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A War Correspondent#8217;s First Duty is Patriotism. The statement, “A war correspondent’s first duty is patriotism”, implies that a war correspondent’s job is primarily to report information that rallies the public’s support for its nation’s war endeavors. This statement immediately raises a debate over the role of the media in a democratic society, and more specifically brings into question the role of professional journalists covering their nation’s participation in war. An independent and critical press is priceless to the functioning democracy of a nation. Interwoven in the ethics of professional journalism are ideals of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth”, which are supposed to distinguish the media as a credible source of information for the public. The history of war correspondence is characterized by the tense relationship between the media and the military, as well as the conflict between what is seen as “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” news coverage. Because of the continual reshaping of war itself, as well as the changing rapport between state and press as media has developed, the nature of war reporting has evolved in the last two centuries.
A critical examination of war coverage in plan droit constitutionnelle, Western society during conflicts like the Vietnam and Gulf Wars exposes the implications of war correspondent’s role in shaping public opinion regarding its nation’s involvement in war. The role of the media in the functioning of a democratic nation is inextricably intertwined with that nation’s ideals of civil liberties, which, in a free society, are supposed to ensure every citizen’s unhindered access to information. The media is supposed to provide the people of a nation with objective, accurate information. This reporting of news in turn shapes the persuasive essay, populous’ judgments regarding the policies their elected representatives enact, such as the decision to go to war. Plan Droit Constitutionnelle. The notion that citizens in a free society are entitled to “freedom of information”, and thus a free press, is critical to and assignment, the credibility of democratic institutions that are established by the people to protect the people and their national interests. And yet here lies the delicate and often difficult balance between a state and its independent news agencies. While a citizen’s access to public information is regarded as a civil liberty ensured by the state, his own government may view a level of secrecy as necessary to secure the democracy that allows for those same civil liberties. This tension is especially heightened during times of war. Thus, a conflict arises between the public “right to dissertation, know” and “national security”, which is arguably to some extent derived from military secrecy. The clash between public opinion and the government’s reaction to public opinion is the lifeblood of liberal democracy, and the role of the media in contributing to the communication, a healthy public discourse must be appreciated.
More specifically, the role of the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, war correspondent as the public’s “watchdog” over a nation’s military efforts is crucial to the functioning of a free society. In addition, the media’s role in political debates is distinct to democracy as opposed to other forms of state control, and is why it is “patriotic” for journalists to challenge the mainstream narratives of political elites and military leaders. Persuasive Essay. If the media fails to provide unbiased, critical, and scrutinizing assessments of information provided by the government during times of droit, war, its role is diminished to promoting propaganda. The idea of the press publishing reports that avoid questioning their country’s war effort should not be confused with unwavering patriotism. Nationalistic commentaries espousing “patriotic” jingles are characteristic of totalitarianism, and have no place in liberal democracies. Ideally, “patriotism” in democratic societies obliges citizens and journalists to embrace the Socratic tradition of critically questioning the actions of their government. However, this ideal is not the and assignment, norm and becomes what distinguishes the “watchdogs” from the government’s “lapdogs”. In reference to the media’s tendency to plan dissertation constitutionnelle, stray, Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman write, “Mainstream media reproduce the framework of political and military leaders and in doing so provide propaganda rather than “disinterested” journalism.” This statement raises the issue of whether war correspondents in being “objective” are being “patriotic” or whether in being “patriotic” are rendered unable to essay, relay the “truth”. Specifically, the identity of a war correspondent is rooted in the idea of impartial “objectivity” aimed at reaching the “truth”, yet in communicating their interpretations they may adopt a “patriotic” posture. The confusion lies in what is considered “patriotic” versus “un-patriotic” correspondence. For example, if a journalist reports a successful military campaign conducted by her country it may be perceived as “patriotic”, however, if that journalist reports an unsanctioned bombing by her government that damages public support for the war this may instead be viewed as “un-patriotic”.
Regardless, the journalist is doing her job and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle depending on gamsat practice questions, her own value judgments will determine whether she is doing her “patriotic” duty. In reality, war correspondents cannot be truly “objective” as detached observers looking in from the dissertation, outside. Life Death Essay. Howard Tumber and Marina Prentoulis write, “The problem posed for participant journalists…was how to respond when events force a choice between professional commitment and participatory loyalties.” The journalistic value of “objectivity” motivates war correspondents to critically report the carnage they witness in war, and this influences public opinion either in favor or in opposition to the war. By the droit constitutionnelle, same token, as citizens themselves reporters are influenced by the general consensus, which inhibits unbiased news coverage. The idea of “journalistic patriotism” creates fissures between self-censorship and the vigilant responsibility of the media in democracies. The history of war corresponding is laced with the idea of “patriotism” as a responsibility, which may run counter to ideas of integrity within journalism as a profession.
The free press is edexcel essentially indebted to the public, but operates within the macro-structures of dissertation droit, national and economic interests. Therefore, its public audiences, the government, and corporate interests simultaneously pressure the media to respond in a certain fashion. However, early war correspondents distinguished themselves around those concepts of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and “truth” no matter the costs. This held true for the “father” of modern war corresponding, Sir William Howard Russell, as well as Edwin Godkin, who during the Crimean War sent correspondences criticizing the past papers, British military’s activities, efficiency, and participation in plan dissertation constitutionnelle, this War. Their reports affected the public’s perception of the edexcel maths intermediate past, War, yet also led the military to re-evaluate its approach and the conditions of its forces.
Gen. Peter Gration writes, “…. Dissertation Constitutionnelle. It was later determined he [Russell] was reporting the truth, and…the ministers themselves would not have been made aware of the the communication collapse, Army’s deplorable state had it not been for the powers of the press.” This highlights the indispensable role of the media. Yet more importantly, highlights why the military began to view the media as a means to rally and shape public support and thus began to pressure journalists to do their “duty”. Subsequently, in the First and plan dissertation Second World Wars, war correspondent’s pumped out “patriotic” dispatches.
War correspondents inflated reports about is precious military successes and deflated the realities of trench warfare. Gen. Gration writes: By the start of the First World War, the dissertation constitutionnelle, British had learnt that the questions, press was indeed a powerful tool and used it to boost popular support for the war effort and…During the Second World War the media…did nothing to swing popular support from the efforts at the battlefront. If the road to plan dissertation constitutionnelle, hell is paved with good intentions, then at this time war correspondents were on that path. War correspondents are not supposed to essay, promote propaganda that feeds into dissertation droit constitutionnelle the continuation of global conflicts, yet reporters have the same fears and death experience anger as regular citizens and may forget their necessary role in reporting objectively the brutal conditions of war. The meat grinding effects of trench warfare were not initially realized by the public, and government officials had no incentive to plan droit constitutionnelle, pressure generals to change their tactics. Life Death. However, there is no doubt that Britain’s resilience and will to fight in these great Wars were influenced by reporter’s optimistic coverage. This had implications for future practices within news coverage of war and the manner in droit constitutionnelle, which the military interacts with the media.
Furthermore, the essay water is precious, military’s relationship with the media’s coverage creates conflicts between the state and war correspondents who refuse to droit, succumb to state ideas of persuasive and assignment, ‘patriotism’. This brings to surface the inherent antagonism between freedom of information and military operational security. In war, the military aims to achieve national objectives, which may be undermined by the “loose lips” of an over zealous war correspondent. For example, during the Falklands conflict of 1982, the release of information on the plans for an attack compromised the lives of plan dissertation, British troops and stepped outside of the boundaries of proper war coverage. At the same time, the military often views the media as a mechanism to manipulate information, an invaluable tool as national support of the war effort is believed to intermediate, be vital to victory. However, the fundamental ethics of journalism and its almost elemental role in democracy behooves journalists to resist reporting every word from plan constitutionnelle a general’s mouth at face value.
The media sometimes tends to report information that exaggerates hostile intentions, granted the military may divulge misinformation, but reporters must investigate and must not contribute to the escalation of conflicts. Hence, war correspondents walk a thin line between self-restraint and self-censorship, and face the burden of reporting horrors they witness and not simply what they are told. This is an incredible task, especially when the military controls access to the frontline and decides which “patriotic” correspondent gets to cover a given story. Media coverage of the Vietnam War serves as an example of the interactions between the media and the military and questions the impact of the media on public opinion. The Vietnam War was engulfed in political controversy over the presence of the United States in South Vietnam.
At first, support for the war was enthusiastic and optimistic, but as the war dragged on and images of the dissertation constitutionnelle, horrors of war were beamed into the living rooms across America, morale eroded. Televised coverage of war and the placement of “embedded” journalists in army units were meant to create cohesion among troops and the home front, but this idea eventually backfired. Essay The Communication. Daniel C. Hallin explains, “The mobilization of public opinion…needed to be organized systematically, and the press was naturally considered central in that effort.” The press was granted access to the battlefield to establish credibility and imply that rights to plan droit constitutionnelle, a free press were not being trampled. However, reporters were expected to follow strict military guidelines at their discretion, which requires the correspondent to make value judgments and observe from girl a “patriotic” point of view.’ The military’s concerns over media degrading popular support caused it to impose some restrictions, yet the media continued to report the “truth” and the “truth” was that war is hell. The media coverage of Vietnam was characterized by both the ability of war correspondents to change public opinion, and dissertation droit constitutionnelle challenged perceptions of the essay, media’s role. Dissertation. Correspondents that reported American military blunders were condemned, and news that reported “official information” was favored as “patriotic journalism”. Political and military leaders believed the media caused the degeneration of the communication, national support.
Carlyle A. Thayer writes, “…. the media’s negative and erroneous coverage…contributed to undermining America’s national will to continue the plan, fight.” In all fairness, reporters were not bent on discrediting American forces, and did not fail in supporting American troops. In some cases, reporters restrained from is precious releasing information that might have endangered soldiers, and in other cases, reported news that morally and ideologically favored America’s position. William M. Hammond writes, “Since whatever they said or wrote could be made to serve one agenda or another, they had altered the war by their very presence, becoming as much a part of it as any soldier in plan constitutionnelle, the field.” The bulk of the information reported came from official military sources, and war correspondents did their “duty” of reporting the physical, emotional, and psychological costs of war. The government and military blamed war correspondents for loss of morale, but increasing casualties and political circles at home did the most damage. Moreover, in is precious, reaction to the effects of war correspondence in Vietnam, the Gulf War of 1991 is a further example the military’s attempts to manage “journalistic patriotism” at constitutionnelle the expense of journalism’s professional integrity. During the Gulf War correspondents continued to the communication, attempt to critically assess the experiences of war, but the military had plans to achieve their objectives with as little interference from the media as possible. This inherently raises conflicts of interests, and citizens of liberal democracies suffer if they are kept in the dark about the actions of their government and droit constitutionnelle military. Fred Halliday proposes that war correspondents did not report unsavory news because they feared being criticized as “un-patriotic” and states, “In fulfilling a responsibility to provide news, and to collapse, avoid undermining a country’s war effort, other responsibilities, including those to educate the public in the broader issues, were neglected.” This has dire consequences for democracy and plan is not the ideal “patriotic” role of the war correspondent. Unfortunately, the Gulf War also highlights the victory of the military over the war correspondent and practice illuminates why the media must regain its footing.
Essentially, journalists were kept in the dark about plan dissertation military operations and were spoon-feed information from practice essay headquarters, which did not go without criticism. Col. David H. Hackworth states: All this is good for security, good for plan droit, the policymakers but bad for freedom and bad for democracy, and essay girl power it is also bad for dissertation droit, those young soldiers, sailors and airmen who were out there fighting for freedom which included the muzzled press corps’ right to girl power, tell their story. The war correspondents “patriotic duty” is to continue to expose the “truth” that encourages public discourse and invigorates debate about the legitimacy of war. If the first casualty of war is plan droit truth, it is the role of the war correspondent to find it and bring it back to life. The Gulf War in papers, the eyes of droit, many journalists can be seen as a tragedy in war reporting and a triumph in the communication, terms of the plan droit, military’s pursuit of national support at the expense of the public’s civil liberties. Either way, depending on the point of view of the spectator, war correspondence is a determinate of public opinion and its role will remain pertinent to the health of a vibrant and free society.
In conclusion, the gamsat essay, statement discussed here may imply that it is virtuous for the war correspondent to publish news that strictly promotes national support behind the government in times of war. However, the role of the media in democracy is crucial to the way of life of citizens that make up its political constituency. Because of this, war correspondents must stick to ideas of “responsibility”, “objectivity”, and dissertation constitutionnelle “truth” in order to ensure that the public and essay girl power democratic institutions remain aware of the wider issues involved. The relationship between the plan dissertation droit, media and the military will remain hostile, but this is of value because the healthy friction produces the energy for democracy to progress. After Death. The “patriotic” correspondent is vigilant and questions all she witnesses in constitutionnelle, war. Gration, Gen. Peter (1992), ‘Keynote Address’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and the.
Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. Collapse. LTD.), pp. 15-23. Hackworth, Col. David H. (1992), ‘The Gulf Crisis: The Media Point of View’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and dissertation droit constitutionnelle the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 182-191.
Halliday, Fred (1999), ‘Manipulation and Limits: Media Coverage of the Gulf War, 1990-1991’, in Tim Allen and practice essay Jean Seaton, eds., The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of plan dissertation, Ethnic Violence (London: Zed Books LTD.), pp. 127-146. Hallin, Daniel C. (1986), The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press) Hammond, William M. (1998), Reporting Vietnam: Media and Military at War. Edexcel Past. (Lawrence: University Press of dissertation droit constitutionnelle, Kansas) Hayden, Bill (1992), ‘Opening Address’, in Peter R. Young, ed., Defence and essay the Media. in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 5-14. Magder, Ted (2003), ‘Watching What We Say: Global Communication in a Time of Fear’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 28-44. Ridley, Yvonne (2003), ‘In The Fog of War’, in droit constitutionnelle, Daya Kishan Thussu and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp.
249-252. Taylor, Phillip M. (1992), War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf. War (Oxford and New York: Manchester University Press) Thayer, Carlyle A. (1992), ‘Vietnam: A Critical Analysis’, in Peter R. Essay Collapse. Young, ed., Defence and the Media in Time of Limited War (London: Frank Cass Co. LTD.), pp. 89-115. Plan Dissertation. Thussu, Daya Kishan and Des Freedman (2003), ‘Introduction’, in Daya Kishan Thussu. and Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 1-12.
Tumber, Howard and Marina Prentoulis (2003), ‘Journalists Under Fire: Subcultures, Objectivity and Emotional Literacy’, in Daya Kishan Thussu and persuasive and assignment Des Freedman, eds., War and Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 (London: Sage Publications LTD.), pp. 215-230. Written by: James Whitcomb Riley. Written at: King#8217;s College, London. All content on the website is dissertation published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team.
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Dissertation conseil constitutionnel plan
mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in their first year, and dissertation droit, so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an essay and assignment immediate fan either. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to persuasive and assignment my surprise discovered that it is an plan amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about essay a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the constitutionnelle, book instead. During my fifth year at practice, university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is droit constitutionnelle, a rewrite of persuasive and assignment, a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.
My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and plan dissertation, I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Of course, I did not do this on the communication, my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and finding an angle for plan dissertation constitutionnelle, my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for experience, me to study all these years.
Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and droit constitutionnelle, telling me again and again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the edexcel intermediate, twentieth century.
The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at once and dissertation droit, it is all related to gamsat essay The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by plan droit, covering narrative grounds in edexcel maths intermediate past, 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in plan dissertation constitutionnelle, London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. Essay Girl Power. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.
Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in plan, Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on gamsat practice, the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. Plan. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the essay, mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in dissertation constitutionnelle, the novel itself and in criticism. He has described his novel as “an improvisation on gamsat practice essay, Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). Plan Droit. With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into a popular novel that is suitable for gamsat practice essay, adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is plan droit constitutionnelle, faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an essay girl inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Woolf’s novel.
Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . Plan Constitutionnelle. The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in collapse, her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the plan droit constitutionnelle, themes of love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the after death experience essay, structure of Mrs. Dalloway and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, transpose it to New York in the late twentieth century. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.
The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in essay water is precious, Mrs Dalloway and droit constitutionnelle, how these techniques relate to is precious psychological time. The final chapter applies the techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in droit constitutionnelle, front of a computer, staring at power, a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of dissertation, days. It does not always matter what time it is according to the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. Essay Water Is Precious. It does not rely on segmentation of plan dissertation constitutionnelle, time into minutes and past, hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and dissertation droit, personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of practice questions, time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.
Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and essay water, centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in plan dissertation, flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to clock time: an event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to essay and assignment discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is dissertation droit, represented by maths intermediate past papers, selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the dissertation droit, mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.
The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the edexcel maths, first to internalize the question of constitutionnelle, time” (Sherover 10). After Death. It is plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, important to note that internalised time is always related to gamsat practice questions externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.
Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to maths intermediate regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Plan Droit Constitutionnelle. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in experience, terms of time, which created the possibility of plan dissertation, long distance travelling.
Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the experience essay, Industrial Revolution.  The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of change is still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911.  The ideas of plan dissertation, Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the essay power, assembly line in factories. As a result the production rate in plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, factories went up, but the effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and collapse, art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and the speed of dissertation constitutionnelle, their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is essay water, reflected in the work of plan droit, early twentieth-century artists.
The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. Essay The Communication Collapse. The emphasis of plan dissertation, art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. It is death, a concept that arose out of the tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to plan dissertation droit explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the essay, twentieth century.  Discoveries made about the droit constitutionnelle, workings of the the communication collapse, consciousness resulted in a new view of plan droit, time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by gamsat questions, the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the plan dissertation droit, term ‘psychological time’ to is precious refer to plan droit constitutionnelle this experience of time. Essay. Psychological time, according to Bergson, is not a different type of dissertation droit constitutionnelle, time, but a different manner of perceiving time.
Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. He uses the distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the water is precious, duration of the reading, the plan dissertation, amount of essay, time the narrator takes to plan droit constitutionnelle relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is essay and assignment, measured in droit, discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. After Experience. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in plan constitutionnelle, continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.
It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. Essay Collapse. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for literature. Plan Droit. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for a temporal analysis of essay girl, a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in what time span a story would have unfolded in plan dissertation, reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is essay the communication, that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in droit constitutionnelle, art.
John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the after experience essay, sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time  Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on psychological time and borrowed his ideas.
As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the dissertation, way many Modernists represented time in fiction” (Childs 49). Intermediate Papers. His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in droit constitutionnelle, the chronology of power, events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for writers to dissertation have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. And Assignment. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to plan droit constitutionnelle t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).
As a result of edexcel papers, turning towards the internal, the concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of droit, a larger trend of exploring the depths of the after death experience, human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by droit constitutionnelle, Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in gamsat essay, The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of dissertation droit constitutionnelle, time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on collapse, the present and the coexistence of past, present and future in the mind are features of psychological time.
Modernism is interested in dissertation constitutionnelle, both the notion of the flux of time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. This results in collapse, an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. Plan Dissertation Droit. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.
Thus the is precious, term was perhaps meant to dissertation refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of essay the communication collapse, consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in order to suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of essay, a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination.  These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to plan dissertation droit record thoughts as they occur.
Stream of consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the edexcel, techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in plan droit, an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is after death essay, a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the plan droit constitutionnelle, clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the essay collapse, individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in dissertation constitutionnelle, her own words, to which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in edexcel, Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)
Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of plan droit constitutionnelle, consciousness. Essay The Communication Collapse. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in To The Lighthouse . “For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the constitutionnelle, tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is essay the communication, simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.
Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the dissertation constitutionnelle, only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in essay power, the narrative when the author feels the recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. Dissertation. The function of recollection is power, not merely to constitutionnelle reflect on the past.
Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to gamsat essay the experience of the character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on the present moment.  Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is plan constitutionnelle, applied to a novel in edexcel maths past, order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from plan constitutionnelle James Joyce’s Ulysses the readers enters the mind of essay questions, Mr Leopold Bloom who is dissertation, attending a funeral.
Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. Girl Power. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.
Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. Dissertation Droit. Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in girl, Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Used to change three suits in plan dissertation constitutionnelle, the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. (90)
This is an gamsat practice essay questions example of interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to constitutionnelle the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at essay the communication, all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to dissertation droit constitutionnelle a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. After Death Experience Essay. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in plan, this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of essay, consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.
Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is plan droit constitutionnelle, fragmentation of the narrative. Persuasive Essay. Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the dissertation droit, human mind. Girl. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and droit constitutionnelle, feelings of maths past papers, a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of constitutionnelle, a character at a single moment. Stream of gamsat practice questions, consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. Dissertation Constitutionnelle. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in persuasive essay, a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to plan dissertation constitutionnelle be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in essay girl, The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is plan constitutionnelle, common for Modernist texts to begin in medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is essay girl, disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the narrative, but also on the level of language, as the example from plan dissertation droit Ulysses already demonstrated.
Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of life after death essay, representing the flux of time and the workings of the droit, human consciousness, because language is experience essay, linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by openly showing the dissertation droit, inadequacies of language. Gamsat Practice Essay. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and plan droit, complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The poet must become more and essay the communication collapse, more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in plan, Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the gamsat practice questions, author to express the multiplicity of plan constitutionnelle, Modernism, of after death essay, which psychological time is an droit aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the essay, ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the plan dissertation constitutionnelle, surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Life After. Psychological time is a concept subjected to chaos as well.
It is fragmented, it is in droit, constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to edexcel intermediate past papers make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is plan droit, a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. Water Is Precious. According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at dissertation droit constitutionnelle, [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time” (145). Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.
In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on power, psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in droit constitutionnelle, The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in essay is precious, her work. As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon plan dissertation, the body of time.
An hour, once it lodges in edexcel maths papers, the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and time in the mind is plan dissertation, less known than it should be and persuasive essay, deserves fuller investigation. (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in plan dissertation constitutionnelle, time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in comparison to the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.
In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to essay is precious the intensity of experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of plan droit constitutionnelle, Mrs Dalloway is practice essay questions, a single day.
The fact that the droit, Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the communication, the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the constitutionnelle, narrative does not focus on edexcel past, the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the plan, characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the essay, narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the constitutionnelle, hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. After Death Experience. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at plan dissertation constitutionnelle, all four corners.
Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). Essay. The comparison of fiction to a spider’s web does not only imply the fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. Dissertation Droit. When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. Maths Intermediate Past Papers. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to plan dissertation Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the persuasive, surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for plan droit constitutionnelle, Mrs Dalloway . Persuasive And Assignment. She places the dissertation droit constitutionnelle, characters on the edges of the web and life after experience essay, slowly they spiral towards the centre.
The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: “Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at droit, breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace – Peter Walsh”  ( MD 3). After Death. The reader is not further introduced to plan dissertation constitutionnelle Peter Walsh in the communication, this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in the novel.
Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the essay, reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at plan constitutionnelle, the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to convey the characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is essay, what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is life after death experience essay, repetition. Plan Droit. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it.  One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.
Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in their work. Gamsat Practice Essay Questions. Stream of droit, consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of life death essay, different techniques. Plan Droit. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on essay, stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review  in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to plan droit some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and shut in’, because the stream of consciousness of Joyce’s novel is persuasive, focused on plan droit, one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the essay the communication collapse, reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.
The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is a multiplicity of droit, several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of after death essay, Woolf’s particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is dissertation droit, outside the after death experience, narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is dissertation droit, being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of every character.
The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is gamsat questions, very similar for each of the characters. Plan Dissertation. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the essay power, characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to droit constitutionnelle represent in gamsat essay, Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the dissertation droit, stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the persuasive, irises and roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. Dissertation Droit. In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.
This results in a sense of coherence and maths intermediate past, the stream of consciousness turns into dissertation a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolf’s fiction is what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is essay girl, that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).
Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is plan dissertation droit, Woolf’s first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into the past of her characters and lets the persuasive essay, tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to dissertation droit constitutionnelle forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. It “[gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of essay collapse, a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.
In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is droit, that ‘events’ surface in the story when they are relevant. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the experience essay, past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.
It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.
How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of persuasive essay and assignment, man, she should have thought of constitutionnelle, one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on the communication collapse, the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, two images of the character is the true self, the image of the past or the image of the essay and assignment, present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to plan dissertation constitutionnelle its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).
The issue is gamsat practice, “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the plan dissertation, other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of essay water, memory show a part of the characters in Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and plan droit, interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to ‘life: London: this moment in maths intermediate, June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.
Clarissa opens the door to go out and buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by a memory of Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at plan droit, that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and girl, their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.
One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to plan Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberry’s when she is essay, startled by a sound from outside. Plan. “- oh! a pistol shot in the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberry’s. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of practice questions, Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the plan dissertation, very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)
It is implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to life after death Clarissa’s point of view. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the plan dissertation, different characters involved in gamsat essay, the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the connections between her characters.
Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. Plan Dissertation Droit. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the death experience, temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.
It does not progress chronologically from event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of a sonnet that is spoken at plan dissertation, the deathbed of one of the characters in girl, Shakespeare’s play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Plan Droit. Death and questions, transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Death forms the inevitable end.
Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the plan constitutionnelle, phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the gamsat practice essay, phrase is repeated and they become unified.
Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from plan Cymbeline by persuasive, saying “Still, the sun was hot. Still one got over things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is subtle. Plan Dissertation Constitutionnelle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into essay girl the text, and plan constitutionnelle, the reader must make the edexcel maths intermediate past papers, links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.
Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only dissertation through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the life after experience essay, very images which are used to evoke their states of mind” (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the plan dissertation, novel. Essay. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. Plan Droit Constitutionnelle. First of essay collapse, all it divides the novel into temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in dissertation constitutionnelle, the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the essay collapse, striking of Big Ben to dissertation contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the public and the private.
[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to essay several minutes. (171) The striking of the dissertation droit constitutionnelle, clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only essay exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.
In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the plan droit, actual experience in clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in water is precious, the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and is illustrated by dissertation, temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by power, the characters do not add up.  Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. Plan Dissertation. The time they take to cover the and assignment, distance form landmark to droit constitutionnelle landmark in the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to maths past cover the same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of London in plan droit, Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the girl, novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to them” (19). The striking of the clock “breaks up the novel into hours and sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters’ psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and dissertation droit, the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.
Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to intermediate suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. Plan Droit Constitutionnelle. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of and assignment, a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and plan, pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and edexcel intermediate past papers, the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Dissertation Droit. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to gamsat clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.
Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. Droit Constitutionnelle. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for Woolf to integrate the past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the maths intermediate papers, present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and dissertation constitutionnelle, cohesion is further enhanced by Woolf’s subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in life experience essay, her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . It was critically acclaimed and dissertation droit constitutionnelle, won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.
The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. Water. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Plan Dissertation Constitutionnelle. Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. It is difficult to essay pin down how the plan droit, connection between The Hours and edexcel past papers, Mrs Dalloway is plan droit constitutionnelle, constructed. According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and essay water, character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging” (381 no. 12).
Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of plan dissertation droit, where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of essay, ambiguity or confusion. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.
He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is essay, complex, the novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on fiction and facts from her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and droit, Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. And Assignment. Both authors represent the plan droit, inner experience of the characters, in essay, both novels the relationship between the past and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on maths intermediate past papers, a structural and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of essay the communication collapse, original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in The Hours and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of essay, Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.
She is plan droit, nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. Girl. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on plan, her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is essay, formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in plan droit, the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in intermediate papers, Richard’s novel.
The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to plan dissertation constitutionnelle the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is that the characters in essay girl power, The Hours are separated by constitutionnelle, time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in essay, Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Droit Constitutionnelle. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of girl, Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of dissertation droit, life, very much the essay collapse, way the constitutionnelle, blueprint for essay, an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.
Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the plan constitutionnelle, author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of essay girl, consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.
When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of stream of plan dissertation constitutionnelle, consciousness. Persuasive. Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and dissertation, when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of power, leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)
The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and dissertation constitutionnelle, then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the life essay, mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the concept of plan dissertation droit, stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.
The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the reflections on the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into girl the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being “like the plan dissertation, flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in after, the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the plan dissertation constitutionnelle, feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to girl power connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for the first time in the novel.
The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, hold of a sunken ship. Essay. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of plan dissertation, Richard’s apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of persuasive essay and assignment, changing from one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the dissertation, sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to after death essay escape. The parallel world is located on the plane of psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.
Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of after, consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of droit constitutionnelle, past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of essay, tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, a character merge, at death experience essay, the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and dissertation droit constitutionnelle, the distinction between the character in essay and assignment, the past and the character in the present is plan droit constitutionnelle, briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the edexcel maths past, past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to plan droit identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. They are very much connected to after essay the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.
The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by dissertation, Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is and assignment, a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is plan droit, that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.
Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. Is Precious. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and is an important connector in her novel. Plan Dissertation. In The Hours the characters are not connected by edexcel intermediate, clock time, they are separated by dissertation droit, it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the and assignment, hours are units by which time is measured.
The hours are the moments of which the characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of plan dissertation droit, flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is power, also interesting is the fact that the three strands of narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to plan droit constitutionnelle have dinner on life after, page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by dissertation droit, Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.
Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. Essay Girl Power. … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. Plan Constitutionnelle. (92) The objects in Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in which she is “still full of hope, still capable of doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and practice essay, they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.
Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Plan Droit. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the water is precious, eternal quality of Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Dissertation Droit. Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and essay power, Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of plan constitutionnelle, it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and maths intermediate past papers, fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. Essay Power. It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.
The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunningham’s use of repetition in dissertation, The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is that of scenes repeated from persuasive essay Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the plan droit constitutionnelle, city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the air was in after experience essay, the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the door and is about to walk into plan city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at after essay, the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of dissertation droit, chill, the plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.
The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in the communication, a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to droit significant differences in emotional experience” (41). Young is gamsat essay questions, referring to droit the Clarissa-characters in both novels.
This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunningham’s novel as well. Water. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the dissertation droit constitutionnelle, other episodes. Edexcel Maths Intermediate. The emotional experience of plan dissertation droit, all three women in Cunningham’s novel is similar. The differences in time and essay, place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the different threads of the novel to indicate that the dissertation droit constitutionnelle, characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. Essay Water. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Under the cement and grass of the park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).
Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in edexcel past, the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of dissertation constitutionnelle, perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on and assignment, a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is plan dissertation constitutionnelle, filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in time and space and life essay, creates the possibility for plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.
Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by collapse, the fact that they are both writers. In the droit, novel they are also related by after death experience, repetition. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. First of all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in gamsat questions, the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Dissertation Constitutionnelle. Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on spoiling you life any longer. I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).
Not only the characters of is precious, Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at plan dissertation, university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Essay. Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of dissertation, Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of edexcel, time in which the past does not exist. His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is droit, comparatively healthy and ‘stands the test of time’.
The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.
When you asked me if I remembered about the party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. I seem to have fallen out of life after experience essay, time” (62). Plan Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. Richard’s notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in that present. This is collapse, happening in this present.” (66)
For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the plan dissertation, human consciousness to exist on several levels of essay, psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to droit constitutionnelle his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. Edexcel Maths Intermediate Past. He can barely separate reality from fiction.
Richard is afraid of “the party and the ceremony, and dissertation, then the hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the essay collapse, mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of plan, psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of the communication, Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . Because the film returns to persuasive essay Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the plan, chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.
An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the film. On the persuasive essay, website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the dissertation, clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of essay the communication collapse, clock time and establishes a plane of plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, reality. The representation of clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the film’s use of practice essay questions, images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.
Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the opening of the dissertation droit constitutionnelle, film the viewer is after essay, confronted with a bunch of dissertation, roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to connect the life after death, individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and droit, starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the persuasive essay, most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.
He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to plan constitutionnelle the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Hours . Hughes claims that “a work of art in essay questions, not simply what the artist creates. It is dissertation droit constitutionnelle, a link in a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of either of edexcel maths intermediate past papers, these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Plan Dissertation. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and essay the communication, other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.
The Hours is not the dissertation droit, only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and power, are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the concept of plan dissertation constitutionnelle, ‘hauntology’. Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’  to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of the communication, ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for dissertation droit, many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is persuasive and assignment, identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is plan constitutionnelle, subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to persuasive and assignment the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.
A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Dissertation Droit. Hauntology disrupts the notion of gamsat practice essay questions, linear time, as images or events from the past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the plan constitutionnelle, “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and collapse, shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by plan, Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. Death Essay. (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and history. As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and plan dissertation droit, perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. Life After Death. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of dissertation, texts without a centre, which can stretch over essay, time and space.
Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an plan dissertation image of after death experience, a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of girl power, reality. The distinction between clock time and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, psychological time plays an important part in essay questions, Mrs Dalloway , and dissertation constitutionnelle, Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of essay power, clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.
Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of dissertation droit constitutionnelle, time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to edexcel papers form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only plan constitutionnelle through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by essay water is precious, several characters. Woolf uses the event to switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.
Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. An improvisation implies change and the addition of new elements, and essay water is precious, that is dissertation droit, exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an collapse ordinary woman, but an exploration of how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. He shows that the days of Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of plan dissertation constitutionnelle, many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.
The main cause of this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from and assignment Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the technique on a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.
The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is plan dissertation droit, far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.
Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. Girl. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.
Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. Dissertation. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . Essay The Communication Collapse. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.
Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Droit Constitutionnelle. Gale Group: 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.
45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Water Is Precious. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and plan dissertation, Film . Ithaca and essay girl power, London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.
The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557
Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. Constitutionnelle. Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.
A Review of questions, Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.
Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. Droit Constitutionnelle. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.
Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. Essay Power. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.
Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. “Walking the Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. ” Mosaic . vol. 36 no.
2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the droit constitutionnelle, Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. Essay. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. Plan Constitutionnelle. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003.  The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time?  Based on the theories of questions, management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.
Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the plan dissertation droit, soul of persuasive, work, dehumanised factories, and made men into plan droit constitutionnelle automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.
 Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in water, a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems.  For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of plan droit constitutionnelle, twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors.  Another term that is surrounded by much debate is essay water, interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the plan droit, term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.
However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3)  An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Proust’s work. Edexcel Intermediate. His term for this kind of memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones.  Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to plan dissertation constitutionnelle this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD .  Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and essay the communication collapse, repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in plan dissertation, brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the essay water, stream of consciousness is plan dissertation, already racing on to another thought.  The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.
It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition)  For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the essay water is precious, Web in the Lost London of dissertation droit constitutionnelle, Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood.  Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and gamsat, presence/absence” (Richter, 1).
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7 Properties Offered as Prizes in Essay Contests. What do you do when you’ve decided to sell a huge, historic, or expensive property in a small town, but no one can afford it? One trend that’s gaining popularity is to plan dissertation, run an essay contest with an entry fee that will cover your costs. The essay part makes the scheme a competition of skill instead of an intermediate papers out-and-out lottery, which is plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle illegal in past some places, and dissertation constitutionnelle they also ensure that the winner is someone who will likely continue the business (though that’s never a sure thing). Generally, the contests stipulate the essay is precious, minimum number of entries required, which would add up to at least the constitutionnelle, value of the after experience, property; if the minimum isn't reached, then the entry fees are refunded. The upside to these contests is that the plan, property goes to an individual who might not otherwise be able to own such a property or start a small business, and essay girl power the seller reaps the value of the property without having to sell to deep-pocket corporations. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle. However, it doesn’t always turn out that way. In January, the persuasive essay and assignment, proprietors of the Temple Theater in Houlton, Maine launched an essay contest for ownership of the droit constitutionnelle, 98-year-old theater, one of the oldest continuously operating movie theaters in the state. The contest received entries from nearly every state and at least six countries—but unfortunately, it didn't draw the minimum 3500 entries necessary for a winner to be picked, and all the entry fees were returned to the contestants.
But one of the entrants, Charles “Charlie” Fortier, was still interested in buying the edexcel, theater. A Houlton native and author of dissertation six books, Fortier wrote about his history with the theater in his essay, titled Why I'd Be Perfect to Run the Temple Theater: He'd seen Star Wars at the theater twice the very night it opened and persuasive essay nearly died during a showing of Blazing Saddles when he laughed and choked on candy pom poms. “I know how important the Temple is to the community even with the proliferation of Netflix and Redbox and want to dissertation droit, dedicate my sunset years to keeping it going so it can instill the gamsat essay, same wonder in others that I felt when I was kid,” Fortier wrote, according to the Bangor Daily News. By April, the theater was Fortier's, and the Temple Cinema is still open under his management. Last summer, Paul and Leslie Spell launched an dissertation droit essay contest with a $150 entry fee for their goat farm in questions Elkhart, Alabama. Humble Heart Farm came with 20 acres, a house, dairy equipment, and nearly 100 goats and sheep. Plan Dissertation Droit. The prize also included $20,000 to help the new owners get their business up and the communication collapse running. The couple planned to take the funds from the contest and move to Costa Rica, where they intended to help their missionary friends run a goat dairy. We've had a pretty successful run here and I thought it was time for us to go help someone else, Paul told Alabama Today. By giving people the opportunity of winning the farm and dissertation droit constitutionnelle creamery we will be able to help our missionary friends to become self-sufficient and have enough income for day to essay girl, day expenses. The Spells planned to pick a winner on October 15, but as the deadline approached, they announced they did not receive the 2500 entries required.
The number of entries was so small that they decided against extending the dissertation, deadline and refunded the entry fees. “I’d thought for sure this would work,” Paul said. “We didn’t get even close.” In order to relocate her family to Cape Cod, Carole Kelaher put her business, Mix Cupcakerie and Kitchen in Waitsfield, Vermont, up for a contest in 2015. To enter, would-be bakers had to submit an essay and a cupcake recipe along with a $75 fee. The contest prize didn't include the essay girl power, building (Kelaher rented the storefront), but it did include 80 hours of dissertation constitutionnelle training with Kelaher and two month’s rent as well as money for utilities, supplies, and payroll for the bakery's two employees. Edexcel Intermediate. I wanted to spread out the pool of perspective owners, Kelaher told Vermont Public Radio. Dissertation Droit. It's not necessarily about maths papers being a buyer.
It's more about having the love and the ability to do this job. Kelaher needed to raise $22,000 to plan dissertation, give the bakery away, but it was not to be. Despite a crowdfunding campaign to edexcel papers, raise donations in addition to the essay contest, Kelaher only raised about half the needed amount of money. There were only 85 entries in the essay contest, so the fees were returned. But the publicity helped Kelaher to sell the business the old-fashioned way, and a new owner took over in July 2015. An essay contest will determine the new owner of the Center Lovell Inn Restaurant. http://t.co/R5xles9xgL pic.twitter.com/XSCYlztYld. When Janice Sage decided to retire a year ago, the proprietor of Center Lovell Inn Restaurant in Lovell, Maine, decided to plan, launch an essay contest to award the the communication collapse, inn to a new owner. (Sage had herself won the inn in an essay contest in 1993.) The contest required an plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle entry fee of and assignment $125 and a 200-words-or-less essay. “There’s a lot of very talented people in the restaurant business who would like to have their own place but can’t afford it,” Sage told the Portland Press Herald . “This is a way for droit constitutionnelle them to have the opportunity to power, try.” She planned to narrow the entries to 20, then turn them over to droit constitutionnelle, two judges, who would pick the winner. Sage received 7255 entries, slightly short of the 7500 entries she’d hoped for, but announced a winner anyway.
The contest was won by Prince Roger Adams and his wife, Rose. The pair, who had restored an old inn in the early years of their marriage, seemed especially suited for the job: Rose was a chef, and gamsat practice questions Prince had experience marketing and managing an inn. This contest is fortuitous since we now aspire to finally own a place outright; somewhere to plan dissertation constitutionnelle, share our love of fine food, great wines and entertaining with others, Adams wrote in his essay. Undoubtedly our passion, hospitality and commitment is the perfect recipe for a successful marriage to the beautiful Center Lovell Inn and Restaurant. But the transition wasn't seamless. Other entrants complained that the contest was rigged; their complaints spurred a two-month investigation, which found no improprieties. Adams told The New York Times that other entrants have left bad reviews of the inn at TripAdvisor and after death experience have been paying him nasty visits and phones calls. SustainaFest is a nonprofit organization that works to raise awareness about social, environmental, and economic issues in the Chesapeake Bay region.
In 2015, they held an plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle essay contest to edexcel maths intermediate papers, award a 210-square-foot home in Washington, D.C., where housing prices are sky-high. The home was evaluated at plan dissertation $76,000. The contest required a $100 entry fee and an essay of 350 or fewer words that answered the question: “What are your keys to living a sustainable lifestyle, and how would owning the SustainaFest Tiny House help you realize your dream of living that lifestyle? The contest was canceled when there weren’t enough entries to cover the power, costs of constructing the house. But a Texas couple who had submitted three of the entries ended up buying the home for $50,000. “The couple who bought the house decided to downsize and have been living out of an Airstream trailer,” Sustainafest’s Josh Bennett told UrbanTurf. “They started their own business and have decided they need a bit more space so the tiny house will become their primary residence and the trailer will be the business headquarters.” Rhonda Pennington had an idea to droit constitutionnelle, find a new owner for persuasive her home on the Ohio River in Vevay, Indiana. The 4200-square-foot house has four bedrooms, three full baths, a wrap-around deck, and a view of Kentucky across the river. Since she had no luck selling the home in the conventional manner, Pennington launched an plan dissertation constitutionnelle essay contest with a fee of $199. The essays were to be judged by a panel from Hanover College. Essay. The contest was announced in August 2015 , and the deadline was to be November 30. But the contest did not get the required 2000 entries . Plan Dissertation Constitutionnelle. Pennington announced that fact on December 11, when she posted on Facebook that the contest was canceled and entry fees would be refunded.
Some entrants were upset over water is precious, the cancelation, others over the fact that Hanover College pulled out of the contest before the entry deadline with no announcement to dissertation, the public, and still others were angrily waiting for their refunds, which were not sent out until January 2016. Essay Is Precious. I'm very disappointed in how this whole thing was handled,” one entrant, Mary DiMarco of Oakland, Maine, told The Indianapolis Star . The house is still for sale; you can see the dissertation constitutionnelle, listing here . Just this month, a new business joined the essay is precious, contest craze. The Hardwick Gazette , a weekly newspaper in plan droit constitutionnelle Hardwick, Vermont, needs a new owner. The paper has been in business since 1889, and Ross Connelly, the essay girl power, current editor and publisher, is retiring. It could be yours for the price of a $175 entry fee and a 400-word essay about the plan dissertation, entrant’s skills and vision for owning a paid weekly newspaper in the new millennium. “We want to hear from people who can hold up a mirror in which local citizens can see themselves and gain insights into the lives within their communities,” Connelly says. “We want to hear from people with a passion for local stories that are important, even in the absence of scandal and sensationalism.” The prize includes the building, office supplies and equipment, furniture, the archives of past editions, and current lists of persuasive essay and assignment advertisers, partners, and subscribers. A minimum of 700 entries are needed to complete the contest, but if the maximum of 1889 entries are received, the winner will receive a $5000 cash bonus. You can read more about the contest, including the rules, at the contest's website . The inventors of Twitter could never have imagined how their creation would change the world. The social media platform has become the stage upon plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle which some of the most important dramas—and pettiest comedies—of the life death essay, last few years have played out. And now it'll help beam one lucky person's message into interstellar space, thanks to NASA's #MessageToVoyager contest.
The Voyager 2 and Voyager 1 spacecrafts launched on droit constitutionnelle, August 20 and September 5, of essay 1977. Plan Droit Constitutionnelle. The probes set sail in opposite directions, bound for the outer reaches of space, each bearing a golden record imprinted with messages of peace and welcome from Earth to whomever else the spacecraft might encounter along the way. The decades since have seen years of astonishing firsts from the two little probes. Voyager 2 has cruised past and sent back images from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and life essay Neptune. Just five years ago, Voyager 1 became the dissertation, first craft to enter interstellar space. In celebration of the 40th anniversary of the missions, NASA wants to give the people of Earth the past, opportunity to send a new message. The agency will transmit the single winning tweet into the area of deep space Voyager 1 now occupies. To participate, compose a message of up to 60 characters.
That includes letters, numbers, spaces, and punctuation. Tag your submission with #MessageToVoyager and dissertation droit post it to Twitter by August 15. You can also share it on is precious, Instagram, Facebook, Google+, or Tumblr. Representatives from droit, NASA, JPL, and the Voyager team will narrow down the entries, and then hold a public vote for the winner. For full contest rules, check out NASA's #MessageToVoyager website. Airbnb is going to help two lucky people become some of the first in the nation to see the cross-continental total solar eclipse when it journeys across the U.S. on August 21. As Travel + Leisure reports, the edexcel maths, company is holding a contest to send two guests on a deluxe eclipse-viewing mini-vacation in Oregon. First, the winner and their guest will head to Bend, Oregon on August 20 to stay in a geodesic dome under the stars, looking up at the night sky from the observation deck with multiple telescopes, according to the press release.
They’ll hang out and chat about the stars with with astrophysicist Jedidah Isler, who studies black holes, and learn how to shoot great nighttime photos with Babak Tafreshi, a National Geographic photographer. The next day, Isler will accompany the winners on a private jet for a two-hour flight over the Pacific Ocean. Plan Dissertation Constitutionnelle. The plane will fly along the path of totality, potentially extending the amount of time the guests have to view the essay collapse, Moon completely covering the Sun by up to a minute compared to constitutionnelle, what people will see from the ground. Even if you don’t win, plenty of people are trekking out to the path of totality, and you can probably find another place to crash. Airbnb estimates that it has around 3800 listed houses along the path of totality. (This one in Oregon is going for $10,000 a night that weekend.) But you might have more trouble finding a private plane to essay girl power, fly you to a viewing spot atop the clouds. The next total solar eclipse won't be visible from the U.S. until 2024, so this is your last chance for a while. You have until August 10 to send Airbnb your best argument for why you should get to go on plan droit, a great eclipse adventure. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. Why You Should Sing 'Happy Birthday’—Twice—While Washing Your Hands.
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Essay: The United Kingdom and plan dissertation droit Brazil compared. Every country has something different to offer the world socially, economically #038; culturally whether is it natural resources, a large workforce or military strength, it is also fair to say that every country is different. The UK and Brazil are two of the world’s leading economies where one is a developed nation whereas the essay girl power other is developing nation but both have a large role to play in 21st century world relations. Recently there has been challenges which both countries are facing internally #038; externally and this essay. The UK is the plan 6th largest economy in the world which has historically spent most of the past 100 years being a developed nation and leading world power but recent times has had its influence decreased. Brazil has the edexcel intermediate past 7th largest economy in dissertation the world and has spent most of its 200 year history poor but has recently been the recipient of a large economic boom with 40 million people coming out of poverty. The UK has the third largest economy in Europe after France #038; Germany with a GDP of around $2.6 trillion (The World Bank . (2015). Persuasive Essay! ), the largest economies of the plan droit constitutionnelle four home nations (in order of and assignment size) are England, Scotland Wales #038; Northern Ireland.
The economy is mainly based on its services and tertiary sectors which amount to dissertation droit constitutionnelle, around 75% of the GDP, they have the fifth highest number of exports (oil, food #038; machinery) and imports (manufactured goods #038; food) (The World Factbook. (2015). Girl! ). Also the UK has offshore oil reserves in plan droit constitutionnelle the North Sea which helps to boost the economy through oil exports. Water Is Precious! The workforce of the UK is estimated to constitutionnelle, be around 30 million. The UK government sets out its economic policy through HM treasury and the pound sterling is the essay the communication fourth strongest currency in the world after the currencies of plan dissertation droit Kuwait, Bahrain #038; Oman. The UK is a member many international organisations such as the G20, G8, The European Union, The Commonwealth of nations, the UN #038; World Banks and being part of these organisations combined with being one of the maths papers world’s largest economies allows the dissertation droit constitutionnelle UK to take a larger role in economic matters. The South East region is the heart of the persuasive and assignment economic activity in the UK, and has been since the decline of the manufacturing sector in the north of England. Brazil has the largest economy in Latin America and the 7th in the world, during the first decade of the plan dissertation constitutionnelle 21st century Brazil had a large economic boom which averaged at around 4.5%. (Trading Economics. (2015). ). Brazil is ranked 23th in terms of exports (The World Factbook. (2015)) #038; imports, in terms of regions, the persuasive essay South East region is the home of the largest part of the plan constitutionnelle economic output and activity of the country. Essay Girl! The Amazon region in the north of the country makes up over plan, half of its land territory, and it is rich in natural resources such as oil, timber and medicine (eHow. (2015).).
The service sector remains the largest source of the country’s GDP and has the largest number of the workforce (more than half the edexcel workforce), in the private sector hospitality services houses the largest number of plan constitutionnelle workers., the industrial sector is next with Brazil being one of the practice essay questions world’s largest producers of automobiles but Brazil also produces aeroplanes, steel and other things. Droit Constitutionnelle! Third is the agricultural sector (ECONOMYWATCH CONTENT. (2010).), the workforce of Brazil is estimated to be around 105 million. The financial policy of Brazil is overseen by the National Monetary Council led by the minister of finance. The Central Bank of Brazil deals with all top-level financial matters issues including currency and controls the money supply and credit. The Brazilian Real is the edexcel maths papers current currency and plan has been since 1994, The National Economic and Social Development Bank gives government and international loans into large-scale development projects, including loans to essay water, state governments for projects that they cannot finance themselves, such as the subway in Sao Paulo.
The National Housing Bank provides home-building loans, and the Federal Savings Bank makes short-term loans to individuals (E. Bradford Burns. (2015). ). In terms of droit constitutionnelle economic similarity between both countries they both have a service based economy but Brazil’s is mainly hospitality whereas the UK’s is mainly financial. Both countries also has one region which has a substantial larger amount of economic activity than the girl power other parts of the country. Plan! Both countries are seen as leading economic powers in the world. The main differences between the two is that the UK is a lot more developed than Brazil and has a higher skilled workforce, also Brazil does more manufacturing than the UK. The UK has a lot more foreign investment due to the fact that it more developed, part of a large trade block (EU) meaning that there is less restrictions depending on your nationality and also because it easier to do business. The UK has a democratic system where the prime minister is elected every five years, the British monarchy is still the head of state but the gamsat essay prime minister makes all the big political decisions.
Laws are made in the house of lords and the house of commons and there is dissertation constitutionnelle parliaments in Scotland, Wales #038; Northern Ireland. The UK is a multi party system with the Conservatives #038; Labour parties being the two largest but recently there has been a rise in other parties such as UKIP, the UK has no single document for its constitution. The UK doesn’t have a single legal system but the laws are broken down into England #038; Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, being part of the EU means that some laws are created in Brussels (anything between 40% and 70%) (Business for Britain. 2015 ). The voting age in the UK is 18 but there is still a campaign from political parties to appeal more to younger voters. At the 2010 general election only 62% of eligible voters aged between 18-25 turned out to vote, compared to 82% for 46-55 and 56-65. Essay Girl! The prime minister is in charge of the British armed forces, and since the start of the century the main foreign conflict has been the wars in Iraq and plan dissertation Afghanistan.
These conflicts along with the EU have been the main focus of the life death experience British foreign policy, recently the government cut the plan droit constitutionnelle size of the armed forces with around 12,000 servicemen and women cut from the forces since 2011 (BBC. 2014). The UK currently holds strong relations with their commonwealth partners, the USA and its partners in the EU, the life after essay “special relationship” with the USA was formed due to both countries fighting on the same side in the first and plan dissertation droit second world war. Brazil has historically been under military dictatorships and has had unstable governments but in 1988 the current Brazilian constitution was founded. The military overthrew the then President Jo??o Goulart in 1964 and ruled Brazil until 1985. (Encyclopedia of the Nations. (2015). Edexcel Past! The military had control over the economy, politics, and media which was all censored. Dissertation Constitutionnelle! The president is the head of state and is elected every four years, a president can only serve in office for two consecutive terms. There is a multi party system in essay water place with the dissertation droit main parties being The Worker’s Party, Brazilian Social Democratic Party and the Brazilian Socialist Party. The most recent election was in October 2014 and it was won by President Dilma Rousseff of the worker’s party against candidate Aecio Neves in a close result of essay water 53% to 47%.
There is three parts to the government system in Brazil, the executive, judicial and legislative, the national congress has the legislative power and droit constitutionnelle the judicial branch is exercised by persuasive essay, the supreme federal tribunal. Brazil’s foreign policy is one which is mainly based around its relations with its neighbours in Latin America and its BRICS partners (China, Russia, India #038; South Africa). Due to its economic boom, Brazil has emerged as an dissertation droit constitutionnelle regional power and plays a large role in things such as security and persuasive economic co-operation. Plan Constitutionnelle! In 1967 Brazil along with its neighbours signed the Treaty of Tlateteco which forbids the use of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean. Last year Brazil also signed the Contingent Reserve Arrangement with its BRICS partners to help each other during any financial difficulties (VI BRICS Summit. (2014). Brazil doesn’t have the high risk of terrorist attacks like other leading western nations but the country still maintains a military which currently has around 330,000 active military personnel. Most of the operations of the armed forces have been domestic operation such as the protection of the Amazon region (GFP. 2015). The main similarities between both countries is that they both have democratically elected systems and both have cabinets which are chosen by the president/prime prime minster, also both have some pressure groups. There is a large disparity between the political systems in gamsat essay questions both countries, Brazil is a constitutional republic whereas the UK has a monarchy, Brazil has historically spent a large amount of time under dictatorships whereas the dissertation droit constitutionnelle UK has always had a electoral system. The UK’s foreign policy is aimed more towards its partners in the EU and edexcel the USA due to trade and military commitments and Brazil’s foreign policy is plan dissertation aimed towards its BRICS partners and its partners in MERCOSUR.
Voting for citizens in Brazil is compulsory from the age of 18, whereas in the UK it is totally optional for all citizens from the age of 18 upwards. In Brazil, presidents are restricted to a fixed presidency of two terms maximum, in the UK there is no restriction to how long a president can serve in office. British culture is a leading national culture all across the world, because of its colonial history its culture can be seen all over the world, for example the persuasive English language has more than 300 million native speakers and the most popular second language in the world (infoplease. (2012). Plan Droit Constitutionnelle! The current population of the UK is roughly 63 million and is a multicultural nation but up until around 50 years it was predominately white British . Since the end of the second world war, a damaged economy and essay infrastructure forced the plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle government to import a workforce from their commonwealth realms. They were mainly from the English speaking Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent combined with other places, this was the first wave of immigration (National archives. Essay Girl Power! (2015). Joining the EU with its free movement of citizens policy has caused another wave of plan dissertation constitutionnelle immigration and with this there has been a change in the demographics. Ethnic minorities now make up 14% of the population of the UK (Office for national statistics . (2011) and this has had a huge effect off the social makeup of the UK. Events such as Notting Hill Carnival and schools allowing time off for religious festivals shows the recognition o these cultures. After Experience! The UK is a country which prides itself on its democratic principles so there is droit no pressure from senior politicians to not celebrate your culture. Due to and assignment, the high number of immigration to the UK over the past 20 years there has been a debate in government and to whether to leave the EU or renegotiate the UK’s membership. Since 1999 net migration to the UK has been over 150,000 every year and last year it was around 300,000 prompting questions about him it will effect public services (Office for national statistics . (2014).
In the UK it is the norm for both men and women to constitutionnelle, go out and work but a large number of people in questions the UK receive social benefits from the government (64% of families receive some sort of payment) (The Guardian. 2013). The government introduced the “bedroom tax” to cut down on dissertation droit benefits but there is still a debate as to whether there should be a cap on the annual figure of handouts or how many kids you can receive benefits for. Collapse! There has also been some controversies such as whether to allow UK citizens who travel to the Middle East to dissertation constitutionnelle, fight against the UK should be let back into the country. Football is by power, far the most popular sport in the UK with each home nation having their own team, other popular sporting events include Wimbledon and track and field with London hosting the last Olympics in 2012. In terms of wealth the UK has a fairly even social structure, the south of England continues to have the highest average wage by region in the country (Office for national statistics . 2014) but there is still a good standard of living in droit other parts of the gamsat country. Brazilian culture is a combination of indigenous, Portuguese and African culture merged into one, the Portuguese culture is the most visible in Brazilian society in areas such as language, religion and some customs. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle! In the Amazon region the indigenous culture is more visible but has now become a minority, the African culture is more prevalent in the state of Bahia with things such as capoeira and and assignment samba (Richard P. Momsen, Jr. Plan Dissertation! 2015) and the European culture can be seen more in the south. Brazil has a population of roughly 200 million and is the most ethnically diverse nation on earth with 43% of persuasive Brazilians identified themselves as mixed in the 2010 government census (BBC. Plan Droit! 2011).
The large diversity of the country comes from the fact that over the past couple of centuries millions of past people have migrated to plan dissertation, Brazil from all over the world but mainly Europe, Japan and West Africa. Family is very important in Brazil and it is life very common for people to live with their parents until they marry. The social structure of Brazil varies from region to region, the South East which includes the states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais is the richest region with the best jobs, school and infrastructure (40% of the plan constitutionnelle population lives here)( IGBE. 2010). Because of these things millions of Brazilians from other regions of the country move here in search of a better life, the North-East region is the most poorest region of the country. This problem is linked to the huge gap between poor and rich in essay water Brazil and plan dissertation droit is one of the many social problems in the country. Practice Questions! (World Bank Group. Constitutionnelle! 2014) Brazil has one of the highest crime rates in essay and assignment the world with 25 homicides per 100,000 people and this is largely to do with drugs (World Bank. 2014). Education in plan dissertation Brazil is also a problem, each state by essay collapse, law has to spend at least a quarter of its budget on education but the difference in wealth between different states means that the quality of education varies by state.
Lack of quality schools means that many kids do not go onto higher education meaning there is a high level of child labour in Brazil (Gary Stahl . Plan! 2014) Corruption is the biggest social problem in Brazil and it is something which is a problem from government level down, Brazil is ranked 69th in water is precious the world for dissertation corruption in 2014 by gamsat, the corruption perceptions index (Transparency International. (2014). There has been common stories of bribes by government officials to people to help them do business easier, Brazil is ranked 120th in the world for doing business by droit, the world bank. This combined with the 2014 Petrobas scandal has caused strong protests in Brazil (BBC. (2015). Comparison of countries. In terms of similarities there isn’t many but both countries have a passion for football which is by far the most popular sport in both countries, also culturally both countries are very western meaning they are more likely to find common ground on certain issues such as social issues. Both countries are very urbanised with most people in both countries living in cities. In terms of differences Brazil has a much larger degree of poverty within the country, a poorer standard of education meaning a unskilled workforce which limits the economy in ways such as what jobs can strive in the country. Both countries also speak different languages (Portuguese and collapse English) which has helped to form the main cultural relations with both countries e.g. commonwealth and MERCSOUR, English overall is the official language of business and with Brazil having a low level of dissertation droit English (ENGLISH PROFICIENCY INDEX. 2015) a lot of work needs to be done to equip its workforce. The UK has a higher rates of migration into the country of around 298,000 a year (Office for national statistics . 2015) whereas Brazil’s has more people leaving the country than coming it.
Future of both countries. Overall the future of both countries depend on different things, Brazil’s future depends internal factors such as if they can stabilize their currency and essay girl power sorting out the corruption and social issues e.g. Dissertation Droit Constitutionnelle! high crime rate. Edexcel Intermediate Papers! Brazil is trying to make use of its large size in ways such as preserving its natural resources and if they can do this without the corruption then the economy can begin to pick back up again. One of the main things which turns potential investors away is the high level of crime and corruption, the country must sort out this issue if it is to match the rates of droit constitutionnelle growth of its BRIC partners. The UK’s future depends on whether they can fully find out their future within the EU which includes things such as immigration, trade laws etc, economically the UK is in a good place but with the constant butting heads over issues such as immigration and the deportation of foreign criminals, relations have been strained. The government cuts have a part to play in power the future of the UK, the military cuts were questioned espically with the threat of ISIS and Argentina’s continuous claims to plan dissertation droit, the Falklands. The NHS budget is also questioned as to if there should or shouldn’t be any cuts to it. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Geography essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to dissertation droit constitutionnelle find a job now than it’s been in essay water is precious, decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for dissertation constitutionnelle, effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of girl dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of dissertation droit CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices.
1. Edexcel Maths Intermediate. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on your desktop. No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and engaging in other overkill tactics.
Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and makes it more difficult to find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. Plan Dissertation. As such, a separate resume should be used for past papers, each job if the required skills, education, and experience are different. At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV. Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to plan be in the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the after experience essay skills, experience, and education of a desired employee, but also the dissertation droit description, expectations, and demands of the maths job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position.
If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the job, you may find information by reviewing the droit website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to show them a picture-perfect employee on paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. You may have to begin at an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and upper management applicants from within. If this is the case, be extremely careful about divulging the collapse extent of dissertation constitutionnelle your education, experience, and salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’. However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and essay girl power, be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and plan dissertation constitutionnelle, promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience.
If you feel the essay and assignment need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on the first page and that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to dissertation droit your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a number of years, try to list only the most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon gamsat practice essay questions, request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is so inclined to read it. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and plan dissertation droit, dazzle of the first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to demonstrate the fact that you’ve had time to and assignment hone those skills, but employers need to know the dissertation capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae. You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out essay collapse of the plan droit constitutionnelle Oxford Dictionary.
Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of concise and relevant information to persuasive and assignment present a snapshot of what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and dissertation droit, other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and applicable skills and job duties with previous employers. If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on life death experience essay the job description by your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. Plan Constitutionnelle. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the maths past same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for plan droit, your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to life after death essay read and make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of plan dissertation your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of collapse information that take up different levels of horizontal space.
For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in plan constitutionnelle, the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in essay water is precious, which my skills and dissertation droit, talents will be utilized and appreciated. Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and water is precious, centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to plan droit your skills. Gamsat. Make a table with 2 columns and dissertation droit, a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). The Communication. Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and your job duties on the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references.
If there is dissertation any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. The Communication Collapse. You can post a sentence on the bottom of plan constitutionnelle your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to girl call contacts from plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the font size of after death your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and dissertation droit constitutionnelle, outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to water an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by dissertation constitutionnelle reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in essay, a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and dissertation droit, conveniently, consider using the life after death experience same name and plan dissertation constitutionnelle, changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the word ‘Company’ with each different place to power which you submit your curriculum.
How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in plan droit, today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the the communication job of their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the dissertation constitutionnelle employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against essay, a poorly written cover letter.
How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and plan droit, double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the life essay guidelines for writing a basic business letter and plan dissertation droit constitutionnelle, be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead.
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Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to girl keep the entire letter under one page. This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. Dissertation Droit. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to gamsat practice essay questions be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to plan go beyond your computer’s spell check and water, grammar check. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at plan constitutionnelle, it with fresh eyes.
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