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ANTI-THYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG) TREATMENT FOR APLASTIC ANAEMIA (ADULTS) ATG is indicated for patients who are not eligible for sibling donor BMT. This includes: Patients with non-severe aplastic anaemia who are dependent on red cell and/ or platelet transfusions. Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) or very SAA who are 30-45 years of of science and technology, age. Patients with SAA or very SAA disease who lack an HLA-compatible sibling donor. Protocol may be used in selected patients with hypoplastic marrow conditions. Patients with severe AA who are 40 years old and have a HLA identical sibling donor, should be treated with allogenic bone marrow transplantation as soon as possible after diagnosis. Valley Forge Would Dbq Essay! Full blood count, reticulocyte count and blood film Bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy, including cytogenetics Peripheral blood cytogenetics to exclude Fanconi's anaemia if 35 years old LFTs, Hep A, Hep B, Hep C, EBV, CMV Vitamin B12 and folate Autoantibody screen Ham test or FACS for missouri university of science and technology thesis, CD55 and CD59 to exclude paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) Urine haemosiderin if Ham test positive or CD55, CD59 deficiency Chest X-ray Hickman line prior to therapy. Drugs with rare association causing aplastic anaemia: A careful drug history should be obtained detailing all drug exposure for us immigration, a period of university and technology, 6 months and ending 1 month prior to presentation.
All suspected drugs should be discontinued and the patient should not be re-challenged with the drugs at a later stage. Report adverse drug reaction to Committee on Safety of Medicines. Assessment prior to starting ATG Exclude active infection Chest XRay ECG (for patients 60 years, consider ECHO) Assessment of platelet transfusional requirements TFTs It is important to ensure an adequate platelet increment after platelet transfusions, because ATG results in a fall in the platelet count and can precipitate. If refractory to random donor platelets, postpone ATG treatment until further investigated. If HLA antibodies, arrange adequate supply of HLA matched platelets to cover course of us immigration policy paper, ATG. Irradiated platelet transfusions are not currently indicated for university of science, ATG treatment. We are not aware of any reported cases of us immigration research paper, transfusion-associated GVHD after ATG therapy for AA. Key: Abx: Antibiotics/ antifungals, ATG preceded by (P) Platelets, (C) Chlorphenamine, and and technology, (M) Methylprednisolone. Gce Coursework! Pred: Prednisolone, CSA: Ciclosporin A. Test dose Day 0 - 24 hours prior to actual start of treatment. University Of Science And Technology Thesis! Thymoglobuline - Rabbit ATG (Genzyme¨) 2.5 mg (1/10th of a vial) diluted in 100 ml of N/Saline given intravenously over 1 hour. The test dose must be supervised by gce coursework a doctor with Adrenaline, Chlorphenamine and Hydrocortisone Available and drawn up beforehand.
A severe reaction or anaphylaxis to the test dose is an absolute contraindication to proceeding with treatment. Treatment doses days 1 to 5 Each morning during ATG treatment proton-pump inhibitor and continue until Prednisolone discontinued. 1 hour before each daily dose of ATG Chlorphenamine 10 mg iv. 30 mins before each daily dose of ATG Methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg/day iv as 30 min infusion. Missouri And Technology! ATG 1.5 vials/10 kg body wt/day ≡ 3.75 mg/kg/day for rabbit ATG in 250-500 ml sodium chloride 0.9% and infuse over 18 hours. If tolerated, subsequent doses can be given over 12-18 hours.
ATG should be administered within 18 hours of being made up. Platelets (one random donor pack or one apheresis pack or one HLA matched pack) should be given to maintain count 30 x 10 9 /L, but should not be given concurrently with ATG administration because of the anti-platelet activity of ATG. Ciclosporin see APPENDIX from day 1. Us Immigration Research Paper! If possible, avoid giving more than one unit of university and technology, blood each day of the 5 days of ATG, to (a) help reduce the risk of fluid overload, and (b) help ensure that the administration of ATG each day starts in the morning. General and Nursing points. BCSH guidelines recommend that patients stay as inpatients for 2 weeks post-ATG. TVCN Leukaemia Group suggest discharge home is safe if prompt readmission possible. Concurrent therapy Ciprofloxacin 500 mg 12 hourly - start 24 - 48 hours before ATG treatment and continue throughout. Chlorhexidine mouthwash 10 ml 6 hourly. Fluconazole 50 mg daily (anti-fungal prophylaxis).
Aciclovir 200 mg tds. Manual Research Page! Tranexamic acid 1g tds, if required. Norethisterone 5 mg tds to control menorrhagia. No indication for PCP prophylaxis - not aware of any reported case of pneumocystis after ATG treatment given for AA. Proton-pump inhibitor. Prophylactic antibiotics and of science, oral antifungals for us immigration research, all patients, prophylaxis should continue for a minimum of 4 weeks, but consider continuing if the patient has severe aplastic anaemia (esp. if neutrophils 0.2 x 10 9 /L). Serious infection can occur in patients with severe aplastic anaemia soon after discharged from hospital following ATG therapy, particularly in the first few weeks after discharge. University! Immediate side effects (during administration of ATG): Lymphopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Fevers and forge would quit, rigors (tend to be worse on missouri and technology thesis the first day and diminish with subsequent doses of ATG).
Rash, pruritis, urticaria. Fluid retention occurs commonly. Acute pulmonary oedema and cardiac failure can develop rapidly if left untreated. Fluid retention needs very close monitoring and valley you have quit dbq essay, early treatment with Furosemide. Hypotension or hypertension. Elevation of serum transaminases occur commonly. Cardiac arrhythmias may occur: bradycardia or tachycardias.
Chest pain, loin pain, back pain occasionally. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea may sometimes occur. Missouri University And Technology! Positive direct antiglobulin test and difficulty with cross matching blood due to chicago style research page, the presence of and technology, anti-red cell antibodies in ATG. Would Quit Dbq Essay! Anaphylaxis. Other rare reported side effects are acute haemolysis, massive pulmonary haemorrhage and adult respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure and missouri university of science, renal impairment. Valley You Have Dbq Essay! Late side effects after administration of university and technology, ATG due to serum sickness: Onset is 7 to gce coursework, 14 days after starting ATG. If a second course is given, serum sickness can occur earlier. Missouri University Of Science And Technology Thesis! Fever, rash (maculopapular or urticarial starting on valley forge would trunk or extremities). Serpiginous palmar-plantar distribution is classical.
Rash may become purpuric due to platelet consumption during the time of serum sickness. Arthralgia, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, proteinuria (usually mild), rarely splenomegaly and university and technology thesis, lymphadenopathy. Increased platelet transfusion requirements due to platelet consumption. Glycosuria and/or hyperglycaemia due to corticosteroids. Other late side effects of ATG: Rarely, worsening of essay, autoimmune thyroid disorders and fibrosing alveolitis, and precipitation of Guillan Barre syndrome. AA patients treated with ATG are at increased risk of later clonal disorders such as MDS, AML and PNH, and to a lesser degree, solid tumours. Missouri And Technology Thesis! Very rare side effects: Positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) +/- haemolysis, massive pulmonary haemorrhage and globalization colonialism, capillary leak. Treatment of immediate side effects.
Immediate allergic side effects usually respond to an extra dose of Hydrocortisone and missouri university and technology thesis, Chlorphenamine. If persistent, give Pethidine 25 mg i.v. Pyrexia during ATG may also be due to thesis chapter 5 summary of findings, infection, so broad spectrum i.v antibiotics (as per departmental protocol for neutropenic patients) must be commenced after obtaining blood cultures and appropriate peripheral swabs. Treat fluid retention promptly with intravenous Furosemide and review fluid balance later the same day. If the patient gains more than one kg in weight, or if the amount in is one litre more than the amount out in thesis, 24 hours, then give a dose of Furosemide. Valley Would You Have Quit Dbq Essay! However, assess clinically first, because if febrile, and increased insensible loss, Furosemide may not be appropriate.
If patient is hypertensive , treat associated fluid retention as above, and university of science thesis, use appropriate anti-hypertensives. Anaphylaxis discontinue ATG immediately and treat anaphylaxis appropriately. If bleeding occurs during ATG, stop the ATG infusion and give additional platelets. Resume ATG when bleeding resolved. Check coagulation screen if bleeding persists despite adequate platelet increment.
Prevention of serum sickness. Ciclosporin - commenced on policy the first day of missouri university, ATG (see APPENDIX for full dose and monitoring information). Plural! G-CSF with ATG and Ciclosporin. The benefits of giving daily G-CSF for of science thesis, 4 months following a course of paper, ATG remain uncertain. Clinical studies to university thesis, date indicate no advantage using G-CSF in would you have quit, terms of missouri university and technology, response or survival after ATG and chicago manual style research page, CSA, although neutrophil counts recover more quickly and there is a reduction in university and technology thesis, the incidence of serious infections. There are some concerns that the use of G-CSF may be associated with an gce coursework increased risk of MDS and AML. The EBMT is currently performing a second prospective randomized study of ATG and CSA with or without G-CSF for university of science and technology thesis, severe AA. It is recommended that all new patients with severe AA, who do not have an HLA identical sibling, should be entered into gce coursework this study. Missouri Of Science And Technology! The routine use of G-CSF in of findings, this manner is not currently recommended outside this multi-centre EBMT study. Missouri And Technology! Carefully monitor patient clinically for evidence of bleeding, blood pressure and daily fluid balance: weigh patient twice daily keep fluid balance chart daily 4 hourly temperature, pulse, BP and respirations daily urine test for glucose, FBC, UEs and LFTs Monitor for signs of infection - follow hospital guidelines for neutropenic sepsis.
Introduce IV amphotericin or voriconazole early if fevers persist. Contra-indications. Severe systemic reaction or anaphylaxis to test dose. ATG may exacerbate viral and parasitic infections, so do not give in the presence of active infection. There is a theoretical risk of valley forge would you have, acute haemolysis in patients with haemolytic paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) who are already haemolysing. However, ATG can be given cautiously to patients with a quiescent PNH clone. Time to response. Response to ATG does not usually begin to occur before 3-4 months, so red cell and platelet transfusions will need to be continued as needed until the peripheral blood counts start to improve. Of Science! Continue oral prophylactic antibiotics and antifungals while the patient is severely neutropenic.
Repeat courses of ATG. More than one course of the same ATG preparation can be given but the risks of gce coursework, side effects and anaphylaxis are increased, and the onset of serum sickness occurs earlier than after a first course. Always give a test dose before the second course of either preparation of ATG. A second course of ATG should be commenced if there is no response or relapse after the first course. This should not be given earlier than 3 months after the first course as it usually takes around 3 months before a response is seen. A third course of missouri of science, ATG may be considered if there has been no response to thesis chapter 5 summary, two courses and a BMT is not an option, or if the patient has relapsed after previous courses. A test dose must be given prior to each repeat course of ATG. OXYMETHOLONE: available on a named patient basis and is a useful option for of science, those patients who have failed several courses of ATG and ciclosporin, or in certain patients where standard immunosuppressive treatment may not be possible. Vaccinations: Only use when absolutely necessary - there have been anecdotal reports of vaccination producing bone marrow failure or triggering relapse of AA. Live polio vaccine should be avoided following ATG treatment.
APPENDIX: The use of manual style research title page, ciclosporin (CSA) in the treatment of aplastic anaemia. The current standard immunosuppressive regimen for the treatment of AA is the university of science and technology combination of ATG and thesis of findings, ciclosporin (CSA), and this applies to very severe, severe and non-severe AA. Initial dose of oral ciclosporin (CSA) is 2.5 mg/kg twice daily. Since CSA is lipid soluble, dose is based on actual body weight. for university and technology, elderly patients, start with lower dose, e.g. Research! 1.25 mg/kg twice daily if 60 years old and adjust according to university, renal function, blood pressure and CSA levels. Trough level: 150 - 250 micrograms/L. Measure initial trough levels on valley would you have day 3 to missouri university, 7 after starting Ciclosporin.
If level is therapeutic and not toxic, monitor weekly thereafter for thesis chapter 5 summary of findings, one month, and of science and technology thesis, then monthly. Monitor BP, serum electrolytes, renal liver function. Side effects Nephrotoxicity: Increases in serum creatinine are dose and plasma level related. Additive nephrotoxicity occurs particularly with aminoglycosides, vancomycin and valley would you have quit dbq essay, amphotericin B (also with ACE inhibitors, NSAID, quinolones and trimethoprim). Hyperkaemia may occur with long term use of CSA. Increased risk with renal impairment or drugs such as ACE inhibitors and K+ sparing diuretics e.g. amiloride. Avoid high dietary potassium intake.
CSA can aggravate hypomagnesaemia in the setting of BMT as in renal transplants. Hypertension Neurological Gastrointestinal tract Hepatotoxicity Anaphylaxis Hypertrichosis Assessment of patient prior to commencing CSA. Missouri Thesis! Check blood pressure (BP), serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine (UEs) liver function tests (LFTs). Review current medication patient is taking, and ask about dictionary, herbal remedies. Aim to keep trough whole blood CSA level between 150 and 250 μg/L. Frequency of missouri university thesis, monitoring Weekly CSA levels until stable (consider twice weekly 1st and 2nd weeks).
Levels can then be checked every 2 - 3 weeks. If renal and hepatic function is abnormal, levels should be checked more frequently. Sample required 12 hour trough whole blood levels are measured i.e. Would! before the morning dose of CSA. Missouri And Technology! Send 3 ml blood in EDTA with special request form to the analytical unit. Always take sample from a peripheral vein. Never take blood for CSA level from the us immigration policy research CSA infusion line of the Hickman catheter, even after thorough flushing of the of science thesis line, otherwise falsely high levels will be obtained. Renal function and gce coursework, other electrolytes The most frequent dose limiting toxicity is renal impairment. Monitor renal function daily and liver function 3 times weekly whilst patient is an in-patient.
Monitor serum Ca2 + and Mg2 + weekly. A slow rise in serum creatinine to 120-130 µmol/L is common in the first few weeks of therapy. University Of Science Thesis! If the creatinine is 130 μmol/L, a dose adjustment should be made. If a rapid rise in creatinine occurs, stop CSA for 1-2 doses, monitor renal function and CSA level, make appropriate dose adjustment. Blood pressure As CSA can cause hypertension, monitor BP regularly.
Antihypertensive therapy may be necessary. Duration of treatment. Us Immigration Research! For the treatment of AA, CSA is given for missouri of science, a minimum of 6 months and usually much longer. Thesis Chapter 5 Summary! If a response occurs, CSA is continued at full dose until the blood count has stopped rising and of science and technology thesis, has plateaued. CSA is of findings tailed off very slowly often over many months or even longer depending on the FBC. Too rapid dose reduction is missouri university of science and technology associated with a high incidence of relapse of aplastic anaemia.
Some patients, however, are CSA dependent and thesis, will need a low dose for a long period of time. In these patients it may be impossible to stop the CSA completely.
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Retirement Planning: How to Plan for missouri of science thesis a Successful Retirement. Youth is wasted on the young. Globalization Essay? Often, money is, too. Back in my corporate days, when I managed scores of retail stores and university and technology thesis, hundreds of employees, I stressed the importance of planning for retirement—as well as saving for future goals—with every person I hired. Before the start of essay, their very first shift, I would sit down with each new team member and show them how to save for retirement without stress, worry, complexity, or pain. Within a few minutes, I could literally see the difference in their physiology as trepidation drained from missouri of science and technology thesis their facial features and, after we spent 30 minutes examining their options, confidence began to take over once they realized planning for retirement is colonialism much simpler than they thought. Most of thesis, these employees hadn’t given much thought to us immigration research saving for the future: maybe they’d heard their parents or spouses maunder about stocks and bonds and university of science and technology, mutual funds, but they hadn’t considered which path to take because planning for the future, especially with respect to dictionary thesis plural finances, is overwhelming, daunting, boring.
There are so many options, so many so-called experts, so many ways to of science and technology thesis screw things up. So, like many of Americans, they stood stuck in analytical paralysis, opting instead to postpone the decision for another time in some nonexistent hypothetical future. You know, “one day.” One day : these two words are dangerous because they give us an excuse to shelve important decisions that radically influence our future. Waiting for “one day” to arrive doesn’t solve the gce coursework problem—it makes it worse. Thesis? Each day we wait, the worse it gets. Just as with my employee orientations of yesteryear, I want this essay to serve as an inspirational and informative “sit-down” in which I clear the fog of decision-making and policy research paper, help you, the reader, make an informed decision based on what I’ve done with my own financial future.
I truly believe that after reading this step-by-step process, you can plan for retirement in less than an hour . Using screenshots and my personal finances as a concrete example, I provide the necessary tools and a step-by-step strategy for you to quickly understand how easy it is to missouri of science begin saving for research retirement, regardless of university of science and technology thesis, where you stand on the socioeconomic ladder. Gce Coursework? Not only of science thesis, retirement , though—I also want to help you save for valley forge other future objectives: establish a Safety Net emergency fund, build wealth with smart investments, and missouri of science and technology thesis, own your house outright, if that’s a dream of gce coursework, yours. And most important—I want it to be simple, because I know, based on years of experience, if I can make the complex concept of retirement planning simple, then you have a much better shot at thesis, getting started immediately. Ultimately, I hope to eliminate the us immigration research fear of financial planning and university, help you realize it’s simpler than you think. Before I get to my examples, I’ll allay your fears by addressing a few of the worries I’ve heard throughout my years of helping others set up retirement accounts: Myth 1. Style Research Title Page? I’m too old to of science save for retirement . I frequently hired employees who were older than I was—often in their forties and fifties—with no retirement-savings plan. Fear had long ago set in, and chicago style title, they figured it was too late. They were stuck; they had missed their opportunity.
Not true. While it’s true that you’re better off starting at age 25 than 50, it is missouri university of science and technology thesis also true you’ll be better off starting at age 50 than, say, 70. Then again, 70 is a better start than 90, isn’t it? The past is the past. We must stop peering at forge would you have dbq essay, the rearview and instead look ahead toward the horizon. As long as you’re still breathing, it’s never too late to start . It’s never too early, either. Myth 2. I’m too young to university and technology thesis save for retirement . Too young? Are you insane? If you’re younger than 30, you have it made! Young people, no matter your tax bracket, have a significant opportunity to gce coursework become truly wealthy thanks to the power of compound interest . Someone who invests $25,000 by age 25, with a 12% rate of return, will have more than $2 million by university age 65—even if he or she doesn’t add another dollar after age 25. Conversely, if that same person waits until age 30, he or she will have to essay contribute more than three times as much to achieve the missouri university of science thesis same outcome.
The lesson? Compound interest is the best way to grow your money over the long haul—so start while you’re young. To visually illustrate the difference between starting at age 25 vs. 35, check out this Business Insider graph: Myth 3. I don’t make enough money to save for retirement . Actually, there is chicago manual style paper title no reason you shouldn’t retire a millionaire. That’s right: virtually everyone, even minimum-wage earners, has the opportunity to be a millionaire when they retire. University Of Science And Technology Thesis? It sounds too good to be true, but the math proves otherwise: a 25-year-old who sets aside only $23 per week will retire with more than a million dollars if the money is invested properly (12% rate of thesis of findings, return). Okay, so maybe you’re not 25 anymore—me, either! That’s all right—us older folks simply need to adjust accordingly.
Betterment has an investment-and-retirement calculator to help you understand exactly how much money you need to save based on your age and financial objectives. Myth 4. Missouri And Technology Thesis? Inflation will hurt my retirement nest egg . This is the only myth that is valley would quit dbq essay partially true; however, its truth is irrelevant. Missouri And Technology Thesis? While it is true $100 dollars ten years from now will probably possess less buying power than $100 today, the flip side of that coin is also true, and considerably more important: your $100 ten years from now will be worth infinitely more than your friend’s $0 invested. Valley Forge Quit Dbq Essay? In fact, solid investments are the missouri of science and technology thesis only way to outpace inflation . Globalization Essay? It is better to university thesis invest your $100 than keep it in chicago style paper title, a bank or under your mattress. Myth 5. I’d rather spend my money on university of science and technology, something else . Policy Research? When intentions are good, this excuse occasionally sounds like the most compelling reason to avoid saving for of science and technology the future. True, we sometimes cling selfishly to money, using our income to purchase superfluous trinkets of ostensible success (new cars, shiny gadgets, accoutrements of consumerism), but frequently we want to use our money to contribute beyond ourselves (charities, nonprofits, and loved-ones in chapter, need). Contributing to others is certainly admirable, and of science, I believe giving is living , so I want you contribute generously, but I’ve found the globalization best way to help others is to help yourself first— the missouri university of science and technology best way to valley forge would quit dbq essay give generously is to have more to give . Investing in yourself first helps you flex your giving muscle. There’s a reason airlines tell you to “secure your own oxygen mask before helping others”: if it’s easier to breathe, it’s easier to missouri university of science thesis help people in need. Myth 6. Valley Forge You Have Quit Dbq Essay? The stock market isn’t safe . Translation: you don’t understand the of science and technology thesis stock market. Dictionary? That’s okay: I don’t completely understand the stock market, either—not intimately anyway (I am not a financial advisor, nor do I play one on of science and technology, the Internet). The only people who must have an gce coursework advanced understanding of the university stock market’s intricacies are stock brokers, day traders, and globalization essay, fund managers.
Rather than allocating several hours a day to learn the university of science thesis nuances of policy research, mutual funds, index funds, and university thesis, individual stocks, I choose to valley forge would dbq essay use an investing service that takes the guess work out of investing. It is of science true any investment introduces risk into the equation, but long-term investing in the stock market has proven to be the best way to grow your retirement savings : over the last 25 years, including 2008’s steep decline and subsequent Great Recession, the thesis market has averaged a rate of return of missouri and technology, nearly 11%. Even when you account for dictionary plural 1929’s Great Depression, the market has averaged greater than 9% growth over missouri of science and technology thesis, the past 100 years (source: Morningstar). Investing in the market is the most stable good-growth investment one can make in the long-term, especially when using online tools that help you outperform the market, many of which are discussed in this essay. Myth 7. I don’t have enough time or knowledge to manage my retirement savings . It’s true you and I will likely never have as much financial wisdom as the experts, but that’s precisely why we must seek out tools developed by trusted, reputable experts.
Although I’m usually a do-it-yourself kind of chapter, guy, I don’t DIY my investment strategy; rather, I did my research and found online investment tools that allow me to control my money without being overly controlling . I don’t want to constantly scrutinize my investments—tweaking and reacting out of fear every time the market goes up or down—but I don’t want to fly blind, either. Rather than flying the plane myself, I put the best possible pilot in the cockpit. I manage the vast majority of my personal finances using Betterment’s online software. Of course, Betterment isn’t the only game in town—there are plenty of viable options: Wealthfront, Vanguard, Fidelity, Charles Schwab, and a slew of and technology thesis, others. However, when comparing Betterment vs. Wealthfront vs. Vanguard vs. Fidelity vs. Schwab vs. a bunch of other reputable online brokers, there are a handful of important reasons, according to Betterment, to choose their service: Easy to valley forge quit use . Because I avoid complexity, I knew whichever online-investment firm I chose, it had to missouri and technology be easy to use.
Reputation . Betterment is the largest online automated investment service for a reason. Their portfolio is designed to achieve optimal returns at every level of risk. Through diversification, automated rebalancing, better behavior, and globalization colonialism, lower fees, Betterment customers can expect 4.3% higher returns than a typical DIY investor. Missouri Of Science Thesis? No-cost setup and low fees . I am not a millionaire (at least not yet), so I can’t afford to thesis chapter of findings waste money on setup costs and missouri university of science, fees. Unlike many investment firms, Betterment does not charge to sign up for their service. That is correct: it’s absolutely free to establish a Betterment account. Us Immigration Research? Better yet, their fees are the lowest around.
I remember paying 300 basis points (3.00%) to my previous local broker, but now I pay only 15 basis points (0.15%). No, that’s not a typo: fees are often 20 times lower with Betterment. This is especially relevant considering the power of compound interest. By not charging for trades or transactions, Betterment manages their customers’ portfolios for far less than it would cost at missouri of science thesis, even a discount brokerage; plus, their fees only get lower as your assets grow. Not only for retirement . Gce Coursework? As you’ll see in the following Savings Strategy section, not only do I use Betterment for my retirement planning, but I also use it to house separate accounts for my personal Safety Net, Wealth Building, and House Fund. By deferring a little money from my checking account to my Betterment account each month, I keep myself safe from spending temptations. Of Science Thesis? Because my money is research invested appropriately, it grows more than it would were it sitting in checking or savings accounts. Vanguard index funds . Vanguard, a company well-known for of science its integrity, has been the would quit best place to of science invest in high-yield index funds for nearly 40 years. What are index funds?
Index funds aim to replicate the movements of an thesis of findings index of missouri of science thesis, a specific financial market (for example, the SP 500 is a popular index), so it’s like investing your money in forge quit dbq essay, an entire index, as opposed to mutual funds, which pool money from of science thesis many investors to purchase a limited number of stocks. While there is a slightly higher potential upside for mutual-fund investments, I prefer index funds because of their considerably lower fees, relative stability, and reliability. I have used Vanguard for both personal and business investments in the past, and gce coursework, that’s one of the primary reasons I chose Betterment: Betterment is missouri thesis essentially a well-built storefront for Vanguard, which I trust. Valley Forge Would You Have Quit? So, with Betterment, I get the best of Vanguard plus at least three additional Betterment benefits: Automatic Portfolio Rebalancing . Remember that 90s cookware infomercial: “Set it and forget it!”? Well, I have very little desire to learn the mechanics of portfolio rebalancing and dividend reinvesting, but with Betterment, everything is of science thesis automated—even deposits, if you’d like. Once I established my Betterment account, I was able to effectively “set it and gce coursework, forget it.” Sure, I still check in quarterly to take a peek at my financial growth—which is university of science pretty cool because their web-based interface is beautiful—but I know the gce coursework best strategy, once everything is set up, is to let the money grow and grow and grow without fooling with it. Tax-loss harvesting . University And Technology? Tax-loss harvesting is the practice of selling a security that has experienced a loss. By realizing—or “harvesting”—a loss, investors are able to offset taxes on both gains and income. The sold security is then replaced by a similar one, maintaining the optimal asset allocation and expected returns.
Basically, Betterment systematically finds embedded capital losses to lower investment taxes and increase after-tax returns—and they do this for free . (Note: I logged into my account today and gce coursework, saw I’ve had $57.89 in losses harvested in the first three months of this year.) Beautiful interface . See “Easy to use” above. Betterment’s website takes all the clunkiness out of old-time paper-trail investing. “60-second” rollovers . Rolling over a 401(k) from a former employer can help you take control of of science thesis, your retirement—that’s what I did with my old Fidelity 401(k) account: I rolled it into a Traditional IRA. Betterment offers rollovers that take less than a week on essay, average, and of science thesis, they have rollover concierge available to assist you every step of the plural way, which made my rollover simple. (You can rollover other accounts, too: 403(b), 457(b), Traditional IRAs, Roth IRAs, and missouri thesis, other similar retirement accounts.) RetireGuide . Betterment’s optional RetireGuide feature will make recommendations for your non-Betterment 401(k) and taxable accounts, as well as recommend what kind of IRAs you should fund. Policy Research Paper? You can even look at scenarios comparing whether or not social security will exist in the future, since that is a major concern for many folks (myself included). University Of Science And Technology? This free feature even shows what kind of income you can withdraw during retirement. Diversity . Betterment uses years of investment research to construct a globally diversified, passive portfolio based on Modern Portfolio Theory. Their customers own exchange-traded funds (ETFs) representing up to 12 asset classes. In plain English: diversification is the gce coursework key to properly managing your wealth through market upswings and downturns—Betterment provides this diversity. Free resources . For the casual investor like myself (read: non-expert), I appreciate the plethora of financial advice Betterment regularly doles out. Once I became a customer, they began sending me occasional email reminders and advice about missouri my finances (no spam, ever—only helpful advice).
It is the first time I can remember enjoying reading about finances—because they made it easily digestible and applicable to us immigration policy paper my personal situation. Today’s technology is making investing easier, safer, and simpler than ever. Missouri Of Science And Technology Thesis? You used to have to hire a local broker and hope he or she had your best interests in mind. Chapter 5 Summary? While there’s nothing inherently wrong with a local-broker approach (there are many wonderful brokers out there—I’ve dealt with several), I’ve found that I feel more informed, more confident, more focused, and more secure with the missouri university and technology advanced tools being made available online in today’s investment industry; plus, I’m grateful to pay considerably lower fees, which helps my money grow more quickly (remember the would you have dbq essay power of compound interest). To be as transparent as possible, not only am I sharing my financial information in this article (including screenshots below), but it’s worth noting that The Minimalists used to missouri of science thesis be an affiliate partner for Betterment, but we opted out of that program recently because it restricted our personal ability to freely invest our money. That said, I still use Betterment to manage my money. Even though Ryan I don’t have an affiliate relationship with Betterment, which means we don’t receive anything for thesis chapter 5 summary recommending their service, their firm is the place I trust most to university manage my investments. Dictionary Thesis? If that ever changes, I’ll update my viewpoint here at TheMinimalists . The best way for me to help you save for the future is to of science and technology show you my recipe, that is, how I manage my own finances step by step: this way you can follow the entire recipe or select ingredients that work best for you. Strategy Overview : Of the six tactics listed below, I use Betterment to manage the first four: Safety Net, Traditional IRA, Build Wealth, and thesis chapter, House Fund.
Here is a screenshot overview of my Betterment account five weeks into the calendar year 2015: Now, looking at only the numbers, it’s easy for missouri university me to say, “Wow! That guy’s loaded!” First, if I were to retire today, $176k wouldn’t be enough money because, ideally, one wants to have enough saved to live off the interest, pay taxes, and valley forge would quit dbq essay, outpace inflation. Thus, if I wanted to bring home, say, $30,000 a year, I’d need to have approximately $500,000 saved, earning 12% interest (2% for university of science thesis inflation, 4% for taxes, and the remaining 6%—$30,000—for income). And second, of course, I’m not loaded. I don’t view this money as my money at all; instead, I look at it as an investment in my future self: it is my future self’s money. I’m not allowed to touch it. Besides, it didn’t happen overnight: I’ve been investing for nearly a decade, slowly contributing a percentage of my income each month with unwavering conviction.
Even when income has been low, I’ve made sure to pay my(future)self first by style research title investing in my retirement account and ensuring I have a Safety Net for missouri university and technology emergencies. The following six tactics outline exactly how I save for the future and plan for retirement. (By the way, as Ryan and I discussed on our TEDx Talk, we certainly don’t believe wealth directly correlates with a rich life; that doesn’t mean having money is wrong—it’s not—it simply means money is not the primary driver for my life. Thesis 5 Summary Of Findings? But with the money I do earn, I want to of science thesis invest responsibly.) Tactic 1. Safety Net . Before planning for retirement, it is valley forge would quit dbq essay best to plan for emergencies. Life happens, so we must create an initial Safety Net bucket containing $500–$1000, invested conservatively to avoid downturns in missouri university of science, the market. Warning: do not touch this money unless there is a true emergency (e.g., car repairs, home repairs, job loss, medical bills, and other real emergencies). In fact, this is why I keep my Safety Net in a Betterment bucket instead of in my checking or savings: by removing it from paper my regular bank account, I’m less tempted to use that money unless it’s an actual emergency, plus I still have quick access to the money should I ever need it.
Over time, once you’re out of debt, your Safety Net will grow to include several months of expenses (after years of saving, my Safety Net now has a year’s worth of expenses and of science thesis, I no longer contribute to that bucket). But for now, worry only about the first $500–$1000 to start. Once you’ve built your initial Safety Net, you can begin piling cash into your Retirement Savings. Tactic 2. Retirement Savings (IRA) . Thesis Plural? Of my four Betterment buckets, I use a Traditional IRA as my primary Retirement Savings bucket. As you can see from the screenshot below, the majority of my money is kept in a Traditional IRA, which is university of science and technology thesis balanced aggressively toward stock-based index funds. Globalization Essay? As a Betterment customer, I can drill down to the individual index-fund level if I feel inclined to university thesis make adjustments to individual investments accordingly; although, in most cases, I allow Betterment to chicago manual research paper page recommend the particular funds in which I should invest since they are the missouri university of science and technology thesis experts. Gce Coursework? Instead of a Traditional IRA, you can also opt for a Roth IRA (or both if you’d like). The main difference between these two types of university and technology, IRAs is that Traditional IRAs’ contributions are pre-tax (thereby lowing your annual taxable income), while Roth IRAs’ contributions are after-tax (which makes them tax-free upon retirement, provided certain criteria are met).
Both IRA options are available through Betterment. I chose a Traditional IRA because I rolled-over a large 401(k) from my previous employer. (Note: we’ll address 401(k)s, SEP-IRAs, and other similar employer-based retirement accounts in Tactic 5.) Tactic 3. Build Wealth . Because the chapter 5 summary of findings U.S. government allows people to contribute only up to a certain amount to an IRA each year, I deposit any additional retirement savings into a Build Wealth bucket, which is set with the same aggressive-growth configuration as my Traditional IRA, although the money in this bucket is invested post-tax; thus, you need only establish a Build Wealth bucket if you’ve first maxed out missouri of science and technology thesis your tax-advantaged IRA contributions. (Once you have a Betterment account, establishing new buckets—Build Wealth, Safety Net, etc.—is easy: just a few clicks and you have a new bucket.) Tactic 4. House Fund . One might say I’m “debt adverse”—but that is an colonialism understatement. I hate debt! From my viewpoint, after experiencing crippling debt for over a decade, there is no such thing as “good debt.” Sure, some debt, such as a mortgage, is better than other debts, such as, say, a creepy payday lender—but just because it is sometimes tolerable, debt is never a “good” thing.
Hence, although I’ve been a homeowner before (well, technically the bank owned the university home and I paid the mortgage), I currently rent an apartment and gce coursework, save additional money into my House Fund bucket, which is adjusted more conservatively than my Retirement Savings and missouri of science, Build Wealth buckets because the House Fund bucket is us immigration policy research paper ideally a shorter-term investment (fewer than five years). For some people, this bucket is university of science and technology a great way to amass a reasonable downpayment on a home (a 20% or greater downpayment allows the borrower to avoid pricey Private Mortgage Insurance). Chicago Research Paper Title? For me, however, this fund is there so when I decide to missouri of science finally purchase another house, I will do so in cash. As you can see, I have a long way to go, but I know it will be worth it. Tactic 5. Employer Contributions . If your employer offers an employer-matching, tax-qualified, defined-contribution pension account, such as a 401(k) (or 403(b) or 457(b) if you work for a nonprofit or government entity, respectively), then it is best to contribute to chicago research paper title page your 401(k) up to the employer’s matching amount. For example, if your employer matches your contributions up to 3%, then I encourage you to contribute 3% of your income because you’re effectively doubling your investment immediately (if your employer doesn’t match, however, then I would avoid an employer-based retirement account because there are better, more flexible options available). After the match, however, I recommend using an investment service like Betterment, or any of the missouri university thesis others I’ve mentioned, because they give considerably more flexibility, control, and guidance, and thus a greater return on thesis 5 summary of findings, your investment compared to most 401(k) plans, which are usually terribly limited. Personally, because my company is a small business (an LLC partnership with only missouri university of science and technology thesis, a few employees), we established an SEP-IRA through Vanguard—our company went to forge would you have dbq essay Vanguard directly because Betterment allows only individual accounts (no business accounts). Much like a 401(k), SEP-IRAs are often adopted by university thesis small business owners to provide retirement benefits similar to a pension plan for the business owners and colonialism essay, their employees. Tactic 6. Of Science And Technology? Contributing to Others . Having personal wealth is a great idea—but only if we are prepared to be responsible with our resources; otherwise, money can become a burden because money won’t, as the cliche goes, buy us happiness.
Sure, it will purchase myriad comforts, but comfort and gce coursework, happiness aren’t necessarily synonymous (in fact, comfort often keeps us from true happiness). Although The Minimalists had a breakthrough year last year (a bestselling book, a 100-city tour, etc.), Ryan and I decided to pay ourselves considerably less money than our business generated, opting instead to invest in other people and causes. We could do this contently only after ensuring our own financial house was in order, which enabled us to save more than 20% of our personal incomes while still contributing a considerable amount—well over 20% of university and technology thesis, our business revenue—to others. Giving is living: let’s build wealth so we can give more and live more. Whether you use my tactics or not, I’d be remiss if I didn’t warn you about the manual paper title investments I avoid.
Cash-value life insurance . Cash-value plans, such as whole-life or universal-life, are horrible investments. Life insurance should not be treated as an missouri of science and technology thesis investment—it must be treated as what it is: insurance! If you have dependents, then yes, you need life insurance (unless you are wealthy enough to us immigration research self-insure), and of science, your best bet is always term-life insurance. Us Immigration Policy? Additional reading: The Truth About Life Insurance. Individual stocks . Unless you are an expert day trader, individual stocks pose too much risk to the average investor. Even if your employer offers a “special” rate for their stock, I wouldn’t invest my money into any single stock, not even reputable stocks like Apple or Google: it’s simply too high-risk for my taste. I want my money to grow over time, preferring to “get rich slowly” over “get rich quick,” the thesis latter of which usually leads to a perilous outcome. Gold, silver, and thesis chapter 5 summary of findings, precious metals . Like individual stocks, these metals are too fraught with risk when compared to index funds. Even worse, gold and and technology, silver are commodities—commodity prices are often manipulated by speculation rather than supply and demand. Additional reading: The Gold Market Is Losing Its Glitter. Annuities . Variable annuities—or any annuity for that matter—are generally not a good investment, especially since there are so many other great investment options available.
More often than not, annuities are rife with fees and gce coursework, penalties and surrender periods, not to mention low rates of thesis, return. Yuck! Low-interest-yielding investments . If you’re investing for 5 summary greater than five years, then low-interest-yielding investments, such as CDs, savings accounts, individual bonds, and the like, are poor investments because the interest earned usually doesn’t outpace inflation. University Of Science And Technology? These are great options, however, if you’re saving for gce coursework less than twelve months because they reduce your overall risk. Invest in Yourself: 3 Tips to thesis Get Started. By this point, you should have some financial clarity and a noggin full of good ideas—so don’t leave the scene of a good idea without taking action!
You need momentum if you want to keep going. Here are three “next steps” to get you on the right path today—not “one day,” not next Friday—but today . Investment account . Chicago Style Paper Page? Using Betterment or another online broker, set up an account today. Missouri University Of Science? Even if you don’t have a single dollar to commit until next week or next month, that’s okay. Establishing a free account is a proper first step. Gce Coursework? Start small and automate . Beginning with your next payday, automate regular deposits directly from your checking account.
Start small: you won’t notice a 2% pay cut. Every month or so, increase your contribution by 1%. Within a year, you’ll slowly ratchet up to nearly 15% of missouri university of science thesis, your pay, which is a great place to chicago style research page be. Of Science And Technology? I employed this strategy in my life, slowly increasing my percentage 1% at a time, and I now save at least 20% of my income (often considerably more than 20% by making additional deposits whenever I run into additional money). Build your Safety Net first, and then start investing into your Retirement Savings bucket as soon as you have at least $500 in chapter, your Safety Net bucket. Of Science And Technology? Public accountability . Once you have an investment account established, and have started contributing to it (no matter how little), share your newfound vigor with the essay world around you: tell a loved one, family member, or trusted coworker (someone who will congratulate you rather than judge you).
If you like, you can share this article on social media or with coworkers to spark a discussion in your immediate circles. Discussing your financial objectives with other people helps you keep yourself on missouri university of science and technology thesis, track. There is no single “best way” to plan for gce coursework your financial future; rather, there is an entire landscape riddled with peaks and missouri university thesis, valleys you must navigate. It is thesis of findings my desire this how-to guide acts not as advice (which it’s not), but as a roadmap to missouri and technology help you on your journey toward a financially secure future. If you walk away from 5 summary of findings this essay with only one takeaway, I hope it’s this: start today . Don’t let your crastination turn pro. Whether you use Betterment, Wealthfront, or your own personal broker to manage your money, the missouri university and technology thesis most important thing to do is get started. According to the ASPPA, the largest indicator of retiring with wealth is gce coursework not your financial philosophy; it’s not your suit-n-tie, slick-talking broker; it’s not even your rate of return—the primary indicator of of science and technology, having money when you retire is your savings rate . Thesis Plural? That’s right: putting money away—starting today—is the best route to financial freedom during retirement. While I am not a financial advisor, it is my aspiration the financial tools and strategies shared in thesis, this article will give you the push you need to us immigration policy research get started and feel confident in of science thesis, your financial future.
I wish you way more than luck.
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Les Misérables, de Victor Hugo : Résumé De l'?uvre entiere se degage cette pensee sociale exposee dans la preface : « Tant qu'il existera, par le fait des lois et des m?urs, une damnation sociale creant artificiellement, en pleine civilisation, des enfers, et compliquant d'une fatalite humaine la fatalite, qui est divine ; tant que les trois problemes du siecle : la degradation de l'homme par le proletariat, la decheance de la femme par la faim, l'atrophie de l'enfant par la nuit, ne seront pas resolus ; tant que, dans certaines regions, l'asphyxie sociale sera possible ; en d'autres termes, et a un point de vue plus etendu encore, tant qu'il y aura ignorance et misere, des livres de la nature de celui-ci ne seront pas inutiles. University Thesis. » Le heros des Miserables est Jean Valjean, l'emondeur de Faverolles, condamne au bagne pour un pain vole, un jour que les enfants de sa s?ur avaient faim. Paper. A titre de prologue, Victor Hugo nous presente un respectable eveque, Mgr Myriel (Bienvenu. Miollis) dans lequel il a incarne toutes les vertus du catholicisme primitif. Missouri University And Technology Thesis. Un pauvre diable deguenille, have, souille de boue et de poussiere, vient demander l'hospitalite a l'eveque. Globalization Colonialism. L'eveque l'accueille, le couche. Thesis. Au petit jour, l'homme deguerpit, emportant quelques couverts d'argent laisses sur la table. Us Immigration Policy Research. C'est Jean Valjean. Missouri University And Technology. Saisi par les gendarmes, qui l'ont vu s'enfuir, il est ramene chez le prelat pour la constatation du vol, mais le digne homme, lui montrant les deux flambeaux d'argent de sa cheminee, lui reproche doucement de ne pas les avoir emportes, puisqu'il les lui avait donnes comme les couverts. Research. Ecrase par cette generosite qui le sauve, le galerien prend les flambeaux et se jure d'etre honnete homme. Une jeune fille, Fantine, a ete abandonnee par son amant ; malheureusement, elle a un enfant, la petite Cosette. Thesis. Pour subvenir a leurs besoins, Fantine est disposee a faire tous les metiers, mais repoussee de partout comme fille mere, elle est obligee de se livrer a la prostitution.
Une dispute de la pauvre Fantine avec un imbecile qui lui jette de la neige dans le dos l'amene en presence du redoutable Javert, la police faite homme. Policy. Javert donne tort a la fille, tout naturellement, mais il se heurte alors a M. Missouri Of Science And Technology Thesis. Madeleine, maire de la ville, qui, entre par hasard dans le bureau, a entendu toute la lamentable confession de Fantine, et qui, pris de pitie, prend sur lui de la faire relacher. Policy Research Paper. Ce trait impossible, un maire sauvant une fille publique, exaspere Javert et confirme des soupcons que d'autres faits ont deja provoques dans son esprit. Missouri Of Science And Technology Thesis. M. Style Paper Title. Madeleine ne dissimule-t-il pas sous un faux nom une autre personnalite? Javert laisse deviner ce doute; ce qui trouble grandement M. Missouri Of Science And Technology Thesis. Madeleine, puisqu'il n'est autre que Jean Valjean lui-meme, et il se voit ainsi sur le point de perdre tout le fruit de dix ans de probite. Thesis Plural. Un autre incident vient le troubler plus profondement encore : il apprend qu'un malheureux, arrete sous le faux nom de Jean Valjean, passe en ce moment meme en cour d'assises. Missouri University Thesis. Le malheureux se demande s'il doit laisser s'accomplir la condamnation de l'innocent, condamnation qui assurera son avenir et affermira sa personnalite empruntee, et sans se decider, pousse par une sorte d'instinct, il se rend a la cour d'assises. Globalization Colonialism Essay. La, il voit le malheureux, propre image de l'ancien Valjean, balbutiant d'un air hebete des recriminations qui ne convainquent personne : on of science and technology va le condamner.
M. Us Immigration Research. Madeleine se leve et declare qu'il est Jean Valjean; il se fait connaitre par ses compagnons de chaine, appeles pour etre confrontes avec le faux Valjean, et il est ressaisi avec joie par l'impitoyable Javert. University And Technology Thesis. Toutefois, on chicago style title le laisse libre momentanement et il profite de ce repit pour assister a l'agonie de Fantine, qui meurt sur un lit d'hopital. Missouri University Thesis. Il jure a celle-ci, dont il s'accuse d'avoir cause la mort en la chassant de son atelier, d'adopter sa fille, la petite Cosette et il parvient a s'echapper et a gagner Paris, ou il retire 600 000 francs de la banque Laffitte et les enfouit dans un bois. Nous retrouvons Cosette chez un chenapan, Thenardier, qui s'est etabli aubergiste a Montfermeil et chez qui Fantine a place sa fille. Policy. Depuis que sa mere n'a plus paye la pension, les Thenardier ont fait de Cossette une servante qu'ils bourrent de coups et qui n'a plus que le souffle. Missouri Of Science. Il est temps que Jean Valjean vienne la sauver. Arrete par Javert, a la suite d'une nouvelle imprudence, Jean Valjean est reintegre au bagne, mais il s'en est echappe en se devouant pour sauver un homme tombe a la mer ; tout le monde, Javert lui-meme, le croit noye. Dictionary. Cependant Jean Valjean arrache Cosette a l'enfer de la maison Thenardier, et, une fois en possession de la fille de Fantine, l'ancien forcat se choisit une retraite obscure d'abord sur le boulevard de l'Hopital, dans cette masure Gorbeau, qui devient un des centres d'action les plus caracteristiques des Miserables . University And Technology. Mais la encore il est depiste par Javert et oblige de se refugier a la communaute de l'Adoration perpetuelle comme jardinier, tandis que Cosette y entre comme eleve.
Un nouveau personnage fait son entree en scene : Marius. Valley Would Quit Dbq Essay. C'est le fils du colonel de Pontmercy, sauve par Thenardier sur le champ de bataille de Waterloo et qui se trouvait oblige de travailler pour vivre par suite des evenements politiques. Missouri And Technology Thesis. Marius est venu habiter, par economie, la masure Gorbeau. Forge Would Quit. Sa vie est partagee par deux passions : l'amour de la liberte, qui le fait s'affilier a un cenacle de jeunes republicains, et l'amour, plus tendre, qu'il eprouve pour Cosette qu'il a rencontree au Luxembourg au bras de son pere. Marius a pour voisin un effroyable chenapan, le sieur Jondrette, qui vit de chantage et de la prostitution de ses filles, Eponine et Azelma, ainsi que son fils, un gamin, Gavroche, que Victor Hugo a rendu populaire. University And Technology Thesis. Ce Jondrette n'est autre que Thenardier, tombe au fond du gouffre. Thesis Chapter Of Findings. Le vieux monsieur du Luxembourg, toujours trop charitable, vient visiter ce gredin qui ecrit des lettres lamentables a toutes les personnes genereuses ; il est reconnu par l'ancien aubergiste de Montfermeil, et Cosette egalement.
Thenardier tend un piege a Jean Valjean, mais Marius, qui a entendu s'ourdir le complot, previent la police, c'est-a-dire Javert. University. Jean Valjean, des son entree, est saisi et garrotte. Of Findings. Toute la bande Thenardier-Jondrette est arretee, mais quand Javert veut interroger le respectable monsieur attire dans le piege, il n'y a plus personne. Des lors, tous ces elements de l'action ayant ete mis en presence et combines, le denouement est proche ; mais l'illustre auteur ne se hate pas ; il ne veut pas etre que romancier, il veut aussi etre le peintre de toute une large epoque de notre histoire. Les amours de Marius et de Cosette, ce -qu'il appelle l'Idylle rue Plumet , ont pour pendant des scenes terribles, l'emeute de 1832, l' Epopee rue Saint-Denis . Of Science And Technology. La se denoue le sort de bien des personnages; sur la barricade meurent presque tous les amis de Marius; lui-meme n'echappe que grace au devouement d'Eponine, singuliere fille qui l'aime au milieu de la degradation dont elle vit, et qui meurt en recevant une balle a lui destinee ; Gavroche aussi meurt heroiquement, en vrai gamin de Paris. Research Paper Title. Javert, deguise en insurge et reconnu, va etre fusille ; il est confie a Jean Valjean, qui, au lieu de lui bruler la cervelle quand les troupes reprennent la barricade, le detache et lui dit : « Vous etes libre. Missouri Thesis. » Marius est blesse; Valjean le sauve a travers le dedale des egouts de Paris, terrible voyage souterrain auquel, suivant son habitude, Victor Hugo a donne pour preface une veritable monographie des egouts, de ce qu'il appelle « l'intestin du Leviathan ». Manual Research Paper Page. Au bout du cloaque, au moment ou il se croit hors de danger avec Marius, se dresse pour la derniere fois la redoutable encolure de. University Of Science And Technology Thesis. Javert, mais le terrible policier a reflechi profondement depuis que le galerien a dedaigne de se venger ; il aide Valjean a sauver Marius. Gce Coursework. Puis, ne pouvant se resoudre soit a faire reintegrer au bagne l'homme a qui il doit la vie, soit a manquer a son devoir en ne le livrant pas, il sort en stoicien de sa perplexite : il se tue ! Marius, gueri, epouse Cosette, et Jean Valjean s'eteint ayant rempli jusqu'au bout la promesse faite a la morte. Psychologie des personnages. Jean Valjean est un personnage aussi fantastique que Quasimodo. Missouri Of Science And Technology. Mais il est fait, lui aussi, de ce beau fantastique des poetes qui part de la realite, qui l'exalte, l'amplifie, la magnifie.
Au debut, Jean Valjean est un innocent qui a vole un pain et qui ne rencontre pas un president Magnaud pour le sauver du bagne. Gce Coursework. Forcat, il devient un bandit. University Of Science Thesis. Sa rencontre avec l'eveque Bienvenu est la rencontre du mal avec le bien. Dictionary Plural. Il vole son bienfaiteur, qui lui pardonne, le sauve du chatiment social, le sauve surtout de lui-meme. A partir de ce jour, il n'y a plus de Jean Valjean. Missouri University And Technology Thesis. Il y a M. Plural. Madeleine, industriel, philanthrope, maire de la petite ville et le plus surprenant genie de feerie qui soit, un genie bienfaisant qui surgit par toutes les trappes dans toutes les circonstances, pour barrer la route au crime, proteger la vertu, sauver la faiblesse. University Of Science. Il fait aux autres ce que l'eveque Bienvenu lui a fait.
C'est lui qui fait luire l'espoir aux yeux des desesperes, qui ramene la bonte au c?ur meurtri et desseche des miserables. Il est le magistrat qui venge la fille publique Fantine de la basse injure du sot bourgeois Bamatabois et qui l'arrache a la poigne du policier Javert. Chicago Manual Paper Title Page. Il est le confident de l'agonie de la triste creature, et il se met en marche pour decouvrir et adopter la petite fille qu'elle a laissee dans l'antre des Thenardier. And Technology. Il est, avant de partir pour cette mission, celui qui sauve la brute innocente Ghampmathieu, pris pour Jean Valjean. Gce Coursework. Il est le brave homme qui surgit dans la foret pour porter le seau de Cosette et lui acheter une poupee a la fete du village. University. Il est le gibier qui depiste les meilleurs limiers et qui passe par-dessus les murailles sans quitter la precieuse petite fille. Dictionary Thesis Plural. Il est l'insurge aux coups de fusil bienfaisants qui ne tuent personne, le pardonneur magnanime qui rend la vie a son ennemi Javert, le sacrifie conscient qui emporte Marius mourant et le guerit pour donner a Cosette l'epoux qui la prendra pour lui tout seul. Thesis. Il meurt de sa derniere belle action apres avoir accompli tous ses tours de force et seme tous ses germes de bonte. Colonialism Essay. Il est donc bien un genie de feerie. Mais quelle etonnante et inattendue feerie! La plus vaste, la plus sombre, la plus pathetique, tout le Paris du XIXe siecle avec ses rues, ses ruelles, ses maisons, ses murs, ses taudis, ses repaires, ses jardins, ses couvents, ses barricades, ses braves gens, ses bandits, ses belles filles, ses insurges, ses vieillards.
Une feerie qui est une grave et profonde tragedie, la verite des etres et des choses vue par un poete, exprimee par des mots qui bougent, qui se hatent, qui s'enfievrent, qui revent, qui font le bruit et le silence, qui se colorent de jour et de nuit, qui soupirent, sanglotent comme l'amour, qui grondent comme la foudre du ciel et comme le canon des guerres civiles, qui vivent et font de la vie. Fantine, un des personnages les plus touchants du roman des Miserables . En le creant, Victor Hugo a pris le theme favori de sa jeunesse, la rehabilitation de la fille de joie par l'amour maternel. University Of Science And Technology. Fantine est s?ur de Paquette la Chantefleurie ( Notre-Dame de Paris ). Dictionary Thesis. La parente est incontestable entre ces deux figures. Missouri University Thesis. Elles sont egalement, touchantes par leurs infortunes. Gce Coursework. Non, pas egalement.
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ce resume est trop long mais donne de bonne information sur l'oeuvre. Pire que long donne pas envie de le lire ce n'est pas un resume ca non de dieu!! ca c'est un resume . Missouri University Thesis. La vrai histoire est de 5 tomes et chaque tome est pesque de 400 pages . La selection d'Annick Geille des meilleurs livres de la periode avec des extraits exclusifs. Retrouvez les interviews du Salon litteraire. Panorama de la litterature de tous temps et de tous pays. Chicago Manual Style Page. Biographies d'auteurs. Resumes et analyses des grandes ?uvres de la litterature classique et moderne.
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Essay, Research Paper: Russian Mafia. Protectionism in the New Capitalist Russia The Russian Mafia has always. exercised an important role in the Russian economy. Missouri University And Technology Thesis! The contemporary mafiosi are. descendents of the seventeenth Century highwaymen and gce coursework, Cossack robbers. These men.
occasionally murdered families prior to raids preventing them from being. captured. The Russia mafiosi made a point to remain aloof from the state. Of Science And Technology Thesis! Mob. men were actually spurned when returning home from fighting in the Great. Patriotic War. The gangs begin to dominate markets such as car sales, spare. parts, cigarettes, food distribution, and other markets that the forge would, Communist Party. failed to provide under the Bolsheviks (Remnick196).
Since the collapse of. Communism and the dawn of Capitalism, the Russian people have been troubled with. innumerable obstacles. There are more than 3,000 gangs known generally as the. Russian Mafia. They have proven to be a significant force in delaying the missouri university and technology, reform.
process (Goldman 58). The new Russian Mafia has involved themselves in every. imaginable kind of criminal activity from drug trafficking and money laundering. to protectionism, which penetrates into thesis of findings, every area of society. Under the laws of. the Soviet Union, the regulations were strong and external.
Now the external. regulators have disappeared allowing the Russian Mafia to exceedingly enlarge. its strength and influence especially with the accelerated speed of. privatization without legal safeguards. The Russian Mafia’s effect on missouri and technology thesis the. Russian economy through protectionism can be viewed through the thesis chapter 5 summary, different scopes. of academia, the missouri of science, United States Press, and the Russian Press. Protectionism is a.
preferred activity of the Russian Mafia. Policy Research! When a new private business opens, the. mafia ensures that it will get a share of the missouri of science thesis, profits. The mob offers the new. operation protection. If the business refuses to purchase protection, the dictionary plural, mafia. uses violence against them or their property (Gustatson 105). Most entrepreneurs.
purchase the missouri of science and technology, protection. Then the new company pays unofficial taxes to crime. groups. This guarantees that nearly all new businesses will have an affiliation. with the gce coursework, mafia. Gustatson estimates that payments can are approximately twenty. percent of the profit (105). University And Technology Thesis! This is a major form of forge would dbq essay taxation on top of what the. government already commands leading many companies to tax evasion or concealing. their exact value.
These acts forfeit what little protection the authorities. might be able to render. The mafia demands a cut of the earnings but in turn. furnish more than adequate security. The mafiosi provides protection from. unaffiliated criminals and rival gangs. They ensure that property is not damaged. or stolen. If entrepreneurs are visited by another organization, they must only. summon their own mafia group. The two gangs will settle the matter themselves (Gustatson.
105). This security is an asset that the State seemingly fails to university, provide. Policy! The. Russian Mafia has more men and weapons than the of science and technology thesis, Russian law enforcement. The. police force is an intently corrupt place as is much of the Russian government. Both army officers and law enforcers are frantic for cash and willing to sell. weapons such as guns, grenades, and rocket launchers (Remnick 109). The Russian. Mafia is able to easily locate weaponry to carry out its duties as protectorate; while, the authorities lack money and personnel.
A few days before the union. dissolved the dictionary plural, biggest Russian Mafia leaders held a summit meeting at a dacha. just outside Moscow with the three main Italian crime organizations from Sicily, Naples, and Calabria. They understood that it would bring turmoil and. uncertainty; yet, the Vori v Zakonye or thieves in the law saw possibility in.
the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The organizational leaders assembled to. discuss the selling of nuclear materials, and university of science and technology, drug-money laundering (108). The. mafiosi would use their influence to access bureaucratic power.
They began. anticipating the collapse by becoming private businessmen: consultants and. rainmakers (197). As Consultants and Rainmakers, they would assert their. authority through protection. Academia states that protectionism is having a. trenchant effect on the Russian economy. It helps create massive inflation to.
the already weak economy. The twenty percent of the gross earnings extorted from. the business as protection raises the price of the gce coursework, goods and missouri, services. tremendously for chicago style research paper the Russian people monthly. The Russian consumer ultimately.
pays the protection bill (Goldman 58). It is and technology thesis, estimated that in 1996 about eighty. percent of all private businesses made regular payments to a mafia organization. for protection and a substantial amount of that money ends up in other. countries. (Gustatsun 104).
Thus the underworld is colonialism essay, taking a vast amount of. wealth out of Russia. With the Russian Mafia handling so much money, it is. little wonder that they were able to buy so many governmental officials. Scholars tend to take an objective approach. The Russian Mafia demands a cut of. the profits, but does render a service that the authorities can not provide.
This is having plundering effect on the economy as a whole. It is causing. massive inflation and sinking the already weak economy. Of Science And Technology! This has lead to a trend. towards nationalism and separatism in Russia.
The United States press. understands that the Russian mafia had a definite place in society at one time. It grew because of the buying and selling of smuggled or stolen goods. It. satisfied the Soviet consumer with products that the State failed to provide.
These items were both consumer and illegal goods. It filled this role for. decades under Soviet rule. The mafia was established and equipped to amplify its. business during market reforms. It was more in touch with consumer demand. (Tanner C2). Russia suffers the most due to mafiosi activities.
It seems that. gangs are threatening to take over the nation’s economy. Bombings contract. killings, and robberies are a common occurrence. Russia is thesis 5 summary, a very different. place from the early developing economy of the United States. The robber barons. of the United States can be described as vicious. University And Technology! They made their fortunes by. building and preventing others from doing just that. Forge! Yet, Russian wealth is.
achieved and held through violence, theft, and manipulation. Many Russians came. to believe that this distorted form of mafia control is the normal free- enterprise system. This sentiment is reinforced when they see Western. businesspeople and investors fail to complain and then comply with paying. protection money (Washington Post C2). Missouri And Technology! The Puget Sound Business Journal reported. “the Russian mafia is the most Western-like negotiating experience you’ll.
have in Russia. unlike the slow-moving and fractured government the Russian. mafia is businesslike and helpful” (18). The Russian syndicates seem far more. organized than the legitimate government. Gce Coursework! The gangsters have a systematic method. of retrieving “taxes” from their businesses under their protection. Of Science And Technology Thesis! They use.
force. This is how they sustain control. The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. reported an antidote about protectionism. There was a small store in Moscow.
selling groceries and other items, Vso Dlyah Vas or everything for you. It was. one of the many new stores springing up in the new Russia. Gce Coursework! The store’s front. windows were smashed; yet, nothing was stolen. A few days later the store was. closed; the owners left town (1B). They had failed to pay the appropriate.
people. Missouri Of Science! This is just one example of mobsters smashing private businesses for. failure to comply with their protectionism mandates. Democracy in Russian has. turned out to be a free-for-all of profiteering.
For many, it brought increased. poverty and despair. Krisha, in Russian, means protection money. It is surmised. that seventy-five percent of the businesses in Moscow pay a percentage of its. profits to gce coursework, its organized crime associations. Actually, the mafia has a higher. collection rate than the missouri and technology thesis, Russian government (Washington Post C2).
This. infiltration of the economy has had dire consequences. There is no way to. determine how much money is involved. However, it is estimated that anywhere. from 50-100 billion of state and communist currency and gold have been privately. appropriated and transferred out of the country (C2). That is on gce coursework top of the. tremendous inflation due in part to protectionism.
In 1992, the prices rose. twenty-six percent. The inflation rate was eighteen percent a month in 1995. Needless to say, any adjustment to salaries tarried far behind the constant. escalation of prices. Things are beginning to change in Russia. Missouri And Technology Thesis! Companies are.
building up their own security forces. Chapter 5 Summary Of Findings! They are obtaining security from the mob. and their protection schemes for themselves. They are employing armed guards, which is reasonably inexpensive in missouri university of science and technology thesis, Russia. Many companies are also introducing. closed-circuit television and scrutinizing visitors even photocopying. identification papers for future reference (Economist 60). Gce Coursework! This is and technology thesis, begining to. put most creditable businesses beyond the grasp of the most primary variety of.
Russian gangster. Dictionary Plural! Protectionism might be slowly coming to an end. The Russian. press reports that fifty-two percent of the missouri university of science, country believe that the mafia is. running the country. The Majority also believed that Russia’s rich got wealthy. through stealing, plundering, bribery, or some other form of chicago manual research title corruption.
(Fifty-two Percent Believe 11). Yet the Russian Internal Affairs minister, Sergei Stepashin, stated that the Russian Mafia is of science, but a myth during an address. reporting on the Russian criminal world at colonialism essay a European Union meeting. He said, “Fear of the university of science and technology thesis, Russian Mafia stems from a lack of understanding the processes. that are occurring today in Russia” (Sukhova 20). He also reported that there. is a myth of thesis a Russian mafia that should be dispelled. Protectionism is not.
really occurring.. The Russian mafia controls almost every aspect of the Russian. market. They determine who can open a business, stay in business, and who must. close their business. The mafia makes these determinations, often times, on who.
is compensating them for their security services. Most Russians report that they. are directly or indirectly intimidated or extorted by at least one of university and technology the. organizations within the Russian mafia. The syndicates seem to chapter of findings, arrange an. organization for business that is not yet available from the missouri of science, government or. professional arena. If one business has a problem with labor or another. business, the gce coursework, business owner merely contacts his mafia link.
The matter is. immediately, quietly, and efficiently resolved. (Crime in Russia14). The Russian. mafia is involved in every aspect of Russian life. And Technology! They provide a code of. conduct for business not yet provided by the professional elite or the. government. Dictionary Plural! The mafia has a detrimental effect on the Russian economy.
It not. only creates massive inflation, it deters companies from missouri university of science thesis, other countries from. investing in the Russian economy. Foreign investors operating at the retail. level where hard cash is a fundamental part of business are particularly. susceptible. They are not excluded from the gangster’s tactics of. “offering” protectionism (Fifty-two Percent Believe 11). In some cases, the.
mafia has succeeded in expelling the foreign owner. Specifically this has. happened to a Canadian-owned wholesale electronic good franchise, and Italian. merchant of leather goods, and an Estee Lauder shop (Washington Post C2). Russia. has taken several steps to stop crime such as protectionism and the Russian. mafia.
Yeltsin has granted the police various powers to globalization colonialism essay, confront these dilemmas. The decree Yeltsin issued permits police to detain organized crime suspects for. thirty days without cause, search offices and homes without a warrant, and. inspect the finances of suspects. Uncorroborated testimony is now permissible in.
court, and missouri, witnesses that decline to testify can be punished (Fifty-two Percent. 11). Style Page! Yet, these measures seem to have done little to stop organized crime’s. growth. Unfortunately, Russian organized crime has prospered in the new economic. system, and has migrated well beyond the Russian boundaries. Much of the private. business activity lies in a gray region somewhere between legality and. illegality. The law has yet to fully catch up with privatization.
Academia, the. United States Press, and university of science, the Russian press all paint a devastatingly bleak. picture of the Russian economy; yet, there is hope for change. Many small. companies do not have the luxury of making drastic changes; yet, efforts are. being made to stop the valley would quit dbq essay, mafia or at least cease the growth of university it on dictionary thesis plural the side of. the government and larger businesses. Missouri Of Science Thesis! Enterprise are creating their own company. security and stopping protection payments.
Things will not change overnight, but. Russia can and us immigration research paper, slowly is missouri university, moving toward normalcy. “Comrade Godfather; In Russia, the Mafia Seizes the Commanding Heights of plural the. Economy.” The Washington Post 12 Feb. University Of Science Thesis! 1995: C2. “Crime in Russia.” Current. Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 15 Feb. 1995: 14. “Fifty-two Percent Believe. Mafia is Running the Country.” Current Digest of the thesis of findings, Post-Soviet Press 8 Oct.
1997: 11 Goldman, Minton. Missouri And Technology Thesis! Russia, The Eurasian Republics, and Central/Eastern. Europe. Chicago Manual Style Research Title Page! Connecticut: McGraw-Hill, 1999. 58-60. Gustatfson, Thane, and Daniel. Yergin. Russia 2010: And What It Means For the missouri university of science and technology thesis, World. New York: Random House, 1993. 105-106.
Holmes, Charles. “In Russia, Repression Gives Way to. Corruption.” The Atlanta Journal and Constitution 7 Sept. 1997: B1. Lloyd, John. “The Russian Devolution.” New York Times 15 Aug 1999: A8. Remnick, David. Resurrection.
New York: Random House, 1998. 108- 110, 196-199. Thesis! Sukhova, Suctlana. “Head of Russian Internal Affairs Ministry Believes The Russian. Mafia is a Myth.” Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 9 Dec. 1998: 20. Tanner, Adam. “Russia’s Notorious Mafia Spreads Tentacles of Crime Around. the World.” Christian Science Monitor 11 Jan. 1995: C2. “The Russian Mafia. Means Business.” Economist 4 July1998: 60. Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones.
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