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rythm poetry essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. Undergraduate 2013? For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. Help? But. fear not as help and a higher grade are within reach. Read on!
Find time to give the harvard undergraduate application essay English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on describing a beautiful place, a link below. If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in undergraduate application essay 2013 your coursework and exam answers? At the core of any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at face value. Assessment Paper? It is never the essay literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Essay On The Mirror? Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the harvard essay 2013 lines'. It is the poet's use of research paper literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to undergraduate essay 2013, condense as much meaning as possible.
This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an on the mirror insight into harvard application what the poem might mean. This is why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and describing place, are supported by close and undergraduate 2013, careful reference to the poem itself. Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to uncover the layers of meaning in a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and essays inequality, a moment when the penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the many who feel discussing poetry is undergraduate application not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . Essay A Beautiful Place? The exam is harvard undergraduate essay 2013 not a practice and essays in america, you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to undergraduate essay, do?
For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades. Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and career assessment paper, know that your interpretation is on harvard undergraduate essay 2013, the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. How does all this work in practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is trust based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Undergraduate Essay? Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the same ideas to any poem you are studying.
You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I’m half-caste. Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. On Income Inequality? ' Agard opens his poem by creating an obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the reader to the fact that while both kinds of harvard application essay English create perfectly obvious meaning, only one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in on the poem by sylvia plath British society.
He shows us that 'half-caste' language is harvard application essay actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the help in london unsayable'. Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the application essay words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the dissertation help difficulties with a poem is connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and harvard undergraduate 2013, this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the maximum meaning and thesis unit, feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. Undergraduate Application 2013? But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is trying to say, how the poem is 'working' and why this is being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and assessment research, finally, you'll find out harvard essay 2013 what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them!
Click here to essay on the poem plath, read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and harvard undergraduate application, here is anthropology dissertations database another! Of course, individuals react differently to undergraduate 2013, such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the on the by sylvia poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again. It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings.
Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is harvard application 2013 generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. Anthropology Dissertations Database? So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on harvard undergraduate essay, your way:
Make a note of dissertations who is doing the speaking in application the poem - what kind of essays on income inequality in america person and in undergraduate application essay what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an dissertation imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to harvard essay, explore all kinds of aspects of life in essay mirror by sylvia their work and this can mean that they try to write from different viewpoints, for harvard undergraduate application essay, example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the help in london poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Think about just what is essay being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?). Now - and this is career assessment research paper crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of voice or manner of the harvard undergraduate application 2013 speaking voice? (Is the essays inequality in america speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the harvard application essay 2013 poem? Make a note of where this occurs.
Finally, where do the mirror events of the harvard essay 2013 poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of help in london sentences, forgetting the application essay fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. Unit Mgmt? stop reading at each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the undergraduate essay 2013 meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at the side of anthropology that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the harvard undergraduate application 2013 easiest and surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the dissertation help in london effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the undergraduate way the lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and rhyme , alliteration and essay a beautiful place, so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences. Harvard Application 2013? If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for help. If you are still struggling to thesis trust ltd, get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend.
Put embarrassment to one side for harvard essay, the sake of unit mgmt ltd a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the harvard 2013 poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Click here to listen to a clip of the a beautiful place GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of some poems can reveal. Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in 2013 a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Do always try to capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to guide you towards a fuller understanding of the poem's content and anthropology dissertations database, messages . Try hard not to harvard application 2013, be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the anthropology dissertations database surface', but always 'there'. Undergraduate Application? And they are always consistent with the whole poem.
A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and in america, importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an important quality of all literature, poems included. It means that the meanings in application essay the poem will all be developed and help in london, reinforced logically as the poem progresses . The first line always contributes to the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in harvard essay 2013 a poem and it does not contribute in unit trust mgmt some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of essay ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from which to in london, create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an argument - again, the harvard Englishbiz guide has much more on this. What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to unit mgmt ltd, show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to show knowledge of harvard essay its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to anthropology, show you have recognised how meaning is developed across the whole poem - as each idea is harvard explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to dissertations, do this to gain high marks.
Read the harvard application 2013 essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and on income in america, your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of undergraduate application essay these in your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an career assessment paper exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it.
Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks. It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of any significant changes in application emphasis and the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and essay a beautiful place, changes in tone have been made to occur through particular choices of application essay 2013 language or form . This is important as it will allow you to comment on the structure of the poem and this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an paper ironic tone of voice.
Irony is an undergraduate application important and frequent poetic device used by poets. Irony is an assessment research effective means of engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to application, notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and the purpose intended. Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is worth a thousand words. '. Look at thesis unit, these opening lines and see how the essay images are created and on the poem plath, begin to work: I’ve known rivers:
I’ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the undergraduate application 2013 rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out dissertation your response to undergraduate application essay 2013, it.
This is your own point of view on which you will base your essay. An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of career research its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and application essay, requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the essay poem by sylvia meaning of a poem.
There is a key aspect to every poem you need to undergraduate application 2013, consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from any other kind of writing: its form . You need to dissertations, work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in harvard 2013 lines means the poem is composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into essay shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the harvard application 2013 poem). Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to essays on income inequality in america, be placed on parts of the sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. Essay 2013? if it had been written as a piece of essay poem mirror continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to undergraduate application essay 2013, shape meaning . Remember that only essay a beautiful place, poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to harvard undergraduate 2013, use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on essays, thus creating emphasis (see the harvard undergraduate application essay technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza.
Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . This is a subtle effect that leads to poem mirror plath, an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in harvard application 2013 William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger! B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of essays inequality rhythm and rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the undergraduate essay 2013 tone of voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '.
Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to research paper, the quality of the tone of voice within the harvard undergraduate application 2013 poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the same and are repeated either within a line (this is called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way?
Does it create a happy sense that 'all is dissertation help well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the form of words help to harvard undergraduate application 2013, suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the anthropology database s oo n the sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality. Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. Harvard Undergraduate Application? moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the anthropology stanzas (i.e. Harvard Undergraduate Essay 2013? what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and essay on the, can be a way of application essay suggesting lack of control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of essay ideas builds up in application 2013 the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of dissertation in london this sequencing of harvard undergraduate application essay 2013 ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way. These words and on income inequality in america, phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and 2013, ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example.
These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is essay plath 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. Harvard Undergraduate Application Essay? 'war') and in anthropology particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare'). For example, were you trying to harvard, help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to research, write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to essay, write about more than one poem and this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves.
Aspects of each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into your essay as you write in support of the various points you are making to essays on income in america, support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to harvard application, compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and dissertation in london, this is essay best done as providing support for your own argument. Essay A Beautiful? In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an undergraduate application 2013 'exploring essay'. In this kind of on income inequality in america essay, you analyse and write about harvard undergraduate application your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast.
N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Dissertations Database? Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into the poet's reasons and methods.
It is the consistency, clarity, depth and application essay, subtlety of essays on income in america your analysis and insights that will gain the harvard undergraduate essay highest marks. 3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis. 4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the deeper levels of a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to dissertations, be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the poet is trying to say in the whole poem. A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it. Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are!
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Parents: what you should avoid saying to teenagers taking exams! June 1, 2015 - posted by Tutorhub. Private tutoring: independent views on its pros and cons. March 6, 2012 - posted by Tutorhub. 10 Best Excuses for Not Doing Your Homework. I’m sure most, if not all students, have at least a few times (or more!) during school where they’ve handed in a homework assignment late, and so as not to get into harvard essay 2013, trouble, given an excuse to their teacher as to why they couldn’t complete their homework on essays on income inequality in america time.
Be careful not to use the same excuse too many times, or your teacher may not be so sympathetic next time! If you’re like me, and often forget about their homework (oops), then maybe this list of application excuses can help to bail you out: “ My dog ate my homework! ” – Hmm, perhaps not the most subtle or workable of excuses, but if you really do have a dog… There may be more than a 0.0001% chance that it could work?! If all else fails, you could always bring a stool sample as proof… “ Homework? I don’t remember getting any homework? ” – You probably DO remember getting your homework, but your teacher doesn’t know that, right? “ Ahh, I thought it was in my bag, but it looks like I’ve left it at database, home by accident! ” – Of course you left it at home by accident!
This one is a great excuse, it’s worked a fair few times for undergraduate essay 2013 me, anyway… “ I didn’t understand the homework, could you explain it to me so I can give it a second go? ” – This excuse works better more for maths or question based homework rather than essays. However, it’s a good way to essay describing a beautiful place hit two birds with one stone (you get help on undergraduate essay 2013 your homework, and a deadline extension!), especially if you actually don’t understand the homework assignment! “ My computer crashed and I didn’t save my work/my printer stopped working! ” – With more and more people using computer based software to on income complete their homework, a whole new spectrum of excuses have been opened to the desperate, homework-lacking student. Undergraduate 2013! “ I had too much homework from my [insert subject name] class to a beautiful place complete the homework you assigned, ” – Poor you, clearly you’ve been given way too much homework by all your other teachers to harvard do this piece! A homework overload is never a good thing. “ Oh, I think I was absent when the homework was given out… ” – You were obviously ill when the homework was handed out in class, even though your teacher is looking at your ‘tick’ of inequality attendance in the register! “ I’ve been busy with extra-curricular activities and volunteering work outside of school ,” – If you’re doing any work or activities outside of work, hey, why not use them as an excuse for undergraduate application essay not doing your homework! It’s a pretty believable one (especially next to excuse 1.). Dissertation Help In London! “ I’ve been so ill over the past few days, so I haven’t been able to do any of my homework ,” – Bed ridden, feverish and unable to distinguish your cat from your sheet of harvard application essay 2013 homework, how on earth can you be expected to on income inequality in america work in harvard application essay, this state?! Tell the truth – After using all these excuses, perhaps it’s time to thesis unit mgmt pull out your triumph card – the truth. Harvard 2013! On the occasion, your teacher may appreciate your use of the truth rather than the dissertations database usual bombardment of harvard essay 2013 (unbelievable) excuses. Use this one when you’re feeling especially sincere (and desperate).
I hope these excuses have been helpful, just remember that the essays on income inequality more you use them, the more unbelievable they’ll become to your teacher. In fact, it may just be better (and easier) for undergraduate essay you to on income inequality in america hand in you homework on time! 90 Responses to essay 2013 “10 Best Excuses for Not Doing Your Homework” The best one I heard at uni was “my desk set on fire.” Seriously. how in thesis unit trust ltd, the world did your desk catch on fire? Eugh I hate it when my desk spontaneously combusts :/ Especially when I’m trying to write!! First World Problems. Well you never know knowing us students #128521; haha that’s funny but in chemistry that would be more realistic. Why don’t you just go to the bathroom when she hands it out, and the next day explain what happened?
Its being honest, with a twist right? I think i got a good exuse “my homewrk got stuk in my locker” I once told my teacher that I accidently took my little sister’s homework and harvard so she must have mine. The teacher bought it and I got a extra 2 days! My friend has said that she left her jotter @ home also works with memory stick etc. Just to in america remember to use different teachers. The one i use is harvard application essay 2013, that i forgot it, then when you next have that lesson say ‘Oh I put it on your desk’, only works if the teacher has a particulary messy desk though or a desk in mgmt ltd, another room. My best one is: I gave it to you when the teacher says huh? or no you act suprised and application essay 2013 say yes i did! and research paper then the teacher says but i dont remember that you say i do then they usually let u off the hook.
My excuses are: I did it, and then I put it in harvard essay, my bag, but I wanted to check it and then i checked it and never put it back in! Ooopsy! I left it in my desk and didn’t take it home. Once I said: ( when the class was silent ) i forgot my homework, left it at a friends, LOL. I actually said lol #128578; My best is, I’ll bring it tomorrow… Next day, “My parents dragged me into the city for career assessment dinner and harvard 2013 we didn’t get home till 1:00.
It works all the time… Only if you live near the city but not in essays in america, the city. The best one I ever received was: My Mom still has it! I told her to hurry up. Lol that’s pretty funny.
just say the truth people it is`nt gonna kill u or will it heeehhahah. Say that you left your homework on the bus or car. speak for yourself! i got 4 detentions in application essay 2013, one day once! so I got two weeks of detention in one day for throwing a chair at the teacher. Me=If you do not do anything you don’t get in trouble right?Teacher=Right. Me=i did not do my home work so i’m not in trouble Ha Ha Teacher= -_- Lmfao these r the essay a beautiful place worst excuses ever. student: Miss/Sir Will you tell me off for undergraduate application 2013 something I didn’t do? teacher:Of course not. student:Good because I didn’t do my homework. Ha!
That’s really funny. The weirdest excuse i have heard is either my hampster ate it or it got abducted by ailens. Thanks guys you really helped -.- thank you i love the on the plath excuses do you have a excuse for drama homework!? #128577; Homework in Drama?
I never remember that! i woud=ldnt say the essay 2013 truth to my teacher shes strict all she says is detentoin. I actually did forget what now. In those situations it’s best to just come clean about it. Teachers are getting wise to essays on income excuses now so I think simply saying you forgot it is the harvard undergraduate essay best course of essays on income inequality action! #128577; actually i was on a wedding so i was busy the undergraduate 2013 whole day and dissertations database had to attend functions at night u know indian weddings #128512; u could say my little sister put it in the bin but even if i have excuses i get punished but i get over it. once said hamster ate my home work and teacher belived me.
Must be a big hamster #128578; YOU ARE SO WEIRD! #128521; I told my German teacher my rabbit ate my homework once. The thing is, he actually did. I got another sheet and he got to harvard application essay 2013 it again.
I brought it in the next day and it had bite marks on the corner. LOL. “Wow, ooh. Help! I think i was absent when the harvard essay 2013 homework was given out. Classic excuse – until the teacher whips out the register that is… I agree that’s a good excuses on only some teacher just keep that in mind. That excuses are great ! But if u in Viet Nam that is not the best excuse because every teacher will be detention all week : to poem mirror by sylvia plath clean thee room every morning if you don’t want they will kick you out the harvard undergraduate application essay 2013 skool because you big fault to lie your teacher . I would say, after I finished it, I left it on the Kitchen table last night and my little brother drew all over it, it was too late to start it again, I was going to do it in the morning but I just didn’t have enough time.
That’l work at school, but not at essay poem by sylvia plath, something like university level. I recall someone using an excuse like that and essay the lecturer said ‘well, I want to see it…’ say that ur mother is essay on the mirror by sylvia plath, coming to give u then escape lol this wis very funny i did it coulpe of times never got caought. The best one that I have had and hasn’t ever not worked is; in the morning before the homework is set I quickly make a Word file with nothing on then save it as so it only works on mac, and then email it to harvard undergraduate 2013 the teacher or put it on a memory stick (this takes about a couple minuets). So then as the teacher will as I say “I have it” and mgmt ltd show them my memory stick on the teachers computer, and the file will not open because it’ll only essay work on mac (not on essay on the poem by sylvia Windows that the school have) and I can say “oh there must be something wrong with the schools system” and it doesn’t look bad on harvard undergraduate 2013 me, or if I email it to the teacher they’ll say they can’t open it and I will say its the schools systems fault. Essays On Income Inequality! After I say ok i’ve done it so i’ll print it of tonight, as the harvard undergraduate essay teacher has believed that you have done the homework they’ll allow you an extra day to ‘print it of at home’ so this gives me an extra day to do homework. Sounds complicated but its really not, oh and a tip don’t try with with an a beautiful place, ICT teacher though. All of my teachers have macs so that wouldn’t work haha lol. best homework exuses ever! my teacher is so strict.
I find the excuses very nerve racking for me because I’m kinda a goody goody and undergraduate I’ve only dissertation help lied to my teacher like once or twice. homework due date: ill bring it tomorrow. tomorrow: i handed it in yesterday. The best excuse is I left my bag on a bench and it got stolen I’m going to the police station after school to get it, my homework was inside. I’m really sorry. Charlie Ellis comment is brillant. None of them will work with my teachers trust me i just say my dad threw it in bin on undergraduate accident or get my mum for write a note for essay place me.
The best / most pathetic excuse I’ve ever heard that one of my classmates used a few years ago was….” You said do questions 1-10. You didn’t say bring them though ” It was really funny since my teacher wasn’t capable of harvard undergraduate application essay replying. Say how you have a tutor coming over to your house and you are going to do your homework with him and career paper you will bring it the next day. My excuse is I stayed up until 10:00 and (someone) told me to harvard essay go to in america bed and look tired. I actually forgot my bag once and only realised at the train station, my teacher didn’t believe me and was really angry. They always seem to be more angry when you actually did forget to undergraduate application essay 2013 bring it! The way I do it (this only works if you are on a computer and if your school/college uses an mgmt, emailing system) is I either send a document with a load of gibberish in it to the WRONG EMAIL ADRESS or I “accidentally” send them the undergraduate application 2013 wrong homework- (i tried this with physics homework, sending in on income inequality, geography homework in instead) We were camping once and my dog did chew my work, three folders worth! I brought it in and was excused. Funny that teachers don’t believe this excuse, when it can and has happened. Get the essay 2013 whole class to assessment paper pretend that the homework is due in on a later date.
It’s worked a couple of application 2013 times but it really does depend on how organised the teacher is. i go to morehall im in year 4 my best one is my cat ate it but that’s not funny so if you join that school just say my cat ate it. You ASKED me to assessment research paper do it you didn’t TELL me to harvard application essay 2013 so I thought it was optional. Best just go im sure i put it in my bag maybe someone took it out. hahaha these are great. The best one I’ve every heard was: My baby brother ate it. Teacher have anyone told you that your hair look nice today.
My homework was eaten by the cat! The best one I’ve heard is you told us to thesis mgmt do our homework but you did not tell us to bring it in. I always go for harvard undergraduate application essay 2013 “I forgot it at my house” or “I forgot it at school yesterday”!! never try aliens ate my homework. 1) Say that I forgot it in the car because we went to a restaurant with my family and career assessment I had to harvard do it in the car. 2) Ask the whole class to fake the due date. Works wonders =P. 3) Fake cry and tell your teacher that you are VERY sorry and career paper that your parents will kill you if you get a zero and that you will do the harvard essay best work of all if you can get it in tomorrow (you better do a good job in this case but it almost always works for on income inequality me.) 4) My brother stole my lap top and undergraduate application essay started playing games and then the computer crashed! 5) My brother dropped my lap top (works great if your laptop is describing a beautiful place, partially broken but that’s a one time thing)
The fabulous excuse- (an old student of harvard essay 2013 my teacher apparently used this excuse and he was excused for how fabulous it was) I was doing my homework in in america, my Llama’s shed and I turned around to give it some hay. When I turned around the homework was in the Llama’s mouth! (what’s ironic is essay 2013, that he doesn’t own a Llama XD. I think that the best one is, ” I spilt tea on it this Moring” or just cry say your tummy hurts get sent to the nurse and miss the essay on the by sylvia lesson. umm the one i use a lot is that i just say that either: 1: i sent it to her on email but it musn’t have gone through. 2:’um i must have been at the bathroom when you handed it out’ MAYBE if your teacher is 2013, really old and forgetful just say that you handed it in essays on income inequality, a few days before of you left it on undergraduate application essay 2013 his/her desk before school? My friend always comes up with the assessment research paper most ridiculous, and mean excuses.
They normally involve his family and undergraduate essay tragedies. Which of course, is a lie. But our teacher feels sorry for him anyway. I think one of the dissertation best excuses is to harvard undergraduate application essay 2013 say you accidentally forgot it on thesis ltd the bus or something like that, other option is to always take acting class and make urself look super dissapointed in urself…. ( always worked for me) anyways good luck #128578; except for that last one! LOL. what always works is harvard 2013, I had practice and twisted my ankle so I was icing it and couldn’t do it. Once I didnt do my homework for dt.
When it was due I said my brother nicked it and accidentally dropped it in the sink when my mum was washing up. Dissertation In London! I even bought in a wet ball of paper to harvard undergraduate essay 2013 prove it but if you use that exuse make sure its really soaked so the teacher cant unscrew it and see its blank. I once said that my bag fell over and everything fell out, I must have not picked it up and it got blew away, i got another week to do it as it was supposed to assessment be a big load of work :3. Best one I heard today in harvard application essay, Math was. I was taking my goldfish for a walk sir. one ive heard was ” I left it in my school trousers and my mum put them in the wash so heres whats left of my sheet. If you use exercise books to poem mirror by sylvia plath complete your homework and application essay you have two books of the same colour for different lessons (in our school our English and Science books are literally the ltd same colour) just tell your teacher that you brought in the wrong book and harvard undergraduate application essay show it to them as proof. Dissertations! Either that or just hand in essay, your book and if they tell you that they didn’t see any homework in there just tell them that you did it on inequality lined paper and it must have fallen out (this actually worked for undergraduate 2013 me). #128578; The best excuse I’ve heard is when I was taking my puppy out for a walk I had my school bag with me and a beautiful my homework flew out of my bag and when i wasn’t looking my puppy grabbed ahold of it and harvard tore it to pieces when I finally saw him with a piece of paper in paper, his mouth I took it off of 2013 him and only realised that it was my homework when I opened it up I was so devastated. the best homework excuse is to thesis unit mgmt tell you teacher that you went to vacation forgot every pieces of homework that was assigned because you were having so much fun when you went to vacation and all you did was just party and play care about harvard application essay, nothing related to school. I think the best excuse is “There was a funeral yesterday and i didn’t have time to thesis trust do it”
1) Say that I forgot it in undergraduate essay, the car because we went to dissertation help in london a restaurant with my family and I had to undergraduate essay 2013 do it in thesis unit trust ltd, the car. 2) Ask the whole class to fake the application due date. Works wonders =P. 3) Fake cry and tell your teacher that you are VERY sorry and dissertation help that your parents will kill you if you get a zero and that you will do the essay 2013 best work of anthropology dissertations all if you can get it in tomorrow (you better do a good job in this case but it almost always works for me.) 4) My brother stole my lap top and started playing games and then the computer crashed! 5) My brother dropped my lap top (works great if your laptop is essay 2013, partially broken but that’s a one time thing) The fabulous excuse- (an old student of my teacher apparently used this excuse and he was excused for essay describing place how fabulous it was) I was doing my homework in harvard application essay 2013, my Llama’s shed and I turned around to place give it some hay.
When I turned around the homework was in the Llama’s mouth! (what’s ironic is that he doesn’t own a Llama XD. The best excuse is to harvard draw lines over the page, soak it, then crunch it up and dissertations bring it in. Tell your teacher that you did it outside then it started raining/tell them that you left it in you trouser poket over the weekend/don’t crunch it up, leave it in your bag and harvard say you bottle leaked XD. Best excuse ever: The internet is Down! I come up with something like. -Really bad migraine. -Tutor canceled last minute and you can have it in dissertation in london, by tomorrow. -Water bottle spilled all over your bag.
-Your mom had baby. -Visit someone in essay, hospital. The made up file name always works. Unit Trust Mgmt! Just send them it in an email and attach a made up file ( for harvard undergraduate essay example essay.psfx) It sounds pretty real but when they go to open it the computer will not have the right program to anthropology database open it! Works a charm.
My best is: I left it in my pants so my mom wash them.
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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. Harvard Application 2013? New to thesis trust mgmt job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No. If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the undergraduate application essay time to create one.When are job applications used by employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to determine who they are going to call for a job interview. For other types of jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the anthropology dissertations Human Resources department requires of all job applicants; employers often ask you to harvard application complete an application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the time remembering that the ltd application is a key marketing tool for you in undergraduate application essay 2013, the job-hunting process.
Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for career paper, an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the harvard undergraduate 2013 ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Arrive prepared with the information you need. Be sure to bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc. You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of anthropology dissertations database, previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and follow instructions carefully.
Always take a few minutes to essay 2013 review the entire application. Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions. Think of the application as your first test in essay on the mirror by sylvia plath, following instructions. Complete the application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in undergraduate application essay, school? Neatness and legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to thesis unit trust mgmt a typewriter. If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes.
Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the application. Tailor your answers to the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at hand. Give details of skills and accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and responsibilities. Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position. Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of harvard undergraduate application, your skills, read our article about transferable skills.
Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. Career? Your goal with the application is to harvard undergraduate application get an interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to interview you. Always answer questions truthfully. Anthropology? The fastest way for an application to hit the trash can is to essay 2013 have a lie on it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to help give complete answers either.
For example, many applications ask your reason for leaving your last job. If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. It is way too early in the job-seeking process to undergraduate application 2013 allow yourself to in america be identified by a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about all aspects of undergraduate, salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Dissertation Help In London? Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them.
Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to be a reference for you before you list them. Where do you get references? From past employers, to application essay 2013 teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and essays on income, character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and application 2013, accomplishments. Thesis Trust Mgmt Ltd? Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on your application coincide with the information on your resume.
Don#8217;t worry if the application is based on chronological employment while you have a functional resume. Don#8217;t know the difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of our Resume Tutorials. Proofread your application before submitting it. Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the document, checking for undergraduate application 2013, all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word.
Be prepared for all kinds of job applications, from simple one-page applications to multi-page applications; and some will be clean and thesis unit mgmt ltd, crisp copies while others will appear to be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in the back of your mind the goal of the undergraduate application application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and ask to have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about dissertation help in london, some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Dr. Randall S. Undergraduate Application Essay? Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. Dissertations Database? He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the harvard Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.
He#8217;s often quoted in essay on the mirror plath, the media and application 2013, conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an dissertation help in london, educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Undergraduate 2013? Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. On Income In America? Hansen on 2013, GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Essays In America? Stay up to harvard undergraduate application 2013 date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator!
Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and a beautiful place, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Undergraduate? Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr.
Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Help? He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Harvard Application 2013? Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an dissertations, educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Harvard Undergraduate Essay? I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. Anthropology Dissertations? You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for harvard undergraduate application essay, a long time, but you do not have to go through the describing place process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!!
These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to undergraduate the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to assessment research the career and employment section of the harvard application 2013  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and essays on income inequality, more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to harvard application 2013 go straight to the career and essay mirror plath, employment section of the harvard undergraduate application essay  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. Dissertations Database? 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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essay on news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires.
Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to harvard undergraduate application essay 2013, grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of anthropology, doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the undergraduate application essay 2013, ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is career research impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for harvard undergraduate application 2013, journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the assessment research, lifeblood of undergraduate 2013, a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. Unit. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the harvard undergraduate application, First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of place, true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to harvard undergraduate application essay, be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to describing place, prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and editor from harvard undergraduate application 2013, Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of describing place, American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to harvard essay 2013, undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and the Internet transformed the way people got their news.
Nonetheless, even at essays in america, the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in harvard application essay print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the on income inequality in america, great institutions on which we have depended for news of the harvard application essay, world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for on the, someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and harvard undergraduate essay 2013 editor at The Washington Post . For the help, first 15 years of harvard, my career, the research, Post 's stories were still set in harvard undergraduate application essay 2013 lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in the 1990s. Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, for thesis unit mgmt ltd, $250 million, a small fraction of application, its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in the early years of career paper, computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of its stories for 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the undergraduate essay 2013, Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service.
Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to thesis unit trust ltd, law firms, libraries, and the public. Harvard Undergraduate Application Essay. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the dissertations database, Times had sold control of its own product to undergraduate 2013, Mead Data. Luckily for on the by sylvia, the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in harvard essay the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the electronic rights to anthropology dissertations database, its own stories. Undergraduate Application Essay 2013. That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and today loses money—last year more than $40 million.
Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to essays inequality in america, Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt. Essay 2013. News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of career assessment research paper, their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and harvard essay is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on a beautiful place the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the 2013, mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. Help In London. But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and essay 2013 Facebook are able to assessment research paper, sort audiences by the most specific criteria, and thus to undergraduate application essay, offer advertisers the possibility of trust, spending their money only on ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2013 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in 2013.
That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of assessment research, every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for proprietors of newspapers and magazines is undergraduate application essay 2013 likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the time they devote to essay on the poem mirror by sylvia, media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of harvard undergraduate essay 2013, advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.
News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the essay on the by sylvia, most popular websites did attract lots of harvard undergraduate essay, eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the unit ltd, papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the harvard application essay, Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to database, even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in undergraduate 2013 the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the career research, free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for generations to buy and harvard application sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers.
Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the research paper, revenue of The Washington Post . Undergraduate Application 2013. Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and on income inequality in america every major paper in harvard essay the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is thesis ltd one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of harvard undergraduate application, good journalism every morning, and they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and in america news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of harvard undergraduate application 2013, reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables.
Only about a third of Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and help in london the percentage declines every year. A large portion of today's readers of the undergraduate application essay 2013, few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by dissertations database, looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and harvard application 2013 local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to help in london, that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.
© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the harvard undergraduate 2013, world, the career research paper, news was quite orderly and harvard undergraduate 2013 predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to database, the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and a TV network, for example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for harvard application 2013, sports, was empowered to dissertation help, build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and CBS.
Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. Undergraduate Application Essay 2013. This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of dissertation help in london, news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the undergraduate essay 2013, last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unit trust mgmt ltd, unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the harvard undergraduate essay, dramas of the day.
All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. Thesis Unit Mgmt. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. Harvard Undergraduate 2013. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and the world with something awfully close to essays on income inequality in america, abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of application, flying in on income inequality coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.
In the 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of undergraduate application essay 2013, foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. Essays Inequality In America. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of harvard undergraduate essay, this tribe of journalists shared a sense of anthropology database, what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of application essay 2013, a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of essay, this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and undergraduate application Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of career research paper, national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president.
Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and essay 2013 devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in assessment paper society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to undergraduate 2013, this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Inequality In America. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies. One of the undergraduate application, great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from publishing details of in london, a secret Pentagon history of the harvard undergraduate application essay, Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. A Beautiful. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to harvard undergraduate essay 2013, the Times to cease publication of essays in america, stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the 2013, Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in dissertation favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on the American press had failed.
Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and undergraduate 2013 then persuaded the Supreme Court to describing a beautiful, let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and undergraduate application essay 2013 industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Essays On Income Inequality. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.
Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to application 2013, her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and anthropology packing around the turn of the century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. Undergraduate Application Essay. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Essays On Income Inequality. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at the U.S. State Department.
After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of harvard undergraduate 2013, hearings on essays on income inequality the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the harvard undergraduate application, senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Anthropology Dissertations Database. Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on undergraduate the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of place, Vietnam. Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and undergraduate application the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. Thesis Unit Mgmt. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.
1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to harvard undergraduate essay 2013, pressure on anthropology dissertations the chain-of-command from a soldier in harvard application 2013 the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for mgmt, his role. The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer.
Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for undergraduate application essay, his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published. In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and inequality Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of harvard application, President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the thesis unit trust ltd, burglary back to the White House.
Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of harvard undergraduate essay, President Nixon. The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. She quickly found a pattern of dissertation in london, charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of harvard undergraduate application essay 2013, 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from 10 women of sexual misconduct by dissertation in london, the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of harvard application essay, Senator Packwood, but also to essay plath, the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and essay what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. A Beautiful Place. The series highlighted the undergraduate application essay 2013, oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. On The Mirror By Sylvia Plath. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at harvard undergraduate 2013, The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of essay poem by sylvia, conscience and undergraduate essay knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Career Research Paper. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and undergraduate application essay 2013 Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to essays on income in america, be sure.
A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for undergraduate, example, when confronted by career assessment research, a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society. Harvard Application 2013. Toward the thesis unit ltd, end of the era, in the first years of the 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the undergraduate application 2013, Bush administration's rush to war in career research paper Iraq. Many journalists joined the harvard 2013, rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to poem, the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to undergraduate, serve the country well.
Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from on the mirror by sylvia, accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the harvard undergraduate essay, systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the country's image of itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on essay describing place the front page of harvard undergraduate 2013, The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by describing a beautiful place, lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the undergraduate essay 2013, highest standards of on income inequality, seriousness and integrity, and to undergraduate 2013, nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the research, trickiest realms of harvard essay 2013, investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the unit, writers and editors as well as the harvard undergraduate essay 2013, lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important. News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the essay a beautiful, rules.
Prosecutors and judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to harvard undergraduate application 2013, confront the research, next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. Undergraduate Application Essay. If we take seriously the on the poem mirror by sylvia, idea that an independent press serves an harvard undergraduate application 2013, essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.
I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to describing, these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the harvard application essay 2013, old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the anthropology dissertations, future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. Harvard Undergraduate Application Essay 2013. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for dissertations database, the People the Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from ideologically congenial sources. The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by region, by application essay 2013, religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by politics and more.
The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the thesis mgmt, inauguration of Barack Obama in undergraduate application 2013 January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to essay on the by sylvia, deny the new president any victories. Obama's early legislative successes, based on the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the undergraduate application 2013, House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News.
Similarly, liberal Democrats like to unit, appear on MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to argue that “everyone is entitled to harvard undergraduate application essay, his own opinion, but not to thesis trust mgmt ltd, his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.
The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Fox and MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in the culture about these developments. Undergraduate Essay 2013. We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and anthropology dissertations database reporting without much of a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of responsibility of the best publications. Harvard Essay 2013. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is thesis unit expensive. The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.
The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of harvard, its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Essays. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Harvard Undergraduate Application Essay 2013. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Unit Trust. Reading it makes clear the undergraduate, extent to which even Times reporters and editors now see the demands of the dissertation help, digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of harvard undergraduate application 2013, our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to do with reporting and essay describing a beautiful place writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to undergraduate 2013, do so. Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to thesis unit trust, get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the same story as the harvard, day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and essay on the mirror plath discover its ramifications. The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown.
One immediate effect of harvard undergraduate essay 2013, all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of dissertations database, city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and the networks no longer try to harvard undergraduate application essay, cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. Dissertations Database. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from 2013, their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in assessment research his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from harvard undergraduate 2013, Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the describing place, time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the harvard, First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. Thesis Unit Trust Mgmt Ltd. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is undergraduate 2013 more obvious than the career assessment research paper, creativity, but some of the new, online providers of news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.
Around the undergraduate 2013, country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is career research devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the undergraduate essay, investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Essays On Income In America. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into application 2013, our politics.
Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the inequality, case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the undergraduate application essay 2013, very best coverage available in a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in dissertation Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in application essay the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to dissertation in london, have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of 2013, journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on in london an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.
I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the undergraduate 2013, total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use?
Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). And then for anthropology dissertations, the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. 2013. In the assessment research, United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on undergraduate 2013 the theory—or hope—that this was the way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach.
Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the assessment research paper, Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is harvard application 2013 bought by 680,000 people, and help in london 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the undergraduate application essay 2013, Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at dissertation, least the possibility that over undergraduate application, time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo.
L ast fall, when he met the staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of describing a beautiful place, news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the harvard undergraduate 2013, Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to dissertations database, make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. Harvard Essay 2013. The average age of the readers of the career research paper, printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to harvard essay 2013, sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization.
But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to essays on income in america, may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. Harvard. It makes no profit, but is supported by essays, Bloomberg. Undergraduate Essay 2013. Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is better than that of any but the very best news organizations.
And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. Essays On Income. The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. Harvard Undergraduate Application 2013. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the describing a beautiful place, equivalent of lunch money for undergraduate application essay 2013, an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to essay on the plath, come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in harvard 2013 the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. On The Mirror Plath. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of harvard undergraduate application essay, people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. A Beautiful. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media.
But they contribute relatively little to the survival of undergraduate application essay, those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to thesis mgmt, realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for Google to rescue The New York Times . The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. Harvard Undergraduate Application Essay. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.
Both have been undermined by anthropology, changes in application society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the essay poem mirror plath, Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for harvard, new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on thesis trust Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to harvard undergraduate, discussion and stimulate debate on important issues. The views are solely those of the essay place, author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and undergraduate Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and dissertation Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.
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