Businesses . An education that includes. study abroad not only opens doors to careers, and worlds of possibility. This quote is taken from a speech given by Senator Richard Durbin on do annotated research the floor of the Senate, as he urged other members to pass S. Res.
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Purdue OWL: Annotated Bibliographies
My Last Holiday Essays and Research Papers. I. Author ROBERT BROWNING Robert Browning is the author of the poem “ my last duchess”. Do Annotated Research! He is a son of . Essay On Terrorism In Easy Language! Robert Browning, a Bank of England clerk, and Sarah Anna Wiedemann, of Scottish-German descent, Browning received little formal education. His learning was gleaned mainly from his Father's library at home in Camberwell, South London, where he learnt something, with his Father's help, of Latin and Greek. Though he attended lectures at do annotated bibliography, the University of London in 1828, Browning. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 754 Words | 3 Pages. Tecca Zimmerman Lit and Society Professor Peresie 4/10/12 The Worth of My Last Duchess Worthwhile literature has four . basic elements, or characteristics that help to qualify a work as a worthwhile piece of essay in easy, literature. The four characteristics that help determine a piece of do annotated, literature to be worthy of reading and studying are that it creates a lasting impression, it stretches the essay on terrorism in india in easy language reader’s imagination, it is an aesthetically pleasing experience, and finally, it communicates across cultural. Aesthetics , Count , Dramatic monologue 1490 Words | 4 Pages. expect a mans personality and research traits to be like if he was to send his wife away for being to easily impressed and made happy too soon? It is just the man . Robert Browning portrays in his poem “ My Last Duchess” as the Duke who explains a painting of his late wife in a dramatic dialogue.
A quick glance at “ My Last Duchess” readers can easily pick up on at least one element: arrogance. The speaker of the poem exhibits arrogance rooted in his audacious sense of greed and dominance over others. But in order. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Marriage 1455 Words | 4 Pages. ?Discuss My Last Duchess as an example of a well constructed dramatic monologue. Robert Browning used the work write poetic device of the . Paper! dramatic monologue in his poem My Last Duchess. Essay! One advantage of using this device is that it allows the speaker's own words to do annotated research paper reveal, celebrate, or, in this case, condemn his behavior.
The speaker in on terrorism in easy My Last Duchess is the do annotated bibliography Duke, loosely based on the historical figure, the Duke of Ferrara whose own young wife died under mysterious circumstances. Student Essay! Browning writes the. Couplet , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1641 Words | 2 Pages. ?EN238 2/10/14 Tone in “ My Last Duchess” “ My Last Duchess,” by Robert Browning is renowned for . being an ideal model of a dramatic monologue. He employs the primary elements of a dramatic monologue to produce a poem that compels his readers to do annotated interpret the poem from a psychological perspective, and thus form opinions or conclusions about the poem’s subjects. Furthermore, Browning utilizes the speaker’s tone in unison with a dramatic monologue’s primary features in in india language order to enhance the portrayal. Dramatic monologue , Duke , My Last Duchess 911 Words | 3 Pages. In a dramatic monologue, the poet, like an actor in a play, speaks through the bibliography research paper voice and personality of resume with military, another person. Do Annotated Bibliography Research! Robert Browning wrote many different . Student Stress Essay! dramatic monologues such as those three particular poems which are known as, “ My Last Duchess, Porphyria’s Lover and The Laboratory.” The reason why Browning wrote his poems in that particularly dialogue is because of the certain century it was produced. It was brought out during the Victorian.
In that century woman where treated differently. Count , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1290 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess The relationship between the Duke and Duchess in the poem My Last Duchess is very . possessive. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper! The Duke in the poem, frequently objectifies his late wife by referring to her as ‘ my last duchess’. Essay On Terrorism In India In Easy Language! The use of the word ‘ my ’ suggests that it is personal to research him and he has possession over essay, her as she belongs to him. It also suggests that the relationship was very singular and for his benefit only as it was his wife and bibliography research paper therefore his relationship. This reveals that the phd dissertations on line couple's relationship. Duke , Human sexuality , Husband 1277 Words | 3 Pages.
Discuss Browning’s ‘ My Last Duchess’ as a Dramatic Monologue A Dramatic monologue is a form of poetry where the speaker in the . poem gives the bibliography research paper readers a deep insight into his thoughts. It is stress, different from a soliloquy since a dramatic monologue always has an implied audience. Dramatic monologue although originated well before the 19th century, it was popularized by Victorian poets like Browning, Tennyson and Dante Rossetti. Browning has experimented with this form of poetry to do annotated such depths that dramatic. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 933 Words | 3 Pages.
How does Browning tell the story of “ My Last Duchess” in stress essay the first thirteen lines? In the opening lines of “ My . Last Duchess”, Browning introduces his speaker, the Duke of bibliography, Ferrara, who sets the abigail stage to do annotated tell the story of his late wife to the Count’s emissary. As a dramatic monologue, Browning’s identity is dissolved into his character’s voice and persona; the first-person narration of the phd dissertations Duke dominates the perspective of the story; the emissary becomes a silent listener, whose presence is only. Dramatic monologue , Fiction , First-person narrative 965 Words | 3 Pages. “ My Last Duchess” When reading “ My Last Duchess” at first it was quite confusing. Do Annotated Bibliography Research! The narrator . doesn’t finish his thoughts at abigail, the ending of every line which kept me guessing and trying to piece it all together. After reading it the bibliography research third time I finally came to understand exactly what he was trying to say. The narrator was a troubled powerful man who was showing off a piece of art to another man, but little did he know at first what exactly that painting meant. First, I would like to describe a little.
Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 904 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess: An Analysis of The Duke My Last Duchess by Robert Browning is clearly a . dramatic monologue used to depict the character of the on line Duke. The agent seems present although he never participates in the conversation and all parts are spoken by the Duke. The Duke describes some of the agent's questions and makes the dramatic monologue possible by answering, for example, the questioning glance he gets from the agent about the spot of do annotated paper, joy on the duchess' cheek. The poem presents the. Count , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1011 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess is a poem by Robert Browning, frequently anthologized as an example of the dramatic monologue. It first . appeared in 1842 in Browning's Dramatic Lyrics. The poem is set during the phd dissertations late Italian Renaissance. The speaker (presumably the Duke of Ferrara) is giving the emissary of his prospective new wife (presumably a third or fourth since he Browning could have easily written 'second' but did not do so) a tour of the artworks in bibliography research his home. He draws a curtain to reveal a painting of.
Cosimo de' Medici , Count , Dramatic monologue 1117 Words | 3 Pages. In Robert Browning's My Last Duchess, a portrait of the egocentric and power loving Duke of Ferrara is painted for work, us. Although . the duke's monologue appears on the surface to be about his late wife, a close reading will show that the mention of do annotated bibliography research paper, his last duchess is merely a side note in on terrorism in india in easy his self-important speech. Browning uses the dramatic monologue form very skillfully to show us the research paper controlling, jealous, and arrogant traits the duke possessed without ever mentioning them explicitly. The first. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1452 Words | 4 Pages. The text I have selected to discuss is ‘ My Last Duchess’ by resume write Robert Browning, which was written in 1842. My . Do Annotated Paper! Last Duchess is a dramatic monologue of one side of a conversation between a Duke and a Count’s messenger who are negotiating a marriage to the Count’s daughter.
The Duke’s speech about his ‘ Last Duchess’ reveals perhaps more than he first intended to. The Duke shows the reflection class Count’s envoy a painting of his ‘ Last Duchess,’ he talks fondly of the painting and do annotated bibliography goes on to describe the of english essay Duchess. Do Annotated Bibliography! He. 16th century , Count , Duke 1960 Words | 5 Pages. Katie Parham Dr. Rosenbaum ENGL 1050H 20 February 2012 Villain or Aesthete-Judgment or Sympathy The speaker can be seen as both a villain and essay lover of . great art, but which is his true identity? In “ My Last Duchess”, the duke’s deplorable wickedness makes the split between moral judgment and bibliography research our actual feeling for him especially apparent. The effect created by the tension between sympathy and judgment is a striking characteristic of dramatic monologues.
Throughout the essay on terrorism in india poem, the Duke’s poise and. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1425 Words | 4 Pages. Setting and bibliography research paper Background The setting of My Last Duchess, a highly acclaimed 1842 poem by Robert Browning, is the palace of the . Duke of Ferrara on a day in October 1564. Ferrara is in northern Italy, between Bologna and Padua, on a branch of the in easy language Po River. Bibliography Research! The city was the seat of an important principality ruled by the House of Este from 1208 to 1598. The Este family constructed an imposing castle in Ferrara beginning in 1385 and, over the years, made Ferrara an resume work write important center of arts and bibliography research paper learning.
Cosimo de' Medici , Dramatic monologue , Ferrara 1435 Words | 4 Pages. Through “ My Last Duchess”, Browning exposes the innermost characteristics of the Duke of Ferrara. The Duke is the speaker of the . poem and is hashing out the details of another marriage with an emissary from a Count when he draws a curtain to reveal a magnificent fresco of the resume with Duke’s Last Duchess. Do Annotated Bibliography! The emissary voices a question about the expression on her face, an “earnest glance” of “depth and of english essay passion” (line 8), prompting the Duke’s monologue. Looking upon the artwork, the Duke praises “Fra Pandolf’s.
Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 890 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Last Duchess This poem is written by do annotated Robert Browning who has lived in the Victorian age. It was the in india period of research paper, Queen . Resume! Victoria's reign. It was a long period of prosperity for British people. That era became known for the employment of young children in factories, mines to collect coal, cotton bobbins collecting and other different jobs. The theme of prostitution and do annotated bibliography research paper the fallen women became a stable feature of mid-Victorian literature and on line politics. The novel in the nineteenth century become the. Drama , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1432 Words | 4 Pages. My last Duchess essay ' My last Duchess' is a dramatic monologue written by Robert Browning in 1842. . The poem itself is based in the 16th century and is narrated by do annotated research paper Ferrara, the fifth Duke.
Throughout the poem, many aspects of the Duke's personality are brought to reflection of english class attention such as his need to do annotated research paper possess and reflection class essay control in order to maintain his reputation. All of this shows a strong contrast between the Duke and the Duchess; between his sour jealousy and her ever present smile and do annotated bibliography easily pleased personality. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1210 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Last Duchess Question: Write about a poem set well in the past, but which remains relevant today. Explain why, despite . the difference in time, the main concerns of the phd dissertations on line poem remains relevant to you. Research Paper! A poem which is set well in essay in india in easy the past but remains relevant in do annotated bibliography research today’s society is ‘ My Last Duchess’ by essay on terrorism in india language Robert Browning. The poem remains relevant today as even nowadays there are people who possess similar characteristics as the Duke; the abusive use of power in some societies is still relevant. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Monarch 1393 Words | 4 Pages. d’Este family, was a byword for paper, fabulous displays of artistic and architectural taste alongside appalling brutality. With! These ideas embody the violence and . materialism at the heart of the do annotated paper story, and on terrorism language which, it is hinted, motivated the Duke’s murder of his last Duchess. The immediate setting for the story is an do annotated upper chamber in the ducal palace, away from the ‘company below’, and Browning uses this as a means of making his narrator a more intimidating character, capable of dominating the isolated and of english essay socially.
Dramatic monologue , Duke , Florence 1252 Words | 3 Pages. “Porphyria’s Lover” and “My Last Duchess” a book entitled Dramatic Lyrics, which was a famous work that contained a collection of dramatic monologues. Do Annotated Bibliography! Two of the poems found in this book were . “Porphyria’s Lover” and resume with “ My Last Duchess”. In “Porphyria’s Lover”, Browning introduces a powerful insight into the demented mind of an extremely possessive man, while “ My Last Duchess” tells a story about the Duke of Ferrara revealing to a guest the murder of his wife and the motives behind it. The two speakers share similar qualities, both being extremely. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Love 1338 Words | 4 Pages. My Last Duchess by Robert Browning. ?Introduction to Poetry Appreciation.
TAQ 2: My Last Duchess by Robert Browning is based upon do annotated paper Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara's . marriage to Lucrezia de' Medici and reflection class her death at bibliography research, his hands. Although it has never been proven that the Duke orchestrated her death, she did die suspiciously at the young age of seventeen after only write a year of being married to the Duke. At first glance the reader only sees this story but upon reading the poem in more depth and research looking at class essay, what the form and language devices tell. My Last Duchess , Poetry , Rhyme scheme 944 Words | 2 Pages. My Last Duchess By Robert Browning. Robert Browning is bibliography research, known as the Master of Psychological dramatic monologue. In My last Duchess the reader only hears the Duke's . Essay! story whose perverse point of view throws false accusations towards his recently deceased wife. What the reader knows about the do annotated research paper characters is crucible abigail, limited, so he must piece together the story on his own. The story the duke thinks he tells, of an unfaithful wife who offended his dignity, and the story he really tells, of jealousy and possessive love that leads to murder, engages. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 776 Words | 3 Pages.
My Last Duchess By Robert Browning Submitted to: Mrs. Parsons Gill Submitted by: Jenny Dewland Date: September 24th 2012 . English 2201 1. The title of the poem being “ My Last Duchess” refers to the Duke of Ferrera’s late wife, in which he has recently been widowed due to her unknown death. Do Annotated Research! As we read the resume with title, the use of research paper, “ MY Last Duchess” provides the fact that the poem is being told in first person, being the Duke himself. Resume Work! In the poem, he is do annotated research, having a showing of this beautiful painting. Count , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1224 Words | 4 Pages. The Psychology of the Duke in My Last Duchess “ My Last Duchess”, one of the most beautiful poems in English literature by essay on terrorism Robert Browning; a poem in the dramatic monologue . form, unlike others, that conveys its message by research paper implementing pure and essay genuine technicality through the bibliography paper character within it.
The poem takes place at the art gallery in the residence of the Duke of Ferrara, where the Duke, after his previous wife’s death or disappearance, is phd dissertations on line, preparing to remarry and do annotated bibliography research is talking to the messenger of the Count of Tyrol who has come with the resume proposal. Count , Duke , Iambic pentameter 1295 Words | 4 Pages. In this essay, I would like to discuss one of Robert Browning's better known poems, My Last Duchess. While some readers may be . put off by Browning's language which now seems archaic, his poem is every bit as relevant today as when he wrote it almost two hundred years ago. It is do annotated bibliography research paper, as relevant in the twenty first century as it was in the sixteenth century which serves as the setting for resume work, the poet's history lesson.
The poem focuses on a sixteenth century Italian duke who is regaling his guest with tales. Count , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1037 Words | 3 Pages. My Last Duchess Practice Commentary. ? The given text is an extract from the short story “ My Last Duchess” by Margaret Atwood from the do annotated bibliography research paper anthology Moral Disorder. The . story has the essay language same title as the poem by research Robert Browning. Gives tells the reader right away that the poem is work write, central to the story they are about to read. It also tells that the writer expects the reader to know the poem before hand, implying that the target audience is sophisticated and bibliography research educated. The story is told from the first person perspective of a charater named Nell. Boleslaw Prus , Dramatic monologue , Fiction 997 Words | 2 Pages. Comparative Essay on ‘My Last Duchess’ and ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ Comparative essay on ‘ My last Duchess’ and ‘Porphyria’s lover’ Robert Browning was born in May 1812 and died at the age of . seventy.
Browning was an on line English poet who has become known as the person to invent and research paper popularise the dramatic monologue. This made him the foremost Victorian poet; two of resume military, his most successful dramatic monologues are those of ‘ My last Duchess’ and ‘Porphyria’s Lover’. The reoccurring theme within the two monologues is murder as they show the bibliography idea of men killing a lover . Dramatic monologue , Duke , My Last Duchess 2042 Words | 5 Pages. Analysis of Dramatic Monologue in My Last Duchess. The Analysis of in india in easy, Dramatic monologue In My Last Duchess Abstract: Dramatic monologue which is an important poetic form which . invented and practiced principally by Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, Matthew Arnold in the Victorian Period. Though the technique is evident in many ancient Greek dramas, the dramatic monologue as a poetic form achieved its first era of distinction in the work of Victorian poet Robert Browning. Browning's poems My Last Duchess and Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister, though. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1879 Words | 6 Pages. Compare/Contrast of My Last Duchess and Porphyria's Lover.
My Last Duchess and Porphyria’s Lover Robert Browning wrote the two poems, Porphyria’s Lover and My . Last Duchess. In each poem, the speakers seem mentally disturbed. Also, both speakers had relationships with strong women who, despite apparently loving them, they each ended up killing. Strangely enough, both men seem to be much happier after they have committed these murders. The murders in these poems deal with power based on do annotated gender. The females have the essay power and the men do not. The men feel. Duke , English-language films , Gender 1440 Words | 4 Pages.
Browning, Robert: My Last Duchess and Porphyria's Lover. often strayed from, some lines contain 3 or 5 stresses, the poem is rhythmically appealing. According to Burrows, [the poem] suggests the accents and . modulations of do annotated, speech and also remains quietly unemphatic. (page 56) A similar analysis of on line, My Last Duchess is also needed before the two can be compared adequately. The frigid decorum of the Duke is established by the imperceptible, but unfailing, rhyming couplets. The inability for the reader to research notice these during recital of the poem is due. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1757 Words | 6 Pages. Compare the Central Characters in student ‘Medusa’ and ‘My Last Duchess’ Compare the central characters in ‘Medusa’ and ‘ My Last Duchess’ Carol Ann Duffy’s ‘Medusa’ and Robert Browning’s . ‘ My Last Duchess’ are two entirely different poems in many respects. Written in entirely different eras, some would say that they are as opposite as poetry could be. However, their central characters have some remarkable similarities that strike a chord with the reader and do annotated paper represent a common theme.
In each of the reflection class essay poems, both Medusa and the Duke of Ferrara represent the bibliography fickleness. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Greek mythology 2124 Words | 5 Pages. Comparing My Last Duchess,Porphyrias Lover and le Dame Sans Merci. Contrasting the Theme of student essay, power and do annotated bibliography control between Porphyrias Lover, La Belle Dame Sans Merci and My Last Duchess The poems I . have chosen are: My Last Duchess Ferrara by Robert Browning, Porphyria’s Lover by Robert Browning and La Belle Dame Sans Merci by John Keats. I am going to be exploring the with theme of power and control in each of the poems and how the do annotated poets show it.
In Porphyria’s Lover and My Last Duchess it appears that the men have the power whereas in La Belle Dame Sans Merci the essay abigail woman has. Dramatic monologue , Duke , KILL 2002 Words | 5 Pages. A Comparison of bibliography, John Donne's The Flea and student Robert Browning's My Last Duchess. The Flea who haunts My Last Duchess History has blessed the English language with many great romanticists; they were men and . sometimes woman who had an affinity for describing the glories of love. Yet in the midst of such uninhibited amorousness, they were a select few who chose to write about the do annotated paper seamier side of of english class essay, romance. It was these works which perhaps best represented the bibliography paper complexities of the male-female relationships of the time. Although written more than two hundred years apart, both The. Dramatic monologue , Duke , John Donne 1061 Words | 3 Pages. Psychological Mindsets in the Black Cat, My Last Duchess, and on line Because I Could Not Stop for Death. way we left this world.
There are numerous ways that one can leave this world, some die peacefully while others may die by force.The following will reveal . the psychological mindsets concerning death as depicted in do annotated paper Poe’s “The Black Cat”, Browning’s “ My Last Duchess”, and Dickinson’s “Because I could not Stop for Death”, and the ramifications of perverseness, pride, and eternity In “The Black Cat,” Poe uses perverseness to explain the narrator’s pursuit to murder Pluto, the black cat, and eventually. Carriage , Duke , Edgar Allan Poe 2399 Words | 6 Pages. Compare the essay on terrorism Ways Poets Present Relationships in ‘Les Grands Seigneurs’ and in 'My Last Duchess' be commenting on the presentation of relationships in two poems. The first poem is do annotated bibliography, ‘Les Grands Seigneurs’, in which the speaker remarks on her life before . marriage, where she was adored and worshiped by men, and student how it has changed after marriage. ‘ My Last Duchess’ is a dramatic monologue in which the speaker comments on research his late wife and crucible abigail her character, suggesting that she was unfaithful to do annotated research him and hinting that he may have murdered her because of this. One feature that is common to both poems is the. Gender , Line , Marriage 928 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and reflection contrast the bibliography paper methods used by Robert Browning to portray the two speakers in crucible ‘My Last Duchess’ and bibliography paper ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ ?IGCSE Coursework Compare and contrast the methods used by Robert Browning to phd dissertations on line portray the two speakers in ‘ My Last Duchess’ and . Research! ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ ‘ My Last Duchess’ and ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ are both poems about men who appear to have a compulsive need for control over the women in with military their lives. However, the speakers appear to be quite different as we see that the protagonist in paper ‘ My Last Duchess’ is a Duke with a high self-esteem and confidence, whereas the protagonist in ‘Porphyria’s Lover’ emerges. Couplet , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1610 Words | 4 Pages. How the Characters of Macbeth and the Duke in My Last Duchess Can Be Considered to Be Disturbed Characters.
how they can be considered disturbed characters. The play, ‘Macbeth’ and poem, ‘ My Last Duchess’ both show psychological truths . and insights into the characters. While the Duke shows himself to be disturbed straight away in the poem, Macbeth’s mental deterioration takes place and develops as the play proceeds. ‘Macbeth’ written by William Shakespeare and set in 1050 contains themes of status, power and death while ‘ My Last Duchess’ by Robert Browning written in resume work write 1842 shows how status, wealth and the. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Macbeth 1938 Words | 5 Pages. Heidi Britnell English 102 The Duchess’ Last Smile In Robert Browning’s “ My Last Duchess,” the Duke of Ferrara . is proudly showing a painting of his late wife to a guest that has come to visit. Research! Ironically, this visitor is a servant of phd dissertations on line, a Count, and has come to make arrangements for the Duke’s impending marriage to the Count’s daughter. The Duke is the speaker of this poem and reveals much about his conceited character while talking about this painting.
In this poem it is do annotated bibliography, revealed that the Duke of. Count , Dramatic monologue , Duke 871 Words | 3 Pages. Last Duchess Cask of Amontillado rewrite. Amontillado” and military “ My Last Duchess” In “The Cask of do annotated research, Amontillado,” by Edgar Allan Poe, two acquaintances, Montresor and . Fortunato, are related through vengeance and murder. Poe practices deception to produce an crucible abigail appealing character before altering his symbolic tactic to a state of suspense. In the poem, “ My Last Duchess”, by Robert Browning, the do annotated research paper Duke of Ferrara tells the story of his last Duchess to a mysterious listener. The Duke narrates the poem causing us to wonder why the Duchess is now his “ last ” Duchess. Dramatic monologue , Edgar Allan Poe , Eureka: A Prose Poem 902 Words | 3 Pages. The use of the Dramatic monologue in the Last Duchess. My Last Duchess Robert Browning's poem My Last Duchess is a splendid poem achieve within the write . format of the dramatic monologue, a poetic form in which there is only one speaker. Because there is only one speaker, we the bibliography paper reader must wonder carefully what the Duke is telling us, and we often have to read between the lines in order to keep an objective perspective on the what is happening in of english essay the poem.
This paper will discuss how the use of the do annotated dramatic monologue makes the subject (the Duke) tell. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Iambic pentameter 1891 Words | 6 Pages. Analyse the essay language Different Forms of Power Presented in paper My Last Duchess, A Woman to Her Lover and La Belle Dame Sans Merci the Duke in My Last Duchess desires psychological power over his Duchess The poem My Last . Duchess is a dramatic monologue written by Robert Browning, coming from the student stress essay Duke of Ferrara. In the poem he displays his megalomaniac tendencies towards his late wife and how he feels his title symbolises his power over her. We also learn how he doesn't want his wife for love but to be able to exhibit her and 'show her off' and enforce psychological power over. The Duke calls her My Last Duchess; here. Control , Duke , La Belle Dame sans Merci 2192 Words | 6 Pages. This essay was about the poetic devices which Robert Browning used to enhance the haunting tone in his dramatic monologue, My Last Duchess.
Robert Browning sets the tone of My Last Duchess, by bibliography research using three significant poetic techniques, one of which is imagery. Of English! . Browning uses the Duke's monologue to sketch out images in the reader's mind of the Duchess herself, and the sinister personality of the Duke. Browning also uses another key device, which is diction to illustrate the darkness in this poem. Browning's careful word choice adds to the description of the Duchess and perhaps her disgraceful behavior, as well as the Duke's terrifying. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 852 Words | 3 Pages. ????——????????? ??????:???? ??????????????; ??.???????,?????? ????????????,??? ??????????????? ?????,????????, ?????????????? Robert Browning: a . Bibliography! famous 19th century (Victorian) British poet, particularly well-known for his early monologue My Last Duchess (???????????). In the write poem, a duke speaks about his dead wife. The poem is do annotated bibliography research paper, about murder, mystery and intrigue, but all in with indirect allusions (??). Readers may sense that the duke kills his wife or causes her death, but no evidence is shown. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1042 Words | 4 Pages.
Comparison of the Use of a Dramatic Monolgue. Comparison of the use of a dramatic monologue. Do Annotated Bibliography Research! In 'Porphyria's Lover' and reflection of english class ' My Last Duchess', Browning uses several features of . dramatic monologue in order to engage and sustain the interest of the audience. This style of monologue is spoken by a character, which is do annotated bibliography research paper, not the poet, and is usually projected at a critical moment, as in the case of ' My Last Duchess' and 'Porphyria's Lover'. The speakers unintentionally reveal their insanity, in both poems, through their separate accounts. By studying. Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 2378 Words | 6 Pages. ? My Last Duchess and Porphyria's Lover” Robert Browning wrote the two poems, My Last Duchess and . Porphyria's Lover. Both poems convey an thoughtful, examination profound commentary about the concept of love. Phd Dissertations! communicates two interpretations concerning Both poems describe the behavior of people who are in loving, romantic relationships. There are several aspects common in both poems. Using the literary technique of dramatic dialogue, the author reveals the plot and central idea of each poem.
Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue , Duke 1250 Words | 4 Pages. Robert Browning and the Dramatic Monologue. Denton English 12-2 May 13, 2004 Robert Browning and the Dramatic Monologue Controlling Purpose: to analyze selected works of Robert Browning. Bibliography! I. . Brief overview of work, Browning A. Do Annotated Bibliography Research Paper! Greatest Poet B. Family Life II. On Line! Brief overview of My Last Duchess A. Descriptive adjectives B. Cause for death C. Do Annotated Research Paper! Description of his wife III.
Definition of Dramatic Monologue IV. Comments by Glenn Everett A. In India Language! Point of do annotated bibliography research, View B. Tone C. Resume! Audience Imagination V. Research! Comments by Terry Bohannon A. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Elizabeth Barrett Browning 1404 Words | 5 Pages. Victorian Era - Influence of on line, Context Upon Texts. Question: The study of the do annotated bibliography Victorian era involved developing a greater appreciation of previous social and literary contexts. Discuss this statement with . Essay On Terrorism Language! close study to the texts you’ve studied in class. The study of the Victorian era has informed my appreciation of previous social and literary contexts, as it reveals that texts do not exist in a vacuum, instead they are composed within very specific social, cultural and political contexts and as such their composers use the texts to both reflect. Charles Dickens , Morality , My Last Duchess 973 Words | 3 Pages. Iambic Pentameter in My Last Duchess The poem I am choosing is Robert Brownings “ My Last Duchess”. . This is an amazing 56 line poem where Browning uses prosody to connect to how he feels emotionally.
The poem is a dramatic monologue where he reveals his love situation and much more. The Duke’s desire for do annotated, control control is made evident by the structure of the poem. In India In Easy! He uses the iambic pentameter to show his control over the monologue. The poem consists of 28 rhymed couplets of bibliography research, iambic pentameter. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Gender 1667 Words | 5 Pages. How do men treat women in resume work write Porphyria's lover. ?How do men treat women in Porphyria’s Lover, My Last Duchess, Havisham and A Married State?
In Porphyria’s Lover we see the . views of a man and do annotated how he thinks that women are destructive. This is because in the poem the mistress is known a Porphyria, which is a type of deadly disease. I think that the poet, indirectly calling her Porphyria, is one big metaphor describing her to being deadly. Perhaps he thinks she is deadly because he is madly in love with her when maybe he shouldn’t be. Also the. Husband , Love , My Last Duchess 898 Words | 2 Pages. Browning is essay in india in easy language, now considered the master of the dramatic monologue. One of his most recognized dramatic monologue form poems is do annotated bibliography research, My . Last Duchess.
His careful choice in words, skillful technique and ability to leave some information up to on terrorism in india in easy the reader to interpret gave him his distinction and effectively named him the master of the dramatic monologue form. The poem My Last Duchess is do annotated, about a powerful Duke and his beautiful deceased wife. Student Stress Essay! The poem is based during the Renaissance years, in Italy, and. Drama , Dramatic monologue , Duke 821 Words | 3 Pages. ways to incorporate figurative language into writing, some of which come as naturally as speaking. A Simile uses the words “like” or “as” to compare one . object or idea with another to suggest they are alike, such as “busy as a bee”. In Hart Crane’s, “ My Grandmother’s Love Letters” he uses the simile ““liable to melt as snow” to describe the fragility of the letters that have been hidden away in the rafters. Do Annotated Research Paper! This use of figurative language helps the reader to visualize paper that may not be able to. Metaphor , My Last Duchess , Poetry 1124 Words | 3 Pages. Examine at crucible, least three pre-1914 peoms from ‘Best words’ and show how they reflect earlier attitudes towards women and relationships.
Robert Browining, a . great Victorian poet, wrote two pre-1940 poems, ‘ My last Duchess’ and ‘Prophyrias lover’, they are both examples of domineering me or individuals who end up killing their former lovers. The main theme which the do annotated bibliography poems are centred around is madness. ‘The Ballad’ on the other hand has an unknown poet, this could be as a result of it being passed. Ballad , By the Way , Love 2763 Words | 7 Pages. Another Domineering Husband “ My Last Duchess” by with Robert Browning is a dramatic monologue that combines elements of both . horror and romance about the Duke of Ferrara who is speaking to the envoy of do annotated paper, a count from a neighboring court, giving him a tour of the work write castle and its treasures. Although this poem is spoken by one person, it is very specifically addressed to someone else. There are at least two points of view inscribed into the poem: the do annotated bibliography research paper speaker’s and the addressee’s. This is discovered in. Count , Dramatic Lyrics , Dramatic monologue 1434 Words | 4 Pages. reassured of on terrorism in india in easy, his partner’s love for him; attempts to preserve the moment by killing her.
The poem has a very dark theme, being murder which is also discussed . in two of Browning’s other famous poems, My Last Duchess and The Laboratory and there are parallels that can be drawn between the do annotated paper characters within My Last Duchess and Porphria’s Lover. On Terrorism In India! Through the diction the reader see the speaker’s true character, which is also mirrored by the setting of the poem. The reader also sees how the subject, Porphyria. Dramatic monologue , Love , My Last Duchess 1512 Words | 4 Pages. A Comparison of Works by Emily Dickinson and John Donne. she felt no pain (Browning 878). I’m not sure if he knows that statement was false, but he jokes around about it, justifying his actions. . “ My Last Duchess” is about a Duke who had lost his love of his duchess, his wife, and just disposed of her as if she is an paper object, the portrait. When he talks about the portrait, he says my last duchess (Browning 789) as if he owned her. Yet, I’m quite sure he didn’t care about his wife or her feelings. All he cared for was that she showed her love. Aesthetics , Barbie , Beauty 1288 Words | 4 Pages.
?Explore the with military ways disturbed characters are presented in Macbeth and paper my last Duchess. Disturbed is a dreadfully intense and . powerful word, which can unfortunately be used, to describe Lady Macbeth and the Duke. The two characters are both disturbed in their own unique ways. Lady Macbeth can be portrayed as disturbed because of her constant desire, to terminate her feminine, weak traits. On Line! However, the Duke could be considered to be a disturbed character, because of the fact that he murders his Duchess. Dramatic monologue , Duke , Emotion 1973 Words | 5 Pages. considers love to not only last a lifetime, but to reach its [zenith] after death (1.14). In most cases, relationships do not prove to research paper be . flawless or untainted; at times relationships can stray into crucible the domain of the unnaturally warped.
Twisted relationships of unhealthy and immoral behaviors are found in Robert Browning's My Last Duchess and Porphyria's Lover. A relationship in which a couple is unable to vent their angers to each other is unhealthy. In My Last Duchess, the Duke had a bad. British poems , Christopher Marlowe , Elizabeth Barrett Browning 864 Words | 3 Pages. Poem Analysis- Robert Fross; Robert Browning; Anne Bradstreet. the boy’s injury, or death, because this might have happened before, or they just didn’t care for the boy.
3. Do Annotated! Frost’s reference to with Macbeth’ contributes . to my understanding of “Out, Out-“that this poem’s theme is about death. Bibliography Paper! From the reference to Shakespeare play, Macbeth, I can expect read about someone dying, an with military unexpected death. In my opinion, the theme of this poem is the cruel, emotionless, merciless relationships adults had with their children back then in America. Children weren’t given.
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12 Greatest Political Speeches in American History. Pegging 12 of the most important speeches and moments in American politics is no easy feat. Do Annotated Bibliography Research. From Washington to Lincoln, from Kennedy to Reagan, these are the names, faces and moments that have changed the course of our nation. For good measure, we've included a few lesser-known #x2014; but equally significant #x2014; ones too. The parting words of our first president have stood the resume test of time in just about every way. Washington forswore another term in office, setting the do annotated bibliography research two-term precedent, and mused on stress policy fronts from do annotated bibliography research factions and military partisanship to foreign entanglements. His words encompassed the early Federalist Party's credo and were cited in political discourse for years to come.
By 1899, it was annually read on Washington's Birthday in both the do annotated bibliography paper House and Senate. On Line. Though the House had ceased doing so by 1984, the Senate continues the tradition to this day. 2. Andrew Jackson on Nullification. Despite not originating in a speech, one of Andrew Jackson's comments on nullification stands out as one of the defining moments of the seventh president's legacy. Bibliography. At the annual Democratic Jefferson Day dinner on April 13, 1830, Jackson, countering Vice-President John C. Calhou's pronullification rationale that states could nullify whatever feder laws they saw fit, rosefrom his seat and in reflection of english essay, a thundering voice pronounced : Our federal union #x2014; it must be preserved! Two years later, Jackson offered his Proclamation Regarding Nullfication . For many years to follow, the question remained a defining one leading up to the Civil War. There's little left to be said, but Abraham Lincoln's ten sentence missive at Gettysburg is do annotated bibliography paper remembered by phd dissertations on line many as the greatest speech in American political history. Though it was met with a decidedly mixed, even downright mocking, reception at the time, it's far and away outlived Edward Everett's two-hour oratory from the same day. It also recently spawned a very cool project in honor of its 150 year anniverary. 4. William Jennings Bryan's 'Cross of Gold' speech.
Three times he was the research Democratic nominee for president, and three times he came up short. William Jennings Bryan's electoral legacy makes him the Buffalo Bills of American politics, but his influence stands the student essay test of do annotated paper time. He was one of the of english class essay first national candidates to actually be a national candidate, hitting the speaking circuit at a time when front porch campaigns were considered the paper more dignified move. His 1896 address to the Democratic National Convention is what threw him into essay the national spotlight. Research Paper. Bryan thundered in support of the populist cause of the day, free silver, closing with a cry that you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold and holding his arms henceforth. It's remembered to this day as the speech that made him the of english class essay de facto leader of the Democrats and coalesced populists within their ranks.
5. Calvin Coolidge's 1925 Inaugural Address. It's easy to do annotated bibliography research paper, generalize Coolidge as the quiet man's president, after all, his nickname was Silent Cal. But Coolidge remains one of the most consequential presidents in history when it comes to the conservative mindset, and his reputation at the time didn't quite fit the essay convention wisdom. He held 520 press conferences while in office, a number unmatched both before and since. His 1925 inaugural address remains remarkably significant in American history because it was the first to be broadcast on radio, enabling more citizens than ever before to actually hear the words of their president. Bibliography Paper. 6. Franklin Roosevelt's 1933 Inaugural Address.
The long-term impact and resume military legacy of Franklin Roosevelt's policies are debates for another day, but his first inaugural address to bibliography research, the nation in 1933 remains one of the most iconic moments of the last 100 years. The only thing we have to fear is fear itself, he quipped, offering reassurances to a nation facing the bleakness of the Great Depression. 7. John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address. Much like FDR, JFK's inaugural address stands the test of time as one of the most iconic moments in American political history. Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country remains a line cited on both sides of the political aisle, ushering in the era of on terrorism in easy Camelot and the remarkably consequential 1960s. 8. Martin Luther King Jr.'s 'I Have a Dream' Speech. The only speech on this list not delivered by do annotated bibliography research paper a president, King's address during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom is remembered by many as the defining moment of the Civil Rights Movement, coming just shy of 100 years after Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.
He was subsequently named Time Magazine #x2019;s Man of the Year, and essay the spot in do annotated, which he stood has been enshrined at in india, the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. 9. Ronald Reagan at the Berlin Wall. The Cold War wouldn't end for several more years, but Ronald Reagan's standing in front of the Berlin Wall and do annotated bibliography paper challenging Mikhail Gorbachev to tear it down is assuredly in the annals of the most powerful moments in American history. Much like King's I Have A Dream speech, the language words speak for do annotated research paper themselves more powerfully than I ever could. Reagan's policies encompassed the '80s and the years that were to come, and this was the iconic moment to define the resolve his presidency.
10. Bill Clinton's 1996 State of the Union. Although Bill Clinton may have become the first Democrat to reside in the White House since Jimmy Carter in 1992 by learning to talk like a Republican, the party's liberal agenda cost them heavily in the '94 midterms elections. Perhaps recognizing that conservatism had won the Reagan Era, Clinton turned a corner with his '96 State of the Union by famously proclaiming: The era of big government is over. The apparent policy shift may have only phd dissertations on line, been politically motivated, as later that year major welfare reform was passed with his backing. 11.
George W. Bush's Post-9/11 Bullhorn Speech. Much has been written, and will continue to be written, about George W. Bush's eight years in do annotated bibliography research, office, but it's undeniable that his remarks atop the rubble of Ground Zero are powerful to this day. Speaking from a bullhorn to workers and firefighters, with many of work them unable to hear him at first, Bush 43 rallied the nation with the promise that the bibliography research people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon. 12. Barack Obama's 2009 Inaugural Address. Even though some might disagree with the policies pushed by President Obama, one can still appreciate the significance of his swearing-in. Work. Coming 46 years after Martin Luther King's I Have A Dream speech and just over 150 after Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, the research first inaugural address of the work write first African-American president in American history ranks as an iconic moment of the right kind of paper progress. Correction: March 4, 2015.
An earlier version of this article incorrectly stated that the Gettysburg Address was given 105 years ago. President Abraham Lincoln gave the speech in 1863, roughly 150 years ago. A graduate of the University of Georgia, Brandon Howell#x27;s political commentary has been published at The Hill, The Daily Caller, Townhall, and Campaigns Elections.
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essay on lord buddha His Life and Teaching. Namo tassa bhagavato. arahato sammaa sambuddhassa! The ages roll by and the Buddha seems not so far away after all; his voice whispers in our ears and tells us not to do annotated bibliography run away from the struggle but, calmeyed, to face it, and to see in life ever greater opportunities for growth and advancement. Personality counts today as ever, and a person who has impressed himself on the thought of mankind as the Buddha has, so that even today there is something living and vibrant about the thought of him, must have been a wonderful mana man who was, as Barth says, ‘the finished model of calm and sweet majesty of infinite tenderness for all that breathes and compassion for all that suffers, of student stress essay perfect moral freedom and exemption from every prejudice.’ His message old and yet very new and original for those immersed in metaphysical subtleties, captured the imagination of the intellectuals; it went deep down into the hearts of the people. Buddhism had its birth at Sarnath near the city of Vaaraanasi (Benares), India.
With only five followers at do annotated bibliography research the beginning, it penetrated into many lands, and is today the religion of more than 600 million. In Easy? Buddhism made such rapid strides chiefly due to its intrinsic worth and its appeal to the reasoning mind. But there were other factors that aided its progress: never did the dhammaduutas, the messengers of the Dhamma, the do annotated research paper, teaching, use any iniquitous methods in spreading the Dhamma. The only weapon they wielded was that of universal love and compassion. Furthermore, Buddhism penetrated to these countries peaceably without disturbing the creeds that were already there. Phd Dissertations On Line? Buddhist missions, to which the annals of religious history scarcely afford a parallel, were carried on bibliography neither by force of arms nor by the use of any coercive or reprehensible methods. Conversion by compulsion was unknown among the Buddhists, and repugnant to the Buddha and his disciples. No decrying of other creeds has ever existed in Buddhism.
Buddhism was thus able to diffuse itself through a great variety of resume work write cultures throughout the civilized world. There is do annotated bibliography research, no record known to me, wrote TW Rhys Davids, in the whole of the long history of Buddhism throughout the many centuries where its followers have been for such lengthened periods supreme, of any persecution by the Buddhists of the followers of any other faith. The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived over 2,500 years ago and is known as Siddhattha Gotama. His father, Suddhodana, the kshatriya king, ruled over the land of the Saakyans at Kapilavatthu on the Nepalese frontier. Resume With Military? As he came from the Gotama family he was known as Suddhodana Gotama. Mahaamaayaa, princess of the do annotated bibliography research, Koliyas, was Suddhodana’s queen. In 623 B.C. on a full-moon day of MayVasanta-tide, when in India the crucible essay abigail, trees were laden with leaf, f lower, and fruit, and man, bird, and bibliography research paper, beast were in joyous moodQueen Mahaamaayaa was travelling in state from with Kapilavatthu to Devadaha, her parental home, according to the custom of the times, to give birth to her child. But that was not to be, for halfway between the two cities, in the beautiful Lumbini Grove, under the shade of a flowering Sal tree, she brought forth a son. Lumbini, or Rummindei, the name by paper which it is now known, is phd dissertations, one hundred miles north of do annotated research Vaaraanasi and within sight of the snowcapped Himalayas. At this memorable spot where Prince Siddhattha, the future Buddha, was born, Emperor Asoka, 316 years after the event, erected a mighty stone pillar to mark the holy spot.
The inscription engraved on the pillar in five lines consists of ninety-three Asokan characters, among which occurs the following: hida budhe jaate saakyamuni. Here was born the Buddha, the sage of the Saakyans. The mighty column is still to be seen. The pillar, as crisp as the day it was cut, had been struck by lightning even when Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim, saw it towards the middle of the seventh century A.C. The discovery and identification of Lumbini Park in 1896 is attributed to the renowned archaeologist, General Cunningham. On the fifth day after the birth of the prince, the king summoned eight wise men to choose a name for of english essay, the child and to speak of the royal babe’s future. He was named Siddhaartha, which means one whose purpose has been achieved. The brahmins deliberated and seven of them held up two fingers each and declared: O King, this prince will become a cakravarti, a universal monarch, should he deign to rule, but should he renounce the world, he will become a sammaa-sambuddha, a Supremely Enlightened One, and deliver humanity from ignorance.
But Ko.n.dañña, the wisest and paper, the youngest, after watching the prince, held up only one finger and said: O King, this prince will one day go in search of truth and become a Supremely Enlightened Buddha. Queen Mahaamaayaa, the mother, passed away on the seventh day after the birth of reflection essay her child, and the babe was nursed by his mother’s sister, Pajaapati Gotami. Though the bibliography research paper, child was nurtured till manhood in refinement amid an abundance of material luxury the father did not fail to give his son the education that a prince ought to receive. He became skilled in many branches of phd dissertations on line knowledge, and in the arts of war easily excelled all others. Do Annotated Bibliography Research? Nevertheless, from crucible essay abigail his childhood the prince was given to serious contemplation. The Four Significant Visions. When the prince grew up, the father’s fervent wish was that his son should marry bring up a family and be his worthy successor; for he often recalled to bibliography research mind with dread the prediction of the sage Ko.n.dañña, and feared that the prince would one day give up home for student essay, the homeless life of an ascetic. According to the custom of the time, at the early age of sixteen the prince was married to research his cousin, the beautiful Princess Yasodharaa, the only daughter of King Suppabuddha and Queen Pamitaa of the Koliyas. The princess was of the same age as the prince.
His father provided him with the greatest comforts. He had, so the story tells, three palaces, one for each of the Indian year’s three seasons. Lacking nothing of the earthly joys of crucible essay life, he lived amid song and dance, in luxury and pleasure, knowing nothing of do annotated research sorrow Yet all the efforts of the father to student essay hold his son a prisoner to bibliography research paper the senses and student, make him worldly minded were of no avail. King Suddhodana’s endeavours to keep away life’s miseries from his son’s inquiring eyes only heightened Prince Siddhaartha’s curiosity and his resolute search for truth and Enlightenment. With the advance of age and maturity the prince began to glimpse the woes of the world. On one occasion, when the prince went driving with his charioteer Channa to the royal gardens, he saw to his amazement what his eyes had never beheld before: a man weakened with age, and in the last stage of ageing, crying out in a mournful voice: Help master! lift me to my feet; oh, help!
Or I shall die before I reach my house! This was the first shock the prince received. Bibliography? The second was the sight of resume a man, mere skin and bones, supremely unhappy and forlorn, smitten with some pest. The strength is gone from ham, and loin, and do annotated research, neck, and all the grace and resume work, joy of manhood f led. Bibliography? On a third occasion he saw a band of lamenting kinsmen bearing on their shoulders the resume work, corpse of one beloved for cremation. These woeful signs, seen for the first time in his life, deeply moved him.
From the charioteer he learned that even he, his beloved Princess Yasodharaa, and his kith and kinall, without exception, are subject to ageing, disease, and death. Soon after this the prince saw a recluse moving with measured steps and down-cast eyes, calm and bibliography, serene, aloof and independent. Write? He was struck by the serene countenance of the man. He learned from Channa that this recluse was one who had abandoned his home to live a life of purity to seek truth and answer the riddle of life. Thoughts of renunciation flashed through the prince’s mind and in deep contemplation he turned homeward. The heart throb of an agonized and ailing humanity found a responsive echo in his own heart. The more he came in research paper contact with the world outside his palace walls, the more convinced he became that the world was lacking in true happiness. But before reaching the resume, palace he was met by a messenger with the news that a son had been born to Yasodharaa. Research? A fetter is set upon me, uttered the prince and returned to the palace. The Great Renunciation.
In the silence of that moonlit night (it was the full-moon day of July Aasaa.lha) such thoughts as these arose in him: Youth, the prime of resume work write life, ends in old age and man’s senses fail him at a time when they are most needed. The hale and hearty lose their vigour and health when disease suddenly creeps in. Bibliography Paper? Finally death comes, sudden perhaps and unexpected, and puts an end to this brief span of life. Surely there must be an escape from this unsatisfactoriness, from ageing and death. Thus the reflection of english class, great intoxication of do annotated research youth (yobbana-mada), of health (aarogya-mada), and of life (jivita-mada) left him. Crucible? Having seen the vanity and the danger of the three intoxications, he was overcome by a powerful urge to do annotated seek and phd dissertations, win the Deathless, to strive for deliverance from research old age, illness, misery and death not only for himself but for all beings (including his wife and child) that suffer.
It was his deep compassion that led him to the quest ending in enlightenment, in Buddhahood. It was compassion that now moved his heart towards the great renunciation and opened for him the doors of the golden cage of his home life. It was compassion that made his determination unshakeable even by the last parting glance at his beloved wife asleep with the essay on terrorism in india, baby in her arms. Thus at paper the age of twenty-nine, in the flower of youthful manhood, on the day his beautiful Yasodharaa had given birth to his only son, Raahula, Prince Siddhaartha Gotama, discarding and disdaining the enchantment of the royal life, scorning and spurning joys that most young men yearn for, tore himself away renouncing wife and child and resume with military, a crown that held the promise of power and glory. He cut off his long locks with his sword, doffed his royal robes, and putting on a hermit’s robe retreated into forest solitude to bibliography research seek a solution to those problems of work write life that had so deeply stirred his mind. Research? He sought an essay on terrorism in india in easy, answer to the riddle of life, seeking not a palliative, but a true way out of sufferingto perfect enlightenment and Nibbaana.His quest for the supreme security from bondage Nibbaana (Nirvaana)had begun.
This was the great renunciation, the greatest adventure known to humanity. First he sought guidance from two famous sages, from research Alaara Kaalaama and Uddaka Raamaputta, hoping that they being masters of meditation, would teach him all they knew, leading him to the heights of concentrative thought. He practised concentration and reached the highest meditative attainments possible thereby but was not satisfied with anything short of phd dissertations Supreme Enlightenment. These teachers’ range of bibliography knowledge, their ambit of mystical experience, however, was insufficient to grant him what he so earnestly sought, and he saw himself still far from his goal. Though both sages, in essay on terrorism in india in easy turn, asked him to stay and succeed them as the teacher of their following, the ascetic Gotama declined. Paying obeisance to them, he left them in search of the still unknown. In his wanderings he finally reached Uruvelaa, by the river Nerañjaraa at do annotated research Gayaa. Crucible? He was attracted by its quiet and dense groves, and bibliography paper, the clear waters of the river were soothing to his senses and stimulating to on terrorism language his mind.
Nearby was a village of simple folk where he could get his alms. Bibliography Research? Finding that this was a suitable place to continue his quest for enlighten ment, he decided to stay Soon five other ascetics who admired his determined effort joined him. In Easy Language? They were Ko.n.dañña, Bhaddiya, Vappa, Mahaanaama, and Assaji. There was, and still is, a belief in India among many of do annotated her ascetics that purification and student stress, final deliverance can be achieved by rigorous self-mortification, and bibliography research paper, the ascetic Gotama decided to phd dissertations on line test the do annotated paper, truth of it. Of English? And so there at do annotated paper Uruvelaa he began a determined struggle to subdue his body in the hope that his mind, set free from the shackles of the body might be able to soar to the heights of liberation. Most zealous was he in these practices.
He lived on leaves and roots, on a steadily reduced pittance of food; he wore rags from dust heaps; he slept among corpses or on beds of thorns. The utter paucity of nourishment left him a physical wreck. Says the Master: Rigorous have I been in my ascetic discipline. Rigorous have I been beyond all others. Like wasted, withered reeds became all my limbs. Student Essay? In such words as these, in later years, having attained to full enlightenment, did the Buddha give his disciples an awe-inspiring description of his early penances. Struggling thus for six long years, he came to death’s very door, but he found himself no nearer to his goal. The utter futility of research self-mortification be came abundantly clear to him by his own experience. He realized that the path to the fruition of his ardent longing lay in the direction of a search inward into his own mind.
Undiscouraged, his still active mind searched for new paths to the aspired for in india in easy, goal. Bibliography Paper? He felt, however, that with a body so utterly weakened as his, he could not follow that path with any chance of success. Thus he abandoned self torture and extreme fasting and took normal food. His emaciated body recovered its former health and his exhausted vigour soon returned. Now his five companions left him in their disappointment, for they thought that he had given up the effort and had resumed a life of abundance.
Nevertheless, with firm determination and complete faith in his own purity and strength, unaided by on line any teacher, accompanied by none, the Bodhisatta resolved to make his final effort in complete solitude. On the forenoon of the day before his enlightenment while the Bodhisatta was seated in meditation under a banyan tree, Sujaataa, the daughter of a rich householder, not knowing whether the ascetic was divine or human, offered milk-rice to him saying: Lord, may your aspirations be crowned with success! This was his last meal prior to his enlightenment. The Final Triumph. Crosslegged he sat under a tree, which later became known as the Bodhi Tree, the do annotated bibliography research, Tree of Enlightenment or Tree of essay abigail Wisdom, on the bank of the river Nerañjaraa, at Gayaa (now known as Buddhagayaa), making the final effort with the inflexible resolution: Though only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and my blood and flesh dry up and wither away yet will I never stir from this seat until I have attained full enlightenment (sammaa-sambodhi). So indefatigable in effort, so unflagging in do annotated research his devotion was he, and phd dissertations, so resolute to bibliography research paper realize truth and attain full enlightenment. Applying himself to the mindfulness of in-and out breathing (aanaapaana sati), the resume military, Bodhisatta entered upon and dwelt in the first meditative absorption (jhaana; Skt. dhyaana). By gradual stages he entered upon and dwelt in the second, third, and fourth jhaanas. Thus cleansing his mind of impurities, with the mind thus composed, he directed it to the knowledge of do annotated research paper recollecting past births (pubbenivaasaanussati-ñaa.na).
This was the first knowledge attained by him in the first watch of the night. Then the Bodhisatta directed his mind to the knowledge of the disappearing and student stress, reappearing of beings of varied forms, in good states of paper experience, and in states of woe, each faring according to his deeds (cutuupapaata-ñaa.na). This was the second knowledge attained by him in the middle watch of the night. Next he directed his mind to essay abigail the knowledge of the eradication of the taints (aasavakkhayañaa.na). He understood as it really is: This is research paper, suffering (dukkha), this is the resume with, arising of suffering, this is the research, cessation of suffering, this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering.
He understood as it really is: These are defilements (aasavas), this is the arising of defilements, this is the of english class essay, cessation of defilements, this is the path leading to research paper the cessation of defilements. Knowing thus, seeing thus, his mind was liberated from the defilement's of sense pleasures (kaamaasava), of becoming (bhavaasava), and of ignorance (avijjaasava). When his mind was thus liberated, there came the knowledge, liberated and he understood: Destroyed is birth, the noble life (brahmacariya) has been lived, done is what was to be done, there is with military, no more of this to come (meaning, there is no more continuity of the mind and body no more becoming, rebirth). Bibliography Research? This was the third knowledge attained by him in the last watch of the night. This is known as tevijjaa (Skt. trividyaa), threefold knowledge. Thereupon he spoke these words of victory: Seeking but not finding the house builder, I hurried through the round of many births: Painful is birth ever and again.
O house builder, you have been seen; You shall not build the house again. Your rafters have been broken up, Your ridgepole is demolished too. My mind has now attained the military, unformed Nibbaana. And reached the end of every sort of craving. Thus the Bodhisatta Gotama at the age of thirty-five, on do annotated bibliography another full moon of May (vesaakha, vesak), attained Supreme Enlightenment by comprehending in reflection of english all their fullness the do annotated bibliography paper, Four Noble Truths, the Eternal Verities, and he became the resume with military, Buddha, the Great Healer and Consummate Master-Physician who can cure the bibliography research, ills of beings. This is the greatest unshakeable victory. The Four Noble Truths are the priceless message that the work, Buddha gave to suffering humanity for bibliography paper, their guidance, to help them to be rid of the with military, bondage of dukkha, and to attain the absolute happiness, that absolute realityNibbaana.
These truths are not his creation. He only re-discovered their existence. Bibliography Research Paper? We thus have in the Buddha one who deserves our respect and reverence not only as a teacher but also as model of the class essay, noble, self-sacrificing, and meditative life we would do well to follow if we wish to research improve ourselves. One of the reflection, noteworthy characteristics that distinguishes the Buddha from all other religious teachers is that he was a human being having no connection whatsoever with a God or any other supernatural being. He was neither God nor an bibliography paper, incarnation of God, nor a prophet, nor any mythological figure. He was a man, but an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), a unique being, a man par excellence (purisuttama). All his achievements are attributed to his human effort and his human understanding. On Line? Through personal experience he understood the supremacy of man. Depending on his own unremitting energy unaided by any teacher, human or divine, he achieved the highest mental and intellectual attainments, reached the research, acme of purity and was perfect in the best qualities of human nature.
He was an embodiment of compassion and wisdom, which be came the two guiding principles in his Dispensation (saasana). The Buddha never claimed to be a saviour who tried to save souls by student essay means of a revealed religion. Through his own perseverance and understanding he proved that infinite potentialities are latent in man and that it must be man’s endeavour to develop and do annotated bibliography, unfold these possibilities. He proved by his own experience that deliverance and enlightenment lie fully within man’s range of effort. Religion of the highest and fullest character can coexist with a complete absence of belief in revelation in any straightforward sense of the word, and in that kernel of revealed religion, a personal God. Under the essay on terrorism in india in easy language, term personal God I include all ideas of a so-called superpersonal god, of the same spiritual and mental nature as a personality but on a higher level, or indeed any supernatural spiritualexistence or force. (Julian Huxley Religion Without Revelation, pp. 2 and 7.)
Each individual should make the appropriate effort and break the shackles that have kept him in bondage, winning freedom from the bonds of existence by perseverance, self-exertion, and insight. Bibliography Research? It was the Buddha who for the first time in the world’s history taught that deliverance could be attained independently of an student essay, external agency that deliverance from suffering must be wrought and fashioned by each one for himself upon the anvil of his own actions. None can grant deliverance to another who merely begs for it. Others may lend us a helping hand by guidance and bibliography research paper, instruction and in other ways, but the highest freedom is attained only through self-realization and self-awakening to truth and not through prayers and petitions to a Supreme Being, human or divine. The Buddha warns his disciples against shifting the student stress, burden to an external agency directs them to do annotated the ways of discrimination and research, and urges them to get busy with the real task of developing their inner forces and qualities. There are some who take delight in making the reflection of english essay, Buddha a non-human.
They quote a passage from the Anguttara Nikaaya (II, 37), mistranslate it, and misunderstand it. The story goes thus: Once the Buddha was seated under a tree in the meditation posture, his senses calmed, his mind quiet, and attained to supreme control and serenity Then a Brahmin, Dona by do annotated paper name, approached the on terrorism in easy, Buddha and asked: Sir, will you be a god, a deva? Sir, will you be a heavenly angel, a gandhabba? Sir, will you be a demon, a yakkha? Sir, will you be a human being, a manussa? Then, sir, what indeed will you be? Now understand the research, Buddha’s reply carefully: Brahmin, whatever defilements (aasavas) there be owing to the presence of which a person may be identified as a god or a heavenly angel or a demon or a human being, all these defilements in me are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm-tree stump, done away with, and are no more subject to future arising. Just as, brahmin, a blue or red or white lotus born in water, grows in water and stands up above the water untouched by it, so too I, who was born in of english class essay the world and grew up in the world, have transcended the world, and do annotated research, I live untouched by the world.
Remember me as one who is enlightened (Buddho ti ma.m dhaarehi braahma.na). What the Buddha said was that he was not a god or a heavenly angel or a demon or a human being full of defilements. From the above it is clear that the student, Buddha wanted the brahmin to know that he was not a human being with defilements. He did not want the brahmin to put him into any of those categories. Bibliography Paper? The Buddha was in the world but not of the world. This is clear from the simile of the lotus. Hasty critics, however, rush to a wrong conclusion and want others to believe that the reflection of english class essay, Buddha was not a human being. In the Anguttara Nikaaya (I, 22), there is a clear instance in bibliography research which the Buddha categorically declared that he was a human being:
Monks, there is one person (puggala) whose birth into resume, this world is for the welfare and happiness of many out of compassion for do annotated bibliography, the world, for the gain and welfare and on line, happiness of gods (devas) and humanity Who is this one person (eka puggala)? It is the bibliography research paper, Tathaagata, who is phd dissertations on line, a Consummate One (arahat), a Supremely Enlightened One (sammaa-sambuddho). Monks, one person born into the world is an extraordinary man, a marvellous man (acchariya manussa). Note the Paali word manussa , a human being. Yes, the Buddha was a human being but not just another man. He was a marvellous man.
The Buddhist texts say that the Bodhisatta (as he is known before he became the Buddha) was in the Tusita heaven (devaloka) but came down to the human world to research be born as a human being (manussatta). His parents, King Suddhodana and Queen Mahaamaayaa, were human beings. The Bodhisatta was born as a man, attained enlightenment (Buddhahood) as a man, and finally passed away into parinibbaana as a man. Even after his Supreme Enlightenment he did not call himself a God or Brahmaa or any supernatural being, but an extraordinary man. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, a Hindu steeped in the tenets of the Vedas and Vedanta, says that Buddhism is an offshoot of Hinduism, and even goes to the extent of calling the student stress, Buddha a Hindu. He writes: But the Buddha himself declares that his teaching was a revelation of truths discovered by himself, not known to his contemporaries, not inherited from past tradition.
Thus, in his very first sermon, referring to the Four Noble Truths, he says: Monks, with the thought ‘This is the noble truth of suffering, this is its cause, this is its cessation, this is the way leading to its cessation,’ there arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, insight, and research paper, light concerning things unheard of before (pubbesu ananussutesu dhammesu). Again, while making clear to student stress essay his disciples the difference between a Fully Enlightened One and the arahats, the consummate ones, the Buddha says: The Tathaagata, O disciples, while being an bibliography paper, arahat is fully enlightened. It is resume with military, he who proclaims a way not proclaimed before, he is the knower of a way who understands a way who is skilled in a way (maggaññu, maggavidu, maggakovido). And now his disciples are wayfarers who follow in do annotated his footsteps. The ancient way the Buddha refers to abigail is the paper, Noble Eightfold Path and not any ideals of the Indo-Aryan civilization as Dr. Radhakrishnan imagines. However, referring to the Buddha, Mahatma Gandhi, the architect of resume write Indian independence, says: By his immense sacrifice, by his great renunciation and by the immaculate purity of his life, he left an indelible impress upon Hinduism, and Hinduism owes an eternal debt of gratitude to that great teacher. Research Paper? (Mahaadev Desai, With Gandhiji in Ceylon, Madras, 1928, p.26.)
For a week, immediately after the enlightenment, the resume work, Buddha sat at the foot of the Bodhi Tree, experiencing the supreme bliss of emancipation. At the end of the seven days he emerged from that concentration (samaadhi) and in bibliography research the first watch of the night thought over the dependent arising (pa.ticca-samuppaada) as to how things arise (anuloma) thus: When this is, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises; namely: dependent on ignorance, volitional or kamma formations; dependent on in india in easy language volitional formations, (rebirth or rebecoming) conscious ness; dependent on consciousness, mentalitymateriality (mental and physical combination); dependent on mentality-materiality the sixfold base (the five physical sense organs with consciousness as the sixth); dependent on the sixfold base, contact; depend on contact, feeling; dependent on feeling, craving; dependent on craving, clinging; dependent on clinging, the process of becoming; dependent on the process of becoming, there comes to be birth; dependent on birth arise ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair. Thus does this whole mass of suffering arise. In the second watch of the night, the Buddha thought over the dependent arising as to how things cease (pa.tiloma) thus: When this is not, that does not come to be; with the do annotated bibliography research paper, cessation of this, that ceases; namely: with the utter cessation of ignorance, the cessation of of english volitional formations; with the cessation of formations, the cessation of consciousness. Do Annotated Research? (and so on).
Thus does this whole mass of crucible essay suffering cease. In the third watch of the do annotated research paper, night, the Buddha thought over the dependent arising both as to how things arise and cease thus: When this is, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises; when this is not, that does not come to resume be; with the do annotated bibliography research, cessation of this, that ceases; namely: dependent on ignorance, volitional formations (and so on). In Easy Language? Thus does this whole mass of suffering arise. With the utter cessation of bibliography research ignorance, the cessation of crucible essay abigail volitional formations (and so on). Thus does this whole mass of suffering cease. The Buddha now spent six more weeks in bibliography lonely retreat at six different spots in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree. Phd Dissertations On Line? At the end of this period two merchants, Tapassu and Bhallika, who were passing that way offered rice cake and honey to the Master, and do annotated bibliography research, said: We go for refuge to work write the Buddha and to the Dhamma.
Let the Blessed One receive us as his followers. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? They became his first lay followers (upaasakas). The First Sermon. Now while the phd dissertations, Blessed One dwelt in solitude this thought occurred to him: The Dhamma I have realized is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond mere reasoning, subtle, and intelligible to the wise. But this generation delights, revels, and rejoices in sensual pleasures. It is hard for such a generation to see this conditionality this dependent arising.
Hard too is it to see this calming of all conditioned things, the do annotated bibliography research paper, giving up of all substance of becoming, the extinction of student craving, dispassion, cessation, Nibbaana. And if I were to teach the Dhamma and others were not to do annotated research understand me, that would be a weariness, a vexation for me. Pondering thus he was first reluctant to teach the Dhamma, but on surveying the world with his mental eye, he saw beings with little dust in their eyes and abigail, with much dust in their eyes, with keen faculties and dull faculties, with good qualities and bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to teach, some who are alive to the perils hereafter of do annotated research paper present wrongdoings, and some who are not. The Master then declared his readiness to proclaim the Dhamma in this solemn utterance: Apaarutaa tesa.m amatassa dvaaraa. Ye sotavanto pamuñcantu saddham. Let those that have ears repose trust.
When considering to whom he should teach the Dhamma first, he thought of on line Aalaara Kaalaama and Uddaka Raamaputta, his teachers of old; for he knew that they were wise and discerning. But that was not to be; they had passed away Then the Blessed One made up his mind to make known the truth to those five ascetics, his former friends, still steeped in the fruitless rigours of extreme asceticism. Knowing that they were living at Benares in the Deer Park at Isipatana, the Resort of Seers (modern Sarnath), the bibliography, Blessed One left Gayaa for distant Benares, walking by stages some 15 0 miles. On the way not far from Gayaa the Buddha was met by Upaka, an ascetic who, struck by the serene appearance of the Master, inquired: Who is your teacher? Whose teaching do you profess? The Buddha replied: I have no teacher, one like me does not exist in all the world, for I am the Peerless Teacher, the Arahat.
I alone am Supremely Enlightened. Quenching all defilements, Nibbaana’s calm have I attained. I go to student the city of Kaasi (Benares) to set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? In a world where blindness reigns, I shall beat the Deathless Drum. Friend, you then claim you are a universal victor, said Upaka. The Buddha replied: Those who have attained the cessation of defilements, they are, indeed, victors like me. All evil have I vanquished. Resume With? Hence I am a victor. Upaka shook his head, remarking sarcastically It may be so, friend, and took a bypath. The Buddha continued his journey and in gradual stages reached the Deer Park at Isipatana. The five ascetics, seeing the do annotated bibliography research paper, Buddha from afar, discussed among themselves: Friends, here comes the ascetic Gotama who gave up the on terrorism in easy language, struggle and turned to a life of do annotated abundance and resume with, luxury Let us make no kind of salutation to him.
But when the Buddha approached them, they were struck by his dignified presence and bibliography research paper, they failed in their resolve. One went to meet him and took his almsbowl and robe, another prepared a seat, still another brought him water. The Buddha sat on the seat prepared for him, and the five ascetics then addressed him by name and greeted him as an equal, saying, aavuso (friend). The Buddha said, Address not the Tathaagata (Perfect One) by the word ‘aavuso.’ The Tathaagata, monks, is phd dissertations, a Consummate One (Arahat), a Supremely Enlightened One. Give ear, monks, the Deathless has been attained.
I shall instruct you, I shall teach you the Dhamma; following my teaching you will know and realize for do annotated, yourselves even in this lifetime that supreme goal of purity for the sake of which clansmen retire from home to follow the stress essay, homeless life. Thereupon the bibliography research paper, five monks said: Friend Gotama, even with the stern austerities, penances, and selftorture you practised, you failed to resume work attain the superhuman vision and insight. Now that you are living a life of luxury and self-indulgence, and have given up the struggle, how could you have reached superhuman vision and insight? Then replied the Buddha: The Tathaagata has not ceased from effort and bibliography research paper, reverted to a life of luxury and abundance. The Tathaagata is a Supremely Enlightened One. Give ear, monks, the Deathless has been attained.
I shall instruct you. Resume Military? I shall teach you the bibliography research, Dhamma. A second time the monks said the same thing to the Buddha who gave the same answer a second time. A third time they repeated the same question. In spite of the assurance given by the Master, they did not change their attitude. Then the crucible abigail, Buddha spoke to them thus: Confess, O monks, did I ever speak to you in this way before? Touched by this appeal of the Blessed One, the five ascetics submitted and research paper, said: No, indeed, Lord. Thus did the Supreme Sage, the Tamed One, tame the hearts of the five ascetics with patience and kindness, with wisdom and skill. Overcome and essay, convinced by his utterances, the do annotated research paper, monks indicated their readiness to listen to him. The Middle Path.
Now on a full moon day of July 5 89 years before Christ, in the evening, at the moment the sun was setting and the full moon simultaneously rising, in the shady Deer Park at Isipatana, the Buddha addressed them: Monks, these two extremes ought not to be cultivated by the recluse. What two? Sensual indulgence which is low, vulgar, worldly ignoble, and conducive to harm; and self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble, and conducive to harm. The middle path, monks, understood by the Tathaagata, avoiding the military, extremes, gives vision and research, knowledge and leads to calm, realization, enlightenment, and Nibbaana. And what, monks, is essay, that middle path? It is this Noble Eightfold Path, namely: right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. Then the bibliography, Buddha explained to them the Four Noble Truths: the noble truth of suffering, the noble truth of the arising of suffering, the noble truth of the cessation of suffering, and the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering.
Thus did the Supreme Buddha proclaim the truth and set in motion the Wheel of the Dhamma (dhamma-cakka-pavattana) . This first discourse, this message of the Deer Park, is the core of the resume, Buddha’s Teaching. As the footprint of every creature that walks the do annotated bibliography research paper, earth could be included in the elephant’s footprint, which is pre-eminent for size, so does the doctrine of the Four Noble Truths embrace the entire teaching of the resume work, Buddha. Explaining each of the Four Noble Truths, the Master said: Such, monks, was the vision, the paper, knowledge, the wisdom, the student, insight, the light that arose in me, that I gained about things not heard before. As long as, monks, my intuitive knowledge, my vision in regard to these Four Noble Truths was not absolutely clear to me, I did not claim that I had gained the incomparable Supreme Enlightenment. Do Annotated Paper? But when, monks, my intuitive knowledge, my vision, in regard to these Four Noble Truths was absolutely clear to me, then only resume did I claim that I had gained the incomparable Supreme Enlightenment. And there arose in do annotated bibliography paper me insight and vision: unshakeable is the deliverance of my mind (akuppaa me cetovimutti) , this is reflection of english essay, my last birth, there is no more becoming (rebirth). Thus spoke the Buddha, and the five monks, glad at heart, applauded the words of the Blessed One. On December 2, 1933, at the royal dinner at the King’s Palace, Sweden, when it was his turn to speak, Sir C. Venkata Raman, the do annotated bibliography research paper, Nobel Prize winning physicist, left aside science and, to write the surprise of the renowned guests, delivered a most powerful address on the Buddha and India’s past glories. In the vicinity of Benares, said Sir Venkata Raman, there exists a path which is for me the most sacred place in India.
This path was one day travelled over by paper the Prince Siddhaartha, after he had gotten rid of all his worldly possessions in order to go through the world and proclaim the annunciation of love. The Sinsapa Grove. The supremacy of the Four Noble Truths in the teaching of the Buddha is abundantly clear from the message of the Sinsapa Grove as from the message of the Deer Park. Once the Blessed One was living at Kosambi (near Allahabad) in the Sinsapa Grove. Then, gathering a few sinsapa leaves in his hand, the Blessed One addressed the monks: What do you think, monks, which is reflection of english class, greater in quantity the handful of sinsapa leaves gathered by me or what is in the forest overhead?
Not many trifling, venerable sir, are the leaves in do annotated research paper the handful gathered by the Blessed One; many are the essay on terrorism in india language, leaves in the forest overhead. Even so, monks, many are those things I have fully realized but not declared to you; few are the things I have declared to you. And why monks, have I not declared them? They monks, are not useful, are not essential to the life of purity they do not lead to disgust, to dispassion, to cessation, to do annotated tranquillity to full understanding, to full enlightenment, to Nibbaana. That is why monks, they are not declared by essay abigail me.
And what is it, monks, that I have declared? This is research paper, sufferingthis have I declared. This is the arising of sufferingthis have I declared. Resume Work? This is the cessation of sufferingthis have I declared. Paper? This is the path leading to the cessation of sufferingthis have I declared. And why monks, have I declared these truths? They are, indeed, useful, are essential to crucible the life of purity they lead to disgust, to dispassion, to cessation, to tranquillity to full understanding, to enlightenment, to Nibbaana. That is why monks, they are declared by me.
Therefore, monks, an effort should be made to realize: ‘This is suffering, this is the arising of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ The Buddha has emphatically said: One thing do I make known: suffering, and do annotated bibliography research, the cessation of suffering ( dukkha.m ceva paññapemi, dukkhassa ca nirodham ). To understand this unequivocal saying is to understand Buddhism; for the entire teaching of the Buddha is nothing else than the application of this one principle. What can be called the discovery of student stress essay a Buddha is just these Four Noble Truths. This is the typical teaching of the Buddhas of do annotated research paper all ages. The Peerless Physician. The Buddha is also known as the peerless physician ( bhisakko ), the supreme surgeon ( sallakatto anuttaro ). He indeed, is an unrivalled healer. The Buddha’s method of exposition of the Four Noble Truths is comparable to phd dissertations on line that of a physician. As a physician, he first diagnosed the illness, next he discovered the cause for the arising of the illness, then he considered its removal, and paper, lastly applied the remedy. Suffering ( dukkha ) is the illness; craving ( ta.nhaa ) is the arising or the root cause of the illness ( samudaya ); through the removal of craving, the write, illness is removed, and that is the cure ( nirodha-nibbaana ); the Noble Eightfold Path ( magga ) is the remedy. The Buddha’s reply to a brahmin who wished to know why the Master is called a Buddha clearly indicates that it was for no other reason than a perfect knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. Here is the Buddha’s reply: I knew what should be known,
What should be cultivated I have cultivated, What should be abandoned that have I let go. Hence, O brahmin, I am Buddha The Awakened One. With the proclamation of the Dhamma for the first time, with the setting in research paper motion of the Wheel of the Dhamma, and with the conversion of the five ascetics, the Deer Park at Isipatana became the birthplace of the work write, Buddha’s Dispensation ( saasana ) and of his Community of Monks ( sangha ). The Spread of the Dhamma. Thereafter the Buddha spent the vassa 28 at the Deer Park at Isipatana, sacred this day to over 600 million of the human race.
During these three months of rains fifty others headed by Yasa, a young man of wealth, joined the Order. Paper? Now the phd dissertations on line, Buddha had sixty disciples, all arahats who had realized the Dhamma and were fully competent to teach others. When the rainy season ended, the Master addressed his immediate disciples in these words: Released am I, monks, from all ties whether human or divine. You also are delivered from all fetters whether human or divine. Go now and wander for the welfare and happiness of many out of compassion for the world, for the gain, welfare, and do annotated bibliography paper, happiness of gods and men.
Let not two of you proceed in the same direction. Resume Write? Proclaim the Dhamma that is do annotated research paper, excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and excellent in the end, possessed of meaning and the letter and utterly perfect. Proclaim the life of purity the holy life consummate and pure. There are beings with little dust in crucible abigail their eyes who will be lost through not hearing the Dhamma, there are beings who will understand the Dhamma. I also shall go to bibliography research Uruvelaa, to Senaanigama, to teach the Dhamma. 29.
Thus did the Buddha commence his sublime mission, which lasted to the end of reflection class his life. With his disciples he walked the highways and byways of India enfolding all within the aura of do annotated his boundless compassion and wisdom. Though the Order of Monks began its career with sixty bhikkhus, it expanded soon into thousands, and, as a result of the increasing number of monks, many monasteries came into being. In later times monastic Indian universities like Naalandaa, Vikramasilaa, Jagaddalaa, Vikramapuri, and essay in india in easy language, Odantapuri, became cultural centres which gradually influenced the whole of Asia and through it the mental life of humankind. After a successful ministry of forty-five years the Buddha passed away at bibliography the age of eighty at the twin Saala Trees of the Mallas at Kusinaaraa (in modern Uttara Pradesh about 120 miles northeast of Benaares). 30. The Buddha’s Ministry.
During his long ministry of student stress essay forty-five years the Buddha walked widely throughout the northern districts of India. But during the rains retreat ( vassa ), he generally stayed in one place. Here follows a brief sketch of his retreats gathered from the texts: 1st year: Vaaraanasi. Do Annotated Bibliography Research Paper? After the first proclamation of the Dhamma on the full moon day of July the Buddha spent the first vassa at Isipatana, Vaaraanasi.
The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years: Raajagaha (in the Bamboo Grove, Ve.luvana). It was during the third year that Sudatta, a householder of Saavatthi known for his bounty as Anaathapindika, the feeder of the forlorn, having heard that a Buddha had come into on line, being, went in search of do annotated bibliography him, listened to him, and having gained confidence ( saddhaa ) in the Teacher, the resume military, Teaching, and bibliography paper, the Taught (the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha), attained the first stage of write sainthood ( sotaapatti ). He was renowned as the chief supporter ( daayaka ) of the Master. Anaathapindika had built the famous Jetavana monastery at Saavatthi, known to day as Sahet-mahet, and offered it to the Buddha and his disciples. Do Annotated Bibliography? The ruins of this monastery are still to be seen. 5th year: Vesaali. The Buddha kept retreat in the Pinnacled Hall ( kuu.taagaarasaalaa ). It was at student this time that King Suddhodana fell ill.
The Master visited him and preached the Dhamma, hearing which the king attained perfect sanctity ( arahatta ), and after enjoying the do annotated bibliography paper, bliss of emancipation for phd dissertations, seven days, passed away The Order of bibliography Nuns was also founded during this time. 6th year: Mankula Hill. Here the Buddha performed the Twin Wonder ( yamaka paa.tihaariya ). He did the same for the first time at Kapilavatthu to overcome the pride of the Sakyas, his relatives. 7th year: Taavatimsa (the Heaven of the student, Thirty-three). Here the do annotated bibliography paper, Buddha preached the Abhidhamma or the Higher Doctrine to the deities ( devaas ) headed by his mother Mahaamaayaa, who had passed away seven days after the birth of Prince Siddhattha, and was reborn as a deva in the Taavatimsa. 8th year: Bhesakalaa Forest (near Su.msumaaragiri). It was here that Nakulapitaa and his wife, a genial couple, came to see the Buddha, told him about their very happy married life, and expressed the in easy, wish that they might continue to live together both here and hereafter.
These two were placed by the Buddha as chiefs of those that win confidence. 9th year: Kosambiat the Ghosita Monastery. 10th year: Paarileyyakka Forest. It was in the tenth year that, at Kosambi, a dispute arose between two parties of do annotated monks owing to a trivial offence committed by write a monk. As they could not be reconciled, and as they did not pay heed to his exhortation, the Buddha retired to the forest.
At the bibliography paper, end of the vassa , their dispute settled, the monks came to essay language Saavatthi and begged pardon of the Buddha. 11th year: Village of Ekanaala (in the Magadha country). It was here that the Buddha met the brahmin farmer Kasibhaaradvaaja who spoke to the Buddha somewhat discourteously The Buddha, how ever, answered his questions with his characteristic sobriety Bhaaradvaaja became an ardent follower of the Buddha. It was on this occasion that the very interesting discourse, Kasibhaaradvaaja Sutta (Suttanipaata), was delivered. (Read The Book of do annotated research Protection by this author (BPS).) 12th year: Verañja. Essay On Terrorism In India In Easy? The introduction of the Vinaya is attributed to paper the twelfth year. It was also during this retreat that the brahmin Verañja came to see the Buddha, asked a series of stress essay questions on Buddhist practices, and being satisfied with the answers, became a follower of the Blessed One. He invited the Master and do annotated paper, the Sangha to spend the rainy season ( vassa ) at his village Verañja. At that time there was a famine. The Buddha and his disciples had to be satisfied with very coarse food supplied by horse merchants. As it was the custom of the resume with military, Buddha to take leave of the do annotated bibliography, inviter before setting out on crucible essay abigail his journeying, he saw the brahmin at the end of the vassa . The latter admitted that though he had invited the Buddha and his disciples to spend the retreat at Verañja, he had failed in his duties towards them during the entire season owing to his being taxed with household duties.
However, the next day he offered food and do annotated research, gifts of robes to the Buddha and stress essay, the Sangha. 13th year: Caaliya Rock (near the city of Caalika). During this time the elder Meghiya was his personal attendant. The elder being attracted by a beautiful mango grove near a river asked the Buddha for permission to do annotated bibliography go there for resume military, meditation. Though the Buddha asked him to wait till another monk came, he repeated the request. Bibliography Research? The Buddha granted him permission. The elder went, but to his great surprise he was oppressed by phd dissertations on line thoughts of sense pleasures, ill will, and harm, and do annotated bibliography, returned disappointed. Thereupon the Buddha said: Meghiya, for the deliverance of the mind of the immature, five things are conducive to their maturing: (1) a good friend; (2) virtuous behaviour guided by the essential precepts for training; (3) good counsel tending to essay in easy language dispassion, calm, cessation, enlightenment and Nibbaana; (4) the effort to abandon evil thoughts, and (5) acquiring of wisdom that discerns the rise and fall of things. 31. 14th year: Jetavana monastery Saavatthi. During this time the Venerable Raahula, who was still a novice ( saamanera ), received higher ordination ( upasampadaa ). According to the Vinaya, higher ordination is not conferred before the age of twenty; Ven.
Raahula had then reached that age. 15th year: Kapilavatthu (the birthplace of Prince Siddhattha). It was in this year that the death occurred of King Suppabuddha, the father of Yasodharaa. 16th year: City of Aalavi: During this year Aalavaka, the bibliography paper, demon who devoured human flesh, was tamed by the Buddha. He became a follower of the Buddha. For Aalavaka’s questions and the Master’s answers read the Aalavaka Sutta, in the Sutta-nipaata. (See The Book of Protection , p.81 by this author (BPS).) 17th year: Raajagaha, at Ve.luvana Monastery During this time a well-known courtesan, Sirimaa, sister of Jivaka the physician, died. On Line? The Buddha attended the funeral, and asked the king to inform the bibliography, people to buy the dead bodythe body that attracted so many when she was alive. No one cared to have it even without paying a price.
On that occasion, addressing the crowd, the Buddha said in verse: Behold this painted image, a body full of wounds, heaped up (with bones), diseased, the object of thought of many in which there is. neither permanence nor stability 18th year: Caaliya Rock. During this time a young weaver’s daughter met the Buddha and listened to his discourse on mindfulness of death ( mara.naanussati ). On another occasion she answered correctly all the four questions put to her by the Master, because she often pondered over the words of the Buddha. Her answers were philosophical, and reflection essay, the congregations who had not given a thought to the Buddha word, could not grasp the meaning of her answers. Research? The Buddha, however, praised her and addressed them in verse thus: Blind is this world; few here clearly see. Like a bird that escapes from the net, only a few go to a good state of existence.
She heard the Dhamma and attained the first stage of sanctity ( sotaapatti ). But unfortunately she died an untimely death. (For a detailed account of this interesting story and the questions and resume work write, answers, see the Commentary on the Dhammapada , Vol. III, p.170, or Burlingame, Buddhist Legends , Part 3, p.14.) 19th year: Caaliya Rock. 20th year: Raajagaha, at Veluvana Monastery From the 21st year till the 43rd year: Saavatthi. Of these twenty-four vassas , eighteen were spent at Jetavana Monastery the rest at Pubbaaraama. Anaathapi.n.dika and Visaakhaa were the chief sup porters. 44th year: Beluva (a small village, probably situated near Vesaali), where the Buddha suppressed, by force of will, a grave illness.
In the 45th year of do annotated bibliography research his Enlightenment, the Buddha passed away at crucible Kusinaaraa in the month of May ( vesaakha ) before the commencement of the rains. During the first twenty years of the Buddha’s life, the bhikkhus Naagasamaala, Naagita, Upavaana, Sunakkhatta, Saagata, Raadha, and Meghiya, and the novice ( saama.nera ) Cunda attended upon him, though not regularly However, after the twentieth year, the Buddha wished to have a regular attendant. Thereon all the great eighty arahats, like Saariputta and Moggallaana, expressed their willingness to attend upon their Master. But this did not meet with his approval. Perhaps the Buddha thought that these arahats could be of greater service to humanity. Then the elders requested Aananda Thera, who had kept silent all this while, to beg of the Master to be his attendant. Do Annotated Bibliography Research? Aananda Thera’s answer is resume write, interesting.
He said, If the Master is willing to have me as his attendant, he will speak. Then the Buddha said: Aananda, let not others persuade you. You on your own may attend upon me. Buddhahood and Arahatship. Perfect Enlightenment, the discovery and realization of the Four Noble Truths (Buddhahood), is not the prerogative of a single being chosen by divine providence, nor is do annotated research, it a unique and reflection class, unrepeatable event in human history It is an achievement open to anyone who earnestly strives for perfect purity and wisdom, and with inflexible will cultivates the paarami , the perfections which are the requisites of Buddhahood, and the Noble Eightfold Path. There have been Buddhas in the dim past and there will be Buddhas in do annotated research paper the future when necessity arises and conditions are favourable. But we need not think of that distant future; now, in our present days, the essay, doors to the Deathless are still wide open. Those who enter through them, reaching perfect sanctity or arahatship, the final liberation from suffering (Nibbaana), have been solemnly declared by the Buddha to research be his equals as far as the emancipation from defilements and ultimate deliverance is concerned: Victors like me are they indeed, They who have won defilements’ end. 32.
The Buddha, however, also made clear to his disciples the difference between a Fully Enlightened One and the arahats,33 the accomplished saints: The Tathaagata, O disciples, while being an arahat, is Fully Enlightened. It is he who proclaims a path not proclaimed before; he is the knower of a path, who understands a path, who is student stress essay, skilled in a path. And now his disciples are wayfarers who follow in his footsteps. That, disciples, is the distinction, the specific feature which distinguishes the Tathaagata, who being an arahat, is Fully Enlightened, from the disciple who is freed by do annotated bibliography insight. 34. Salient Features of the Dhamma.
There are no dark corners of ignorance, no cobwebs of mystery no smoky chambers of secrecy; there are no secret doctrines, no hidden dogmas in the teaching of the resume, Buddha, which is open as daylight and do annotated, as clear as crystal. The doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Buddha shine when open and reflection class essay, not when covered, even as the sun and moon shine when open and do annotated bibliography research, not when covered (A.I,283). The Master disapproved of those who professed to have secret doctrines, saying, Secrecy is the hallmark of false doctrines. Addressing the disciple Aananda, the Master said: I have taught the Dhamma, Aananda, without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine; for resume work write, in respect of the truths, Aananda, the do annotated, Tathaagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher who hides some essential knowledge from the pupil. 35. A Buddha is an extreme rarity but is no freak in human history He would not preserve his supreme knowledge for himself alone. Such an idea would be completely ridiculous and reflection of english, abhorrent from the Buddhist point of view, and to the Buddha such a wish is utterly inconceivable. Driven by universal love and compassion, the Buddha expounded his teaching without keeping back anything that was essential for man’s deliverance from the do annotated research paper, shackles of sa.msaara, repeated wandering. The Buddha’s teaching from beginning to end is open to all those who have eyes to see and a mind to understand.
Buddhism was never forced upon anyone at the point of the stress, gun or the bayonet. Conversion by compulsion was unknown among Buddhists and repugnant to the Buddha. Of the Buddha’s creed of compassion, H. Fielding Hall writes in The Soul of a People : There can never be a war of Buddhism. No ravished country has ever borne witness to the prowess of the followers of the Buddha; no murdered men have poured out their blood on their hearth-stones, killed in bibliography research his name; no ruined women have cursed his name to high heaven. Essay Abigail? He and his faith are clean of the stain of blood. He was the do annotated bibliography research paper, preacher of the Great Peace, of on terrorism in india in easy love of charity of do annotated research paper compassion, and on terrorism in easy language, so clear is his teaching that it can never be misunderstood.
When communicating the Dhamma to his disciples, the Master made no distinctions whatsoever among them; for there were no specially chosen favourite disciples. Among his disciples, all those who were arahats, who were passion-free and had shed the fetters binding to renewed existence, had equally perfected themselves in purity But there were some outstanding ones who were skilled in bibliography research different branches of knowledge and practice, and because of their mental endowments, they gained positions of distinction; but special favours were never granted to anyone by the Master. Upaali, for instance, who came from a barber’s family was made the chief in matters of phd dissertations on line discipline ( vinaya ) in preference to many arahats who belonged to the class of the nobles and paper, warriors ( kshatriya ). Saariputta and Moggallaana, brahmins by birth, because of write their longstanding aspirations in former lives, became the chief disciples of the Buddha. The former excelled in wisdom ( pañña ) and the latter in do annotated bibliography research supernormal powers ( iddhi ). The Buddha never wished to extract from his disciples blind and submissive faith in him or his teachings.
He always insisted on discriminative examination and intelligent inquiry In no uncertain terms he urged critical investigation when he addressed the inquiring Kaalaamas in a discourse that has been rightly called the first charter of free thought: Come, Kaalaamas. Do not go by oral tradition, by lineage of teaching, by hearsay by a collection of essay in india in easy language scriptures, by logical reasoning, by inferential reasoning, by reflection on reasons, by the acceptance of a view after pondering it, by the seeming competence of a speaker, or because you think, ‘The ascetic is our teacher.’ But when you know for yourselves, ‘These things are unwholesome, these things are blamable; these things are censured by the wise; these things, if undertaken and practised, lead to harm and suffering,’ then you should abandon them. Bibliography? And when you know for yourselves, ‘These things are wholesome, these things are blameless; these things are praised by the wise; hese things, if undertaken and reflection of english class, practised, lead to welfare and happiness,’ then you should engage in do annotated research paper them. To take anything on trust is with, not in the spirit of Buddhism, so we find this dialogue between the Master and the disciples: If now, knowing this and preserving this, would you say: ‘We honour our Master and through respect for him we respect what he teaches’?- No, Lord. - That which you affirm, O disciples, is it not only bibliography paper that which you yourselves have recognized, seen, and grasped? Yes, Lord.
36. The Buddha faced facts and refused to acknowledge or yield to anything that did not accord with truth. Resume? He does not want us to recognize anything indiscriminately and bibliography research, without reason. He wants us to comprehend things as they really are, to put forth the necessary effort and stress essay, work out our own deliverance with mindfulness. You should make the effort. The Tathaagatas point out the way 37. And yield your hearts unto the Buddha’s teaching.
Shake off the armies of the king of death, As does the elephant a reed-thatched shed. 38. The Buddha, for the first time in the world’s history taught that deliverance should be sought independent of research a saviour, be he human or divine. The idea that another raises a man from lower to higher levels of life, and ultimately rescues him, tends to resume work make man indolent and bibliography paper, weak, supine and foolish. This kind of belief degrades a man and smothers every spark of dignity from his moral being.
The Enlightened One exhorts his followers to acquire self-reliance. Others may lend us a helping hand indirectly but deliverance from suffering must be wrought out and fashioned by each one for phd dissertations, himself upon the anvil of his own actions. In the understanding of things, neither belief nor fear plays any role in Buddhist thought. The truth of the Dhamma can be grasped only do annotated research through insight, never through blind faith, or through fear of some known or unknown being. Not only did the Buddha discourage blind belief and fear of an omnipotent God as unsuitable approaches for understanding the crucible essay abigail, truth, but he also denounced adherence to unprofitable rites and rituals, because the mere abandoning of do annotated bibliography outward things, such as fasting, bathing in essay on terrorism language rivers, animal sacrifice, and similar acts, does not tend to purify a man or make a man holy and noble. We find this dialogue between the Buddha and the brahmin Sundarika Bhaaradvaaja: Once the Buddha, addressing the monks, explained in detail how a seeker of deliverance should train himself, and further added that a person whose mind is free from taints, whose life of purity is perfected, and the task done, could be called one who bathes inwardly. Then Bhaaradvaaja, seated near the Buddha, heard these words and asked him:
Does the Venerable Gotama go to do annotated research bathe in the river Baahuka? Brahmin, what good is the river Baahuka? What can the river Baahuka do? Indeed, Venerable Gotama, the river Baahuka is reflection of english class, believed by research many to be holy Many people have their evil deeds ( paapa ) washed away in the river Baahuka. Then the Buddha made him understand that bathing in rivers would not cleanse a man of student stress his dirt of evil, and instructed him thus: Bathe just here (in this Doctrine and Discipline, Dhamma-vinaya ), brahmin, give security to all beings. If you do not speak falsehood, or kill or steal, if you are confident, and are not mean, what does it avail you to research paper go to Gayaa (the name of a river in crucible essay abigail India during the research paper, time of the Buddha)?
Your well at home is also a Gayaa. 39. Caste, which was a matter of vital importance to the brahmins of India, was one of utter indifference to essay language the Buddha, who strongly condemned the debasing caste system. In his Order of Monks all castes unite as do the rivers in the sea. Bibliography Research? They lose their former names, castes, and essay in india language, clans, and become known as members of one communitythe Sangha. Speaking of the equal recognition of all members of the Sangha the Buddha says: Just as, O monks, the great rivers Gangaa, Yamunaa, Aciravati, Sarabhaa, and Mahi, on reaching the ocean, lose their earlier name and identity and come to be reckoned as the great ocean, similarly O monks, people of the four castes ( va.n.nas ). who leave the household and do annotated bibliography research, become homeless recluses under the Doctrine and Discipline declared by the Tathaagata, lose their previous names and identities and are reckoned as recluses who are sons of on line Saakya (Udaana 55). The Buddhist position regarding racism and racial discrimination made explicit at such an early age is one reflected in the moral and scientific standpoint adopted by paper UNESCO in the present century (Declaration on phd dissertations on line Race and Racial Prejudice, UNESCO 1978). 40. To Sundarika Bhaaradvaaja, the brahmin who inquired about his lineage, the Buddha answered:
No Brahmin I, no prince, No farmer, or aught else. All worldly ranks I know, But knowing go my way. as simply nobody: Homeless, in pilgrim garb, With shaven crown, I go. my way alone, serene. To ask my birth is vain. 41. On one occasion a caste-ridden brahmin insulted the Buddha saying.
Stop, thou shaveling! Stop, thou outcast! The Master, without any feeling of indignation, gently replied: Birth makes not a man an outcast, Birth makes not a man a brahmin; Action makes a man an outcast, Action makes a man a brahmin. He then delivered a whole sermon, the Vasala Sutta, explaining to do annotated bibliography research paper the brahmin in detail the characteristics of one who is really an essay, outcast ( vasala ). Do Annotated Bibliography Research Paper? Convinced, the haughty brahmin took refuge in the Buddha. (See The Book of Protection , p.91.) The Buddha freely admitted into the Order people from all castes and classes when he knew that they were fit to live the holy life, and with military, some of them later distinguished themselves in the Order.
The Buddha was the do annotated research, only contemporary teacher who endeavoured to on terrorism in india blend in mutual tolerance and concord those who hitherto had been rent asunder by differences of do annotated caste and class. Upaali, who was the chief authority on the Vinayathe disciplinary rules of the Orderwas a barber, regarded as one of the basest occupations of the lower classes. Sunita, who later won arahatship, was a scavenger, another base occupation. In the Order of Nuns were Pu.n.naa and Pu.n.nikaa, both slave girls. According to resume Mrs. C.A.F Rhys Davids, 8.5% of the number of those nuns who were able to realize the bibliography research paper, fruits of their training were drawn from the despised castes, which were mostly illiterate. 42. Raajagaha, the capital of the phd dissertations on line, kingdom of Magadha, was one of the first places visited by the Buddha soon after his enlightenment. As a wandering ascetic in the early days of his renunciation, he had promised King Seniya Bimbisaara that he would visit Raajagaha when he achieved the object of his search. King Bimbisaara was overjoyed at the sight of the do annotated research, Buddha, and having listened to his teaching, became a lay follower. Essay? His devotion to bibliography research the Buddha became so ardent that within a few days he offered him his pleasure park, Veluvana, for residence.
Raajagaha during that time was a centre of great learning where many schools of philosophy flourished. One such school of write thought had as its head Sa ñ jaya; and among his retinue of two hundred and fifty followers were Upatissa and bibliography research, Kolita, who were later to become Sariputta and Mahaa Moggallaana, the two chief disciples of the Buddha. One day when Upatissa was walking through the streets of reflection of english Raajagaha, he was greatly struck by the serene countenance and the quiet, dignified deportment of one of the first disciples of the Buddha, the arahat Assaji, who was on his alms round. All the strenuous endeavours to achieve perfection that Upatissa had made through many a birth were now on the verge of being rewarded. Without going back to his teacher, he followed the arahat Assaji to his resting place, eager to know whom he followed and what teaching he had accepted. Friend, said Upatissa, serene is your countenance, clear and radiant is do annotated bibliography, your glance. Who persuaded you to renounce the on terrorism in india, world?
Who is your teacher? What Dhamma (teaching) do you follow? The Venerable Assaji, rather reluctant to speak much, humbly said: I cannot expound the Doctrine and Discipline at length, but I can tell you the meaning briefly Upatissa’s reply is paper, interesting: Well, friend, tell little or much; what I want is just the meaning. Why speak many words? Then the arahat Assaji uttered a single verse which embraces the Buddha’s entire doctrine of causality: Ye dhammaa hetuppabhavaa. Tesa.m hetum tathaagato aaha. Tesa.m ca yo nirodho. Evam vaadi mahaa sama.no.
The Tathaagata has explained the cause, Its cessation too he has explained. This is the teaching of the stress essay, Supreme Sage. Upatissa instantly grasped the meaning and attained the first stage of realization, comprehending whatever is of the nature of arising, all that is of the nature of ceasing ( yam kiñci samudayadhamma.m sabba.m ta.m nirodhadhamma.m ). With a heart full of joy he quickly went back to his friend Kolita and do annotated bibliography research, told him of his meeting with the with military, arahat and of the teaching he had received. Kolita, too, like Upatissa, instantly gained the first stage of do annotated research realization, having heard the essay on terrorism in india, Dhamma from his friend. Thereon both of them approached Sa ñ jaya and do annotated bibliography, asked him to stress follow the Buddha. But afraid of losing his reputation as a religious teacher, he refused to do so. Upatissa and do annotated bibliography, Kolita then left Sañjayamuch against his protestationsfor the Veluvana monastery and expressed their wish to become followers of the Buddha. The Buddha gladly welcomed them saying, Come, monks, well proclaimed is the Dhamma.
Live the holy life for resume, the complete ending of do annotated bibliography paper suffering. He admitted them into the Order. They attained deliverance and became the two chief disciples. Another great one who joined the Order during the Buddha’s stay at resume Ve.luvana was the brahmin sage Mahaa Kassapa, who had renounced great wealth to find the way to deliverance. It was the Venerable Mahaa Kassapa, three months after the Buddha’s passing away ( parinibbaana ), who called up the convocation of arahats (the First Council), at the Sattapa.n.ni Cave near Raajagaha under the patronage of King Ajaatasattu, to collect and research paper, codify the Dhamma and Vinaya. The Order of Nuns. In the resume, early days of the Order, only do annotated research paper men were admitted to the Sangha since the Buddha was reluct ant to admit women. But there were many devout women among the lay followers who had a keen desire for a life of crucible renunciation as nuns. Urged by their keenness, Pajaapati Gotami, the foster-mother of the Buddha, in the company of many ladies of rank, approached the Buddha, beseeching him to grant them ordination. But the bibliography paper, Buddha still hesitated to accept them. Seeing their discomfiture, and urged by phd dissertations their zeal, the Venerable Aananda took up their cause and pleaded with the Buddha on their behalf.
The Buddha finally yielded to this appeal, placing, however, eight cardinal rules on the ordination of women. Paper? Thus was established, in the fifth year after his enlightenment, the abigail, Order of Nuns, the paper, Bhikkhuni Saasana, for the first time in crucible essay abigail history; for never before this had there been an Order where woman could lead a celibate life of renunciation. Women from all walks of life joined the Order. Foremost in the Order stood the Theris Khemaa and Uppalava.n.naa. The lives of research paper quite a number of these noble nuns, their strenuous endeavours to win the goal of freedom, and their paeons of joy at deliverance of mind, are graphically described in on terrorism in easy language the Therigaathaa , The Psalms of the Sisters . 43. While at Raajagaha, the Blessed One heard that his father wished to see him, and he set out for bibliography research, Kapilavatthu. He did not, however, go straight to the palace, but, according to custom, stopped in a grove outside the town. The next day the Buddha, with his bowl, went for his alms from house to house in the streets of Kapilavatthu. King Suddhodana, startled at the news, rushed to the Buddha and resume with, said; Why Master, why do you put us to shame?
Why do you go begging for your food? Not one of our race has ever done so. Replied the bibliography paper, Buddha: You and essay abigail, your family may claim descent from kings; my descent is from the do annotated bibliography research, Buddhas of old; and they begging their food, always lived on alms. Then explaining the Dhamma the Master said, Be alert, be mindful, lead a righteous life. The righteous live happily both in this world and the next. And so the king became established in the Path, he realized the Dhamma. The Buddha was then conducted into the palace where all came to pay their respects to him, but not Princess Yasodharaa. The Buddha went to crucible abigail her, and the princess, knowing the impassable gulf between them, fell on the ground at his feet and saluted him. Then relating the Candakinnara Jaataka, a story of do annotated paper his previous birth 44 revealing how great her virtue had been in that former life, he made her an adherent to the Doctrine.
Later when the resume write, Buddha was induced to establish an Order for women, Yasodharaa became one of the first nuns and attained arahatship, highest sanctity. When the Buddha was in the palace, Princess Yasodharaa arrayed her son Raahula in all his best attire and sent him to do annotated paper the Blessed One, saying, That is your father, Raahula, go and ask for your inheritance. Prince Raahula went to the Buddha, stood before him, and said, Pleasant indeed is your shadow, sage. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal and resume work write, left the palace, Prince Raahula followed him saying, Give me my inheritance, sage; give me my inheritance. Bibliography? At that the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Saariputta: Well then, Saariputta, take him into student essay, the Order. Then the Venerable Saariputta gave Prince Raahula the ordination.
45 In the Majjhima Nikaaya, one of the five original collections in Paali containing the Buddha’s discourses, there are three discourses (Nos. 61, 62, 147) entitled Raahulovaada or exhortations to Raahula, delivered by the Blessed One to teach the Dhamma to little Raahula. Research Paper? The discourses are entirely devoted to advice on discipline and meditation. Work Write? Here is an extract from the Master’s exhortation in the Mahaa Raahulovaada Sutta: 46. Cultivate the meditation on loving-kindness ( mettaa ), Raahula; for by cultivating loving-kindness, ill will is banished. Cultivate the meditation on compassion ( karu.naa ), Raahula, for by cultivating compassion, cruelty is banished. Cultivate the meditation on appreciative joy ( muditaa ), Raahula, for by cultivating appreciative joy aversion is banished.
Cultivate the meditation on equanimity ( upekkhaa ), Raahula, for by cultivating equanimity hatred is banished. Cultivate the meditation on impurity ( asubha ), Raahula, for by meditating on impurity lust is banished. Cultivate the meditation on the concept of do annotated bibliography paper impermanence ( anicca-sañña ), Raahula, for by meditating on the concept of impermanence, pride of self (asmi-maana) is banished. Cultivate the meditation on mindfulness of in-and-out-breathing (aanaapaana sati), Raahula, for mindfulness of breathing, cultivated and frequently practised, bears much fruit and is of great advantage. Women in Buddhism. Generally speaking, during the time of the Buddha, owing to brahminical influence, women were not given much recognition.
Sometimes they were held in contempt and in servility to student stress man. It was the Buddha who raised the do annotated research paper, status of women and there were cases of women showing erudition in matters of philosophy In his large-heartedness and magnanimity he always treated women with consideration and civility and stress essay, pointed out to them, too, the path to peace, purity and sanctity Said the Blessed One: A mother is the friend at one’s home. A wife is the highest friend of the husband. The Buddha did not reject the invitation for a meal though Ambapaali 47 was of do annotated paper bad repute. Whatever food she offered he accepted, and in return, gave her the Dhammadaana , the gift of reflection class truth.
She was immediately convinced by the teaching and leaving aside her frivolous lay life, she entered the Order of do annotated research Nuns. Ardent and strenuous in her religious practices, she then became an arahat. Kisaagotami was another woman to whom the Buddha gave the assistance of his great compassion. Her story is one of the most touching tales recorded in essay on terrorism our books. Many more are the instances where the Buddha helped and consoled women who suffered from the do annotated paper, vicissitudes of essay in india life. Ministering to the Sick. Great indeed, was the Master’s compassion for the sick.
On one occasion the Blessed One found an ailing monk, Puutigatta Tissa, with festering ulcers lying on his soiled bed. Immediately the Master prepared hot water, and with the help of the Venerable Aananda washed him, tenderly nursed him with his own hands, and taught the Dhamma, thus enabling him to bibliography paper win arahatship before he died. On another occasion, too, the Master tended a sick monk and admonished his disciples thus: Whosoever, monks, would follow my admonition (would wait upon me, would honour me), he should wait upon the sick. 48.
When the arahat Tissa passed away the funeral rites were duly performed and the Buddha caused the relics to stress be enshrined in a stupa. Bibliography Research? 49. The Buddha’s mettaa or loving-kindness was all pervading and immeasurable. His earnest exhortation to his disciples was: Just as with her own life. a mother shields from phd dissertations hurt. her own, her only child, let all-embracing thoughts. for all that lives be thine. 50. Being one who always acted in constant conformity with what he preached, loving-kindness and compassion always dominated his actions. While journeying from village to village, from town to town, instructing, enlightening, and gladdening the many the do annotated, Buddha saw how superstitious folk, steeped in ignorance, slaughtered animals in worship of their gods.
He spoke to them: Of life, which all can take but none can give, Life which all creatures love and strive to keep, Wonderful, dear, and pleasant unto each, Even to the meanest. 51. Thus when people who prayed to the gods for mercy were merciless, and India was blood-stained with the morbid sacrifices of innocent animals at the desecrated altars of imaginary deities, and the harmful rites and rituals of ascetics and brahmins brought disaster and brutal agony the Buddha, the Compassionate One, pointed out the ancient path of the Enlightened Ones, the path of righteousness, love, and of english essay, understanding. Mettaa or love is the do annotated bibliography research paper, best antidote for reflection of english class essay, anger in bibliography paper oneself.
It is the work, best medicine for those who are angry with us. Bibliography Paper? Let us then extend love to all who need it with a free and stress, boundless heart. The language of the heart, the language that comes from the heart and do annotated research, goes to the heart, is always simple, graceful, and full of power. Equanimity and Self-composure. Amid all the vicissitudes of lifegain and loss, repute and ill-repute, praise and censure, pain and happiness 52 the Buddha never wavered.
He was firm as a solid rock. Touched by phd dissertations on line happiness or by pain he showed neither elation nor depression. He never encouraged wrangling and animosity Addressing the monks he once said: I do not quarrel with the bibliography research, world, monks. It is the world that quarrels with me. Stress Essay? An exponent of the Dhamma does not quarrel with anyone in the world. 53. He admonished his disciples in these words: Monks, if others were to speak ill of do annotated bibliography paper me or ill of the Dhamma or ill of the Sangha (the Order), you should not on that account entertain thoughts of enmity and spite, and phd dissertations on line, be worried.
If, monks, you are angry and do annotated research paper, displeased with them, it will not only impede your mental development but you will also fail to judge how far that speech is right or wrong. You should unravel what is untrue and make it all clear. Also, monks, if others speak highly of me, highly of the Dhamma and class essay, the Sangha, you need not on that account be elated; for that too will mar your inner development. You should acknowledge what is right and show the truth of what has been said. 54. There never was an occasion when the Buddha manifested unfriendliness towards anyoneeven to his opponents and do annotated research, enemies. There were those who opposed him and his doctrine, yet the Buddha never regarded them as enemies. When others reproached him in strong terms, the Buddha neither manifested anger nor aversion nor uttered an unkind word, but said:
As an resume work, elephant in the battlefield endures the arrows shot from a bow, even so will I endure abuse and unfriendly expressions of others. 55. A striking example of this mental attitude is seen in his relation with Devadatta. Devadatta was a cousin of the Buddha who entered the Order and gained supernormal powers of the mundane plane ( puthujjana-iddhi ). Later, however, he began to harbour thoughts of jealousy and ill will toward his kinsman, the Buddha, and his two chief disciples, Saariputta and Mahaa Moggallaana, with the ambition of do annotated paper becoming the leader of the Sangha, the Order of resume work Monks. Devadatta wormed himself into research paper, the heart of Ajaatasattu, the young prince, the son of King Bimbisaara. One day when the Blessed One was addressing a gathering at the Veluvana Monastery where the king, too, was present, Devadatta approached the Buddha, saluted him, and said: Venerable sir, you are now enfeebled with age. Resume With Military? May the Master lead a life of solitude free from worry and care.
I will direct the Order. The Buddha rejected this overture and Devadatta departed irritated and disconcerted, nursing hatred and malice toward the Blessed One. Then, with the malicious purpose of causing mischief, he went to Prince Ajaatasattu, kindled in him the research paper, deadly embers of ambition, and said: Young man, you had better kill your father and assume kingship lest you die without becoming the ruler. I shall kill the Blessed One and become the Buddha. So when Ajaatasattu murdered his father and ascended the throne Devadatta suborned ruffians to murder the Buddha, but failing in military that endeavour, he himself hurled down a rock as the Buddha was climbing up Gijjhakuuta Hill in Raajagaha. The rock tumbled down, broke in two, and a splinter slightly wounded the Buddha. Later Devadatta made an intoxicated elephant charge at the Buddha; but the bibliography paper, animal prostrated himself at the Master’s feet, over student stress powered by his loving-kindness. Devadatta now proceeded to cause a schism in do annotated bibliography the Sangha, but this discord did not last long. Having failed in all his intrigues, Devadatta retired, a disappointed and broken man. Soon afterwards he fell ill, and on phd dissertations on line his sick-bed, repenting his follies, he desired to see the Buddha.
But that was not to be; for he died on the litter while being carried to do annotated bibliography the Blessed One. Before his death, however, he uttered repentance and sought refuge in the Buddha. 56. The Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta, 57 the discourse on student essay the passing away of the Blessed One, records in moving detail all the events that occurred during the last months and days of the Buddha’s life. The Blessed One had now reached the ripe age of eighty; his two chief disciples, Saariputta and Mahaa Moggallaana, had passed away three months earlier. Pajaapati Gotami, Yasodharaa, and Raahula were also no more. The Buddha was now at Vesaali, and the rainy season having come, he went together with a great company of monks to Beluva to spend the rains there.
There a severe sickness fell upon bibliography paper, him, causing him much pain and agony but the crucible abigail, Blessed One, mindful and self-possessed, bore it patiently He was on the verge of death; but he felt he should not pass away without taking leave of the Order. So with a great effort of will he suppressed that illness and do annotated research, kept his hold on life. His sickness gradually abated, and when quite recovered he called the Venerable Aananda, his personal attendant, and addressing him said: Aananda, I am now grown old and full of years, my journey is drawing to a close. I have reached my sum of days, I am turning eighty years of age; and just as a worn-out cart, Aananda, can only with much additional care be made to move along, so the body of the Tathaagata can only resume work write be kept going with much infusion of do annotated bibliography research will-power. It is only when the Tathaagata, ceasing to attend to any outward thing and to experience any worldly sensation, attains to the signless ( animitta ) concentration of mind, and dwells in itit is only then that the body of the student, Tathaagata is at ease. Therefore, Aananda, be islands unto yourselves. Do Annotated Bibliography Research? Be your own refuge. Have recourse to none else for refuge. Hold fast to the Dhamma as an island.
Hold fast to the Dhamma as a refuge. Resort to no other refuge. Resume Military? Whosoever, Aananda, either now or after I am gone, shall be islands unto themselves, refuges unto themselves, shall seek no external refugeit is they ânanda, among my disciples who shall reach the bibliography, very topmost height! But they must be keen to progress. From Beluva the Buddha journeyed to the Mahaavana, and there calling up an assembly of reflection of english essay all the monks residing in the neighbourhood of Vesaali, addressed them saying: Disciples, the Dhamma realized by me, I have made known to you. Make yourselves masters of the Dhamma, practise it, meditate upon it, and spread it abroad: out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and do annotated, welfare of gods and men. The Buddha concluded his exhortation by reflection of english class essay saying: My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close; I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone! Be earnest then, O disciples, holy full of thought!
Be steadfast in resolve! Keep watch o’er your own hearts! Who wearies not but holds fast to paper this Truth and Law. Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of grief. Worn out with sickness, with feeble limbs, the Blessed One now journeyed on with much difficulty followed by the Venerable Aananda and a great company of monks.
Even in resume this last, long, wearisome journey of his, the Buddha never failed in his attention to others. He instructed Cunda, the smith, who offered him his last meal. Then on bibliography the way he stopped for resume with military, Pukkusa, a disciple of Aalaara Kaalaama, replied to do annotated bibliography all his questions, and so instructed him that Pukkusa offered himself as a follower of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. The Blessed One now reached the Saala Grove of the Mallas at Kusinaaraathe journey’s end. Knowing that here would be his last resting place, he told the on line, Venerable Aananda: I am weary Aananda, and would lie down. Spread over for do annotated, me the couch with its head to the north between the twin saala trees.
He then lay down on his right side, composed and mindful, with one leg resting on resume with military the other. Speaking now to the Venerable Aananda, the Blessed One said: They who fulfil the greater and lesser duties, they who are correct in life, walking according to the preceptsit is they who rightly honour, reverence, and venerate the Tathaagata, the Perfect One, with the worthiest homage. Therefore, Aananda, be steady in the fulfilment of the greater and the lesser duties, and be correct in life, walking according to the precepts. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? Thus, Aananda, should you train yourselves. The Last Convert. At that time, a wandering ascetic named Subhadda, who was at Kusinaaraa, heard the class essay, news of the Blessed One’s approaching death; and in do annotated research order to clear up certain doubts that troubled his mind, he hurried to the Saala Grove to speak to the Buddha. The Venerable Aananda, however, did not wish the Buddha to be disturbed in his last moments, and though Subhadda made several appeals, access to the Master was refused. The Blessed One overheard the resume military, conversation. He knew at once that Subhadda was making his investigations with a genuine desire for knowledge; and knowing that Subhadda was capable of quickly grasping the do annotated paper, answers, he desired that Subhadda be allowed to see him. Subhadda’s uncertainty was whether the leaders of the other schools of thought such as Puurana Kassapa, Nigantha Naataputta, and others had attained a true understanding.
The Blessed One then spoke: In whatsoever Doctrine and Discipline ( dhammavinaya ), Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is not found, neither in it is there found a man of true saintliness of the work write, first, or of the paper, second, or of the third, or of the fourth degree. And in whatsoever Doctrine and Discipline, Subhadda, the phd dissertations, Noble Eight fold Path is found, in it is found the man of true saintliness of the first, and the second, and paper, the third, and essay in easy, the fourth degree. 58 Now, in this Doctrine and Discipline, Subhadda, is found the Noble Eightfold Path, and it too are found the men of true saintliness of do annotated research paper all the phd dissertations, four degrees. Void are the systems of other teachersvoid of do annotated bibliography research paper true saints. And in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the life that is right, so that the world be not bereft of arahats. Hearing the words of the Blessed One, Subhadda gained confidence, and took refuge in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. Further more, he desired to be admitted into the Order, and the Buddha requested the Venerable Aananda to receive him. Subhadda thus became the last convert and the last disciple of the class essay, Blessed One, and before long by his strenuous effort he attained the final stage of arahatship.
Now the Blessed One, addressing the Venerable Aananda, said: I have taught the Dhamma, Aananda, without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine, for in respect of the truth, Aananda, the Tathaagata has no such thing as the ‘closed fist’ of a teacher who hides some essential knowledge from the pupil. It may be, Aananda, that in some of you the thought may arise, ‘The word of the Master is ended. We have no teacher any more.’ But it is not thus, Aananda, that you should think. The Doctrine and the Discipline which I have set forth and paper, laid down for youlet them, after I am gone, be your teacher.
It may be, monks, that there may be doubts in the minds of some brethren as to the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Sangha, or the path ( magga ) or method ( pa.tipadaa ). Inquire, monks, freely Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought: ‘Our teacher was face to face with us, and we could not bring ourselves to inquire of the Exalted One when we were face to face with him.’ When the Buddha had thus spoken the monks were silent. A second and a third time the Blessed One repeated these words to the monks, and yet the monks were silent. Student Stress Essay? And the Venerable Aananda said to research the Blessed One: How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, how marvellous! Truly I believe that in this whole assembly of the monks there is not one who has any doubt or misgivings as to the Buddha or the with military, Dhamma or the Sangha, or the path or the method. The Blessed One confirmed the do annotated bibliography, words of the Venerable Aananda, adding that in the whole assembly even the crucible essay abigail, most backward one was assured of final deliverance. And after a short while the Master made his final exhortation to those who wished to follow his teaching now and in do annotated bibliography research paper the future:
Behold now, O monks, I exhort you: impermanent are all compounded things. Work out your deliverance with mindfulness ( vayadhammaa samkhaaraa, appamaadena sampaadetha ). Work? 59. These were the last words of the Buddha. Then the Master entered into those nine successive stages of research meditative absorption ( jhaana ) which are of increasing sublimity: first the four finematerial absorptions ( ruupa-jhaana ), then the four immaterial absorptions ( aruupa-jhaana ), and finally the reflection of english class, state where perceptions and sensations entirely cease ( sññaa-vedayita-nirodha ). Then he returned through all these stages to the first fine-material absorption and rose again to the fourth one. Immediately after having re-entered this stage (which has been described as having purity of mindfulness due to equanimity), the Buddha passed away ( parinibbaayi ). He realized Nibbaana that is free from any substratum of further becoming ( parinibbaana ). 60.
In the Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta are recorded, in moving detail, all the events that occurred during the research, last months and days of the on line, Master’s life. In the annals of history no man is recorded as having so consecrated himself to the welfare of all beings, irrespective of caste, class, creed, or sex, as the Supreme Buddha. Bibliography Research Paper? From the hour of his enlightenment to resume military the end of his life, he strove tirelessly and unostentatiously to elevate humanity regardless of the fatigue involved and oblivious to the many obstacles and handicaps that hampered his way He never relaxed in his exertion for the common weal and was never subjected to moral or spiritual fatigue. Though physically he was not always fit, mentally he was ever vigilant and energetic. Therefore it is do annotated bibliography research paper, said:
Ah, wonderful is the Conqueror, who e’er untiring strives, for the blessings of all beings, for the comfort of all lives. Though twenty-five centuries have gone since the stress, passing away of the Buddha, his message of love and bibliography research, wisdom still exists in its purity decisively influencing the destinies of work humanity Forests of f lowers are daily offered at his shrines and countless millions of lips daily repeat the bibliography paper, formula: Buddham sarana.m gacchaami , I take refuge in the Buddha. His greatness yet glows today like a sun that blots out lesser lights, and his Dhamma yet beckons the weary pilgrim to Nibbaana’s security and student, peace. 1. Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discover y of research India (Calcutta: Signet Press, 1946) [back] 3. Class Essay? In Sanskrit, Siddhaartha Gautama. [back] 4. The warrior class. [back] 5. Do Annotated Bibliography? Edwin Arnold, The Light of student stress Asia. [back]
8. For a detailed account see M. No. 36, trans. by I.B. Horner in Middle Length Sayings , Vol. I (PTS ). See also R. Abeysekara, The Master’s Quest for bibliography paper, Light (Kandy BPS) BL A7. Phd Dissertations? [back] 9. Mahaa Saccaka Sutta, M. No. 36. [back] 10. Do Annotated Bibliography Research? Elsewhere we see the defilement of false view ( di.t.thaasava ) added to these as the with military, fourth taint. [back]
12. Dhp 153-154. Trans. by Ña.namoli Thera. [back] 13. A bodhisatta (Skt. bodhisattva ) is one who adheres to do annotated bibliography research paper or is bent on ( satta ) the ideal of enlightenment, or knowledge of the Four Noble Truths ( bodhi ). In this sense, the reflection essay, term may be applied to anyone who is bent on supreme enlightenment ( sammaa-sambodhi ). A Bodhisatta fully cultivates ten perfections or paarami , which are essential qualities of an extremely high standard initiated by compassion, and ever tinged with understanding, free from craving, pride, and false views ( ta.nhaa, di.t.thi , and maana ) that qualify an aspirant for Buddhahood.
They are: daana, sila, nek khamma, pañña, viriya, khanti, sacca, adhi.t.thaana, mettaa, and upekkhaa generosity morality renunciation, wisdom, effort, forbearance, truthfulness, deter. mination, loving-kindness, and equanimity. [back] 14. 2500 Years of Buddhism , Foreword, p ix, Government of India, 1971. [back] 17. Ud.1. See too the author’s Dependent Origination (Wheel No.15). [back] 18.
At this time there was as yet no Order ( sangha ). [back] 21. For a comprehensive explanation of these truths, see the author’s The Buddha’s Ancient Path ; Bhikkhu Ñ a.namoli, Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha (Wheel No. 17); Francis Story The Four Noble Truths (Wheel No. 34/35); Nyanatiloka Thera, The Word of the Buddha . All published by BPS [back] 22. Do Annotated Bibliography? Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S V 420. [back] 23. The Bosat (Vol. 5, No.I, 1942), Vajirarama, Colombo, p 8. Military? [back] 26.
S V 588; M. No. 92; Vin.I,45; Thag. 828. [back] 27. In 273 B.C. Emperor Asoka came on bibliography paper pilgrimage to this holy spot and caused a series of monuments and a commemorative pillar with the lion capital to be erected. This capital with its four magnificent lions upholding the dharmacakra , the Wheel of Dharma, now stands in the museum of Sarnath, Benares, and resume work, is today the official crest of bibliography paper India.
The dharmacakra festival is still held in resume with Sri Lanka. Jawaharlal Nehru writes: At Sarnath near Benares, I would almost see the Buddha preaching his first sermon, and some of his recorded words would come like a distant echo to me through two thousand five hundred years. Do Annotated Bibliography? Asoka’s pillars of stone with their inscriptions would speak to me in their magnificent language and tell me of a man who, though an emperor, was greater than any king or emperor ( The Discover y of essay abigail India , p 44.) [back] 28. The rains is the three months of seclusion during the rainy season, i.e. from July to October in India. [back] 30. It is interesting to do annotated paper note that this greatest of Indian rishis (seers) was born under a tree in a park, attained enlightenment under the crucible, Bodhi Tree, set in motion the Wheel of Dhamma at do annotated bibliography the Deer Park under trees, and finally passed away under the twin saala trees. He spent most of phd dissertations on line his time in the open in forests and in the villages of India.
The south branch of the Bodhi Tree was brought to Sri Lanka by the arhat nun Sanghamittaa, daughter of Asoka the Great of India, in the third century B.C. The oldest recorded tree in the world, it still flourishes at Anuradhapura. Bibliography Paper? [back] 31. Crucible Essay? The whole of bibliography paper this discourse is at resume work A.IV 354, Ud.3437, and in brief at Dhammapada Commentary , I,287. In the elder’s verse (66) in Theragaathaa , it is said that Venerable Meghiya was of a Saakyan raajaa’s family The Dhammapada verses. (33, 34) are as follows: The unsteady fickle mind.
Hard to bibliography paper guard and hard to on terrorism in easy language control, The wise man straightens. Even as a fletcher an arrow. Like a fish jerked out of its watery abode. And cast on land, this mind quakes; (Therefore) the realm of do annotated research paper Maara. Should be abandoned. 32.
Ariya-pariyesana Sutta, M.No. 26; I,264. [back] 33. The word is applied only to those who have fully destroyed the taints. In this sense the Buddha was the resume, first arahat in the world, as he himself revealed to Upaka. [back]
35. Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta, D. No. 16; II,100. [back] 39. Vatthuupama Sutta, M. Bibliography? No. 7. See Nyanaponika Thera, The Simile of the Cloth (Wheel No. 61/62). [back] 40. In Easy? PD. Premasiri, The Buddhist Concept of do annotated research paper A Just Social and Political Order, Young Buddhist , Singapore. [back]
41. Sn. 455, 456; Chalmer’s translation (Harvard Oriental Series). [back] 42. See G.P Malalasekera and reflection of english class essay, K.N. Jayatilleke, Buddhism and the Race Question (Wheel 200/201). [back] 43. Psalms of the Earl y Buddhists - The Sisters , trans. by C.A.F Rhys Davids (PTS Translation Series). [back] 44. Jaataka No.
485. [back] 45. Vin.I,82-83. See Piyadassi Thera and J.F Dickson, Ordination in Theravaada Buddhism Wheel No.56 [back] 46. M. No. 62. For a full translation see Advice to Raahula (Wheel No. 33). [back]
47. C.A.F Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Early Buddhists - The Sisters , p 120. Do Annotated Research? [back] 49. To the north-east of the monastery of Jetavana, wrote General Alexander Cunningham in his Archaeological Report , 1862-3, there was a stuupa built on the spot where the Buddha had washed the on terrorism language, hands and feet of a sick monk. The remains of the stuupa still exist in a mass of solid brick work at a distance of do annotated bibliography paper 550 feet from the Jetavana Monastery In General Cunningham’s map of Saavatthi (modern Sahet-Mahet), the site of this stuupa is marked H. in the plan.
Archaeological Survey of on terrorism in india in easy language India (Simla 1871), p 341. Do Annotated Research Paper? [back] 50. Metta Sutta, Sutta Nipaata , 149, 149; Chalmer’s trans. Resume Work? [back] 51. Edwin Arnold, The Light of research Asia. [back] 52. These are the a.t.tha loka-dhamma , the eight vicissitudes of life. [back] 55. Dhammapada, 310. [back] 56.
Comy on the Dhammapada, Vol. I, p 147. [back] 57. D No 16, translated as Last Days of the Buddha (BPS). [back] 58. These four stages are: sotaapatti (stream-entry); sakadaagaami , (once-return); anaagaami (non-return); and arahatta (the final stage of sainthood). Arahatship is the stage at which fetters are severed and abigail, taints rooted out. [back] 59.
The Mahaa Parinibbaana Sutta (D. No. 16) records in moving detail all the events that occurred during the last months and days of the Master’s life. Bibliography? [back] 60. The passages in quotations are taken with slight alterations from the essay in easy, Book of the Great Decease in Dialogues of the Buddha , Digha Nikaaya, Part II. [back] The source for the above material: The Buddh a; His life and teaching by Piyadassi Thera. Wheel No.
05 Copyright Kandy; Buddhist Publication Society, (1982) BPS Online Edition (2006) Digital Transcription Source: DharmaNet Dharma Book Transcription Project . For free distribution. This work may be republished, reformatted, reprinted and redistributed in any medium. However, any such republication and redistribution is to be made available to the public on a free and unrestricted basis and translations and other derivative works are to be clearly marked as such.
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This position is for resume work write their E-Customer Service Agent role. Help us by making a difference and enriching our customer’s experience during stressful moving times. Paper? With over 16,000 locations around the nation, we are looking for exciting, self-motivated and phd dissertations enthusiastic Customer Service Agents to do annotated, assist our customers with rental equipment issues. The words self-motivated and enthusiastic are important here as they are used to describe the types of people U-Haul is actually looking for. Putting them in your work from home resume illustrates that you are that person. Plus, these action words are easy to incorporate into any resume, regardless of your background.
Now let’s look at the Candidate Traits section: You enjoy helping people during stressful times You thrive in a fast paced virtual environment with a focus on resume write quality and attention to detail You are enthusiastic and empathetic and bibliography paper love creating an enjoyable experience You live for a challenge, are goal oriented, be willing to learn different systems, and easily navigate between multiple screens You can work independently delivering practical solutions and essay abigail you thrive in a collaborative team environment. In this excerpted list, virtual environment, attention to detail, goal oriented, work independently, and team environment are all important keywords used to do annotated, describe U-Haul’s ideal E-Customer Service Agent. While you may not be able to incorporate all of them into your own work from home resume, you should try to include the ones which apply to you.For example, if you’ve never worked from home before, it would be tough to incorporate “virtual environment” on phd dissertations on line your resume. Make sure to look at the Required Skills section, too.
Here’s part of U-Haul’s: Experience in Windows-based computer programs with excellent navigational skills is preferred At least 6 months of customer service experience is bibliography paper, preferred Must be motivated with strong work ethic Excellent communication and work write customer service skills. Windows, customer service, motivated, and communication skills are all important descriptive keywords. If you have these skills in your background, find a spot to put them in research paper your work from home resume! Identify Hard Skills Soft Skills. In the crucible, recruiting world, these different skills and attributes are referred to as hard skills and soft skills.
Hard skills are things that are taught and measurable like typing speed, degrees, and research paper certifications. Soft skills are traits someone has like interpersonal and communication skills. The more hard skills and soft skills keywords you can incorporate from the job description into reflection class your work from home resume, the better. These are the traits/attributes/abilities that an do annotated bibliography applicant needs to be successful in the job! If you find it difficult to locate the on line, most relevant keywords from often lengthy job advertisements, you’re in luck! There’s a really great online tool called JobScan, and do annotated paper it couldn’t be simpler to use. Paste your resume on one side, the job ad on the other, and voila! JobScan will analyze it for you. The result is an easy-to-read report that lets you know how well your resume matches with the resume with, requirements of the ad.
It’s free up to five scans per do annotated paper, month. Any more than that and you’ll have to pay $89.95 for resume write the year. You can sign up for a free month. So, if you’re actively looking for a job, it’s probably worth signing up for the free month. In that time you can do unlimited scans and learn a lot from the results. Research? By the essay on terrorism in india in easy language, time your free month is up, you should have a solid understanding of how to pull keywords from a job description and place them into do annotated your resume. Where Else to Look for Work from Home Resume Keywords. Sometimes a job advertisement is super short. These micro-posts make it difficult to determine what keywords you should use.
This means you will have to work write, populate your resume with relevant keywords without the help of the job ad. If the company has a website (which they likely will) check out research paper their “About Us,” “Mission Statement,” “Values,” “Beliefs” or other similar areas that discuss the company’s culture and philosophy. Here you’ll find plenty of keywords that describe what the company is all about. Chances are, they will be looking for like-minded people that fit in with these core values and beliefs to join their team. When you put these terms in your resume, you automatically seem like a good fit for the company. You can also head over to your LinkedIn profile for a little inspiration. You know how you can add new skills under the Skills Endorsement section? This is a great spot to turn to in india in easy, when you need help coming up with keywords relevant to the job title you’re applying for. Say you’re applying for a home-based customer service job. Research? You can type in “Customer” into the Skills Endorsement section of your LinkedIn profile and get an idea of related keywords: You can pull from this list to create plenty of industry specific word combinations that are relevant to the job you’re applying to.
Common Work from Home Resume Keywords. I spend a lot of resume military, time reading work from research paper, home job advertisements tracking down legitimate ones for the job board. Essay In Easy Language? I’ve been jotting down keywords that frequently show up in home-based job ads. Bibliography Research Paper? Here are some of the ones that show up over and over on terrorism in easy, again: It’s really not surprising that these are some of the most frequent work from research paper, home keywords employers use.
After all, when you work remotely, you won’t have someone constantly looming over your shoulder, urging you to get work done. Phd Dissertations On Line? It’s up to you, and you alone, to get your assignments done. Bibliography Research? It’s no wonder then that terms like, “reliable,” “self-starter,” “self-motivated,” and “dependable” make this list. Remember, don’t overthink it! While you want to include relevant keywords, you don’t want to overstuff your resume either. Incorporate keywords naturally into student stress essay your resume.
Even though you have to get past applicant-tracking software, your resume will eventually find its ways in do annotated research front of human eyes. Always be truthful when detailing your skills, experience, and attributes. Work? If you can strategically place a relevant keyword in do annotated research place of an existing word choice – great! If not, don’t stress it. Some ways to easily include keywords into your resume are to include skills, expertise, and profile sections. These are often bulleted lists that quickly layout your abilities. Filling these sections with work from home keywords is really easy and increases your chances of student essay, getting an interview. Check out this sample work from home resume I made filled with popular keywords for inspiration:
Obviously, this resume is completely fictional. But, the layout is reader-friendly and the individual sections makes it super easy to pad it with keywords. You can swap them out and change them in infinite combinations in bibliography order to easily create a tailor made resume for each and every work from home job you apply to! If you really want to on terrorism in easy, dig in to what it takes to create a perfect resume, I suggest reading Resume Writing 2016 . If you’re ready to paper, apply to crucible essay abigail, work from home jobs with a resume that gets results simply type “Work from do annotated research, Home” in the Indeed Search Box below: Once you’ve perfected your own work from home resume, be sure to post it to in india language, the Resume Dashboard so you can get seen by do annotated bibliography paper companies actively looking for essay in india in easy remote workers to join their team! This post may contain affiliate links. Bibliography? Please see the disclosure for more information.
Subscribe now to phd dissertations, get your free copy of the work from home quick-start guide. You'll also receive weekly updates specifically meant for out-of-the-cube thinkers, like you. Woohoo! You#x27;ll get a confirmation email in just a second with a link to your free quick-start guide. Ashlee Anderson is a career blogger and freelance writer.
She enjoys helping others 'think outside the paper, cubicle' so they too can find happiness in working on their own terms. This is awesome Ashlee! Thanks for putting this together. A rockin’ resume is on line, so important to have, which reminds me I have to update mine, just in case :). I love the bibliography, example resume you shared. The layout is in easy language, different from research paper, resumes I’ve seen. Hope you’re having a great day! This is just what I need. Thank you. You’re welcome! Best of luck on your work from phd dissertations on line, home job search.
This is the most useful info I have read on this topic. THANK YOU! Also, do you have any tips for building a resume when you don’t have squat as far as recent employment? I’ve been a homeschooling SAHM, but now I’m adding “divorced” to the mix. Hence the long time gap /: Thanks for do annotated bibliography research paper stopping by! I wouldn’t sweat the phd dissertations, gap in employment on your resume — it’s not as big of deal as you may think! Plus, isn’t being a SAHM like the most difficult, underpaid job ever that develops amazing interpersonal skills? #128521;
I’ve found some great resources that I think work well for research your situation: Hope this helps! If you need any further help, don’t be shy — email me at essay, firstname.lastname@example.org — I’m here to help! Hi Ashlee, I’m currently looking for work at home jobs but i don’t reside in the US. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? When i tried searching for work at home jobs, most of the companies required candidates residing in the US. where can i search for jobs outside the US?
Thanks for stopping by! You might want to phd dissertations, check out do annotated bibliography research paper this list: There are a number of companies that hire international candidates! I hope this helps #128578; I love this resume. Do you have this exact template that I could use to add my information in? Thanks for stopping by. Reflection? Yes, this resume was created using Canva. Canva is do annotated research paper, a free online graphic design tool.
I use it for abigail just about everything — including this mock resume I made. Do Annotated Research Paper? Let me know if you have any questions! ereshia powe says. thanks ashlee for the helpful tips now maybe i will find this work from home job seeking easier. But what if you don’t have any blogger, freelance writer, virtual assistant, etc. experience and the extent to your online experience is through social media activity like Facebook and Pinterest? What would you put in essay the experience section of resume?
I’m trying to start working from home so I don’t have work from home experience. Thanks for do annotated bibliography research stopping by! Really, it depends on write what kind of work from home job you’re looking for. If you’re looking for a sales and support position, you would want to higihlight your customer service experience. If you wanted to become a virtual administrative assistant, you would want to describe your in-office experience in research paper clerical roles.
A lot of in-office jobs translate really well to online work! Many times, you don’t necessarily need previous work from home experience. Instead, you need to demonstrate on your resume that you can get the job done while working remotely. This includes mentioning the needed qualifications for the position and showing that you work will as part of a virtual team — being familiar with online collaboration tools, being organized, and great written communication skills are definite musts #128578; Ashlee that you so much for the information on Creating a Work from Home Resume. Lots of really good advice. I will send friends and others to your site that want to work from home, but need help with this special type of resume. Natalie rivera says.
Can someone just make a resume for reflection class essay me instead? It’s too much work for me. I’m not creative using words. I never worked and do annotated research been a sahm since 2004. I have 5 kids, a husband and in debt. I don’t volunteer in anything and phd dissertations on line don’t want too!
I’m a very much a introvert. I also do not drive so I reallly need a good paying job from paper, home. Reflection Of English Class? I homeschool two of my kids. Jasmine Capri says. Ashlee, I understand that you use Canva, however, can you send me the layout of the resume you made on there? I already sent you an paper email about it. I honestly never thought about essay on terrorism changing my resume when applying for bibliography research a work at home job rather than a traditional office job. I just used the same one!
That probably explains a lot. Thank you so much for this! This is great information. I have many skills I’ve used remotely with my current and previous jobs, just not remotely from home, so to speak. I’ve done work for other operations or projects within the same company, but was not on site with the student essay, entire team. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? I feel these skills can carry over to essay abigail, a fully remote position. I will be working on the resume based on your examples.
This information is do annotated research paper, just what I’ve been looking for. Glad you found it helpful! A work-from-home resume is different than a traditional one — that’s for sure. Good luck on resume your remote job search! […] to remote jobs and increase your chances of landing a home-based job without having to submit your work from home resume to hundreds of […] […] what you’ve read so far? Then it’s time to dust off the bibliography research paper, ol’ work from home resume and apply today to become the human element behind artifical intelligence as a Clara Remote […] […] more guidance, read “Create A Work from resume write, Home Resume That Gets You Hired” at Work from Home Happiness. As always, don’t forge to connect with and out work at […] […] But actually finding a work from home job isn’t as easy.
For starters, you’ve got to worry about do annotated research scams. Then you’ve got to beat out the heavy competition. Crucible Essay? And don’t forget about making your resume sound remote-friendly. […] […] But actually finding a work from home job isn’t as easy. For starters, you’ve got to worry about scams. Then you’ve got to beat out the do annotated bibliography research paper, heavy competition. Reflection Class Essay? And don’t forget about making your resume sound remote-friendly. […] […] your score isn’t great, no problem. You can easily go back and tweak your resume until it’s a better […] […] don’t forget to do annotated bibliography research, add a copy of your resume and an ‘about me’ page to really let your personality shine […]
Simple answers, easy-to-follow advice, and real reviews are just some of the helpful articles shared on essay Work From Home Happiness to help you kick your cubicle to the curb. Sign up for free today and bibliography paper get a copy of the Work From Home Quick-Start Guide. If 25% of people work from home,