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Business Plan: Your Financial Plan. The financial part of environmental pollution essay, a business plan includes various financial statements that show where your company currently stands and where it expects to introductory koch be in the near future. This information helps you determine how much financing your business needs and environmental pollution causes essay, helps outsiders determine whether lending you money or investing in nacac essay your business is a wise use of their funds. Lenders and causes and effects essay, investors will expect that you have invested your own money in essay on composition the firm to demonstrate that you are committed to your idea and confident that your business will succeed. And Effects! The amount of how to an application essay for a, your own money you will need to have invested in pollution causes and effects the business compared to nacac essay the amount you want to finance varies, but it usually ranges from 20% to 50%. Environmental Pollution And Effects Essay! You must also determine what type of financing would be most suitable for your business. Banks offer several types of ppt. defense, loans to businesses that do not present too much risk. Do you need a short-term working capital loan to increase your inventory?
Do you want a transaction loan, where you receive all the money at once, or a line of credit, where you draw on funds as you need them? Do you need an essay, intermediate-term loan to purchase larger assets such as real estate or equipment? Would you prefer revolving credit, which has a longer time frame than a line of credit and allows you to re-borrow funds that you have previously paid back? Or are you a high-risk business that needs to jump through the extra hoops required to secure a government-backed Small Business Administration loan? (See Expanding Your Small Business with an SBA Loan .) Structuring Your Financial Plan. Begin your financial plan with information on where your firm stands financially at the end of the most recent quarter what its financial situation has looked like historically. Then lay out your goals with financial projections for the next three to five years, depending on write an application essay what lenders or investors have asked for.
These are called pro forma statements, and they are based on your assumptions about how your business will perform. Your one-year projections should be broken down by month, while your more distant projections can be broken down by environmental pollution essay, year. If your business plan is for cruel thesis, the expansion of an existing business, your statements will be based on your business's existing financial data. If your business is new, your statements will be speculative, but you can make them realistic by basing them on the published financial statements of existing businesses similar to yours. If you can’t find this data on pollution causes essay your own or if it simply doesn’t exist because your business concept is too unique or all similar companies are privately held, look for oral, an accountant who has experience working with businesses similar to environmental pollution and effects essay yours and how to an application for a job, can help you create realistic financial projections. Three Key Financial Statements. Your financial plan should include three key financial statements: the income statement, the environmental pollution causes and effects, balance sheet and how to write essay, the cash flow statement. Let's look at what each statement is and why you need it. And Effects Essay! The income statement, also called the profit and loss statement or PL, summarizes your company's revenue and expenses. Legal Essays! Revenues are your company's sales and/or other sources of income (for example, a cleaning business earns revenues from the hourly or per-room or per-home fee that it charges its clients; a grocery store earns revenue from the pollution causes, foods and other products and services it sells. Expenses include items such as the cost of goods sold (the money you spend buying produce, meat and dairy from local farmers, for example) payroll for criteria, employees, payroll, sales and income taxes, business insurance and loan interest.
The bottom line of the income statement shows the company's net income, or its revenue minus expenses. Lenders and investors want to know what kind of numbers your company is working with and whether your company is environmental causes and effects essay profitable or expects to be soon. (To learn more, read Understanding The Income Statement .) Balance Sheet. The balance sheet shows your company's assets and liabilities. It's called a balance sheet because the nacac essay, assets must perfectly balance the environmental causes and effects essay, liabilities. Within each category are numerous subcategories. For example, your assets will include cash, accounts receivable, inventory and ppt. oral, equipment. Your liabilities will include accounts payable, wages and salaries, taxes, rent and utilities, and loan balances.
The balance sheet is important because it shows the company's financial position at a specific point in time, and it compares what you own to what you owe. (For more information, see Reading The Balance Sheet .) Cash Flow Statement/Cash Budget. The cash flow statement shows the sums you expect to be coming into environmental pollution and effects and going out of write an application for a, your business in a given time frame. Topics you'll need to examine to causes predict cash flow include sales forecasts, cash receipts vs. credit receipts and an application for a, the time frame for environmental pollution, collecting accounts receivable. How much will these expenses be, and dissertation defense, how often will you need to pay them? Will you have trade credit, and how long will you have to pay your suppliers? Cash flow statements not only show potential investors that you know what you're doing, they also help you to make sure your business model is financially viable and to establish goals that you want to achieve. (For more on pollution essay this subject, check out What Is A Cash Flow Statement? and The Essentials Of Cash Flow .) Your financial statements should show both a long- and short-term vision for your business.
In business plans, three-year and five-year projections are considered long term, and your plan will be expected to cover at least three years. Dissertation Defense! Your projections should be neither overly optimistic best-case scenarios, nor overly cautious worst-case scenarios, but realistic in-between projections that you can support. Causes! Don’t commit the common error of making hockey-stick projections that predict sudden, sharp growth – that’s a classic way to look like an essays, amateur. And Effects! (For further reading, see What You Need To Know About Financial Statements and our in-depth Financial Statements Tutorial .) Lenders may want your statements presented in a certain way, so ask before you draw them up. A bank, for example, may want to see monthly projections for ppt., the first year, quarterly projections for the second year and annual projections for the third year. In addition to financial statements for your company, if you are a new business, you may need to provide personal financial statements for each owner. These statements should list each owner’s assets, such as checking and savings account balances, stocks and bonds, retirement account balances and home equity, as well as liabilities such as mortgages, student loans, taxes owed and other debts. When you put together your financial statements, make sure there are absolutely no typos or mistakes in your calculations. Causes And Effects Essay! If you are inexperienced in ppt. preparing these statements, hire an causes, accountant to help you. Even if you and all of your business partners know exactly what you are doing, you may still want to hire an unbiased, outside professional to check your work and oral defense, give you a second opinion on whether your projects are realistic. You don't want to be blindsided by mistakes or problems in your financial statements when a potential lender or investor reviews your proposal.
What You Can Learn from environmental pollution, Your Financial Statements. While the financial statements are helpful in how to write an application for a and of themselves, the pollution causes and effects, data they contain can also be used to calculate financial ratios such as gross profit margin, return on investment and return on owner's equity. Ratios provide helpful information about a company's liquidity, profitability, debt, operating performance, cash flow and investment valuation. (Learn more about financial ratios in our Financial Ratio Tutorial .) Additional Financial Information. In addition to legal financial statements, prospective lenders or investors will also want to see a sales forecast and, if your business will have employees, a personnel plan. The sales forecast is pollution causes and effects a chart that breaks down how much your business expects to ib extended essay criteria sell in and effects various categories by month (for the dissertation oral, next year) and by year (for the following two to four years). For a cleaning service business, the essay, sales forecast might list one-time cleanings, monthly cleaning contracts and annual cleaning contracts and further break those down by houses, condos, apartment units, entire apartment buildings and office buildings. For a grocery store, the sales forecast might list projected sales of fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, seafood, packaged goods and essay, hot prepared meals. If your business sells a product, your sales forecast should include the cost of goods sold. If your business will have employees and not just managers, you will need a personnel plan showing what types of environmental pollution and effects essay, employees you will have (for example, cashiers, butchers, drivers, stockers and cooks along with what they will cost in terms of salary and wages, health insurance, retirement plan contributions, workers compensation insurance, unemployment insurance, and Social Security and Medicare taxes. Use of Loan or Investment Capital.
You’ve made a strong case for your business idea, its viability and your ability to execute it. So how, exactly, do you plan to model use any money that lenders or investors offer you? They’ll want to know. If you’re requesting a $100,000 loan, for example, you might break that down into the amount that will go toward equipment such as cash registers, shelving and pollution causes and effects, refrigerated display cases; purchasing inventory; and carrying out essays your marketing campaign. If you’re seeking capital to expand your business, you might show how much you plan to spend on pollution and effects remodeling or adding store locations. Essay! Proposed Repayment Schedule or Exit Strategy. Potential lenders will want to know how and when you intend to repay the loan or line of credit, so you should put together a proposed repayment schedule and terms. They may not agree with your suggestion, but offering proposed terms shows that you are considering the environmental and effects, loan from the lender's perspective.
Also describe what collateral is available to secure the nacac essay, loan, such as inventory, accounts receivable, real estate, vehicles or equipment. Be aware that lenders do not count the full value of environmental pollution and effects, your collateral, and each lender may count a different percentage. Potential investors will want to know when their investment will pay off and how much of a return to expect. They will also want to defense see that you have an exit strategy to cash out on your investment and theirs. Do you plan to sell the business outright to another individual or company? Hold an initial public offering and go public?
What will your exit strategy be if the causes and effects, business is failing? At what point have you determined that you will cut your losses and introductory, sell or close down, and causes, how will you repay investors if this happens? (See Top Exit Strategy Tips for Small Businesses and A Look At Exit Strategies .) Remember, no one has to lend you any money or invest in nacac essay your company, and when they are considering doing so, they will be comparing the risk and return of working with you to environmental pollution the risk and dissertation, return they could get from environmental pollution and effects essay, lending to or investing in nacac essay other companies. You have to convince them that your business is the most promising option.
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Types Of Pollution And Their Effects …
oedipus essay fate Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects? I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to ppt. oral sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the pollution and effects King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about model essays tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.
Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to pollution and effects essay the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is model legal essays true, or whether he believed it, are for you to and effects decide.
Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. Defense? This explains the essay nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. Ib Extended Abstract Criteria? The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and pollution and effects essay, queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Abstract Criteria? To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.
In those days, it was usual to leave an environmental and effects unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. Cruel Thesis Rei Asuka Misato? (Don't worry about environmental causes and effects essay why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. Angel Thesis Misato? It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to and effects confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the how to for a baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. Causes Essay? (Corinth reappears in nacac essay, the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of causes and effects essay their own.
So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. How To Write For A Job? Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. Pollution Causes? But this is a folk tale.)
Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. Dissertation? In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over causes and effects, Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the dissertation oral town of pollution essay Thebes, and he was made king. Ppt. Defense? (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is environmental pollution causes essay a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and model legal essays, they had four children.
Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the causes essay gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for nacac essay an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus.
I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to essay illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of model legal essays pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed.
If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to pollution causes come. Koch? Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of environmental pollution and effects essay gurus, society, and introductory essay, circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the environmental essay story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below.
Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague.
People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of how to write for a job supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to environmental pollution causes essay be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and legal essays, that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). And Effects Essay? People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about ib extended essay abstract criteria unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into essay battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the cruel angel rei asuka misato bullet has your name on it, you will die.
This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and causes and effects essay, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Nacac Essay? In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is pollution sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of angel thesis mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in causes essay, this. He could not believe that he was loved by introductory on composition God as His creation, or loved by God for environmental and effects essay the sake of nacac essay Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Environmental Pollution And Effects? Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.
So Christians have argued about cruel angel rei asuka predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to pollution causes and effects essay be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Essay Koch? If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the pollution essay implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam.
Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and model legal, people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on causes, hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of an application Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and environmental causes and effects essay, need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Model? Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in pollution causes and effects, karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination.
The former is nacac essay a character study, and environmental and effects essay, the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about legal essays predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and and effects, an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of nacac essay fiction. Although the vast majority of environmental pollution psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the cruel angel thesis physicists' model of the pollution causes world. Legal? At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. Pollution And Effects? If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about essay abstract criteria which side to environmental causes and effects take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will.
In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for nacac essay the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and pollution causes, wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the nacac essay most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of environmental causes and effects predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the dissertation New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and environmental causes, look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the essay koch foundation of the environmental world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation.
Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of how to an application Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Pollution And Effects? Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is dissertation defense full of succinct observations on life.
And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to essay make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the how to an application for a job consent of the people. As the play opens, the causes and effects priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. Legal Essays? It was evidently the environmental and effects custom to legal do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. Environmental Causes Essay? The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from koch a plague. Plants, animals, and environmental pollution and effects, people are all dying.
The people know Oedipus is dissertation defense not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an environmental pollution answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to an application for a job do whatever the oracle says.
Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the environmental and effects essay killer of Laius must be found and banished, and misato, the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the environmental causes killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. Introductory On Composition? (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the environmental pollution essay bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the dissertation sphinx problem. One of pollution causes Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from ib extended Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer.
The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the pollution causes evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to nacac essay leave the and effects essay city permanently. On the nacac essay other hand, if anyone conceals the causes and effects killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Nacac Essay? Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and causes and effects essay, say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in model legal essays, the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias.
As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Causes Essay? Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is how to job You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again.
Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the environmental and effects essay killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on model legal, his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in environmental and effects, cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of on composition koch a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the environmental pollution sphinx problem. Nacac Essay? The Chorus tells both men to environmental pollution cool down. Cruel Rei Asuka Misato? Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at and effects, Delphi, which was supposedly the nacac essay center of the world.
Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts.
The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by environmental pollution causes a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Ppt. Dissertation Oral Defense? Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the essay killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony.
Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for introductory essay on composition treason. Environmental Causes And Effects Essay? The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about abstract criteria what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to pollution and effects ask about an application things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods.
And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. Pollution And Effects Essay? And it happened just before you solved the thesis misato riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is environmental causes and effects essay upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description.
Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and thesis rei asuka misato, Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.
Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in and effects, the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus.
Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the ib extended criteria leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is environmental causes devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife.
Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the how to essay job city, now, and let the plague end. Causes And Effects? He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in how to write an application essay, psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of environmental pollution causes his own child.
The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the model legal essays gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in causes, oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the model legal local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. Pollution Causes? He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to nacac essay Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to environmental causes and effects essay be their new king. Write? (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Pollution Causes? And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void.
You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for introductory essay on composition my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.
Life is governed by pollution causes and effects essay chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about angel thesis marrying your mother. Environmental Pollution Essay? You should ignore dreams. Nacac Essay? Oedipus is environmental pollution causes and effects still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and legal essays, learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to pollution causes essay raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to ib extended abstract criteria clear this up.
Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Pollution And Effects Essay? Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on ppt., getting to environmental and effects essay the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the on composition heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Environmental Pollution Causes Essay? Irony.
The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and ib extended essay abstract criteria, of the environmental causes woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and ppt. defense, pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth.
It comes out. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the pollution causes and effects essay truth. Oedipus rushes out.
The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. Ppt. Oral? She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the environmental pollution and effects essay door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress.
He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and model essays, he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. Pollution Causes And Effects Essay? The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the an application city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.
He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to pollution causes and effects essay the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the ib extended Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is pollution causes essay fortunate until that person is ppt. dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to environmental causes Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for introductory koch material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience.
In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in environmental pollution causes, the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the cruel angel misato question is whether the pollution and effects Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by nacac essay any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?
The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and and effects, Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. How To An Application Essay For A Job? At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the environmental killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to ib extended essay abstract carve his own eyes out of pollution causes essay their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the essay abstract end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Causes And Effects? Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for essay on composition koch thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in environmental and effects, their mythology.
Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the ppt. dissertation defense gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the causes essay minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in cruel angel misato, Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is environmental causes essay much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is defense saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Pollution Causes And Effects? Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to essay on composition talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the environmental Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater.
Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and write essay job, these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and pollution and effects essay, badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. Model? It is the same in environmental pollution causes and effects, painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for legal realism. Aristotle continues.
The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on pollution essay, to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to ib extended abstract recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.
The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of pollution famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the nacac essay successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in pollution and effects essay, his era. He tells about its origins in how to write an application essay for a, improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and pollution causes essay, assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into ppt. the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of environmental causes and effects artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters.
Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the how to an application essay for a job one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the pollution business that has caused all the trouble. Defense? Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for pollution and effects a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). Angel? You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of and effects essay drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be.
Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the nacac essay poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is environmental causes and effects essay missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Introductory? Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life.
Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to pollution causes and effects study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. Model Essays? I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of environmental and effects its impact from cruel angel rei asuka misato its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of environmental pollution causes and effects essay human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the nacac essay end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and environmental and effects essay, Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for ib extended essay abstract criteria teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents.
And love gives happiness and dignity even in essay, the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the how to write an application for a job idea that unselfish human love can, at environmental and effects, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is cruel angel thesis rei asuka misato best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from environmental pollution essay mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of model essays Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him.
Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in environmental pollution causes essay, them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Thesis Rei Asuka? Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us.
Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from pollution adversity to prosperity: for ib extended essay abstract nothing can be more alien to the spirit of causes Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Angel Thesis Rei Asuka? Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of causes this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is model aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by environmental pollution causes essay the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. Essay Abstract Criteria? There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Pollution Causes And Effects Essay? He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and ib extended essay abstract, Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and and effects essay, is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain.
The change of fortune should be not from write an application essay job bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the environmental pollution and effects result not of dissertation vice, but of environmental causes and effects essay some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is essay referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Environmental Pollution Causes? Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the how to essay job second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of environmental causes and effects essay plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. Koch? It is accounted the causes and effects essay best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience.
The pleasure, however, thence derived is introductory not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to pollution causes and effects essay make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by ib extended essay abstract criteria spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the environmental better way, and indicates a superior poet. Oral Defense? For the environmental and effects plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the cruel angel thesis misato eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to essay pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on.
Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. Ppt. Oral? The killer may or may not know what he/she is essay doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the for a job King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at.
First, and most important, it must be good. Causes? Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of nacac essay any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the causes purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at model essays, is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV.
We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and pollution causes, classism. But the introductory essay on composition truth is that on environmental essay, the Greek stage, the model women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the environmental pollution causes men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on essays, to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in environmental pollution essay, life, and essay for a job, that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the and effects essay story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and abstract criteria, Thought, the other parts of environmental essay Tragedy having been already discussed. Abstract? Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the environmental pollution causes subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to introductory koch be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the pollution causes and effects essay feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Ppt. Dissertation Oral Defense? Now, it is pollution causes and effects evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the cruel angel thesis rei asuka dramatic speeches, when the object is to environmental pollution causes and effects essay evoke the sense of write an application essay for a pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are.
In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the and effects essay thing is, applies to tales about the gods. Cruel Angel Thesis Rei Asuka Misato? It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Pollution And Effects Essay? Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are.
Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Nacac Essay? Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by environmental pollution causes and effects contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to dissertation oral defense tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to environmental pollution a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.
This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Model Legal Essays? He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and environmental pollution essay, purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to nacac essay be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to causes essay a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to koch promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to environmental pollution causes essay be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris.
In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the nacac essay murderess gets the victim to environmental causes and effects essay do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to dissertation oral gain public support after the murder. Environmental And Effects Essay? Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to introductory essay on composition generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in environmental pollution and effects, Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on nacac essay, the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. Environmental And Effects? (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life.
If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and nacac essay, now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to and effects essay very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and essay, your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to environmental pollution causes and effects essay cry.
But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from how to write for a job a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of environmental pollution causes and effects ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the cruel thesis misato truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for and effects essay the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the write an application for a job truth about nature, and about themselves. It is environmental pollution causes and effects essay a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.
Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and nacac essay, like the comedies of Aristophanes and environmental pollution causes and effects essay, Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on angel thesis rei asuka misato, us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in essay, church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. Ppt. Defense? (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of pollution and effects Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is model essays more than there appears to be.
They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in environmental pollution causes and effects, the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and essay abstract criteria, accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr.
Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the pollution causes belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the oral future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Environmental Pollution Causes? Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is introductory on composition koch now down.
University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in and effects essay, this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. Introductory Essay On Composition? The writer is fair enough to and effects essay point out job, that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for environmental pollution and effects essay yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to an application job the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is environmental and effects his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. Nacac Essay? [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to environmental pollution causes and effects essay find one.
The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. Ppt. Dissertation? In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and pollution and effects, Medieval Philosophy.
Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to cruel thesis rei asuka misato Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is pollution causes essay folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the nacac essay truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and environmental pollution causes essay, the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines.
You'll have to decide for yourself about nacac essay this. Pollution And Effects? But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to nacac essay write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to pollution and effects essay begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and nacac essay, you turn in a paper that you took for environmental causes free off the web, you will be caught.
Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about nacac essay being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. Environmental And Effects? That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in how to an application essay, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to and effects be a challenge to nacac essay his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is environmental pollution causes and effects essay classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Thesis? Maybe this is more about environmental causes and effects essay Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept.
2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from legal essays there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to pollution essay protect fragile bits of movable type. Essay Koch? My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in pollution and effects essay, class or at introductory koch, your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by pollution causes and effects any means.
The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to introductory koch work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by environmental pollution causes and effects essay Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from an application essay for a job http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is causes and effects essay probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people?
And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the write for a job gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in environmental essay, the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. Nacac Essay? It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is environmental pollution causes and effects essay a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the dissertation defense falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc.
If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out causes, how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in angel rei asuka, its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the causes different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of nacac essay thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy.
This isn't right, but it's a fact of environmental and effects life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of model legal Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and pollution causes essay, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is abstract right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in pollution, assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is write over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the causes and effects essay need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in how to essay for a job, spectacular contrast to and effects essay the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about ib extended criteria Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for environmental causes and effects a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and on composition, human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)
Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. Causes Essay? I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about ib extended essay abstract classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. Environmental? If you have no case, shout hybris . Angel Rei Asuka Misato? If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of pollution causes and effects essay free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and how to essay job, friendship! This isn't the environmental and effects first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why.
In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias.
But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the model legal best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to environmental and effects buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from nacac essay a lot of environmental causes wasted time. It's a shame.
This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. Misato? If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. Environmental Pollution Causes? 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to how to write for a see the author's friend, Dr.
Ken Savage, do it right.
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Environmental Pollution Cause and …
The Manifesto of Ascendancy for the Modern American Nigger. For eleven days in 2001, two blacks ran our country. It's their example and their achievement—and not the culture of pollution causes failure fomented by the leftovers of the Movement—that must set a new agenda for black Americans. UPDATE: Read the Original Response to how to an application essay for a This Story, from 2007. Published in the December 2006 issue. LET ME TELL YOU SOMETHING ABOUT NIGGERS, the environmental pollution causes and effects oppressed minority within our minority. Always down. Legal Essays! Always out. Always complaining that they can't catch a break.
Notoriously poor about environmental and effects essay, doing for themselves. Constantly in need of a leader but unable to follow in any direction that's navigated by model essays hard work, self-reliance. And though they spliff and drink and pollution, procreate their way onto welfare doles and nacac essay, WIC lines, niggers will tell you their state of being is essay no fault of their own. They are not responsible for their nearly 5 percent incarceration rate and introductory koch, their 9.2 percent unemployment rate. Not responsible for the 11.8 percent rate at which they drop out of high school. For the 69.3 percent of births they create out of wedlock. Now, let me tell you something about pollution causes and effects essay, my generation of black Americans. Essay Abstract Criteria! We are the inheritors of the Deal forced upon the entrenched white social, political, and legal establishment when my parents' generation won the struggle for civil rights. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects! The Deal: We (blacks) take what is rightfully ours and you (the afore-described establishment) get citizens who will invest the same energy and dedication into nacac essay raising families and working hard and being all around good people as was invested in snapping the neck of Jim Crow. In the forty years since the causes and effects essay Deal was brokered, since the Voting Rights Act was signed, there have been successes for blacks. But there are still too many blacks in ib extended abstract criteria prison, too many kids aggrandizing the thug life, and way too many African-Americans doing far too little with the and effects essay opportunities others earned for them.
If we as a race could win the centuries-long war against institutionalized racism, why is it that so many of us cannot secure the advantage after decades of freedom? That which retards us is the worst of thesis us, those who disdain actual ascendancy gained by environmental pollution causes and effects way of intellectual expansion and physical toil—who instead value the posture of an urban, a street, a real existence, no matter that such a culture threatens to render them extinct. Them being niggers. I have no qualm about using the word nigger. Nacac Essay! It is a word. It is in the English lexicon, and no amount of political correctness, no amputation into the n -word—as if by the castration of environmental pollution essay a few letters we should then be able to conceptualize its meaning without feeling its sting—will remove it from reality.
So I say this: It's time for ascended blacks to model wish niggers good luck. Just as whites may be concerned with the good of all citizens but don't travel their days worrying specifically about the well-being of hillbillies from Appalachia, we need to send niggers on their way. We need to start extolling the most virtuous of pollution causes and effects essay ourselves. It is time to celebrate the New Black Americans—those who have sealed the Deal, who aren't beholden to liberal indulgence any more than they are to the disdain of the hard Right. It is criteria time to praise blacks who are merely undeniable in their individuality and pollution and effects, exemplary in nacac essay their levels of achievement.
This, then, is how the praise begins. Environmental Pollution Causes! We need to burn into our collective memory the event that marked the beginning of our new timeline: an event from introductory early in this millennium that seemed, for its moment in time, auspicious but that is now all but forgotten. It was lost in the ash of fires in Over-the-Rhine. Buried in pollution causes and effects the rubble of 9/11. But I for one will not let it go, won't let it get dumped into a potter's field of U. S. politics. Essay Koch! It was too important. Far too significant. Environmental And Effects Essay! It was eleven days when two blacks ran America.
IF THE SITUATION were just slightly altered, Condoleezza Rice might have been, and would have made, a better Mrs. Cruel Angel! George W. Bush than the current Mrs. George W. Bush. Same as George, Condi's politics are right. Environmental Essay! Her worldview is faith based, courtesy of her reverend pops. Ib Extended Criteria! A protA f A©gA f A©e of Brent Scowcroft's, she served as a special assistant for environmental pollution causes and effects, national-security affairs to George H. W. Bush, so she was preapproved by Dad.
And should anyone posit that a woman of color would not be welcome to Thanksgiving dinner in cruel thesis misato Kennebunkport, well, Bush brother Jeb had married himself a minority, so even that trail was previously blazed. But for G. Essay! B. the second, much to his credit, his interest in Condi was less about her being a woman, let alone a black woman, and more about her being an introductory essay on composition accomplished individual. And Dr. Condi is accomplished as hell: a Ph.D. in and effects essay poli-sci from the University of Denver. Former provost of Stanford.
At thirty-five, barely a kid in essay for a job Washington years, she was a staffer at the National Security Council. Pollution Essay! She came onto the foreign-policy train wreck that was the early days of G. W. Bush's 2000 campaign. Helped mold his malapropism-afflicted worldview into a demicoherent one. After the certification of Bush's election, Dr. Condi got herself easily appointed as national-security advisor. Firsts all the way around. Black America should have been singing hosannas. But Condi was Republican. So never mind. Never mind she'd spent a lifetime facing down racism.
Born in Birmingham at the peak of race hate, Condi was a schoolmate of Denise McNair, one of the four little girls bombed to death in September of '63 at the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church. Ib Extended! Niggers and old-school shines couldn't abide her. Same as with Clarence Thomas, they let her politics obfuscate her accomplishments. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects Essay! They stamped her: Not Officially Black. Bloggers tagged her a Sally Hemings for the Twenty-first Century. Left-leaning pundits smeared her with the slurs Aunt Jemima and brown sugar. Julian Bond, reaching deep into the old-school bag of tricks, turned to rhyme to asperse Dr. Rice's authenticity: Just because they are your skin folks, doesn't mean they're your kinfolks. Then they went back to how to essay entertaining themselves with another Wayans-brothers movie.
As NSA and confidante, Dr. Condi was with Bush and the real Mrs. Bush as they took some time with an environmental causes and effects old Yale buddy at ib extended essay criteria, Camp David on the last weekend in essay March of 2001. Nine-fifteen P.M. on the thirty-first. They got the defense call. Environmental And Effects Essay! A U. S. EP-3E signals recon plane had literally gotten into a tangle with a People's Liberation Army (read that: Chinese) J-8 interceptor jet off the coast of ib extended essay criteria China. Environmental And Effects Essay! The Chinese jet got shredded by the EP-3E's prop. The American plane, with a crew of twenty-four, was badly damaged. The Chinese jet went down, the pilot most likely killed. The U. S. Ib Extended Essay Abstract Criteria! pilot did better.
Managed to land the FUBAR American plane. But he landed the plane on the island of pollution causes and effects Hainan. Cruel Thesis! Chinese territory. And the Chinese claimed that the Americans had been spying over what were sovereign waters. And the Chinese claimed the plane had landed without permission. And its taillights were out.
From the get, this was stacking up to be a slightly dicey situation—China being in pollution causes and effects possession of twenty-four American servicemen and nacac essay, women and causes, one of our top-tier surveillance planes (and the appropriate U. S. spokespeople went out of their way to note that it was a surveillance plane, not a spy plane). The People's Republic wasn't exactly our enemy, but it was hardly our close bud, either. Coming into the White House, following the domestic Chinese-spy-scandal scare of the late nineties, Bush had shifted the rhetoric re: China. Had dropped the Clinton-era designation of China as a strategic partner for abstract criteria, the tough-talk appellation of strategic competitor. The actual meaning of strategic competitor no one in the administration has ever tried to explain, but it struck the appropriately tough-talk chord in the new president's neoconservative base. Though such tough talk ignored the fact that China was a major trading partner that was doing $116 billion in annual business with the pollution U. S., in millennium bucks. So, then, here was the crux of BushCo's first international incident: Having swung his meat at China, Bush now very much had to be diplomatically shrewd while looking domestically strong in dealing with our strategic competitor.
This clearly required high-mindedness. Bush turned the situation over to the highest mind on his team: Dr. Condi. Condi was a Russia expert. Wasn't this—this Hainan Incident—just some modern-day old-school commie-era nonsense? But that decision, right and how to an application essay for a job, plain as it seemed, set up the pollution causes real conflict of the event. That conflict would not turn out to be the obvious one—U. S. versus China.
It would be us, elevated blacks, versus them, those who not only hold little regard for people of color but who wish to make niggers of us all. DICK CHENEY and Donald Rumsfeld were, are, old-school relics. Political leftovers of the Nixon-Ford years, they are the ib extended essay Retro Guard, sporting metaphorical wide ties emblematic of the '72 landslide. To appease the base, Bush had given such men seats at his otherwise progressive table. Wedging them in created multiple fractures across the administration. From the jump, it would be the old against the new. Causes And Effects! War hawks against moderates. Those who thought the model essays republic was best governed in secrecy and shadow against those who recalled that the preamble to the Constitution is We the People, not Us the Government.
The administration was a case study in unified independence, a group working toward separate objectives rather than individuals working as a team. Cheney and Rumsfeld fronted the hard line of the Hainan Incident—the cadre who saw little to no value in environmental pollution causes and effects essay talk and diplomacy and wanted to get with the figurative nuclear option quick as possible. It was against such a mind-set as much as the Chinese government that Condi would have to navigate. But she would not have to ib extended essay abstract wield her intellect solo. COLIN POWELL was the undisputed superstar of American politics. His bio was bulletproof. His bona fides undeniable: service in 'Nam. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs.
Part of the team that cruised to victory in and effects Gulf War I. Dissertation! Author of the pollution and effects essay Powell Doctrine, which states that overwhelming force makes an enemy your bee-yotch. When he quit the military, real quick Powell became the Get. Both parties wanted to snag him, wag him from their standard. Powell went right. Predictably, niggers immediately abandoned him. How could any self-respecting black man want to ppt. defense run from the Liberal Plantation?
Never mind that he was a self-made modern American hero who openly espoused the value of affirmative action. Old-schoolers tagged Powell with the usual left-wing racist jabber. Powell was a sellout. In a particularly ugly rant, Harry Belafonte infamously alluded to Powell as being a house nigger. At every opportunity, Powell was hit up with the invectives reserved for black men who succeed by pollution essay way of intelligence and ppt. dissertation oral defense, hard work. Environmental Causes! (How ironic that while the Left attempted to subjugate Powell with the bullwhip of liberal racism, Bush, who later would be accused by Kanye West of hating blacks, somehow managed to see in Powell a sovereign black man.) As secretary of state in G. W. Nacac Essay! B.'s first term, Powell would spearhead communications with China during the Hainan Incident while Rice would be the conduit through which all information would flow to the president. Dr. Condi and Colin. THE ADMINISTRATION went into environmental pollution causes essay the Hainan situation thinking the China incident would go down like this: We make denials; they make demands. There's a shadow deal that gets us back our boys and toys in exchange for some tractors and cruel rei asuka, a few bushels of wheat. But this wasn't 1957.
The Chinese weren't a superpower dying on the vine. They were more concerned about getting their international propers than they were about quid pro quo. Pollution And Effects Essay! And respect had been a long time coming from the U. S. How To Write An Application Essay! Most Chinese citizens recalled G. H. W. Environmental Essay! Bush being an apologist for the Deng regime after the Tiananmen Square crackdown. And then there was us dropping a bomb right down the Chinese embassy's smokestack in Belgrade during the air war over ppt. dissertation, Kosovo. And, you know, there was that strategic partner/strategic competitor thing. But Dr. Condi and Colin strategized, surmised that all China was looking for was some contrition. A little humility. Secure in the knowledge that offering regret is different from environmental pollution causes essay taking blame, they figured they could show some remorse for the Chinese pilot without turning all of America into a weak sister weeping like she'd just messed her best Sunday dress. Just give a My bad and oral, get the crew home. Dr.
Condi and Colin would not im-mediately get the chance to test their strategy. Forty-eight hours after the environmental pollution and effects essay American plane went down, after just two days of silence from China, the far-right hard-liners lost whatever patience they owned. What little confidence they had that Rice and Powell could end the situation quickly dissipated like a brief, bad smell. Diplomacy was boring and time-consuming and nacac essay, rarely came with the requisite display of essay machismo. Though delicatesse was the smarter play over sanctions, all the Retro Guard cared about was keeping Bush, just twelve weeks in Washington, from looking like Jimmy Carter on, say, day 239 of 444 of the angel thesis rei asuka Iranian-hostage thing. Sabers got rattled. Environmental Causes! Tact got kicked to the curb. Cheney stomped around Washington doing a public nix on how to write an application essay for a job, expressing any regret. Environmental Pollution And Effects! Insisted being American meant never having to say you're sorry. Illinois representative Henry Hyde—who is chairman of the House International Relations Committee—referred to the U. Write Job! S. crew as hostages, which put an ugly public spin on the benign truth. Was consciously counter to Powell's assessment that the crew was merely being detained.
Bush, feeling the pressure to back up all his preelection rhetoric, flinched. Or blinked, in the pop-culture sense of making a quick decision based on suspect intelligence. In a Rose Garden appearance, a hardened Bush excoriated the Chinese for pollution and effects essay, not doing the right thing. How To Write For A! Insisted that now it is time for environmental pollution causes essay, our servicemen and women to return home. These were, politically, cold assertions. The hollaback was equally frosty. A day later, Chinese president Jiang Zemin finally responded. Essay! Zemin wanted nothing less than total kowtowing.
Wanted the U. S. to bear all responsibilities for the collision. Wanted an apology. Wanted concessions. Wanted the U. S. to quit its spy flights along the China coast. Forever. And it got real clear the circumstances might not now resolve themselves in causes essay a timely manner. Just a few words.
A few words choreographed to create some tough-guy theatrics from Bush and the situation had devolved from essay on composition koch incident to standoff. And the environmental pollution loud-voiced whispers as to whether Bush had what it took to be a world leader began. Diplomacy was needed. Smarts. Ppt.! Intellect and canny. Bush made another decision.
No blink involved. Environmental Pollution And Effects! As The Washington Post reported, the way forward was made emphatic to all concerned: No more useless posturing. No more Independent Unity. Cheney was sent out to stump for the tax cuts Bush was shilling. And while Rumsfeld claimed to support the shift toward diplomacy, truthfully he was flatly told to introductory essay butt out. Dr. Condi and Colin would be given free rein. The moderates had won round one of the administration wars. And for the first time in the history of the U. S.—a history of slavery, of abandoned Reconstruction, overt Jim Crow, and environmental, covert soft bigotry—a black woman and a black man were in the position of speaking for America to the world.
We, collectively—not just black America but all of America that truly bought into the bromides of liberty and justice for all—we had risen. The accomplishment was unmistakable. For seven days running, in dissertation oral defense the written press and the international media, and causes and effects, doing the rounds in the 24/7 cable-news meat grinder, it was Condi and Colin. They pulled the administration out of a Retro Guard—dug hole. Projected calm and rationality, where just prior there was only ego. Sticking with their game plan to double-team with poise and savoir faire, they expressed regret over the loss of the Chinese pilot. Powell followed up his public statements with an international sympathy card sent to introductory the Chinese: a regret letter of his own. Simultaneously, Condi counseled the president to display some humanity. Environmental Essay! Bush made a public statement that he was sending his prayers to the dead Chinese pilot and his family.
By Thursday, April 5, the Chinese foreign ministry, if not quite ready to sing kumbayas, acknowledged the U. Ib Extended Essay Criteria! S.'s new moves were a step in the right direction. At the same time, Powell came with another, stronger statement of lament re: the environmental and effects Chinese pilot's death. And contrary to the hawks' beliefs, the heavens didn't open and the stock market didn't drop and the commies weren't turning our wives and daughters into pleasure girls. But twenty-four servicemen and women were that much closer to coming home. So close the scavengers could pick up the model legal stink of imminent triumph. Around they came, real late in environmental pollution essay the game, looking to gain some stature by dissertation oral defense glomming on to the accomplishments of others. Jesse Jackson came knocking.
Jesse Jackson, who is president of the Rainbow PUSH Coalition. He put in a call to Powell offering help. Offering to add an ecumenical religious component to Powell's efforts. It was really just Jesse looking to environmental causes shine up his image. It'd been just months since he'd been outed as having fathered a kid with the ib extended essay former head of the Rainbow Coalition's Washington, D. C., office, then given the girl tens of thousands of dollars from the Rainbow PUSH coffers as shut up/go away money. Not sure if that's the ecumenical religious component Jesse had wanted to add to the standoff. Powell smartly gave Jesse the go-by.
Jesse and pollution essay, his old-school ways, even if they hadn't been offered belatedly and with self-service, were of no use to introductory koch the New Black American. Victory was at hand. The U. S. crewmen were just days and an official letter of regret to the Chinese government away from returning home. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects Essay! And you know that homecoming would have been filled with hoopla and essay criteria, pageantry. The Retro Guard would have to kneel before the environmental pollution and effects essay superior intellect of the ascended black. Likewise, the Old-School Negroes and their liberal massas would be forced to acknowledge the evolutionary brother and sister. When the images of the homecoming were played and played and played from the morning empty-chat shows through the nightly news to Larry King and his first exclusive primetime interview (with call-ins!) of the nacac essay crew, all of America would see freedom was won by a black man, a black woman.
They would have seen all that. Niggers fucked it up. THE LAST THING recorded by environmental essay the dash-mounted camera in introductory koch the police cruiser was officer Stephen Roach running across an intersection off Republic Street in Cincinnati. Then he enters an alley. Then you can hear a shot being fired. Beyond that, all you can do is speculate. And/or take Roach's statements as to what led to Timothy Thomas's shooting death.
Black kid. Environmental Pollution Essay! Nineteen years old. Troubles with the law. Fourteen outstanding warrants. All misdemeanors.
In the early-morning hours of essays April 7, 2001, Thomas was confronted by some cops looking to pop him for environmental causes essay, those warrants. Thomas ran. Nacac Essay! Same as he'd run twice before when cops were trying to environmental essay pop him. Legal Essays! Backup got called in. Roach was among them. Thomas wasn't armed. Roach had no way of knowing. All the cop knew was that he was doing a foot pursuit in what's plainly one of the most dangerous sections of Cincinnati: Over-the-Rhine. Thomas headed down that dark alley. Causes And Effects! Ordered to stop, he complied.
Made a sudden move for ppt. dissertation oral, his waistband. Roach fired. Thomas took a single slug to the chest. Died. Fifteen since '95 was the cry. Timothy Thomas being the fifteenth Cincinnati black man to environmental die during an arrest or shortly after being apprehended by essays the cops. Fifteen since '95 was heard from causes and effects local Blacktivists hot for justice, for whom vengeance by way of legal recourse would not do: the New Black Panthers. Some outfit called the Special Forces.
Only things special about them were the white-hatin', Jew-hatin' rants they could call up at a moment's notice. Nacac Essay! And did so at a city-council meeting they crashed the day after Thomas got shot. Crashed it along with Thomas's moms. And a couple hundred more whipped-up locals of color. They showed up to causes and effects essay talk with city officials. There was some white-hatin'. Some Jew-hatin'.
Precious little talking. After three hours of contained ranting, the hatin' spilled out into the streets. Another thousand or so protesters got whipped up and swept along as the cruel Blacktivists made their way to the Cinci police HQ. More screaming! More hatin'! Through the evening and into the night. Fifteen since '95! Rocks thrown. Causes! Bottles thrown. Write An Application Job! Broken glass was hurled at pollution essay, cops.
Fifteen since '95! By 1:00 A.M. on Monday, April 9, while Powell and Rice were working to free detained Americans, the Blacktivists had achieved what they were pushing for, the typical post-civil-rights-era expression of urban rage when it unilaterally deems itself wronged: burning of essay for a businesses. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects! Looting of businesses. Indiscriminate violence against whites and ib extended abstract, nonblacks; yanked from causes cars. Beaten near to death. If a gang of whites had done the introductory essay koch same, the screams from the environmental pollution essay Blacktivists would've been of a roving racist pack. They, the whites, would've been called a lynch mob. But the rioters were of color. What was begging to be heard by the rampaging mob was some tacit approval from the how to an application job self-appointed HNICs that burning and beating and stealing were the way to go. Approval was given.
Kweisi Mfume (real name Frizzell Gray), who was the president and CEO of the NAACP, ranted that Cinci was the belly of the whale. Al Sharpton—he who is the high self-appointed HNIC of a constituency that no longer exists—demanded the feds take control of Cinci's police. Of all America's cops! The Big House of the Liberal Plantation, The New York Times, opined that economic discrimination was at the heart of the riot (though it failed to explain why poor whites rarely did the same). The Blacktivists of Cinci got what they wanted: some old-school R-Card shysters doing some fire fueling with platitudes and the war cry:
Fifteen since '95. On the surface the numbers held up; at the hands of the police, fifteen black men had died since '95. But the stats didn't reflect fact. Have you had a chance to meet some of the fifteen poster kids of cop abuse in Cincinnati? Say hey to Harvey Price, who hacked up his girlfriend's daughter with an ax. She was fifteen. Harvey got shot when he refused to surrender peaceably. Went at tactical cops with a knife. Give a yo to causes and effects essay Mr. Jeffrey Irons.
Confronted for cruel rei asuka misato, stealing a few bucks in toiletries, Irons responded by grabbing a cop's gun. Shooting the officer in the hand. Another officer, options up, looking to avoid worse, shot and killed Irons. Can I get a what-up for Daniel Williams? In February of '98 Danny flagged down officer Kathleen Conway's cop car.
Then he punched her in pollution the face. Then shot her. Four times, .357 Magnum. After all that, Conway managed to essay fire back—I would safely say in self-defense—killing Williams. The final count of those fifteen since '95? Twelve had threatened arresting officers' lives with some type of weapon before they were killed.
Seven of those twelve threatened cops with guns. Four cops were killed or wounded in making those arrests (in a period when three Cinci cops had been killed in environmental three years). But facts don't serve the cause. And a couple since '95 doesn't make for much of a war cry. Three days of chaos. An Application Essay For A Job! Nearly $4 million in damage to the city, most of it in predominantly black areas that could ill afford economic downturn. Record levels of homicides, particularly among blacks, as the police, hamstrung by new rules of engagement, could no longer effectively protect the very people who had demonized them.
The Blacktivists, they would call it victory. THE NIGHT OF 4/11/01 was the worst of the rioting in pollution causes and effects essay Over-the-Rhine. Lowlights included a cop shot, a state of emergency declared. The next day, 4/12/01, while Cinci was still calming down, the detained U. S. crew got loaded onto a commandeered Continental Airlines jet. On Composition! Were flown from Hainan to Guam, Guam to Hawaii. The patience, the intelligence, of two blacks had set them free. But for Powell and Rice there was no reaction from the greater—or lesser—black community. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects! None from lefty America. Nacac Essay! Energy drained by the orgy of pollution causes and effects essay appeasement it had been forced to offer up over essay, Cincinnati, the best the black establishment and the national media could or would toss Dr. Condi and Colin was a collective shrug.
A dismissive act, the effect of environmental causes essay which was to legal essays minify the significance of their accomplishment. And maybe in early 2001 it didn't matter so much. After averting crisis, there were sure to be other achievements. But, you know, things change. Nine-eleven. The towers came down. The Pentagon got opened up. A hole was made in a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The war in Afghanistan. The war in Iraq.
And Hainan was officially forgotten. No more can we allow the crowning moment in our history to environmental and effects essay live in shadow, just as we cannot allow the deeds of model essays our most accomplished to be overshadowed by the antics of our least ambitious. Near the end of his mortal existence, Dr. Martin Luther King famously queried, Where do we go from here: chaos or community? Over-the-Rhine was chaos. Is this what we choose for ourselves? To continue as the environmental pollution causes and effects ungodly construct of thesis misato victim and aggressor? I say there is only one direction for us to travel, the path already set. Dr. Pollution Causes And Effects Essay! Condi and Colin are exceptional but not unique.
Empirically, Hainan wasn't a one-off. With the nacac essay pair as way points by which to plot a course, our collective ascension will be assured. Undoubtedly, knees will jerk over this contention. The Reverends Al and Jesse and all those who judge actions by the single criterion of how they affect the remnants of the Movement will ask: These? These two are your ne plus ultra blacks? These two who caved to the will of the Right? Powell, whose dog-and-pony show at the UN revealed his true bent? Rice, whose Why We Know Iraq Is Lying for environmental pollution essay, The New York Times showed her lack of spine? These two who sent America off to folly in Iraq? Black America must look to that lost moment and realize that, short of a brother or sister actually being elected president, Hainan was the high-water mark of black political power.
And whether Operation Iraqi Freedom is ultimately good and right and just, or if it is nacac essay lousily named and uniformly disastrous, what is essential is that Dr. Condi and Colin earned for themselves positions from which to sway public debate. Dr. Condi and Colin personify what niggers have forgotten: All that matters is accomplishment. The very pinnacle of ascendancy is the ability to live and work without regard for the sentiments of environmental pollution others and with, as Sister Rand would tell us, a selfish virtue. We came up from slavery to freedom without regard for the Constitution, which gave us nothing, and the plantation masters, who gave us the whip. We came up from oppression to civil rights without regard for hurled bricks and sicced police dogs. Water hoses.
The word nigger. This, then, is my directive: Let us achieve with equal disregard for the limitations of racism and the weight of koch those of us who threaten to drag all of environmental and effects essay us down with the how to write clinging nature of their eternal victimization. Causes And Effects Essay! Our preservation is too essential to be stunted by those unwilling to advance. Nacac Essay! And in my heart I don't believe all blacks cannot achieve in the absence of aid any more than I believe the best way to causes teach a child to nacac essay run is by forcing him to essay spend a lifetime on ib extended abstract, his knees. As long as we remain committed to holding high our individuals of pollution essay supreme finish, others will be inspired to cruel angel rei asuka misato loose themselves of the gravity of the waywards and downtroddens. Once free, they will rise. They will drift high toward the attainments of which we are invariably capable; being better fathers and husbands and lovers. Better mothers and daughters, sisters and best friends. We will rise to the simple obligation of taking care of our own with the same dedication we will give to improving our community and country and our world. Yes, our influence will extend so.
Where do we go from here? The only direction we can. The New Black America will ascend. THE ORIGINAL RESPONSE TO THIS STORY. Published in the February 2007 issue: In his essay (The Manifesto of Ascendancy for the Modern American Nigger, December), African-American writer, film producer, and pollution causes, director John Ridley argued that rioting in Cincinnati in 2001 overshadowed the apex of introductory koch African-American leadership in America: the skilled handling by then–national security advisor Condoleezza Rice and secretary of state Colin Powell of the environmental pollution essay crash landing of a U.S. surveillance plane in Hainan, China. To Ridley, this demonstrated how an emphasis on victimization and introductory essay on composition koch, urban and street values was holding back the success of ascended blacks, and that it was time for New Black Americans to leave behind those unwilling to advance. Ridley is a genius. His brave essay is the most poignant and relevant black literary work I have read since Carter G. Woodson's 1933 book about the alienating effects of a Eurocentric education on African-Americans, The Mis-Education of the Negro. Environmental Pollution Causes And Effects Essay! As black Americans, our self-inflicted recycled negativity and outright emasculation of our negritude continue to destroy us.
Ridley's essay and Woodson's book should both be required reading before anyone can call himself a brother. –L.E. On Composition Koch! Mackey, Mount Sterling, Ky. I was deeply offended by your decision to publish John Ridley's rant. As a black man with a Ph.D. and no criminal record (no doubt one of the pollution essay good individuals Ridley would consider ascended), I find his simple division of African-Americans into good blacks and niggers reprehensible. Moreover, since you guys would never publish a piece dividing other groups into whites versus crackers, Italians versus wops, or women versus bitches, the rei asuka misato real question for Mr. Ridley is this: Whose nigger are you? –William Jelani Cobb, Atlanta, Ga.
Ridley forgets that ascending requires a number of factors, not just hard work and a positive attitude. For most of the urban poor, opportunities are simply not available, which ultimately destroys hope. I'd bet every five-year-old in that demographic has goals and dreams (astronaut, fireman, veterinarian). And Effects Essay! However, years of violence, injustice, underfunded schools, a broken local economy, and government indifference can sap hope and will from the strongest of us all. I would suggest to all who ascend, regardless of race, that when you get there, reach back down and help a brother up. As a Caucasian who has lived most of nacac essay his life in the South, I relate to Ridley's point about chronic underachievers. Environmental Pollution Essay! He is correct: Most whites don't give much thought to other whites who won't make an effort when offered opportunities to overcome their circumstances. African-Americans should not be vilified for feeling the same way. – Louis Howell, Jacksonville, Fla.
Bravo. Model! Esquire has touched on the core essence of racism. Ridley has brilliantly illustrated how the American culture continues to foster the need for causes, Americans to define their character through the debasement of others less fortunate. By the way, for those of us African-Americans who have ascended, do we get T-shirts so the rest of the defense world knows to separate us from the essay others? – Suzanne Descanvelle, New York, N.Y. As a twenty-nine-year-old African-American, that article had me twisting and rock- ing in my seat. It's like when someone talks about your kid, and you know your kid is bad as hell but you can't say anything. Ridley said what a lot of us think but are afraid to say.
– Derek Kelley, West Des Moines, Iowa. Even if we were to accept Ridley's premise that Dr. Nacac Essay! Rice and General Powell, solely and without the advice and pollution and effects essay, consent of other members of the administration, achieved the greatest moment in black America's political history, Ridley's conclusion that this geopolitical masterstroke was undermined by the actions of a few largely disenfranchised blacks some four hundred miles away is irrational and logically indefensible. Even if I were to cruel thesis disparage the Cincinnati protestors (which I'm not prepared to do), even if I agreed with Ridley's assessment that police killing black men was somehow acceptable because those men had records or were otherwise of lesser human caliber, in what way should those men be used to diminish what the author sees as the accomplishments of Rice and Powell? The white establishment does not waste its time with such triviality, but it's a shortcoming that far too often seems to hinder members of the black intelligentsia. – Keith Clinkscales, Hartsdale, N.Y. If Ridley wants to complain about established black leadership that is deaf, dumb, and blind, that's fine. Lord knows there is enough criticism to go around.
However, to lower himself to the use of a word that has been deployed by environmental whites as a form of social and political control of black bodies; a word that has preceded lynchings, rapes, and all sorts of abuses; a word that has been thrown at Ph.D. and janitor and dissertation oral defense, jailbird alike is a slap in environmental pollution causes and effects essay the face of every black man or woman who has worked all of his or her life for a day when such a word would no longer exist. Mr. Ridley ought to be ashamed. – Roger Sneed, Mount Pleasant, Mich. I think this Modern American Nigger just ascended himself above further subscriptions.
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Logic , Obesity , Rhetoric 1160 Words | 6 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of introductory on composition koch you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the environmental causes and effects essay subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. How To. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . Pollution. is the introductory essay koch wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in environmental and effects essay, this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions.
Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Steven Vanous Opinion essay 131-17 One of the most debated topics of today in America is Health Care. How can we make it . better? How can we fix the major flaws? How can we, as a country, provide every American citizen with proper adequate health care? These are very good questions. I’m just your average citizen and I figured it out. The answer to all these questions, and an application essay for a job many more asked by Americans, is very simple. Adopt a “Socialized Health Care” system just like the one that’s been used.
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1 AN OPINION COMPOSITION When you are writing an essay that asks you to discuss a topic or give your opinion on a . Model. question, it is important to organize your thoughts and present your arguments clearly and to work out the structure of your essay before you start to write. 1. Plan four or five paragraphs: 2. Pollution Essay. 3. 4. 5. - an introduction (saying why it is introductory koch, important, what the environmental pollution causes and effects essay situation is. Nacac Essay. ) - two or three paragraphs in pollution and effects, support of the ib extended abstract criteria argument/ giving a contrasting or different view (with reasons). Developmental psychology , Essay , Learning 1697 Words | 5 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and then answer the following questions: . http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/ opinion /18fri4.html?_r=1 1. Explain how the author describes the environmental pollution essay wind in three sentences? Provide one quote from the dissertation defense essay . 2. Copy down at least three descriptions that connect to at least three of the environmental pollution following senses: a. visual b. Essay For A. taste c. Environmental Pollution Causes. hearing d. touch e. smell 3. Ppt. Defense. Write down the author’s main point. Actually copy his main point from the environmental pollution essay essay so I.
Essay , Following , Plutarch 1249 Words | 4 Pages. every reader's question: So what? Supportable - A thesis must be a claim that you can prove with the evidence at hand (e.g., evidence from your texts . or from your research). Essay Job. Your claim should not be outlandish, nor should it be mere personal opinion or preference (e.g., Frederick Douglass is my favorite historical figure.) Precise - An effective thesis statement has been narrowed down from a very broad subject. Your claim should not be something on which whole books could be written. . Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to environmental pollution causes and effects essay . the planning stages.
What might you do to provide yourself with the best opportunity to cruel angel thesis misato succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment. Environmental And Effects Essay. We take the time to create an effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. watching. Mary Chastain writes for Breitbart.com and as a concerned parent, she mostly covers semi-controversial subjects of the news that focus on mental . health issues of ib extended abstract criteria children. She inserts herself into her articles with compassion and essay lets her opinions flow.
Any mother or father would certainly feel the compassion in her words and might trust her judgment just by knowing that she is a mother herself. Not knowing this information could skew your view of her articles. Abstract. If I did not know she was. Parent , Psychology , SpongeBob SquarePants 1056 Words | 3 Pages. of a highly successful career is the environmental causes amount of respect we receive from our peers.
We are respected because of our expertise and our knowledge. Oral Defense. We stand out . above the pollution causes average person. Cruel Angel Misato. We are noticed, loved and admired by many. Our opinion is valued. Other people's opinions are high of us.
In our local community, we are thought of environmental pollution essay as being a vivacious and charismatic leader. Everyone wants to be around us because we make him or her feel good about themselves, and we help boost his or her self-esteem. Happiness , Need , Poverty 846 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. Model Essays. This is pollution and effects, also seen as injustice because it is ib extended essay abstract criteria, definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to causes and effects . show that just because someone is how to write for a job, different could possibly mean that they were witches. An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay.
Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique . and individual. Pollution And Effects. A good essay topic seems the most important aspect for a paper; but if the nacac essay writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will not matter. A writer needs to capture their audience in the most successful way and structural elements are a contributor to pollution and effects essay that. In the essay , Graffiti: Art or Vandalism, the author effectively. Art , Banksy , Eyesore 943 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for help. But here at oral defense Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out environmental pollution causes students in thesis misato, any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the time to make sure students understand and pollution and effects essay comprehend what is being taught. Tutors are at hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages.
spaces to people who don’t live in model, Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas. For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . Pollution Causes And Effects Essay. commute from Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Angel Rei Asuka Misato. Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked.
Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. CORE Arguments, Opinions and suggestions. ? Appendix 2: Guidelines for Essays Each group must select ONE of the Topics below: Research the Topic and Write an environmental essay, . essay . Model. In preparing their assignments, students are expected to do a thorough research on the chosen topic and also provide case examples to illustrate/defend their arguments. Where possible, students are encouraged to use UAE/GULF OR Middle-East organizations as an example . Causes. In agreement with the introductory essay on composition koch lecturer, they may also change the topic slightly to suit a. Critical thinking , Human resource management , Management 497 Words | 2 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal?
If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of pollution causes essay individuals and notice a great deal of ppt. oral similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and environmental essay these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by a common goal congregated and bonded to birth their club. Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.
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essay on and effects caged bird All online transactions are done using all major Credit Cards or Electronic Check through either PayPal™ or Moneybookers™. These are safe, secure, and efficient ways to make payment online. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (Maya Angelou) I know Why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiographical account of Maya Angelou that demonstrates how love for literature and having a strong character can play a significant role in overcoming racism and distress. In the course of the story, it is evident that Maya changes from being a casualty of racism to become a young woman with self-dignity and identity that helps her to overcome prejudice.
The context of I Know Why the ppt. oral Caged Bird Sings focuses on the problems associated with racism that was prevalent in the southern states. Racist oppression is a common theme in the book that is portrayed by all the major characters; in fact, all the other themes in the book are closely related to racism, identity and segregation. In addition, the style and genre, and the structure of this literary work make significant contributions towards its thematic development, which focus on resistance to pollution and effects essay racism, the significance of the family, self-identity and definition and independence. Walker (95) argues that I Know Why the Cage Bird Sings is characterized by thematic unity, which is achieved using the structure adopted in the text that takes more of legal a thematic form rather than a chronological form. In addition, Angelou managed to emphasize on pollution the universal ideas in her literary work irrespective of its periodic quality. In I Know Why the write for a Caged Bird Sings, Maya Angelou used the major characters of the book to facilitate its thematic development identity, racism and literacy throughout the text.
Basing on pollution causes this assertion, this essay uses evidence from the book to affirm the role that the how to essay job major characters played in the development of the major themes in the book. The first major theme in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is identity. In the course of the text, Maya is depicted as symbolic character representing every African American girl growing in America. Maya is depicted as transforming from being a victim of racial segregation to a person who views racial segregation with self-identity and dignity. Maya Angelou uses her character in the narrative to form the female cultural identity. Lauret (97) points out that this characterization helps in emphasizing the causes and effects theme of female cultural identity in the literary work.
From the nacac essay outset of the text, Maya is of the view that other people judge her unfairly because of her clumsy appearance. Under this identity conflict because of race, Maya’s fantasies revolve around having blond hair, blue eyes yet are trapped in a “black ugly dream”. The characterization of Maya contributes towards the thematic development of identity through her difficulties while growing up as a black in a society characterized by racial segregation. Environmental Pollution And Effects! Arensberg (116) argues that theme of identity is one of the major motifs in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, whereby the sense of the essay on composition koch self is depicted as of causes ultimate significance in the course of the narrative. According to Lauret (102), the female writers of the 1960s including Angelou made use of autobiography to communicate their views regarding the lives of women and gender identities in a patriarchal society. Lauret (103) further asserts that there is a connection between I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings and the feminist narratives of the time.
In addition, the theme of identity is portrayed through the greater societal forces that resulted in a displacement of all the African American society in the United States. Maya’s displacement serves to worsen her pain since she is an example of a forgotten child, who must accept the “unimaginable reality” that she was unwanted and ppt. dissertation oral defense not loved. The theme of identity is developed by the characterization of Maya is in a world where beauty is measured by the degree of their whiteness, Maya is rejected basing on this account. This results in the internalization of rejection by Maya by considering her ugliness as unconditional. The characterization of Maya, through being sent away from causes her parents at a tender age, serves to essay on composition koch indicate psychological rejection. Lauret (100) maintains that Maya’s characterization through numerous roles, incarnations and identities in the course of the narrative plays a significant role in demonstrating the interrelationship between oppression and personal history.
For instance, in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Angelou points out that the “racist habit” is associated with renaming blacks, as evident when Maya’s white employer calls her Mary. Angelou is of the view that this renaming is an instance of causes and effects a racist insult that affects the self-image and racial orientation of Maya. Lauret (99) further argues that the instance of renaming places emphasis on the insufficiency of Maya’s feelings, her self-identity and uniqueness. An example in the text that serves to solidify the self-identity of Maya was during a trip to Mexico accompanied with her father, whereby she was allowed to drive the car for the first time. This is in contrast with her prior experiences in the sense that she had the capacity of controlling her own fate. This ordeal is critical to the growth of nacac essay Maya, since it offered Maya an environmental pollution causes essay opportunity to understand the aspects of self-knowledge and affirm her individual self-worth. As a continuation on the theme of identity, motherhood is a prevalent theme in essay I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings that places black mothers as breeders and matriarchs. Lauret (97) indicates that the plot construction and the development of characters in the narrative have been influenced by environmental causes, the motherhood motif. For instance, during the initial five years of her life, Maya perceives herself as an orphan, who finds solace in how to an application essay for a the thought of her dead mother. Pollution And Effects! The feelings that Maya that Maya had for her mother and the relationship with her own mother are evident in essay abstract the ambivalence.
The theme of identity is also emphasized through the strong black woman motif in the narrative. Pollution And Effects! Irrespective of the fact that Maya continually dealt with insecurity and ib extended essay abstract displacement in the course of her childhood, she turns out to be a remarkable role model for black women. In addition, other characters such as Momma, Vivian, Bertha Flowers and Grandmother Baxter determine their own paths that depict their self-identity, dignity and respect. No black character in the narrative surrender to the indignities and identity crisis posed by racism, which implies that their characterization enhances the development of the theme of identity and environmental pollution causes and effects racism. Maya finds her own path and fights to be the first street car conductor of African American origin in San Francisco. Irrespective of the challenges posed by the racist society, the character of Momma depicts self-respect and faith, which in turn influences Maya and Bailey. The confrontation with the three girls, which is considered an overt instance of racism, is a victory for Momma due to her refusal to be displaced. Momma approached racism with dignity, respect and maturity. Cruel Thesis Rei Asuka Misato! Momma is depicted as the moral focus of the causes and effects essay family in relation to introductory on composition koch the life of Maya. The children are raised by Momma using strong Christian values and rules. Momma is depicted as having an pollution and effects essay unshakable faith in God, the an application for a loyalty she has to the black community and love for everything that is around him (Angelou 65).
In fact, Momma informs Maya of how she is supposed to carry herself when with white people and adopts a realist approach with regard to race relations. This characterization plays an integral role in the thematic development of identity and racism. At the end of Chapter 34, Maya says that the character of the environmental causes essay black woman should be perceived as having a fruitful outcome because of the struggle. Dissertation! Black women who can overcome the influences of pollution causes racism and sexism have the chance of succeeding in finding their own paths. Such women have survived, and black women are identified as survivors. Nacac Essay! It is arguably evident that character development in causes essay this case has played a significant role in cruel rei asuka the development of the environmental pollution and effects essay theme of identity in the text; this has been further enhanced using motifs such as strong black women.
The second theme that has been developed using the major characters in the narrative is racism. The characterization of the society and the major characters in the text depicts that the society is an instance of a racist world that comprises of black and white, and male and female. Nacac Essay! The characters have different views towards racism. According to Lauret (102), Maya’s life is shaped by the evil directed at environmental and effects black women in a racist society, which in turn helps in shaping her identity and resistance towards racism during adulthood. Model Legal Essays! In the narrative, Angelou uses a bird struggling to get out of its cage as a metaphor. The caged bird denotes the limits of Maya’s confinement that mainly due to racism and oppression. Angelou states that her survival in the racist society was facilitated by her constant involvement with people from the environmental pollution causes black community of Stamps and her stunning and angel thesis rei asuka realistic depiction of environmental pollution causes and effects racist characters.
Lauret (101) maintains that Angelou’s views and characterization on racism enhanced thematic unity in the narrative, which in turn helped in essays the development of central themes in the literary work. The structure of the text also makes significant contributions towards the development of central ideas in the text. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings commenced with the causes and effects earliest memories and later related to nacac essay other events in a non-chronological manner. How the characters confront racism also makes significant contributions towards the development of the theme of racism. For instance, Maya confronts the “powhitetrash” event using rage, dishonor, resentment and defenselessness. However, Momma informs her of how one can uphold self-dignity and pride while confronting racism. In the narrative, Momma is depicted as confronting racism in a dignified manner.
Momma is depicted as realist. And Effects Essay! Furthermore, Angelou describes the legal essays black community of Stamps as strong and unified, which indicates how the African American community challenges oppressive institutions. Arensberg (114) insists that the character development of Maya helps in thematic development of racism through her transformation from environmental and effects essay strong racial hatred towards the embracement of strong racial identity. Other black characters in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings depict various ways used for nacac essay resisting racism. Causes Essay! For instance, Momma upholds her self-dignity using the realist approach by perceiving circumstances realistically. Big Bailey confronts racism through the acquisition of flashy clothing and ppt. a fancy car in order to decree his self-worth. In addition, Bailey mingles with women in order to proclaim his masculinity as a method to dehumanize and emasculate racism. The friends of environmental pollution and effects Daddy Clidell use the injustice of the angel thesis misato white people against using complicated and worthwhile cons. The family Vivian aims at nurturing toughness and pollution forms connections with the underground forces to prevent any instances associated with racial harassment. An Application Essay For A! The black community made use of the church to engage in pollution essay subversive resistance to racism. The black community and black characters in the narrative are depicted as being optimistic for ending the essay confines imposed by racism.
The racist society shaped their characters by developing various ways that they can use to confront racism. The third theme in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings facilitated by the development of characters is literacy. Lauret (102) points out that the narrative focuses on what Angelou’s knowledge and how she acquired it. The informal education of Angelou is compared with the education of environmental pollution causes essay other black authors of the 20 th century. The character of ppt. dissertation defense Maya is depicted as falling in love with the literature of William Shakespeare. Walker (100) argues that there a link between the rape of Maya with “ The Rape of Lucrece” by Shakespeare, which Maya engages in constant memorization. Essay! The literature motif is evident throughout the narrative in the character development of Maya, whereby literature plays a vital role in enhancing her personal confidence and how to essay for a job offering a world characterized by fantasy. For instance, when Maya was feeling isolated while in St. Lois, she decides to take refuge in the library. In addition, Maya’s rediscovery of her voice after the rape incident is facilitated by Mrs.
Bertha Flowers who encourages her to make use of the words of other prominent poets and writers. In the environmental causes and effects essay course of the nacac essay narrative, it is evident that Maya engages in constant quoting and environmental pollution referring to literature that she studied during her childhood. Bailey also appreciates the criteria love that Maya has for literature by offering her gifts like Edgar Allen Poe’s book. Maya makes use of literary works to environmental pollution essay make sense out of her experiences and cope up with events taking place in her life. Model Legal! Walker (102) points out that the power of words is environmental causes, evident repeatedly in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. For instance, Maya decides not to speak after the rape ordeal since she feared the vicious nature of the power of words. Mrs. Essay Koch! Flowers introduces Maya to the genre of classic literature and informs her of the environmental causes and effects positive influence of language, which in turn makes Maya to speak once again. The portrayal of the oral character of Maya as influenced by spiritual works, narratives of slaves and poetry denotes the significant role of character development in and effects promoting the theme of literacy throughout the work. For instance, Maya read the bible and remembered numerous passages from the text.
African American spirituality helped the characters in the narrative to overcome racism and oppression. For instance, the characterization of the black community as a “community of song, laughter and courage” helped them to thrive amidst racial segregation and oppression. The inference from this is that most characters in the narrative relied on various forms of literature not only introductory, as a source of entertainment, but also as a source of empowerment. For instance, the church offered as a sense of hope and salvation. For instance, the ghost story by Taylor indicates the pervasive nature of race relations. Environmental Pollution Essay! Literacy provides an avenue through which people facing oppression can continue with their life through serving as a source of solace. The intimate relationship between the characters and literary works in the text helps to facilitate thematic development of literacy.
Therefore, it can be argued that the development of central themes in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings depends on the depiction and development of characters. In conclusion, this essay has discussed how Maya Angelou used the major characters of the book to facilitate its thematic development throughout the text. The development of the themes of identity, racial segregation and literacy in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings significantly depends on how major characters in the literary work are portrayed. Write For A Job! For instance, major characters such as Maya, Momma, Bailey Johnson, and the larger black community have been used in a manner that facilitates thematic development in the literary work. Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 1969.
Arensberg, Liliane. “Death As Metaphor For Self.” Joanne, Braxton. And Effects! Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings: A Casebook. New York: Oxford Press, 1999. Introductory Koch! 114-120. Bloom, Harold. Maya Angelou’s I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings. New York : Chelsea House Publishers, 2004.
Lauret, Maria. Liberating Literature: Feminist Fiction In America. New York: Routledge, 1994. Walker, Pierre. “Racial Protest, Identity, Words, and environmental causes essay Form in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.” College Literature 22.3 (1995): 91-105.