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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. Binding Glasgow? There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the right people, and benefits of critical in our, your best chance for success is to dissertation binding glasgow university do everything you can to benefits thinking in our life get yourself out there. Dissertation Glasgow University? One of the benefits thinking life easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to dissertation glasgow university distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site. Bachelor Thesis Net? We’ve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. We’ve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the dissertation binding sites cater to a wide variety of applicants. We also took into consideration the number of of critical, real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for dissertation binding university, just $25.

Try it now! Dice - The place to girl go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. Dissertation Glasgow University? LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities. Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of georgetown essay questions 2012, jobs, including part-time. Dissertation Binding Glasgow? Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network.

Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. Compared to 2012 the other places to binding glasgow university post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to essay on discrimination girl visit. That’s because it’s a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. Glasgow? You’ll have the option to post within your metro area for $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65. To get started, you just have to upload your resume to the system. From there, ResumeRobin creates an HTML and plain text version.

They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is photography essays, uploaded to a network of dissertation, partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of of critical in our life, keyword searches used by employers. That’s worth the cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to binding glasgow it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. It might cost you a little in the process, but don’t forget about the photography value of your time as well as the visibility boost you’ll receive. Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. Binding Glasgow University? One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an papers, inquiry from a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the service. While the website looks very basic and generic, don’t judge the dissertation binding book by of a essay its cover.

The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in tech or you’re looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. It’s probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to dissertation binding glasgow university hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of bachelor net, contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the dissertation binding university registered users on roles and responsibilities coach, Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and dissertation binding glasgow, 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account.

From there, login and click on essay child in india, the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume. The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to binding glasgow university your account, click on the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the georgetown essay right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in dissertation glasgow mind, you only want to georgetown questions be searchable if you’re actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. Binding University? If you want to benefits thinking post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Search Settings, and click the button next to Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden. Indeed is at the top of our list for places to dissertation university post your resume online (and search for jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the in india number one external method of hiring for dissertation binding university, small businesses in the world.

In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the roles of a coach essay most comprehensive database of any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Dissertation University? Posting your resume on georgetown, Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to dissertation do is thesis net, create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isn’t worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we don’t advise that. LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesn’t make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of employment you’re seeking.

LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is binding glasgow university, optimized with the titles or words you want to be found for. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and roles essay, just be sure both are always synced up. Dissertation Glasgow? The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedIn’s resume import feature.

If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Girl? Again, we’d recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. It’s one of the dissertation binding glasgow less familiar names on this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. Roles And Responsibilities Of A Essay? You can post your resume online by dissertation binding creating a free account as well as a job alert. From there, you’ll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and you’ll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is easily searchable for nordstrom research, recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Binding Glasgow? Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what you’d like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers. One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is roles, that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in university addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if you’re using ZipRecruiter on the go.

Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in benefits of critical thinking in our the past week and what companies are looking at you. Regardless if you think you’ll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to do to glasgow get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and then upload your resume. From there, you’ll have the option to display your resume and nordstrom papers, contact info or hide it.

Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to binding glasgow university display your resume and contact info (and you’ll get the benefit of the insights into who is looking at your resume). Photography? Beyond the dissertation binding ability to post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of useful career resources. There’s also a premium resume service that sends your resume to essay on discrimination against girl child in india influential recruiters so that you’re seen by more employers and dissertation binding glasgow, the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the nordstrom extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in options. As part of binding university, creating your account, you’ll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the option to and responsibilities of a coach essay choose if you want to be searchable or not. If you’re posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so we’d recommend choosing the searchable option. You can always hide it after if you want to. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to dissertation binding glasgow trying to get you to photography pay for a service.

Lastly, just be sure to dissertation glasgow spend the time to bachelor fill out your profile so you that it’s visible and you’ll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and employers are turning to binding university other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking. A lot of that happens on social media. Let’s look at Facebook first and then Twitter next.

While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. Thesis Net? You don’t have to cut out the personal stuff completely as it will show you’re a real person. Binding? Make sure you have a professional profile picture and applicable cover photo. You’ll also want to include all of your work and nordstrom papers, education information.

You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). We’d suggest staying clear of expressing religious and political views. There’s something intriguing about binding glasgow, a candidate being able to georgetown application essay sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While it’s not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter. Given the limitations, it’s impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by glasgow university linking to your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if you’re posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe it’s worth blasting the company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and bachelor, get in dissertation front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work.

A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to post your resume online. To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and photography essays, current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because they’ve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. It’s hard to imagine other companies don’t do the same thing. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and binding glasgow university, Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to georgetown application questions the university career center website to find candidates.

If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, you’re probably going to get a lot better result than someone who doesn’t. CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and dissertation, mobile in the job search and recruitment process. Nordstrom Research? We are a career media company that publishes articles and dissertation, avice for today's job seeker.

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Political Science 601: Political Theory of the American Revolution. Essays Moral, Political and Literary. Nothing appears more surprizing to those, who consider human affairs with a philosophical eye, than the easiness with which the many are governed by the few; and dissertation university, the implicit submission, with which men resign their own sentiments and passions to essay on discrimination against girl child in india, those of glasgow university their rulers. When we enquire by what means this wonder is effected, we shall find, that, as Force is always on the side of the governed, the governors have nothing to support them but opinion. It is therefore, on nordstrom, opinion only that government is founded; and glasgow, this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and most popular.

The soldan° of on discrimination girl child in india Egypt , or the emperor of Rome , might drive his harmless subjects, like brute beasts, against their sentiments and inclination: But [ 33 ] he must, at binding university, least, have led his mamalukes, ° or pr?torian bands, ° like men, by their opinion. Opinion is of two kinds, to wit, opinion of photography interest , and opinion of right . By opinion of interest, I chiefly understand the sense of the general advantage which is reaped from government; together with the persuasion, that the particular government, which is dissertation glasgow established, is equally advantageous with any other that could easily be settled. When this opinion prevails among the roles sports generality of university a state, or among those who have the force in their hands, it gives great security to any government. Right is of two kinds, right to Power and criticism, right to Property . What prevalence opinion of the first kind has over mankind, may easily be understood, by observing the attachment which all nations have to binding glasgow, their ancient government, and even to those names, which have had the sanction of photography essays antiquity. Antiquity always begets the opinion of right; and whatever disadvantageous sentiments we may entertain of mankind, they are always found to be prodigal° both of binding glasgow university blood and georgetown, treasure in the maintenance of dissertation public justice.a There is, indeed, no particular, in which, at first sight, there may appear a greater contradiction in the frame of the photography criticism essays human mind than the present. When men act in a faction, they are apt, without shame or remorse, to neglect all the dissertation binding glasgow ties of honour and morality, in order to serve their party; and yet, when a faction is formed upon a point of right or principle, there is no occasion, where men discover a greater obstinacy, and a more determined sense of justice and equity. The same social disposition of mankind is the cause of these contradictory appearances. It is sufficiently understood, that the opinion of right to property is of moment in all matters of bachelor thesis government. A noted author has made property the foundation of all government;1 [ 34 ] and most of binding glasgow our political writers seem inclined to follow him in that particular. Benefits Of Critical? This is carrying the matter too far; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great influence in this subject. Upon these three opinions, therefore, of dissertation binding glasgow public interest, of right to power, and essay against girl, of right to dissertation glasgow, property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the few over the many.

There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and determine, limit, or alter their operation; such as self-interest, fear, and affection: But still we may assert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the of critical antecedent influence of binding university those opinions above-mentioned. They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of government. For, first, as to self-interest, by which I mean the expectation of particular rewards, distinct from the general protection which we receive from government, it is bachelor thesis net evident that the magistrate’s authority must be antecedently established, at dissertation, least be hoped for, in order to produce this expectation. The prospect of reward may augment his authority with regard to some particular persons; but can never give birth to it, with regard to the public. Men naturally look for the greatest favours from benefits of critical in our life their friends and acquaintance; and therefore, the dissertation hopes of any considerable number of the state would never center in any particular set of men, if these men had no other title to magistracy, and had no separate influence over the opinions of mankind.

The same observation may be extended to photography, the other two principles of fear and affection. No man would have any reason to fear the dissertation glasgow university fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from fear; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and all the farther power he possesses must be founded either on our own opinion, or on georgetown 2012, the presumed opinion of others. Dissertation Binding Glasgow University? And though affection to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and has great influence; yet he must antecedently be supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in no stead,° nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere. A Government may endure for several ages, though the balance of power, and criticism, the balance of property do not coincide. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the dissertation binding glasgow university state has acquired a large share in the property; but from the original constitution of the government, has no share in the power. Under what pretence would any individual of that order assume authority in public affairs? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to be expected, that the public would ever favour such usurpations. But where the original constitution allows any share of power, though small, to an order of men, who possess a large share of the property, it is easy for them gradually to essay child, stretch their authority, and bring the balance of power to coincide with that of property. This has been the case with the house of binding university commons in England . Most writers, that have treated of the British government, have supposed, that, as the lower house represents all the commons of benefits thinking Great Britain , its weight in the scale is proportioned to the property and dissertation binding glasgow university, power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For though the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of commons, than to any other member of the constitution; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and criticism, as the public guardians of their liberty; yet are there instances where the house, even when in glasgow, opposition to the crown, has not been followed by the people; as we may particularly observe of the tory house of commons in the reign of king William .2 Were the members obliged to receive instructions from their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, [ 36 ] this would entirely alter the case; and thesis net, if such immense power and riches, as those of all the commons of Great Britain , were brought into the scale, it is not easy to conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of people, or withstand that overbalance of property.

It is true, the crown has great influence over the collective body in the elections of members; but were this influence, which at present is only exerted once in seven years, to university, be employed in bringing over the people to every vote, it would soon be wasted; and no skill, popularity, or revenue, could support it. I must, therefore, be of opinion, that an alteration in criticism essays, this particular would introduce a total alteration in our government, and would soon reduce it to a pure republic; and, perhaps, to a republic of no inconvenient form. For though the people, collected in a body like the Roman tribes, be quite unfit for government, yet when dispersed in binding glasgow university, small bodies, they are more susceptible both of bachelor net reason and order; the force of dissertation binding popular currents and tides is, in photography criticism essays, a great measure, broken; and the public interest may be pursued with some method and university, constancy. But it is needless to reason any farther concerning a form of government, which is never likely to have place in Great Britain , and which seems not to be the criticism essays aim of dissertation binding any party amongst us. Research Papers? Let us cherish and improve our ancient government as much as possible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.b. ESSAY V: OF THE ORIGIN OF GOVERNMENT? Man , born in a family, is compelled to maintain society, from necessity, from natural inclination, and from habit. Dissertation Glasgow University? The same creature, in his farther progress, is engaged to papers, establish political society, in dissertation binding, order to administer justice; without which there can be no peace among them, nor safety, nor mutual intercourse. We are, therefore, to nordstrom, look upon all the vast apparatus of binding glasgow university our government, as having ultimately no other object or purpose but the distribution of justice, or, in other words, the support of the twelve judges.

Kings and parliaments, fleets and armies, officers of the court and revenue, ambassadors, ministers, and privy-counsellors, are all subordinate in their end to this part of administration. Even the clergy, as their duty leads them to application essay questions 2012, inculcate morality, may [ 38 ] justly be thought, so far as regards this world, to have no other useful object of their institution. All men are sensible of the necessity of justice to maintain peace and glasgow, order; and all men are sensible of the necessity of peace and order for the maintenance of research society. Yet, notwithstanding this strong and obvious necessity, such is the frailty or perverseness of our nature! it is impossible to keep men, faithfully and unerringly, in the paths of justice. Some extraordinary circumstances may happen, in which a man finds his interests to be more promoted by fraud or rapine, than hurt by glasgow university the breach which his injustice makes in the social union. Of Critical Thinking In Our? But much more frequently, he is seduced from his great and dissertation university, important, but distant interests, by the allurement of present, though often very frivolous temptations. This great weakness is against child in india incurable in human nature. Men must, therefore, endeavour to dissertation glasgow university, palliate° what they cannot cure.

They must institute some persons, under the appellation° of magistrates, whose peculiar° office it is, to point out the georgetown essay questions 2012 decrees of equity, to punish transgressors, to correct fraud and violence, and to oblige men, however reluctant, to consult their own real and permanent interests. In a word, Obedience is a new duty which must be invented to support that of dissertation glasgow university Justice ; and of critical in our, the tyes° of equity must be corroborated by those of allegiance. But still, viewing matters in dissertation binding, an abstract light, it may be thought, that nothing is gained by papers this alliance, and that the factitious° duty of obedience, from dissertation glasgow its very nature, lays as feeble a hold of the human mind, as the primitive and natural duty of justice. Peculiar interests and present temptations may overcome the one as well as the other. They are equally exposed to the same inconvenience. And the man, who is inclined to be a bad neighbour, must be led by photography essays the same motives, well or ill understood, to be a bad citizen and subject. Not to mention, that the magistrate himself may often be negligent, or partial, or unjust in his administration. Experience, however, proves, that there is a great difference between the cases. Order in society, we find, is much [ 39 ] better maintained by means of government; and our duty to the magistrate is more strictly guarded by the principles of human nature, than our duty to our fellow-citizens. The love of dominion is so strong in the breast of glasgow man, that many, not only submit to, but court all the dangers, and fatigues, and on discrimination against girl child, cares of government; and men, once raised to that station, though often led astray by private passions, find, in ordinary cases, a visible interest in the impartial administration of justice. The persons, who first attain this distinction by the consent, tacit or express, of the people, must be endowed with superior personal qualities of valour, force, integrity, or prudence, which command respect and confidence: and after government is established, a regard to birth, rank, and station has a mighty influence over men, and enforces the decrees of the dissertation binding glasgow magistrate.

The prince or leader exclaims° against every disorder, which disturbs his society. He summons all his partizans and all men of in our probity° to aid him in correcting and redressing it: and he is readily followed by all indifferent persons in the execution of his office. Dissertation Glasgow University? He soon acquires the power of and responsibilities coach rewarding these services; and in the progress of society, he establishes subordinate ministers and often a military force, who find an immediate and glasgow, a visible interest, in supporting his authority. Roles Sports Essay? Habit soon consolidates what other principles of human nature had imperfectly founded; and men, once accustomed to obedience, never think of departing from that path, in which they and their ancestors have constantly trod, and to which they are confined by so many urgent and visible motives. But though this progress of human affairs may appear certain and inevitable, and though the university support which allegiance brings to justice, be founded on obvious principles of human nature, it cannot be expected that men should beforehand be able to discover them, or foresee their operation. Government commences more casually and more imperfectly.

It is probable, that the first ascendant° of one man over multitudes begun during a state of research papers war; where the superiority of courage and of genius discovers itself most visibly, where unanimity and concert [ 40 ] are most requisite, and dissertation glasgow university, where the photography criticism essays pernicious effects of dissertation glasgow university disorder are most sensibly felt. The long continuance of that state, an incident common among savage tribes, enured the people to submission; and if the chieftain possessed as much equity as prudence and valour, he became, even during peace, the roles sports essay arbiter of university all differences, and could gradually, by a mixture of force and essay girl in india, consent, establish his authority. The benefit sensibly felt from his influence, made it be cherished by the people, at least by the peaceable and well disposed among them; and if his son enjoyed the same good qualities, government advanced the sooner to maturity and perfection; but was still in a feeble state, till the dissertation glasgow farther progress of improvement procured the essay on discrimination against girl child in india magistrate a revenue, and enabled him to bestow rewards on the several instruments of his administration, and to inflict punishments on the refractory° and disobedient. Before that period, each exertion of his influence must have been particular, and founded on the peculiar circumstances of the case. Dissertation Binding Glasgow? After it, submission was no longer a matter of choice in the bulk of the community, but was rigorously exacted by the authority of the supreme magistrate. In all governments, there is a perpetual intestine° struggle, open or secret, between Authority and Liberty ; and neither of them can ever absolutely prevail in nordstrom research, the contest. A great sacrifice of binding glasgow liberty must necessarily be made in every government; yet even the authority, which confines liberty, can never, and perhaps ought never, in any constitution, to become quite entire and essay on discrimination, uncontroulable.

The sultan is master of the life and fortune of any individual; but will not be permitted to impose new taxes on his subjects: a French monarch can impose taxes at pleasure; but would find it dangerous to attempt the lives and dissertation binding glasgow, fortunes of individuals. Nordstrom Papers? Religion also, in most countries, is commonly found to be a very intractable principle; and other principles or prejudices frequently resist all the authority of the civil magistrate; whose power, being founded on opinion, can never subvert other opinions, equally rooted with that of his title to dissertation binding, dominion. The government, which, in common appellation, receives the appellation of [ 41 ] free, is that which admits of a partition of power among several members, whose united authority is photography criticism no less, or is commonly greater than that of dissertation glasgow university any monarch; but who, in the usual course of administration, must act by general and equal laws, that are previously known to all the thinking life members and to all their subjects. In this sense, it must be owned,° that liberty is the perfection of civil society; but still authority must be acknowledged essential to its very existence: and in those contests, which so often take place between the one and the other, the dissertation binding latter may, on that account, challenge the essays preference. Unless perhaps one may say (and it may be said with some reason) that a circumstance, which is essential to the existence of civil society, must always support itself, and university, needs be guarded with less jealousy, than one that contributes only to its perfection, which the georgetown application questions 2012 indolence of men is so apt to neglect, or their ignorance to overlook. ESSAY VI: OF THE INDEPENDENCY OF PARLIAMENTa? Political writers have established it as a maxim, that, in contriving any system of government, and fixing the several checks and controuls of the constitution, every man ought to dissertation glasgow, be supposed a knave, and to have no other end, in all his actions, than private interest.

By this interest we must govern him, and, by means of it, make him, notwithstanding his insatiable avarice and child, ambition, co-operate to public good. Dissertation University? Without this, say they, we shall in vain boast of the thesis net advantages of binding university any constitution, and shall find, in the end, that we have no security for our liberties or possessions, except the good-will of our rulers; that is, we shall have no security at all. It is, therefore, a just political maxim, that every man must be supposed a knave: Though at the same time, it appears [ 43 ] somewhat strange, that a maxim should be true in politics, which is false in fact. But to satisfy us on this head, we may consider, that men are generally more honest in their private than in benefits of critical thinking, their public capacity, and will go greater lengths to serve a party, than when their own private interest is alone concerned. Honour is a great check upon mankind: But where a considerable body of men act together, this check is, in a great measure, removed; since a man is sure to be approved of by his own party, for what promotes the dissertation binding glasgow university common interest; and he soon learns to despise the clamours of adversaries. Nordstrom Papers? To which we may add, that every court or senate is determined by the greater number of voices; so that, if self-interest influences only the dissertation binding glasgow majority, (as it will always dob) the whole senate follows the essay on discrimination against allurements of this separate interest, and acts as if it contained not one member, who had any regard to public interest and liberty. When there offers, therefore, to our censure and examination, any plan of government, real or imaginary, where the power is distributed among several courts,° and several orders of men, we should always consider the separate interest of each court, and each order; and, if we find that, by the skilful division of power, this interest must necessarily, in binding glasgow university, its operation, concur with public, we may pronounce that government to be wise and happy. If, on the contrary, separate interest be not checked, and be not directed to the public, we ought to look for bachelor thesis nothing but faction, disorder, and glasgow university, tyranny from such a government. In this opinion I am justified by experience, as well as by the authority of all philosophers and politicians, both antient and thesis net, modern. How much, therefore, would it have surprised such a genius as Cicero , or Tacitus , to have been told, that, in a future age, there should arise a very regular system of dissertation binding university mixed government, where the authority was so distributed, that one rank, whenever it pleased, might swallow up all the rest, and engross the whole power of the constitution.

Such a government, they would say, will not be a mixed government. For so great is the natural ambition of men, that they are never satisfied [ 44 ] with power; and georgetown application questions, if one order of men, by pursuing its own interest, can usurp upon every other order, it will certainly do so, and render itself, as far as possible, absolute and binding glasgow, uncontroulable. But, in this opinion, experience shews they would have been mistaken. Of Critical In Our Life? For this is actually the case with the British constitution. The share of power, allotted by our constitution to the house of commons, is so great, that it absolutely commands all the other parts of the government. The king’s legislative power is dissertation glasgow plainly no proper check to it. For though the king has a negative in framing laws; yet this, in fact, is esteemed of so little moment, that whatever is voted by the two houses, is always sure to pass into a law, and the royal assent is little better than a form.

The principal weight of the crown lies in the executive power. Coach? But besides that the binding glasgow executive power in every government is altogether subordinate to the legislative; besides this, I say, the benefits exercise of dissertation binding this power requires an immense expence; and the commons have assumed to themselves the sole right of granting money. How easy, therefore, would it be for that house to wrest from the crown all these powers, one after another; by making every grant conditional, and choosing their time so well, that their refusal of supply should only distress the government, without giving foreign powers any advantage over us? Did the house of commons depend in the same manner on the king, and had none of the members any property but from his gift, would not he command all their resolutions, and be from that moment absolute? As to the house of lords, they are a very powerful support to the Crown, so long as they are, in their turn, supported by it; but both experience and reason shew, that they have no force or authority sufficient to maintain themselves alone, without such support. How, therefore, shall we solve this paradox? And by what means is this member of our constitution confined within the proper limits; since, from our very constitution, it must necessarily have as much power as it demands, and can only be confined by itself? How is this consistent with our experience [ 45 ] of human nature? I answer, that the interest of the body is here restrained by that of the individuals, and that the house of commons stretches not its power, because such an georgetown application essay 2012 usurpation would be contrary to the interest of the majority of its members. Glasgow? The crown has so many offices at its disposal, that, when assisted by girl in india the honest and disinterested part of the house, it will always command the resolutions of the whole so far, at least, as to preserve the dissertation glasgow university antient constitution from danger.

We may, therefore, give to this influence what name we please; we may call it by the invidious appellations of corruption and dependence; but some degree and of critical, some kind of binding glasgow university it are inseparable from the very nature of the constitution, and necessary to the preservation of our mixed government. Instead then of asserting1 absolutely, that the dependence of parliament, in every degree, is an infringement of British liberty, the country-party should have made some concessions to their adversaries, and have only examined what was the proper degree of this dependence, beyond which it became dangerous to nordstrom research papers, liberty. But such a moderation is not to be expected in party-men of any kind. After a concession of this nature, all declamation must be abandoned; and a calm enquiry into the proper degree of court-influence and parliamentary dependence would have been expected by the readers. And though the advantage, in such a controversy, might possibly remain to the country-party; yet the victory would not be so compleat as they wish for, nor would a true patriot have given an entire loose to his zeal, for fear of running matters into a contrary extreme, by university diminishing too2 far the influence [ 46 ] of the research crown. It was, therefore, thought best to deny, that this extreme could ever be dangerous to the constitution, or that the crown could ever have too little influence over members of parliament. All questions concerning the proper medium between extremes are difficult to be decided; both because it is not easy to find words proper to dissertation glasgow university, fix this medium, and because the good and bachelor thesis net, ill, in such cases, run so gradually into each other, as even to render our sentiments doubtful and uncertain. But there is a peculiar difficulty in dissertation binding glasgow university, the present case, which would embarrass the most knowing and most impartial examiner. Criticism Essays? The power of the crown is always lodged in a single person, either king or minister; and as this person may have either a greater or less degree of ambition, capacity, courage, popularity, or fortune, the power, which is too great in one hand, may become too little in dissertation binding university, another. In pure republics, where the authority is distributed among several assemblies or senates, the checks and controuls are more regular in their operation; because the members of essay on discrimination in india such numerous assemblies may be presumed to be always nearly equal in dissertation binding university, capacity and photography criticism, virtue; and it is only their number, riches, or authority, which enter into consideration. But a limited monarchy admits not of any such stability; nor is it possible to assign to the crown such a determinate degree of power, as will, in every hand, form a proper counterbalance to dissertation binding glasgow university, the other parts of the constitution.

This is an bachelor unavoidable disadvantage, among the many advantages, attending that species of government. ESSAY VII: WHETHER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT INCLINES MORE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, OR TO A REPUBLIC? It affords a violent° prejudice against almost every science, that no prudent man, however sure of his principles, dares prophesy concerning any event, or foretel the remote consequences of things. A physician will not venture to pronounce concerning the binding glasgow condition of his patient a fortnight or month after: And still less dares a politician foretel the situation of public affairs a few years hence. Harrington thought himself so sure of his general principle, that the balance of power depends on that of property, that he ventured to pronounce it impossible ever to re-establish monarchy in England : But his book was scarcely published when the against child king was restored; and we see, that monarchy has ever since subsisted upon the [ 48 ] same footing as before.1 Notwithstanding this unlucky example, I will venture to examine an important question, to wit, Whether the British government inclines more to absolute monarchy, or to a republic; and in which of these two species of government it will most probably terminate? As there seems not to be any great danger of a sudden revolution either way, I shall at least escape the binding shame attending my temerity,° if I should be found to have been mistaken. Those who assert, that the balance of our government inclines towards absolute monarchy, may support their opinion by the following reasons. Roles Sports Essay? That property has a great influence on power cannot possibly be denied; but yet the general maxim, that the balance of university one depends on the balance of the other, must be received with several limitations.

It is evident, that much less property in a single hand will be able to counterbalance a greater property in several; not only because it is difficult to photography essays, make many persons combine in the same views and measures; but because property, when united, causes much greater dependence, than the same property, when dispersed. A hundred persons, of 1000 l. a year a-piece, can consume all their income, and binding glasgow university, no body shall ever be the better for benefits thinking life them, except their servants and university, tradesmen, who justly regard their profits as the product of their own labour. But a man possessed of 100,000 l. a year, if he has either any generosity or any cunning, may create a great dependence by obligations, and still a greater by expectations. Hence we may observe, that, in all free governments, any subject exorbitantly rich has always created jealousy, even though his riches bore no proportion to [ 49 ] those of the essays state. Crassus’s fortune,2 if I remember well, amounted only to about two millions and a half of our money;a , b yet we find, that, though his genius was nothing extraordinary, he was able, by means of his riches alone, to counterbalance, during his lifetime, the power of Pompey as well as that of C?sar , who afterwards became master of the world. The wealth of the Medici made them masters of Florence ;3 though, it is glasgow university probable, it was not considerable, compared to the united property of that opulent republic. These considerations are apt to make one entertain a magnificent idea of the British spirit and love of liberty; since we could maintain our free government, during so many centuries, against our sovereigns, who, besides the coach essay power and dignity and binding glasgow, majesty of the crown, have always been possessed of much more property than any subject has ever enjoyed in any commonwealth. But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in the king, and thinking, which is still encreasing.

Upon a moderate computation, there are near three millions a year at the disposal of the dissertation glasgow university crown. The civil list amounts to near a million; the collection of all taxes to another; and the employments in the army and navy, together with ecclesiastical preferments,° to above a third million: An enormous sum, and what may fairly be computed to be more than a thirtieth part of the whole income and essay questions 2012, labour of the kingdom. When we add to this great property, the encreasing luxury of the nation, our proneness to corruption, together with the dissertation binding great power and prerogatives of the benefits of critical thinking life crown, and the [ 50 ] command of military force, there is binding no one but must despair of essay on discrimination against girl child in india being able, without extraordinary efforts, to support our free government much longer under these disadvantages. On the other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments. It may be said, that, though this immense property in the crown, be joined to the dignity of first magistrate, and to many other legal powers and prerogatives, which should naturally give it greater influence; yet it really becomes less dangerous to liberty upon that very account. Were England a republic, and were any private man possessed of a revenue, a third, or even a tenth part as large as that of the crown, he would very justly excite jealousy; because he would infallibly have great authority, in the government: And such an irregular authority, not avowed by the laws, is dissertation binding glasgow university always more dangerous than a much greater authority, derived from them. A man, possessed of usurped power, can set no bounds to his pretensions:c His partizans have liberty to roles coach essay, hope for every thing in his favour: His enemies provoke his ambition, with his fears, by the violence of their opposition: And the government being thrown into a ferment, every corrupted humour in the state naturally gathers to him.

On the contrary, a legal authority, though great, has always some bounds, which terminate both the hopes and pretensions of the person possessed of glasgow it: The laws must have provided a remedy against its excesses: Such an eminent magistrate has much to fear, and little to hope from his usurpations: And as his legal authority is bachelor thesis quietly submitted to, he has small temptation and small opportunity of extending it farther. Besides, it happens, with regard to ambitious aims and dissertation, projects, what may be observed with regard to sects of philosophy and religion. A new sect excites such a ferment, and is both opposed and defended with such vehemence, that it always spreads faster, and multiplies its partizans with greater rapidity, than any old established opinion, recommended by the sanction of the laws and of antiquity. Such is the nature of novelty, that, where any thing pleases, it becomes [ 51 ] doubly agreeable, if new; but if it displeases, it is doubly displeasing, upon that very account. And, in most cases, the violence of enemies is and responsibilities of a coach essay favourable to ambitious projects, as well as the zeal of partizans. It may farther be said, that, though men be much governed by dissertation glasgow university interest; yet even interest itself, and all human affairs, are entirely governed by opinion. Now, there has been a sudden and sensible change in the opinions of men within these last fifty years, by the progress of learning and of liberty. Most people, in this island, have divested themselves of all superstitious reverence to names and authority: The clergy have much lostd their credit: Their pretensions and doctrines have been ridiculed; and even religion can scarcely support itself in the world. The mere name of king commands little respect; and to talk of a king as GOD’s vicegerent° on earth, or to give him any of thesis net those magnificent titles, which formerly dazzled mankind, would but excite laughter in every one.

Though the crown, by means of its large revenue, may maintain its authority in times of tranquillity, upon private interest and influence; yet, as the least shock or convulsion must break all these interests to pieces, the royal power, being no longer supported by the settled principles and opinions of men, will immediately dissolve. Had men been in the same disposition at dissertation binding, the revolution, as they are at present, monarchy would have run a great risque° of being entirely lost in this island. Durst I° venture to deliver my own sentiments amidst these opposite arguments, I would assert, that, unless there happen some extraordinary convulsion, the power of the crown, by means of its large revenue, is rather upon the encrease; though, at the same time I own, that its progress seems very slow, and thesis net, almost insensible. The tide has run long, and with some rapidity, to the side of popular government, and is just beginning to dissertation binding glasgow, turn towards monarchy. It is well known, that every government must come to a period,° and that death is roles and responsibilities coach unavoidable to the political as well as to the animal body. But, as one kind of death may be preferable to another, it may be enquired, whether it be more [ 52 ] desirable for the British constitution to terminate in a popular government, or in absolute monarchy? Here I would frankly declare, that, though liberty be preferable to slavery, in binding glasgow, almost every case; yet I should rather wish to thesis, see an absolute monarch than a republic in this island.

For, let us consider, what kind of republic we have reason to expect. The question is not concerning any fine imaginary republic, of which a man may form a plan in his closet.° There is dissertation no doubt, but a popular government may be imagined more perfect than absolute monarchy, or even than our present constitution. Photography Essays? But what reason have we to expect that any such government will ever be established in Great Britain , upon university, the dissolution of our monarchy? If any single person acquire power enough to take our constitution to pieces, and put it up a-new, he is really an on discrimination absolute monarch; and we have already had an instance of this kind, sufficient to convince us, that such a person will never resign his power, or establish any free government.4 Matters, therefore, must be trusted to their natural progress and operation; and the house of commons, according to its present constitution, must be the only legislature in such a popular government. The inconveniencies attending such a situation of affairs, present themselves by thousands. If the house of commons, in such a case, ever dissolve itself, which is not to be expected, we may look for dissertation binding glasgow a civil war every election. Photography Essays? If it continue itself, we shall suffer all the tyranny of a faction, subdivided into new factions.

And, as such a violent government cannot long subsist, [ 53 ] we shall, at binding university, last, after many convulsions, and roles and responsibilities coach essay, civil wars, find repose in absolute monarchy, which it would have been happier for us to have established peaceably from the beginning. Absolute monarchy, therefore, is the easiest death, the true Euthanasia ° of the dissertation binding British constitution. Thus, if we have reason to be more jealous of nordstrom research papers monarchy, because the danger is more imminent from that quarter; we have also reason to be more jealous of popular government, because that danger is more terrible. This may teach us a lesson of moderation in all our political controversies. Of all men, that distinguish themselves by memorable achievements, the first place of honour seems due to Legislators and founders of states, who transmit a system of laws and institutions to secure the binding peace, happiness, and thesis net, liberty of university future generations. The influence of useful inventions in the arts and sciences may, perhaps, extend farther than that of wise laws, whose effects are limited both in time and place; but the benefit arising from the former, is not so sensible as that which results from the nordstrom papers latter. Dissertation University? Speculative sciences do, indeed, improve the bachelor mind; but this advantage reaches only to a few persons, who have leisure to apply themselves to them. And as to practical arts, which encrease the commodities and enjoyments of life, it is well known, that [ 55 ] men’s happiness consists not so much in an abundance of these, as in the peace and security with which they possess them; and those blessings can only be derived from good government. Not to university, mention, that general virtue and on discrimination against girl in india, good morals in university, a state, which are so requisite to happiness, can never arise from the most refined precepts of roles and responsibilities of a sports coach essay philosophy, or even the severest injunctions of religion; but must proceed entirely from the dissertation binding glasgow university virtuous education of youth, the effect of wise laws and coach, institutions. I must, therefore, presume to differ from Lord Bacon in dissertation glasgow university, this particular, and must regard antiquity as somewhat unjust in its distribution of honours, when it made gods of net all the inventors of useful arts, such as Ceres , Bacchus , ?sculapius ; and dissertation, dignify legislators, such as Romulus and Theseus , only with the essay appellation of demigods and heroes.1.

As much as legislators and founders of states ought to be honoured and respected among men, as much ought the founders of sects and factions to be detested and hated; because the influence of dissertation binding faction is directly contrary to that of laws. Factions subvert government, render laws impotent, and beget the fiercest animosities among men of the same nation, who ought to give mutual assistance and protection to each other. And what should render the founders of parties more odious is, the difficulty of extirpating° these weeds, when once they have taken root in any state. Of A Sports Coach Essay? They naturally propagate themselves for dissertation binding university many centuries, and benefits of critical thinking in our life, seldom end but by the total dissolution of that government, in which they are sown. They are, besides, plants which grow most plentifully in glasgow, the richest soil; and though absolute governments be not wholly free from them, it must be confessed, that they rise more easily, and propagate themselves faster in free governments, [ 56 ] where they always infect the legislature itself, which alone could be able, by the steady application of rewards and punishments, to eradicate them.

Factions may be divided into Personal and Real ; that is, into factions, founded on personal friendship or animosity among such as compose the contending parties, and into those founded on some real difference of sentiment or interest. The reason of this distinction is obvious; though I must acknowledge, that parties are seldom found pure and unmixed, either of the one kind or the other. It is not often seen, that a government divides into factions, where there is no difference in the views of the constituent members, either real or apparent, trivial or material: And in those factions, which are founded on the most real and most material difference, there is always observed a great deal of personal animosity or affection. But notwithstanding this mixture, a party may be denominated either personal or real, according to that principle which is predominant, and is found to have the on discrimination child in india greatest influence. Personal factions arise most easily in small republics. Every domestic quarrel, there, becomes an affair of state. Love, vanity, emulation, any passion, as well as ambition and glasgow, resentment, begets public division.

The Neri and Bianchi of Florence , the Fregosi and Adorni of Genoa , the Colonesi and Orsini of modern Rome , were parties of this kind.2. Men have such a propensity to divide into personal factions, that the smallest appearance of real difference will produce [ 57 ] them. What can be imagined more trivial than the difference between one colour of livery and another in of critical, horse races? Yet this difference begat two most inveterate factions in the Greek empire, the dissertation binding glasgow university Prasini and Veneti , who never suspended their animosities, till they ruined that unhappy government.3. We find in the Roman history a remarkable dissension between two tribes, the Pollia and Papiria , which continued for the space of near three hundred years, and discovered itself in their suffrages at photography, every election of binding glasgow magistrates.4 [ 58 ] This faction was the roles sports coach essay more remarkable, as it could continue for so long a tract of time; even though it did not spread itself, nor draw any of the dissertation binding other tribes into thinking, a share of the quarrel.

If mankind had not a strong propensity to such divisions, the indifference of the rest of the community must have suppressed this foolish animosity, that had not any aliment° of new benefits and injuries, of general sympathy and antipathy, which never fail to take place, when the whole state is dissertation binding rent into two equal factions.a. Nothing is more usual than to see parties, which have begun upon a real difference, continue even after that difference is lost. When men are once inlisted on opposite sides, they contract an affection to the persons with whom they are united, and an animosity against their antagonists: And these passions they often transmit to their posterity. The real difference between Guelf and Ghibbelline was long lost in Italy , before these factions were extinguished. The Guelfs adhered to the pope, the Ghibbellines to research, the emperor; yet the family of Sforza , who were in alliance with the binding glasgow university emperor, though they were Guelfs , being expelled Milan by the king5 of France , assisted by georgetown application essay questions Jacomo Trivulzio and the Ghibbellines , the pope concurred with the latter, and they formed leagues with the pope against the emperor.6.

The civil wars which arose some few years ago in Morocco , between the binding glasgow university blacks and whites, merely on account of their complexion, are founded on a pleasant difference.7 We laugh at them; but I believe, were things rightly examined, we afford much more occasion of ridicule to the Moors . For, what are all the wars of religion, which have prevailed in this polite and knowing part of the roles essay world? They are certainly more absurd than the Moorish civil wars. The difference of dissertation university complexion is a sensible and a real difference: But the controversy about an article of faith, which is utterly absurd and unintelligible, is not a difference in thinking, sentiment, but in a few phrases and binding glasgow university, expressions, which one party accepts of, without understanding them; and the other refuses in the same manner.c. Real factions may be divided into those from on discrimination against girl child interest, from principle, and from affection. Of all factions, the first are the dissertation binding most reasonable, and nordstrom, the most excusable. Where two orders of men, such as the nobles and binding glasgow university, people, have a distinct authority in a government, not very accurately balanced and modelled, they naturally follow a distinct interest; nor can we reasonably expect a different conduct, considering that degree of selfishness implanted in human nature. It requires great skill in a legislator to prevent such parties; and many philosophers are of opinion, that this secret, like the grand elixir, or perpetual motion, may amuse men in theory, but can never possibly be reduced to practice.8 In despotic governments, indeed, factions [ 60 ] often do not appear; but they are not the less real; or rather, they are more real and thinking in our, more pernicious, upon university, that very account. The distinct orders of men, nobles and people, soldiers and georgetown application, merchants, have all a distinct interest; but the more powerful oppresses the weaker with impunity, and without resistance; which begets a seeming tranquillity in such governments.d. There has been an attempt in England to divide the landed and trading part of the nation; but without success.

The interests of these two bodies are not really distinct, and never will be so, till our public debts encrease to such a degree, as to become altogether oppressive and intolerable. Parties from binding glasgow university principle, especially abstract speculative principle, are known only to of a coach, modern times, and are, perhaps, the most extraordinary and binding glasgow university, unaccountable ph?nomenon, that has yet appeared in photography criticism, human affairs. Where different principles beget a contrariety° of conduct, which is the case with all different political principles, the matter may be more easily explained. A man, who esteems the true right of government to lie in one man, or one family, cannot easily agree with his fellow-citizen, who thinks that another man or family is possessed of this right. Each naturally wishes that right may take place, according to binding, his own notions of it.

But where the difference of principle is roles of a sports coach attended with no contrariety of action, but every one may follow his own way, without interfering with his neighbour, as happens in all religious controversies; what madness, what fury can beget such unhappy and such fatal divisions? Two men travelling on the highway, the one east, the other west, can easily pass each other, if the way be broad enough: But two men, reasoning upon glasgow university, opposite principles of religion, cannot so easily pass, without shocking; though one should think, that the way were also, in that case, sufficiently broad, and that each might proceed, without interruption, in his own course. But such is the nature of the human mind, that it always lays hold on every mind that approaches it; and as it is wonderfully fortified by an unanimity of sentiments, so is and responsibilities of a essay [ 61 ] it shocked and disturbed by any contrariety. Hence the eagerness, which most people discover° in a dispute; and hence their impatience of opposition, even in binding glasgow university, the most speculative and indifferent opinions. This principle, however frivolous it may appear, seems to child in india, have been the origin of all religious wars and divisions.

But as this principle is dissertation glasgow universal in human nature, its effects would not have been confined to one age, and to one sect of of a coach religion, did it not there concur with other more accidental causes, which raise it to such a height, as to produce the greatest misery and devastation. Most religions of the ancient world arose in the unknown ages of glasgow university government, when men were as yet barbarous and uninstructed, and the prince, as well as peasant, was disposed to of a sports essay, receive, with implicit faith, every pious tale or fiction, which was offered him. Dissertation Binding? The magistrate embraced the religion of the people, and entering cordially into the care of sacred matters, naturally acquired an bachelor authority in them, and united the ecclesiastical with the civil power. But the Christian religion arising, while principles directly opposite to it were firmly established in the polite part of the world, who despised the dissertation nation that first broached this novelty; no wonder, that, in such circumstances, it was but little countenanced by the civil magistrate, and that the priesthood was allowed to application 2012, engross all the authority in dissertation glasgow university, the new sect. On Discrimination Against Girl In India? So bad a use did they make of this power, even in dissertation binding university, those early times, that the primitive persecutions may, perhaps, in part, 9 be [ 62 ] ascribed to the violence instilled by them into roles of a, their followers. And the same principles of dissertation binding glasgow priestly government continuing, after Christianity became the established religion, they have engendered a spirit of persecution, which has ever since been the poison of human society, and the source of the most inveterate factions in nordstrom papers, every government. Dissertation Glasgow? Such divisions, therefore, on the part of the people, may justly be esteemed factions of principle; but, on the part of the priests, who are the prime movers, they are really factions of interest. There is 2012 another cause (beside the authority of the priests, and the separation of the binding university ecclesiastical and civil powers) which has contributed to render Christendom ° the scene of religious wars and on discrimination against child in india, divisions.

Religions, that arise in ages totally ignorant and barbarous, consist mostly of binding glasgow university traditional tales and of critical, fictions, which may be different in every sect, without being contrary to each other; and even when they are contrary, every one adheres to the tradition of his own sect, without much reasoning or disputation. But as philosophy was widely spread over the world, at the time when Christianity arose, the teachers of the new sect were obliged to form a system of binding glasgow speculative opinions; to divide, with some accuracy, their articles of faith; and to explain, comment, confute, and defend with all the subtilty of argument and science. Hence naturally arose keenness in dispute, when the of critical in our Christian religion came to be [ 63 ] split into new divisions and heresies: And this keenness assisted the priests in their policy, of begetting a mutual hatred and antipathy among their deluded followers. Sects of philosophy, in the ancient world, were more zealous than parties of religion; but in modern times, parties of religion are more furious and enraged than the most cruel factions that ever arose from interest and ambition. I have mentioned parties from dissertation glasgow university affection as a kind of real parties, beside those from interest and principle. Roles And Responsibilities Of A Essay? By parties from affection, I understand those which are founded on the different attachments of men towards particular families and persons, whom they desire to rule over them. These factions are often very violent; though, I must own, it may seem unaccountable, that men should attach themselves so strongly to persons, with whom they are no wise acquainted, whom perhaps they never saw, and from whom they never received, nor can ever hope for any favour. Yet this we often find to be the case, and even with men, who, on other occasions, discover no great generosity of binding glasgow spirit, nor are found to on discrimination child, be easily transported by friendship beyond their own interest. We are apt to think the dissertation binding glasgow relation between us and our sovereign very close and intimate. The splendour of majesty and power bestows an criticism essays importance on dissertation, the fortunes even of a single person. And when a man’s good-nature does not give him this imaginary interest, his ill-nature will, from spite and opposition to persons whose sentiments are different from his own.

ESSAY IX: OF THE PARTIES OF GREAT BRITAIN? Were the British government proposed as a subject of nordstrom papers speculation, one would immediately perceive in it a source of division and party, which it would be almost impossible for it, under any administration, to avoid. The just balance between the republican and monarchical part of our constitution is really, in dissertation university, itself, so extremely delicate and uncertain, that, when joined to men’s passions and prejudices, it is impossible but different opinions must arise concerning it, even among persons of the best understanding. Those of mild tempers, who love peace and order, and detest sedition and civil wars, will always entertain more favourable sentiments of monarchy, than men of bold and generous° spirits, who are passionate lovers of liberty, and think no evil comparable to [ 65 ] subjection and slavery. And though all reasonable men agree in on discrimination child, general to preserve our mixed government; yet, when they come to dissertation binding, particulars, some will incline to trust greater powers to the crown, to bestow on it more influence, and to guard against its encroachments with less caution, than others who are terrified at the most distant approaches of tyranny and despotic power. Against Child In India? Thus are there parties of Principle involved in the very nature of our constitution, which may properly enough be denominated those of Court and Country .a The strength and violence of each of these parties will much depend upon dissertation binding glasgow university, the particular administration. An administration may be so bad, as to throw a great majority into the opposition; as a good administration will reconcile to the court many of the most passionate lovers of benefits thinking in our life liberty. But however the nation may fluctuate between them, the parties themselves will always subsist, so long as we are governed by a limited monarchy. But, besides this difference of dissertation binding Principle, those parties are very much fomented by a difference of Interest , without which they could scarcely ever be dangerous or violent. Roles Of A Coach Essay? The crown will naturally bestow all trust and power upon those, whose principles, real or pretended, are most favourable to monarchical government; and this temptation will naturally engage them to binding university, go greater lengths than their principles would otherwise carry them.

Their antagonists, who are disappointed in research, their ambitious aims, throw themselves into the party whose sentiments incline them to be most jealous of dissertation glasgow royal power, and naturally carry those sentiments to a greater height than sound politics will justify. Nordstrom Research Papers? Thus Court and binding, Country, which are the genuine offspring of the British government, are a kind of mixed parties, and are influenced both by principle and by interest. The heads of the factions are commonly most governed by the latter motive; the inferior members of them by the former.b. As to ecclesiastical parties; we may observe, that, in all ages of the world, priests have been enemies to liberty;c and it is certain, that this steady conduct of theirs must have been founded on fixed reasons of interest and questions, ambition. Liberty of [ 66 ] thinking, and of expressing our thoughts, is always fatal to dissertation binding glasgow, priestly power, and to those pious frauds, on which it is photography commonly founded; and, by an infallible connexion, which prevails among all kinds of liberty, this privilege can never be enjoyed, at least has never yet been enjoyed, but in a free government. Hence it must happen, in such a constitution as that of Great Britain , that the established clergy, while things are in their natural situation, will always be of the Court -party; as, on the contrary, dissenters of all kinds will be of the Country -party; since they can never hope for that toleration, which they stand in binding glasgow, need of, but by application means of our free government. All princes, that have aimed at despotic power, have known of binding university what importance it was to gain the established clergy: As the clergy, on their part, have shewn a great facility in entering into the views of of a sports coach essay such princes.1 Gustavus Vaza was, perhaps, the only ambitious monarch, that ever depressed the church, at the same time that he discouraged liberty. But the exorbitant power of the bishops in Sweden , who, at that time, overtopped the crown itself, together with their attachment to a foreign family, was the reason of binding glasgow university his embracing such an unusual system of politics.2. This observation, concerning the propensity of priests to the government of essay on discrimination against child a single person, is not true with regard to one sect only.

The Presbyterian and dissertation binding glasgow, Calvinistic clergy in Holland were professed friends to the family of Orange ; as the Arminians, who were esteemed heretics, were of the Louvestein faction, and on discrimination against girl, zealous for liberty.3 But if a prince have the choice of both, it is easy to see, that he will prefer the episcopal to the presbyterian form of government, both because of the greater affinity between monarchy and episcopacy, and because of the facility, which he will find, in such a government, of ruling the clergy, by means of their ecclesiastical superiors.4. If we consider the first rise of parties in England , during the great rebellion,5 we shall observe, that it was conformable to this general theory, and that the species of government gave birth to them, by a regular and infallible operation. The English constitution, before that period, had lain in a kind of confusion; yet so, as that the subjects possessed many noble privileges, which, though not exactly bounded and secured by glasgow [ 68 ] law, were universally deemed, from long possession, to belong to them as their birth-right. An ambitious, or rather a misguided, prince arose, who deemed all these privileges to benefits thinking in our, be concessions of his predecessors, revokeable at pleasure; and, in prosecution of this principle, he openly acted in violation of liberty, during the dissertation glasgow university course of several years. Necessity, at last, constrained him to call a parliament: The spirit of liberty arose and spread itself: The prince, being without any support, was obliged to grant every thing required of him: And his enemies, jealous and implacable, set no bounds to their pretensions.6 Here then began those contests, in which it was no wonder, that men of that age were divided into essay on discrimination girl, different parties; since, even at this day, the impartial are at a loss to decide concerning the justice of the dissertation glasgow university quarrel. The pretensions of the benefits of critical thinking parliament, if yielded to, broke the balance of the constitution, by rendering the government almost entirely republican. If not yielded to, the binding nation was, perhaps, still in danger of absolute power, from the settled principles and inveterate habits of the king, which had plainly appeared in every concession that he had been constrained to on discrimination against, make to his people. In this question, so delicate and uncertain, men naturally fell to the side which was most conformable to their usual principles; and the more passionate favourers of monarchy declared for the king, as the zealous friends of liberty sided with the parliament. The hopes of glasgow university success being nearly equal on both sides, interest had no general influence in this contest: So that Round-head and Cavalier were merely parties of in our life principle;7 neither of [ 69 ] which disowned either monarchy or liberty; but the former party inclined most to the republican part of our government, the latter to the monarchical. In this respect, they may be considered as court and country-party, enflamed into a civil war, by an unhappy concurrence of circumstances, and by the turbulent spirit of the age. The commonwealth’s men, and the partizans of absolute power, lay concealed in both parties, and formed but an inconsiderable part of them.

The clergy had concurred with the dissertation university king’s arbitrary designs; and, in return, were allowed to roles and responsibilities of a essay, persecute their adversaries, whom they called heretics and schismatics. The established clergy were episcopal; the non-conformists presbyterian: So that all things concurred to throw the former, without reserve, into the king’s party; and the latter into that of the parliament.f. Every one knows the event of this quarrel; fatal to the king first, to the parliament afterwards. After many confusions and revolutions, the royal family was at binding glasgow, last restored, and the ancient government re-established.8 Charles II. was not made wiser by the example of his father; but prosecuted the same measures, though at first, with more secrecy and essay girl child, caution. New parties arose, under the appellation of Whig and dissertation binding glasgow, Tory, which have continued ever since to confound and distract our government.9 To determine the nature of these parties is, perhaps, one of the most difficult problems, that can be met with, and is a proof that history may contain questions, as uncertain as any to be found in the most abstract sciences. We have seen the conduct of the two parties, during the course of georgetown essay seventy [ 70 ] years, in a vast variety of circumstances, possessed of power, and deprived of it, during peace, and during war: Persons, who profess themselves of one side or other, we meet with every hour, in university, company, in our pleasures, in our serious occupations: We ourselves are constrained, in a manner, to take party; and living in a country of the highest liberty, every one may openly declare all his sentiments and opinions: Yet are we at bachelor thesis net, a loss to tell the nature, pretensions, and university, principles of the different factions.g. When we compare the parties of benefits in our Whig and glasgow, Tory with those of Round-head and Cavalier , the of critical life most obvious difference, that appears between them, consists in the principles of passive obedience, and indefeasible right, which were but little heard of among the Cavaliers , but became the universal doctrine, and were esteemed the true characteristic of a Tory . Were these principles pushed into their most obvious consequences, they imply a formal renunciation of all our liberties, and an avowal of glasgow absolute monarchy; since nothing can be a greater absurdity than a limited power, which must not be resisted, even when it exceeds its limitations. But as the most rational principles are often but a weak counterpoise° to passion; it is of a sports coach essay no wonder that these absurd principlesh were found too weak for that effect. The Tories , as men, were enemies to oppression; and also as Englishmen , they were enemies to arbitrary power.

Their zeal for liberty, was, perhaps, less fervent than that of their antagonists; but was sufficient to make them forget all their general principles, when they saw themselves openly threatened with a subversion of the ancient government. From these sentiments arose the revolution; 10 an event of mighty consequence, and the firmest foundation of British liberty. Binding University? The conduct of the Tories , during that event, and after it, will afford us a true insight into the nature of nordstrom that party. In the first place, they appear to have had the genuine sentiments of Britons in dissertation university, their affection for liberty, and in [ 71 ] their determined resolution not to sacrifice it to any abstract principle whatsoever, or to any imaginary rights of princes. This part of their character might justly have been doubted of nordstrom research before the revolution, from the obvious tendency of their avowed principles, and from theiri compliances with a court, which seemed to university, make little secret of its arbitrary designs.

The revolution shewed them to have been, in this respect, nothing, but a genuine court-party, such as might be expected in a British government: That is, Lovers of liberty, but greater lovers of of critical thinking in our life monarchy. It must, however, be confessed, that they carried their monarchical principles farther, even in practice, but more so in theory, than was, in any degree, consistent with a limited government. Secondly, Neither their principles nor affections concurred, entirely or heartily, with the settlement made at the revolution, or with that which has since taken place. This part of their character may seem opposite to dissertation binding, the former; since any other settlement, in those circumstances of the nation, must probably have been dangerous, if not fatal to liberty. But the heart of man is made to reconcile contradictions; and in our, this contradiction is not greater than that between passive obedience, and the resistance employed at the revolution. A Tory , therefore, since the dissertation glasgow revolution, may be defined in a few words, to be a lover of monarchy, though without abandoning liberty; and a partizan of the family of Stuart . As a Whig may be defined to be a lover of liberty though without renouncing monarchy; and a friend to the settlement in the Protestant line. j. These different views, with regard to the settlement of the crown, were accidental, but natural additions to the principles of the court and country parties, which are the genuine divisions in the British government.

A passionate lover of monarchy is apt to be displeased at any change of the succession; as savouring too much of a commonwealth: A passionate lover of liberty is apt to think that every part of the government ought to be subordinate to nordstrom research, the interests of liberty. Some, who will not venture to assert, that the real difference between Whig and Tory was lost at the revolution, [ 72 ] seem inclined to think, that the difference is now abolished, and that affairs are so far returned to their natural state, that there are at present no other parties among us but court and country; that is, men, who, by interest or principle, are attached either to monarchy or liberty. The Tories have been so long obliged to dissertation binding university, talk in the republican stile, that they seem to have made converts of themselves by their hypocrisy, and to have embraced the sentiments, as well as language of their adversaries. Roles Of A? There are, however, very considerable remains of that party in England , with all their old prejudices; and a proof that court and country are not our only parties, is, that almost all the dissenters side with the court, and the lower clergy, at least, of the church of England , with the opposition. Dissertation? This may convince us, that some biass still hangs upon our constitution, some extrinsic weight, which turns it from and responsibilities of a essay its natural course, and causes a confusion in our parties.

ESSAY XVI: IDEA OF A PERFECT COMMONWEALTH? It is not with forms of government, as with other artificial contrivances; where an binding glasgow old engine may be rejected, if we can discover another more accurate and commodious, or where trials may safely be made, even though the success be doubtful. An established government has an infinite advantage, by net that very circumstance of its being established; the bulk of binding mankind being governed by authority, not reason, and never attributing authority to any thing that has not the sports recommendation of antiquity. To tamper, therefore, in this affair, or try experiments merely upon the credit of glasgow university supposed argument and philosophy, can never be the part of a wise magistrate, who will bear a reverence to what carries the marks of age; and though he may attempt some improvements for the public [ 513 ] good, yet will he adjust his innovations, as much as possible, to the ancient fabric, and coach essay, preserve entire the chief pillars and supports of the binding glasgow university constitution. The mathematicians in Europe have been much divided concerning that figure of benefits of critical thinking in our life a ship, which is the most commodious for sailing; and Huygens ,1 who at last determined the controversy, is justly thought to have obliged the learned, as well as commercial world; though Columbus had sailed to America , and Sir Francis Drake made the tour of the world,2 without any such discovery. Binding University? As one form of government must be allowed more perfect than another, independent of the georgetown application essay questions manners and humours of particular men; why may we not enquire what is the most perfect of all, though the common botched and inaccurate governments seem to serve the dissertation glasgow university purposes of society, and though it be not so easy to research, establish a new system of government, as to binding glasgow, build a vessel upon a new construction? The subject is thesis net surely the dissertation binding glasgow university most worthy curiosity of any the wit of man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by the universal consent of the wise and learned, but, in some future age, an thesis opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to binding glasgow, practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of men to form a new one, in bachelor, some distant part of the binding university world? In all cases, it must be advantageous to know what is nordstrom research papers most perfect in the kind, that we may be able to bring any real constitution or form of government as near it as possible, [ 514 ] by such gentle alterations and university, innovations as may not give too great disturbance to society.

All I pretend to in the present essay is to revive this subject of speculation; and therefore I shall deliver my sentiments in against girl child, as few words as possible. Glasgow? A long dissertation on on discrimination against girl in india, that head would not, I apprehend, be very acceptable to glasgow university, the public, who will be apt to regard such disquisitions both as useless and chimerical. All plans of government, which suppose great reformation in the manners of georgetown essay mankind, are plainly imaginary. Of this nature, are the Republic of Plato , and the Utopia of Sir Thomas More .3 The Oceana is the only valuable model of a commonwealth, that has yet been offered to the public.4. The chief defects of the Oceana seem to be these. Dissertation Binding University? First, Its rotation is net inconvenient, by throwing men, of whatever abilities, by intervals, out of public employments. Dissertation? Secondly, Its Agrarian is impracticable. Men will soon learn the art, which was practised in ancient Rome , of concealing their possessions under other people’s name; till at last, the roles of a sports abuse will become so common, that they will throw off even the appearance of restraint.

Thirdly, The Oceana provides not a sufficient security for liberty, or the redress of grievances. The senate must propose, and the people consent; by which means, the senate have not only a negative upon the people, but, what is of much greater consequence, their negative goes before the votes of the people. Were the King’s negative of the same nature in the English constitution, and could he prevent any bill from coming into parliament, he would be an absolute monarch. As his negative follows the votes of the houses, it is of little consequence: Such a difference is there in the manner of placing the same thing. When a popular bill has been debated in parliament, is brought to maturity, all its conveniencies and university, inconveniencies, weighed and balanced; if afterwards it be presented for the royal assent, few princes will venture to reject the unanimous desire of the people. But could the King crush a disagreeable bill in embryo (as was the case, for research some time, in the Scottish parliament, by glasgow university means of the lords of the articles5), the British government would have no balance, nor would grievances ever be redressed: And it is certain, that exorbitant power proceeds not, in any government, [ 516 ] from new laws, so much as from neglecting to remedy the abuses, which frequently rise from the old ones. A government, says Machiavel , must often be brought back to its original principles.6 It appears then, that, in the Oceana , the whole legislature may be said to rest in the senate; which Harrington would own to be an inconvenient form of government, especially after the Agrarian is abolished. Here is a form of government, to essay on discrimination child in india, which I cannot, in theory, discover any considerable objection.

aLet Great Britain and glasgow university, Ireland , or any territory of equal extent, be divided into 100 counties, and each county into on discrimination girl child, 100 parishes, making in all 10,000. If the glasgow university country, proposed to be erected into a commonwealth be of more narrow extent, we may diminish the number of counties; but never bring them below thirty. Bachelor Thesis? If it be of dissertation glasgow greater extent, it were better to enlarge the parishes, or throw more parishes into a county, than encrease the number of counties. bLet all the freeholders of twenty pounds a-year in the county, and all the householders worth 500 pounds in research, the town parishes, meet annually in the parish church, and chuse, by dissertation binding university ballot, some freeholder of the county for on discrimination against girl child their member, whom we shall call the county representative. Let the dissertation glasgow 100 county representatives, two days after their election, meet in the county town, and chuse by ballot, from research their own body, ten county magistrates, and one senator. There are, therefore, in the whole commonwealth, 100 senators, 1100 county magistrates, and 10,000 county representatives. For we shall bestow on all senators the authority of county magistrates, and on all county magistrates the university authority of county representatives. Let the senators meet in the capital, and be endowed with the benefits in our whole executive power of the dissertation glasgow commonwealth; the power of thinking in our life peace and war, of giving orders to generals, admirals, and [ 517 ] ambassadors, and, in short, all the prerogatives of a British King, except his negative. Let the county representatives meet in their particular counties, and dissertation university, possess the whole legislative power of the commonwealth; the greater number of counties deciding the question; and where these are equal, let the nordstrom research papers senate have the casting° vote.

Every new law must first be debated in the senate; and though rejected by it, if ten senators insist and protest, it must be sent down to the counties. The senate, if they please, may join to the copy of the law their reasons for receiving or rejecting it. Because it would be troublesome to assemble all the county representatives for glasgow every trivial law, that may be requisite, the senate have their choice of sending down the nordstrom research law either to the county magistrates or county representatives. The magistrates, though the law be referred to them, may, if they please, call the binding glasgow university representatives, and submit the thinking life affair to their determination. Whether the binding glasgow law be referred by the senate to the county magistrates or representatives, a copy of it, and of the senate’s reasons, must be sent to every representative eight days before the photography day appointed for the assembling, in order to deliberate concerning it. And though the determination be, by the senate, referred to the magistrates, if five representatives of the county order the magistrates to assemble the whole court of representatives, and submit the affair to their determination, they must obey. Either the county magistrates or representatives may give, to the senator of the county, the copy of a law to be proposed to dissertation glasgow, the senate; and questions 2012, if five counties concur in the same order, the law, though refused by the senate, must come either to the county magistrates or representatives, as is university contained in the order of the five counties. Any twenty counties, by a vote either of their magistrates or representatives, may throw any man out of all public offices for a year.

Thirty counties for three years. The senate has a power of throwing out any member or number of members of roles of a essay its own body, not to be re-elected for that year. The senate cannot throw out twice in a year the binding glasgow university senator of the photography same county. The power of the university old senate continues for three weeks after the photography annual election of the county representatives. Binding? Then all the new senators are shut up in a conclave, like the cardinals; and by an intricate ballot, such as that of Venice 7 or Malta , they chuse the following magistrates; a protector, who represents the dignity of the commonwealth, and presides in the senate; two secretaries of roles sports coach state; these six councils, a council of state, a council of religion and glasgow university, learning, a council of trade, a council of laws, a council of war, a council of the admiralty, each council consisting of five persons; together with six commissioners of the treasury and papers, a first commissioner. All these must be senators. The senate also names [ 519 ] all the ambassadors to foreign courts, who may either be senators or not.

The senate may continue any or all of these, but must re-elect them every year. The protector and two secretaries have session° and suffrage in the council of binding glasgow state. The business of that council is benefits of critical in our life all foreign politics. The council of state has session and suffrage in all the binding university other councils. The council of religion and learning inspects the universities and clergy. That of trade inspects every thing that may affect commerce.

That of laws inspects all the abuses of law by the inferior magistrates, and examines what improvements may be made of the municipal law. That of war inspects the militia and its discipline, magazines, stores, c. and when the republic is in war, examines into of a, the proper orders for generals. The council of admiralty has the same power with regard to the navy, together with the nomination of the captains and all inferior officers. None of glasgow university these councils can give orders themselves, except where they receive such powers from the senate. Nordstrom? In other cases, they must communicate every thing to the senate. When the binding university senate is under adjournment, any of the councils may assemble it before the day appointed for its meeting. Besides these councils or courts, there is another called the papers court of university competitors; which is thus constituted. If any candidates for the office of senator have more votes than a third of the representatives, that candidate, who has most votes, next to georgetown essay questions, the senator elected, becomes incapable for one year of all public offices, even of being a magistrate or representative: But he takes his seat in the court of competitors. Here then is dissertation binding glasgow university a court which may sometimes consist of a hundred members, sometimes have no members at all; and by that means, be for a year abolished. The court of competitors has no power in the commonwealth. It has only the inspection of public accounts, and the accusing of on discrimination girl child in india any man before the senate.

If the dissertation glasgow university senate acquit him, the court of competitors may, if they please, appeal to [ 520 ] the people, either magistrates or representatives. Upon that appeal, the magistrates or representatives meet on the day appointed by the court of competitors, and chuse in each county three persons; from which number every senator is excluded. These, to the number of 300, meet in photography criticism, the capital, and bring the person accused to a new trial. The court of competitors may propose any law to the senate; and dissertation glasgow university, if refused, may appeal to the people, that is, to roles of a, the magistrates or representatives, who examine it in their counties. Every senator, who is thrown out of the senate by a vote of the court, takes his seat in the court of competitors. The senate possesses all the judicative authority of the house of Lords, that is, all the appeals from the inferior courts. It likewise appoints the Lord Chancellor, and all the officers of the dissertation binding glasgow law. Every county is a kind of republic within itself, and the representatives may make bye-laws; which have no authority ’till three months after they are voted. A copy of the law is sent to the senate, and to every other county.

The senate, or any single county, may, at any time, annul any bye-law of nordstrom research papers another county. The representatives have all the authority of the British justices of dissertation university peace in roles and responsibilities sports essay, trials, commitments, c. The magistrates have the binding glasgow appointment of all the officers of the revenue in each county. All causes with regard to the revenue are carried ultimately by appeal before the magistrates. They pass the accompts of all the officers; but must have their own accompts examined and roles sports coach, passed at the end of the dissertation binding university year by the representatives. The magistrates name rectors or ministers to all the parishes. The Presbyterian government is established; and the highest ecclesiastical court is an assembly or synod of all the presbyters of the county.

The magistrates may take any cause from this court, and determine it themselves. The magistrates may try, and depose or suspend any presbyter. The militia is established in imitation of nordstrom papers that of Swisserland , [ 521 ] which being well known, we shall not insist upon it.8 It will only be proper to university, make this addition, that an army of 20,000 men be annually drawn out by rotation, paid and encamped during six weeks in summer; that the duty of a camp may not be altogether unknown. The magistrates appoint all the colonels and downwards. The senate all upwards.

During war, the general appoints the colonel and downwards, and his commission is good for a twelvemonth. But after that, it must be confirmed by the magistrates of the county, to bachelor net, which the regiment belongs. The magistrates may break° any officer in the county regiment. Dissertation Glasgow? And the senate may do the same to nordstrom research, any officer in the service. If the magistrates do not think proper to confirm the general’s choice, they may appoint another officer in the place of him they reject. All crimes are tried within the county by the magistrates and a jury. Binding Glasgow University? But the life senate can stop any trial, and bring it before themselves.

Any county may indict any man before the senate for any crime. The protector, the two secretaries, the university council of state, with any five or more that the senate appoints, are possessed, on extraordinary emergencies, of against child dictatorial power for binding university six months. The protector may pardon any person condemned by the inferior courts. In time of war, no officer of the army that is in the field can have any civil office in the commonwealth. The capital, which we shall call London , may be allowed [ 522 ] four members in the senate.

It may therefore be divided into four counties. Georgetown Application 2012? The representatives of each of these chuse one senator, and ten magistrates. There are therefore in the city four senators, forty-four magistrates, and four hundred representatives. The magistrates have the same authority as in the counties. The representatives also have the same authority; but they never meet in one general court: They give their votes in their particular county, or division of hundreds. When they enact any bye-law, the greater number of counties or divisions determines the matter. And where these are equal, the magistrates have the casting vote.

The magistrates chuse the mayor, sheriff, recorder, and other officers of the city. In the commonwealth, no representative, magistrate, or senator, as such, has any salary. The protector, secretaries, councils, and binding glasgow, ambassadors, have salaries. The first year in every century is set apart for correcting all inequalities, which time may have produced in the representative. This must be done by essay against child in india the legislature. The following political aphorisms° may explain the reason of binding glasgow university these orders. The lower sort of people and small proprietors are good judges enough of one not very distant from them in rank or habitation; and therefore, in photography essays, their parochial meetings, will probably chuse the university best, or nearly the best representative: But they are wholly unfit for county-meetings, and for electing into the higher offices of the georgetown questions republic. Their ignorance gives the grandees an opportunity of deceiving them. Ten thousand, even though they were not annually elected, are a basis large enough for dissertation binding glasgow university any free government.

It is true, the nobles in research, Poland are more than 10,000, and yet these oppress the people. Dissertation Binding Glasgow? But as power always continues there in nordstrom, the same persons and families, this makes them, in a manner, a different nation from the people. University? Besides the nobles are there united under a few heads of families. All free governments must consist of two councils, a lesser and greater; or, in application essay questions 2012, other words, of a senate and people. The [ 523 ] people, as Harrington observes, would want wisdom, without the senate: The senate, without the people, would want honesty. A large assembly of 1000, for instance, to represent the people, if allowed to debate, would fall into disorder. If not allowed to dissertation, debate, the benefits thinking in our life senate has a negative upon them, and the worst kind of negative, that before resolution. Here therefore is an inconvenience, which no government has yet fully remedied, but which is the easiest to be remedied in the world. If the people debate, all is confusion: If they do not debate, they can only resolve; and binding university, then the senate carves for them. Divide the people into of critical thinking in our life, many separate bodies; and then they may debate with safety, and every inconvenience seems to be prevented. Cardinal de Retz says, that all numerous assemblies, however composed, are mere mob, and swayed in their debates by the least motive.9 This we find confirmed by daily experience.

When an absurdity strikes a member, he conveys it to his neighbour, and so on, till the whole be infected. Separate this great body; and binding glasgow, though every member be only of middling sense, it is not probable, that any thing but reason can prevail over roles of a coach essay, the whole. Influence and example being removed, good sense will always get the better of bad among a number of people.c. There are two things to be guarded against in dissertation, every senate: Its combination, and its division. Against Girl Child? Its combination is most dangerous. And against this inconvenience we have provided the following remedies. 1. The great dependence of the senators on the people by dissertation binding glasgow university annual elections; and that not by an undistinguishing [ 524 ] rabble, like the English electors, but by men of fortune and education. 2. The small power they are allowed. They have few offices to dispose of.

Almost all are given by the magistrates in the counties. 3. The court of georgetown competitors, which being composed of men that are their rivals, next to them in interest, and uneasy in their present situation, will be sure to take all advantages against them. The division of the senate is prevented, 1. Dissertation University? By the smallness of their number. Essays? 2. As faction supposes a combination in a separate interest, it is prevented by their dependence on the people. 3. They have a power of expelling any factious member.

It is true, when another member of the same spirit comes from the county, they have no power of expelling him: Nor is it fit they should; for that shows the dissertation humour to be in the people, and may possibly arise from some ill conduct in public affairs. 4. Almost any man, in a senate so regularly chosen by the people, may be supposed fit for any civil office. It would be proper, therefore, for the senate to form some general resolutions with regard to the disposing of offices among the georgetown essay questions 2012 members: Which resolutions would not confine them in critical times, when extraordinary parts on the one hand, or extraordinary stupidity on the other, appears in any senator; but they would be sufficient to preventd intrigue and faction, by making the disposal of the offices a thing of course. For instance, let it be a resolution, That no man shall enjoy any office, till he has sat four years in the senate: That, except ambassadors, no man shall be in office two years following: That no man shall attain the dissertation higher offices but through the lower: That no man shall be protector twice, c. The senate of thinking in our Venice govern themselves by such resolutions. In foreign politics the dissertation glasgow university interest of the on discrimination against girl in india senate can scarcely ever be divided from that of the people; and therefore it is fit to make the senate absolute with regard to them; otherwise there could be no secrecy or refined policy. Besides, without money no alliance can be executed; and the senate is still sufficiently dependant. Not to mention, that the legislative power being always superior to dissertation binding, the executive, the magistrates or representatives may interpose whenever they think proper. The chief support of the British government is the opposition of interests; but that, though in photography, the main serviceable, breeds endless factions. In the foregoing plan, it does all the good without any of the harm. The competitors have no power of controlling the senate: They have only the glasgow power of accusing, and appealing to the people. It is necessary, likewise, to prevent both combination and division in the thousand magistrates.

This is done sufficiently by the separation of places and interests. But lest that should not be sufficient, their dependence on the 10,000 for their elections, serves to the same purpose. Nor is that all: For the 10,000 may resume the thinking power whenever they please; and binding university, not only when they all please, but when any five of georgetown 2012 a hundred please, which will happen upon the very first suspicion of a separate interest. The 10,000 are too large a body either to binding glasgow, unite or divide, except when they meet in one place, and fall under the bachelor thesis net guidance of ambitious leaders. Glasgow? Not to mention their annual election,e by the whole body of the people, that are of research any consideration. A small commonwealth is the university happiest government in the world within itself, because every thing lies under the eye of the rulers: But it may be subdued by great force from without. This scheme seems to have all the advantages both of a great and a little commonwealth. Every county-law may be annulled either by thinking in our the senate or another county; because that shows an binding university opposition of interest: In which case no part ought to decide for itself. Essay Against Girl In India? The matter must be referred to the whole, which will best determine what agrees with general interest. As to binding glasgow university, the clergy and militia, the reasons of these orders are obvious. On Discrimination Against Girl In India? Without the dissertation binding university dependence of the clergy on the civil magistrates, and without a militia, it is in vain to papers, think that any free government will ever have security or stability.

In many governments, the inferior magistrates have no rewards but what arise from their ambition, vanity, or public spirit. Dissertation Binding Glasgow? The salaries of the French judges amount not to of critical thinking in our life, the interest of the sums they pay for dissertation binding their offices. The Dutch [ 526 ] burgo-masters have little more immediate profit than the English justices of peace, or the members of the roles and responsibilities of a sports essay house of commons formerly. But lest any should suspect, that this would beget negligence in the administration (which is little to dissertation binding, be feared, considering the natural ambition of mankind), let the magistrates have competent salaries. The senators have access to so many honourable and against girl in india, lucrative offices, that their attendance needs not be bought. There is little attendance required of the representatives. That the foregoing plan of government is practicable, no one can doubt, who considers the resemblance that it bears to dissertation, the commonwealth of the United Provinces,f a wise and renowned government. On Discrimination Against Child? The alterations in the present scheme seem all evidently for the better. University? 1. The representation is more equal.

2. The unlimited power of the burgo-masters in the towns, which forms a perfect aristocracy in net, the Dutch commonwealth, is corrected by a well-tempered democracy, in giving to the people the annual election of the county representatives. 3. The negative, which every province and town has upon dissertation university, the whole body of the Dutch republic, with regard to alliances, peace and war, and the imposition of taxes, is here removed. 4. Thinking In Our? The counties, in the present plan, are not so independent of each other, nor do they form separate bodies so much as the dissertation binding university seven provinces; where the jealousy and envy of the smaller provinces and towns against girl in india, the greater, particularly Holland and Amsterdam , have frequently disturbed the government. 5. Larger powers, though of the safest kind, are intrusted to the senate than the States-General possess; by dissertation binding university which means, the former may become more expeditious, and secret in their resolutions, than it is essay on discrimination girl possible for the latter. The chief alterations that could be made on the British government, in order to bring it to the most perfect model of limited monarchy, seem to be the following. First, The plan of g Cromwell’s parliament ought to dissertation binding glasgow, be restored, by making the representation equal, and by allowing none to vote in the county elections who possess noth a property of 200 pounds [ 527 ] value. Thinking In Our? Secondly, As such a house of Commons would be too weighty for a frail house of dissertation binding Lords, like the thesis net present, the Bishops and Scotch Peers ought to be removed:i The number of the upper house ought to be raised to three or four hundred: Their seats not hereditary, but during life: They ought to have the election of their own members; and no commoner should be allowed to refuse a seat that was offered him. By this means the glasgow university house of Lords would consist entirely of the men of chief credit, abilities, and interest in photography, the nation; and glasgow, every turbulent leader in the house of Commons might be taken off, and connected by interest with the house of Peers. Such an aristocracy would be an excellent barrier both to the monarchy and against it.

At present, the balance of roles sports coach essay our government depends in some measure on the abilities and behaviour of the university sovereign; which are variable and uncertain circumstances. This plan of limited monarchy, however corrected, seems still liable to three great inconveniencies. First, It removes not entirely, though it may soften, the parties of court and country. Secondly, The king’s personal character must still have great influence on nordstrom, the government. Thirdly, The sword is in the hands of a single person, who will always neglect to discipline the militia, in order to have a pretence for keeping up a standing army.j. We shall conclude this subject, with observing the binding glasgow university falsehood of the common opinion, that no large state, such as France or Great Britain , could ever be modelled into a commonwealth, but that such a form of government can only nordstrom research take place in a city or small territory.

The contrary seems probable. Though it is more difficult to form a republican government in an extensive country than in a city; there is more facility, when once it is formed, of dissertation preserving it steady and uniform, without tumult and faction. It is not easy, for the distant parts of a large state to combine in any plan of free government; but they easily conspire in the esteem and reverence for a single person, who, by means of georgetown essay questions 2012 this popular favour, may seize the power, and forcing the more obstinate to submit, may establish a monarchical government. On the other [ 528 ] hand, a city readily concurs in the same notions of government, the natural equality of property favours liberty, and dissertation, the nearness of habitation enables the citizens mutually to assist each other. Even under absolute princes, the subordinate government of cities is commonly republican; while that of counties and provinces is monarchical. But these same circumstances, which facilitate the thinking erection of commonwealths in cities, render their constitution more frail and uncertain. Dissertation Binding Glasgow? Democracies are turbulent. And Responsibilities Coach Essay? For however the people may be separated or divided into small parties, either in their votes or elections; their near habitation in a city will always make the force of popular tides and currents very sensible. Aristocracies are better adapted for peace and order, and binding glasgow, accordingly were most admired by ancient writers; but they are jealous and oppressive. In a large government, which is thesis modelled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into the first elections or first concoction of the binding glasgow university commonwealth, to thesis net, the higher magistrates, who direct all the movements. At the same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to glasgow, hurry them into application 2012, any measures against the public interest.

It is needless to enquire, whether such a government would be immortal. I allow the justness of the poet’s exclamation on the endless projects of human race, Man and for ever! 10 The world itself probably is not immortal. Such consuming plagues may arise as would leave even a perfect government a weak prey to glasgow university, its neighbours. Georgetown Application Essay Questions 2012? We know not to what length [ 529 ] enthusiasm, or other extraordinary movements of the dissertation binding human mind, may transport men, to the neglect of all order and public good.

Where difference of interest is removed, whimsical and unaccountable factions often arise, from essay against personal favour or enmity. Perhaps, rust may grow to the springs of the most accurate political machine, and disorder its motions. Binding Glasgow? Lastly, extensive conquests, when pursued, must be the ruin of every free government; and of the more perfect governments sooner than of the imperfect; because of the life very advantages which the former possess above the latter. And though such a state ought to establish a fundamental law against conquests; yet republics have ambition as well as individuals, and present interest makes men forgetful of dissertation glasgow their posterity. It is a sufficient incitement to essay against girl, human endeavours, that such a government would flourish for many ages; without pretending to bestow, on dissertation binding glasgow university, any work of man, that immortality, which the Almighty seems to have refused to his own productions.

Week 10: On the Brink of Independence. Week 13: The Declaration of Independence. Hume, Essays Copyright © 2017 by John Zumbrunnen. All Rights Reserved.

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6 Job Interview Questions and Answers to Avoid. The old adage of Think before you speak is never truer than when you#39;re on a job interview. University! One unwitting slip-up could cost you your dream position, so it#39;s crucial to nordstrom papers know what kinds of questions and answers will set off a red flag for your interviewer. Dissertation Binding University! While a hiring manager has a responsibility to avoid illegal interview questions, there are certain things that you shouldn#39;t say as a candidate, either. Five career coaches weighed in on nordstrom research papers the most common questions and answers that interviewees should avoid at dissertation glasgow university all costs.

Even if the job posting you read didn#39;t include much information about the company itself, this should be a fairly obvious question to avoid. Nothing puts a big red X on your résumé like not having done your research. If you#39;re coming in for a job interview, the photography, hiring manager expects that you have a basic understanding of what the company does and who its clients are. Don#39;t ask questions that you can find the answers to online, said Marie Zimenoff of A Strategic Advantage. Questions should demonstrate some research of the company and knowledge of the position. What will my salary/benefits/work schedule be?

Money is important. You need to earn money to pay the bills and dissertation, take care of research papers, yourself and your family. But any career coach will tell you that you should never ask a potential employer about salary and benefits up front. Binding Glasgow University! Candidates that do this appear to only be interested in the money and not as much about performing the job, said Charlotte Weeks of application essay questions 2012, Weeks Career Services. Abby Kohut of AbsolutelyAbby.com agreed that bringing up money (or other issues like work hours, work-from-home policies and vacation time) too soon lets the hiring manager know that you only care about what the dissertation, company can do for you, instead of what you can do for your potential employer. The best tactic is to wait for the employer to bring up these topics, and follow his or her lead. Zimenoff advised researching a salary range before the nordstrom papers, interview; when your interviewer does start talking numbers, you can request this range.

What is your company culture like? While it#39;s not necessarily bad manners to ask about company culture, you probably won#39;t get an honest answer to this question. No company is going to say that its culture is binding glasgow university terrible, Kohut said. As an of critical in our life alternative, she recommended asking your interviewer for one thing he or she would change about the company#39;s culture if given the opportunity. This will allow the hiring manager to give you a more truthful perspective, without forcing that person to dissertation glasgow make a sweeping generalization about having a bad culture.

Anything personal in on discrimination girl in india, response to, Tell me about glasgow university yourself Nearly every job candidate is asked to tell the research papers, interviewer about him or herself. And nearly every job candidate shares far more than necessary when answering this question. Don#39;t respond with your life story where you were born, your personal habits, etc., said Executive Career Services#39; Steve Provenzano, author of dissertation university, Top Secret Resumes and nordstrom, Cover Letters (ECS DTP, Inc., 2013). Make your answer relevant to the company and the job you seek to fill. Dissertation University! Sharon Good of Good Life Coaching also noted that candidates should stick to essay sharing professional strengths and binding, experiences rather than personal hobbies and interests. The only research papers, time you should share personal information is if you have some kind of limitation, like a handicap or external responsibility that will affect your potential daily tasks. You may not want to say it in the first interview, but it#39;s important to university be honest and admit it if it#39;s going to prevent you from doing the against girl in india, job as described, Good said. My weakness is that I#39;m a workaholic/perfectionist. Another fairly common interview question asks for binding glasgow, a candidate#39;s greatest weakness. Since interviewees don#39;t want to make themselves look bad for their potential employer, most respond with a weakness that is criticism essays actually beneficial to the company, like being a workaholic or a perfectionist.

One thing that drives recruiters crazy is hearing a strength pitted as a weakness, Zimenoff told BusinessNewsDaily. The hiring manager is asking this question to see if candidates can admit they are not perfect, and demonstrate that they can take feedback and action to dissertation improve. Be prepared to answer this question with an criticism essays actual weakness that you can improve upon, such as taking criticism too harshly or getting too wrapped up in dissertation binding, the details of and responsibilities sports, a project. You should also be able to glasgow tell the benefits life, interviewer how you have resolved or plan to resolve the issue. Most hiring managers close the interview by asking if the candidate has any other questions about the company or the position. Regardless of whether or not it#39;s true, telling the interviewer that he or she has covered everything and that you have nothing else to ask can be a potentially bad answer. Saying this can imply a lack of interest, Weeks said. If you can#39;t think of anything that hasn#39;t been addressed, ask for elaboration on something that had already been talked about. There are countless things running through your mind before a job interview, but above all, make sure you#39;re thoroughly prepared to dissertation glasgow university answer anything your interviewer might ask which includes knowing what not to say in response.

Originally published on BusinessNewsDaily . Nicole received her Bachelor#39;s degree in application essay questions 2012, Media, Culture and Communication from New York University. She began freelancing for Business News Daily in 2010 and joined the team as a staff writer three years later. She currently serves as the managing editor. Reach her by email, or follow her on Twitter.

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floating resume NORD gratefully acknowledges Sarah M. Nikkel, MD, FRCPC, FCCMG, Associate Professor, Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Clinical Geneticist, Department of Genetics, Children’s Hospital of dissertation, Eastern Ontario, for assistance in the preparation of this report. Synonyms of nordstrom research, Floating Harbor Syndrome. Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, various skeletal malformations, delayed bone age, and expressive and receptive language delays. Children may be below average height for their age (short stature).

Additional symptoms including mild to moderate intellectual disability have also been reported. Binding Glasgow University. The specific symptoms and severity FHS can vary greatly from child one person to another. FHS is caused by dissertation binding university mutations in the SRCAP gene. This mutation is bachelor net inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, although most cases of dissertation binding, FHS occur randomly (sporadically) as the result of a new (de novo) mutation. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Floating-Harbor syndrome was named after the roles and responsibilities of a essay two hospitals where, during the dissertation glasgow 1970s, the first cases were identified and roles coach essay reported in the medical literature; namely, the Boston Floating Hospital and Harbor General Hospital in California.

Although researchers have been able to establish a clear syndrome with characteristic or “core” symptoms, much about the disorder is not fully understood. Several factors including the small number of identified cases, the dissertation binding university lack of large clinical studies, and the possibility of benefits of critical, other genes influencing the disorder prevent physicians from developing a complete picture of university, associated symptoms and prognosis. Therefore, it is important to note that affected individuals may not have all of the symptoms discussed below. Parents should talk to their children’s physician and medical team about their specific case, associated symptoms and overall prognosis. In some cases, delayed growth may occur before birth (prenatal growth retardation) resulting in low birth weight. Typically, growth deficiencies become apparent during the first year of life. Nordstrom Papers. Affected children may be below average height for dissertation binding, their age (short stature), usually below the 5th percentile. Criticism. The head size is typically in dissertation binding, the average range.

In addition to growth deficiencies, children with FHS have a delay in bone aging in the first decade of questions 2012, life, which means that the rate of growth and calcification of the bones is slower than normal. Infants and children with FHS have distinctive facial features including a triangularly-shaped face; low-set ears; deep-set eyes with abnormally long eyelashes; thin lips; a broad, linear mouth; a prominent, triangular-shaped nose that is narrow at the root and broadens at the base; the bottom of the sheet of cartilage and bone (nasal septum) that separates the right and left nostrils (columella) may be low-hanging; the nostrils are large; and the groove that runs from the nose to the upper lip (philtrum) is short. These facial characteristics are the most distinctive features of FHS. Although they may change as an affected individual ages, the key features remain constant. Speech and language deficits are common in dissertation binding glasgow, children with FHS. Expressive language deficits are most common and often most severely affected. Expressive language is the ability of a person to ‘output’ language or how people express themselves such as through speech or writing. It also encompasses the use of gestures and facial expressions. Some affected children also have receptive language deficits, in which they are unable to understand words and gestures.

Affected individuals may have difficulty speaking (dysarthria) and exhibit a distinct, high-pitched nasally voice. In some cases, speech may be absent. Children may be described as having verbal dyspraxia, which refers to the difficulty or inability to of a coordinate the precise movements required to produce clear speech despite the absence of damage to the nerves or muscles. The severity of expressive and receptive language abnormalities can vary widely. Intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate in university, degree has been reported. Learning disabilities are common as well. Affected individuals exhibit various skeletal malformations including short fingers and toes (brachydactyly); broad fingertips that give the photography criticism essays appearance of clubbing; short, broad thumbs; and prominent joints. The pinkies may be fixed or ‘locked’ in a bent position (clinodactyly). Some individuals may have abnormalities of the binding university collarbones (clavicles) including underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the collarbone or the development of a ‘false joint’ (pseudoarthrosis). A false joint is a bony structure that usually develops at the site of a poorly united fracture that allows abnormal movement of the affected bones. Children with FHS may exhibit behavioral abnormalities including hyperactivity, impulsivity, short attention span, aggression, anxiousness, and obsessive behaviors such as repeated skin picking.

Behavioral issues often improve in adulthood. Additional symptoms have been reported in individuals with FHS including short bones in the hands (metacarpals); the presence of 11 pairs of ribs instead of 12; malformed (dysplastic) hips; abnormal curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis); seizures; backflow or leakage of the and responsibilities sports essay contents of the stomach into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux); farsightedness (hyperopia); crossed eyes (strabismus); recurrent middle ear infections (otitis media); and conductive hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is impaired transmission of sound from the outer or middle ear to the inner ear. Dental anomalies may also occur including extra (supernumerary) teeth, delayed loss of primary (“baby”) teeth, abnormally small teeth (microdontia), and malocclusion, a condition in which the upper teeth are improperly positioned in relation to the lower teeth. In some cases, affected individuals may exhibit kidney abnormalities such as cysts on the kidneys or swelling (distention) of the kidneys due to the abnormal accumulation of urine (hydronephrosis). Hydronephrosis develops because of blockage within the urinary tract that prevents urine from being evacuated through the bladder. In some cases, there may be absence of the kidneys (agenesis).

In some cases, the onset of puberty may occur earlier than normal. Males may have undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) and dissertation hypospadias, a condition in which the tube that is connected to the bladder and discharges urine from the body (urethra) opens on the underside of the net penis instead of the tip. Other conditions that have been reported in dissertation glasgow university, individuals with FHS include Celiac disease, congenital heart defects, mild underactivity of the thyroid (hypothyroidism), and, in adulthood, high blood pressure (hypertension). Floating-Harbor syndrome is caused by a mutation in the SRCAP gene. Genes provide instructions for creating proteins that play a critical role in application questions 2012, many functions of the body. Dissertation Binding Glasgow University. When a mutation of a gene occurs, the protein product may be faulty, inefficient, or absent. In Our. Depending upon the functions of the particular protein, this can affect many organ systems of the body. Investigators have determined that the dissertation binding glasgow university SRCAP gene is nordstrom research papers located on the short arm (p) of chromosome 16 (16p11). Chromosomes, which are present in the nucleus of human cells, carry the genetic information for each individual. Dissertation. Human body cells normally have 46 chromosomes. Pairs of human chromosomes are numbered from bachelor thesis net 1 through 22 and the sex chromosomes are designated X and dissertation binding university Y. Males have one X and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes.

Each chromosome has a short arm designated “p” and a long arm designated “q”. Chromosomes are further sub-divided into many bands that are numbered. In FHS, mutations in the SRCAP gene often occur as a new (sporadic or de novo) mutation, which means that in nearly all cases the bachelor thesis gene mutation has occurred at the time of the formation of the egg or sperm for that child only, and no other family member will be affected. There are no silent carriers of FHS (i.e. if one carries a mutation in SRCAP, he/she will show signs of FHS). Although most cases are due to sporadic mutations, dominant inheritance (where a trait is binding university transmitted from either an affected mother or father to a child) has been documented in a few families. Genetic diseases are determined by essay on discrimination against child in india the combination of binding glasgow, genes for a particular trait that are on the chromosomes received from the father and nordstrom research papers the mother. Binding Glasgow. Dominant genetic disorders occur when only a single copy of an abnormal gene is necessary for the appearance of the photography essays disease. The abnormal gene can be inherited from either parent, or can be the result of a new mutation (gene change) in the affected individual. The risk of passing the glasgow abnormal gene from georgetown essay questions affected parent to offspring is 50% for each pregnancy. The risk is the same for males and females.

The SRCAP gene creates (encodes) a protein that has several functions in dissertation glasgow university, the body. This protein is thinking life a cofactor (i.e. a substance required for a protein’s biological activity) for dissertation binding university, the CREB-binding protein (CREBBP). Bachelor Thesis. Mutations in the gene that produces CREB-binding protein cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a rare disorder with many overlapping symptoms to FHS. Floating-Harbor syndrome affects males and dissertation glasgow females in equal numbers. The exact incidence and prevalence of the disorder is unknown. Because cases may go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, determining the essays true frequency of FHS in the general population is dissertation glasgow university difficult. As of 2014, approximately 100 cases have been reported in the medical literature. However, some of criticism, these individuals do not fit the classical description of binding glasgow university, FHS and were found not to carry mutations in the SRCAP gene.

Symptoms of the bachelor following disorders can be similar to those of Floating-Harbor syndrome. Binding University. Comparisons may be useful for a differential diagnosis. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder that affects many organ systems of the body. The group of photography criticism essays, findings (constellation) associated with this syndrome include growth retardation and dissertation binding glasgow university delayed bone age; intellectual disability; distinctive abnormalities of the and responsibilities sports head and face (craniofacial dysmorphism), including widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a broad nasal bridge, and an abnormally large or “beak-shaped” nose; abnormally broad thumbs and great toes (halluces); and/or breathing and swallowing difficulties. In addition, most affected children experience delays in attaining developmental milestones (e.g., sitting, crawling, walking, talking, etc.) and/or delays in the acquisition of dissertation binding, skills requiring coordination of muscular and mental activity (psychomotor impairment). Additional craniofacial abnormalities may include an abnormally small head (microcephaly); a highly-arched roof of the mouth (palate); an unusually small (hypoplastic) lower jaw (micrognathia); crossed eyes (strabismus); droopy eyelids (ptosis); downwardly slanting eyelid folds (palpebral fissures); and/or an extra fold of skin on either side of the nose that may cover the nordstrom research eyes’ inner corners (epicanthal folds). In addition, many individuals with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome may have malformations of the heart, kidneys, urogenital system, and/or skeletal system. In most cases, the skin is dissertation binding glasgow university also affected. The range and severity of symptoms and physical findings may vary widely from case to case.

Most cases of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome occur randomly, for no apparent reason (sporadic). Some cases are caused by mutations in the CREBBP or EP300 genes. (For more information on this disorder, choose “Rubinstein-Taybi” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.) Three M syndrome is an bachelor net extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by low birth weight, short stature (dwarfism), characteristic abnormalities of the head and facial (craniofacial) area, distinctive skeletal malformations, and/or other physical abnormalities. Characteristic craniofacial malformations typically include a long, narrow head (dolichocephaly), an unusually prominent forehead (frontal bossing), and a triangular-shaped face with a prominent, pointed chin, large ears, and/or abnormally flat cheeks. In addition, in some affected children, the teeth may be abnormally crowded together; as a result, the dissertation university upper and on discrimination against girl lower teeth may not meet properly (malocclusion). Skeletal abnormalities associated with the disorder include unusually thin bones, particularly the shafts of the long bones of the arms and legs (diaphyses); abnormally tall bones of the binding spinal column (vertebrae); and/or distinctive malformations of the ribs and shoulder blades (scapulae). Affected individuals may also have additional abnormalities including permanent fixation of certain fingers in a bent position (clinodactyly), unusually short fifth fingers, and/or increased flexibility (hyperextensibility) of the georgetown application questions 2012 joints. The range and severity of binding glasgow university, symptoms and physical features may vary from case to case. Intelligence appears to of a coach essay be normal. Three M syndrome is glasgow inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic trait. (For more information on this disorder, choose “three m” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.) Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is roles essay a rare disorder characterized by binding university intrauterine growth retardation and nordstrom postnatal growth deficiency along with a handful of common physical characteristics and a range of other symptoms.

The wide spectrum of phenotype findings vary both in incidence rate and severity from one individual to another. Besides prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, the binding most common characteristics are normal head circumference (appearing large for the body), a large forehead that protrudes out from the plane of the face, a triangular-shaped face, a pinky that is fixed or “locked” in nordstrom research papers, a bent position (clinodactyly), lack of appetite/low BMI, and dissertation glasgow undergrowth of bachelor net, one side or limb(s) of the body (hemihypotrophy), resulting in unequal (asymmetric) growth. Binding University. The majority of children with RSS falls within the average range of intelligence, but are more likely to have motor and speech delays. Intervention at net an early age (infancy) is critical. Some evidence indicates that there may be neurodevelopmental differences between the different genetic causes of RSS. RSS is genetically heterogeneous, meaning that different genetic abnormalities are believed to dissertation binding university cause the disorder. Abnormalities affecting certain genes on coach chromosomes 7 or 11 have been found in up to 60% of RSS patients, leaving approximately 40% of patients where the underlying cause of dissertation university, RSS is not known. (For more information on this disorder, choose “Russell-Silver” as your search term in the Rare Disease Database.) A diagnosis of Floating-Harbor syndrome is against child based upon identification of characteristic symptoms, a detailed patient history, a thorough clinical evaluation and a variety of specialized tests. The distinctive facial features that characterize FHS can be subtle and dissertation glasgow difficult to recognize during infancy. Additionally, many of the other symptoms are nonspecific to research FHS, making it difficult to diagnose the disorder on clinical grounds alone.

Molecular genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of FHS. Molecular genetic testing can detect mutations in the SRCAP gene, but is available only on as a diagnostic service at dissertation glasgow university specialized laboratories. Prenatal diagnosis may also be possible for families with a known mutation of the SRCAP gene. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA taken from fetal cells obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) can be studied for the disease-causing mutation. During amniocentesis, a sample of fluid that surrounds the developing fetus (amniotic fluid) is removed and studied. Benefits Thinking In Our. CVS involves the removal of tissue samples from a portion of the placenta.

In cases where a parent has a known genetic abnormality, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may be an option. PGD can be performed on embryos created through in dissertation binding glasgow university, vitro fertilization. PGD refers to testing an embryo to determine whether it has the same genetic abnormality as the parent. Families interested such an option should seek the counsel of a certified genetics professional. The treatment of benefits in our, FHS is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Treatment may require the coordinated efforts of a team of specialists. Pediatricians, neurologists, specialists who assess and treat skeletal problems (orthopedists), specialists who asses and treat hearing problems (audiologists), specialists who assess and treat vision problems (ophthalmologists), dental specialists, speech pathologists, and other healthcare professionals may need to systematically and binding university comprehensively plan an affect child’s treatment.

There are no standardized treatment protocols or guidelines for affected individuals. Roles And Responsibilities Coach Essay. Due to dissertation the rarity of the disease, there are no treatment trials that have been tested on a large group of of critical thinking, patients. Various treatments have been reported in the medical literature as part of single case reports or small series of patients. Dissertation Binding Glasgow. Treatment trials would be very helpful to determine the long-term safety and effectiveness of specific medications and treatments for individuals with FHS. Early developmental intervention is important to ensure that affected children reach their potential. Most affected children will benefit from occupational, physical and speech therapy. Application Questions. Additional medical, social, and/or vocational services including special remedial education may also be beneficial. Ongoing counseling and support for parents is binding glasgow beneficial as well. Genetic counseling will also be of benefit for essay on discrimination against, affected individuals and their families. Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been used to treat some individuals with FHS. Referral to dissertation binding a specialist who deals with the system of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream (endocrinologists) is recommended for those considering GH therapy.

However, there is limited information as to bachelor thesis net the effectiveness and dissertation binding glasgow side effects of GH therapy in children with FHS. Additional therapies for specific symptoms follow standard treatment guidelines. For example, seizures may be treated with anti-seizure medications (anti-convulsants). According to the medical literature, affected individuals, in general, often remain in good overall health and have a good quality of of a coach, life. Information on dissertation binding glasgow university current clinical trials is posted on and responsibilities of a sports essay the Internet at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Dissertation Binding University. All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and benefits in our life some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site. For information about clinical trials being conducted at glasgow university the NIH Clinical Center in photography essays, Bethesda, MD, contact the NIH Patient Recruitment Office: Toll-free: (800) 411-1222.

TTY: (866) 411-1010. For information about clinical trials sponsored by private sources, in dissertation, the main, contact: For more information about clinical trials conducted in papers, Europe, contact: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ Floating Harbor Syndrome Support Group P.O. Box 124 Rosebud, TX 76570 USA Email: littleflock7@gmail.com Website: http://www.floatingharborsyndromesupport.com Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center PO Box 8126 Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 Phone: (301) 251-4925 Toll-free: (888) 205-2311 Website: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/ Human Growth Foundation 997 Glen Cove Avenue Suite 5 Glen Head, NY 11545 Phone: (516) 671-4041 Toll-free: (800) 451-6434 Email: hgf1@hgfound.org Website: http://www.hgfound.org/ MAGIC Foundation 4200 Cantera Dr. #106 Warrenville, IL 60555 Phone: (630) 836-8200 Toll-free: (800) 362-4423 Email: contactus@magicfoundation.org Website: http://www.magicfoundation.org NIH/National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Information Clearinghouse One AMS Circle Bethesda, MD 20892-3675 USA Phone: (301) 495-4484 Toll-free: (877) 226-4267 Email: NIAMSinfo@mail.nih.gov Website: http://www.niams.nih.gov/ Restricted Growth Association PO Box 5137 Yeovil, BA20 9FF United Kingdom Phone: (300) 111-1970 Email: office@restrictedgrowth.co.uk Website: http://www.restrictedgrowth.co.uk. Jones KL, Jones MC, del Campo Casanelles. Binding Glasgow University. Eds. Net. Floating-Harbor Syndrome. In: Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. 7th ed.

Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA; 2013:186-187. Lubinsky MS. Floating Harbor Syndrome. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams #038; Wilkins. Binding Glasgow University. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:195. Nagasaki K, Asami T, Sato H, et al. Long-term follow-up study for a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome due to a hotspot SRCAP mutation. Am J Med Genet A. Life. 2014;164A:731-735. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375913. Nikkel SM, Dauber A, de Munnik S, et al.

The phenotype of Floating-Harbor syndrome: clinical characterization of 52 individuals with mutations in exon 34 of dissertation glasgow university, SCRAP. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2013;8:63. And Responsibilities Essay. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659005/ Le Goff C, Mahaut C, Bottani A, et al. Not all Floating-Harbor syndrome cases are due to mutations in exon 34 of SRCAP. Hum Mut. Dissertation Binding University. 2013;34:88-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965468. Garcia RJ, Kant SG, Wit WJ, Mericq V. Clinical and genetic characteristics and effects of long-term growth hormone therapy in a girl with Floating-Harbor syndrome. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012;25:207-212. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22570979. Hood RL, Lines MA, Nikkel SM, et al.

Mutations in SRCAP, encoding SNF2-related CREBBP activator protein, cause Floating-Harbor syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:308-313. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276662/ Arpin S, Afenjar A, Dubern B, et al. Of A Sports. Floating-Harbor syndrome: repot on glasgow a case in a mother and daughter, further evidence of autosomal dominant inheritance. Clin Dysmorphol.

2012;21:11-14. Bachelor Thesis Net. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21955542. White SM, Morgan A, Da Costa A, et al. The phenotype of Floating-Harbor syndrome in 10 patients. Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:821-829. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20358590. Carey JC. Commentary: the university second step in syndrome delineation: who belongs and who does not? Thoughts generated by the paper on Floating-Harbor syndrome by White and net colleagues.

Am J Med Genet A. 2010;152A:819-820. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20358589. Feingold M. Thirty-two year follow-up of the first patient reported with the Floating-Harbor syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2006;140:782-784. Binding Glasgow University. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16523514. Nowaczyk MJM, Nikkel SM, White SM. Floating-Harbor Syndrome. 2012 Nov 29 [Updated 2013 Jan 24]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews [Internet].

Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2014. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114458/ Accessed September 24, 2014. Lacombe D. Floating-Harbor Syndrome. Orphanet Encyclopedia, April 2014. Benefits Of Critical In Our. Available at: http://www.orpha.net/ Accessed September 24, 2014.

McKusick VA., ed. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Baltimore. Dissertation Binding University. MD: The Johns Hopkins University; Entry No:136140; Last Update:08/22/2014. Available at: http://omim.org/entry/136140 Accessed September 24, 2014. The information in NORD’s Rare Disease Database is for educational purposes only and is not intended to replace the advice of a physician or other qualified medical professional. The content of the website and databases of the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) is roles of a sports coach essay copyrighted and may not be reproduced, copied, downloaded or disseminated, in any way, for any commercial or public purpose, without prior written authorization and approval from NORD. Individuals may print one hard copy of an individual disease for glasgow university, personal use, provided that content is unmodified and includes NORD’s copyright.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) 55 Kenosia Ave., Danbury CT 06810 • (203)744-0100. NORD's Rare Disease Database provides brief introductions for patients and georgetown essay 2012 their families to more than 1,200 rare diseases. This is glasgow university not a comprehensive database since there are nearly 7,000 diseases considered rare in the U.S. We add new topics as we are able to and responsibilities essay do so, with the help of rare disease medical experts. If you are seeking information about a rare disease that is glasgow not in this database, we would suggest contacting the Genetic and bachelor thesis Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) at the National Institutes of Health.

NIH has the most complete database of rare diseases in the U.S. Representatives of glasgow, patient organizations whose medical advisors are interested in assisting NORD in creating a report on a disease not currently covered in this database may write to nordstrom research orphan@rarediseases.org. Alone we are rare. Together we are strong. ® Copyright ©2017 NORD - National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. All rights reserved. NORD is a registered 501(c)(3) charity organization. University. Please note that NORD provides this information for the benefit of the rare disease community. NORD is not a medical provider or health care facility and thus can neither diagnose any disease or disorder nor endorse or recommend any specific medical treatments.

Patients must rely on benefits of critical thinking life the personal and individualized medical advice of their qualified health care professionals before seeking any information related to their particular diagnosis, cure or treatment of a condition or disorder.

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