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macaulay essay The best historians of later times have been seduced from truth, not by their imagination, but by wpix help their reason. They far excel their predecessors in shakespeare fellowship essay competition the art of deducing general principles from facts. But, unhappily, they have fallen into the error of distorting facts to wpix help suit general principles. They arrive at of a american the theory from looking at some of the phenomena, and the remaining phenomena they strain or curtail to suit the theory. For this purpose it is wpix homework help not necessary that they should assert what is absolutely false, for all questions in morals and tolkien stories politics are questions of comparison and degree. Wpix Homework? Any proposition which does not involve a contradiction in terms may, by lp4 resume writing possibility, be true; and if all the circumstances which raise a probability in its favor be stated and enforced, and those which lead to an opposite conclusion be omitted or lightly passed over, it may appear to be demonstrated. In every human character and transaction there is a mixture of good and evil; --a little exaggeration, a little suppression, a judicious use of wpix homework help, epithets, a watchful and searching skepticism with respect to the evidence on one side, a convenient credulity with respect to every report or tradition on the other, may easily make a saint of comparing and contrasting christianity, Laud, or a tyrant of Henry the help Fourth.

This species of misrepresentation abounds in the most valuable works of death essays, modern historians. Wpix Homework Help? Herodotus tells his story like a slovenly witness, who, heated by partialities and prejudices, unacquainted with the established rules of evidence, and uninstructed as to the obligations of his oath, confounds what he imagines with what he has seen and heard, and brings out facts, reports, conjectures, and edexcel maths intermediate papers fancies in one mass. Hume is an accomplished advocate. Without positively asserting much more than he can prove, he gives prominence to wpix all the circumstances which support his case; he glides lightly over those which are unfavorable to it; his own witnesses are applauded and shakespeare fellowship essay encouraged; the statements which seem to throw discredit on them are controverted; the contradictions into which they fall are explained away; a clear and connected abstract of wpix homework help, their evidence is given. Every thing that is offered on the other side is scrutinized with the utmost severity; every suspicious circumstance is a ground for comment and invective; what cannot be denied is essay collapse extenuated, or passed by without notice; concessions even are sometimes made; but this insidious candor only increases the effect of the vast mass of sophistry. We have mentioned Hume as the ablest and wpix homework most popular writer of this class; but the lp4 resume charge which we have brought against him is one to which all our most distinguished historians are in some degree obnoxious. Gibbon, in help particular, deserves very severe censure. Of all the numerous culprits, however, none is fellowship essay competition more deeply guilty than Mr.

Mitford2. Help? We willingly acknowledge the obligations which are due to his talents and industry. Lp4 Resume? The modern historians of homework, Greece had been in the habit of writing as if the world has learned nothing new during the last sixteen hundred years. Dream Essays? Instead of illustrating the events which they narrated, by the philosophy of wpix homework help, a more enlightened age, they judged of antiquity by lp4 resume writing itself alone. They seemed to think that notions, long driven from wpix homework every other corner of literature, had a prescriptive right to essay comparing and contrasting christianity and islam occupy this last fastness. They considered all the ancient historians as equally authentic. They scarcely made any distinction between him who related events at which he had himself been present, and him who, five hundred years after, composed a philosophical romance for a society which had, in the interval, undergone a complete change.

It was all Greek, and all true! The centuries which separated Plutarch from Thucydides seemed as nothing to men who lived in an age so remote. The distance of time produced an error similar to that which is wpix homework sometimes produced by distance of maths past, place. There are many good ladies who think that all the people in India live together, and who charge a friend setting out for Calcutta with kind messages to Bombay. To Rollin3 and Barthelemi4, in the same manner, all the classics were contemporaries. Mr.

Mitford certainly introduced great improvements; he showed us that men who wrote in Greek and Latin sometimes told lies; he showed us that ancient history might be related in such a manner as to furnish not only allusions to schoolboys, but important lessons to statesmen. From that love of wpix help, theatrical effect and high-flown sentiment which had poisoned almost every other work on the same subject, his book is perfectly free. But his passion for a theory as false, and collapse far more ungenerous, led him substantially to violate truth in every page. Sentiments unfavorable to democracy are made with unhesitating confidence, and with the utmost bitterness of language. Every charge brought against a monarch, or an aristocracy, is sifted with the utmost care. If it cannot be denied, some palliating supposition is wpix suggested, or we are at least reminded that some circumstance now unknown may have justified what at present appears unjustifiable. Two events are reported by writing the same author in the same sentence; their truth rests on the same testimony; but the one supports the darling hypothesis, and the other seems inconsistent with it. The one is taken and the other is left. The practice of distorting narrative into a conformity with theory, is a vice not so unfavorable as at first sight it may appear, to wpix homework help the interest of essay the communication collapse, political science. We have compared the writers who indulge in wpix homework it to advocates; and we may add, that their conflicting fallacies, like those of advocates, correct each other.

It has always been held, in essay competition the most enlightened nations, that a tribunal will decide a judicial question most fairly, when it has heard two able men argue, as unfairly as possible, on the two opposite sides of it; and we are inclined to think that this opinion is just. Wpix Homework Help? Sometimes, it is true, superior eloquence and dexterity will make the worse appear the better reason; but it is at least certain that the judge will be compelled to contemplate the case under two different aspects. It is certain that no important consideration will altogether escape notice. This is, at present, the state of death salesman, history. The poet laureate appears for the Church of England, Lingard for the Church of Rome5. Wpix? Brodie6 has moved to set aside the verdicts obtained by Hume; and the cause in which Mitford succeeded is, we understand, about to be reheard. In the midst of these disputes, however, history proper, if we may use the maths term, is disappearing.

The high, grave, impartial summing up of Thucydides is nowhere to be found. While our historians are practising all the arts of controversy, they miserably neglect the art of narration, the art of interesting the affections and presenting pictures to the imagination. That a writer may produce these effects without violating truth, is wpix homework help sufficiently proved by many excellent biographical works. The immense popularity which well-written books of this kind have acquired, deserves the salesman american essays serious consideration of historians. Voltaire's Charles the Twelfth , Marmontel's7 Memoirs , Boswell's Life of Johnson , Southey's Account of Nelson , are perused with delight by the most frivolous and indolent. Whenever any tolerable book of the wpix help same description makes its appearance, the circulating libraries are mobbed; the book societies are in commotion; the new novel lies uncut; the magazines and newspapers fill their columns with extracts. In the mean time, histories of great empires, written by men of eminent ability, lie unread on the shelves of maths intermediate papers, ostentatious libraries.

The writers of history seem to entertain an aristocratical contempt for the writers of memoirs. They think it beneath the dignity of men who describe the revolutions of nations to dwell on the details which constitute the wpix homework help charm of biography. They have imposed on themselves a code of conventional decencies as absurd as that which has been the bane of the French drama. The most characteristic and interesting circumstances are omitted or softened down, because, as we are told, they are too trivial for essay on fairy the majesty of history. The majesty of history seems to resemble the majesty of the poor King of Spain, who died a martyr to ceremony, because the proper dignitaries were not at hand to wpix help render him assistance. That history would be more amusing if this etiquette were relaxed, will, we suppose, be acknowledged. But would it be less dignified or useful? What do we mean, when we say that one past event is important, and another insignificant?

No past event has any intrinsic importance. The knowledge of essay the communication collapse, it is valuable only as it leads us to homework form just calculations with respect to the future. A history which does not serve this purpose, though it may be filled with battles, treaties, and commotions, is as useless as the series of lp4 resume, turnpike-tickets collected by Sir Mathew Mite. Let us suppose that Lord Claredon, instead of wpix help, filling hundreds of folio pages with copies of essay the communication, state-papers, in which the same assertions and contradictions are repeated, till the reader is overpowered with weariness, had condescended to be the Boswell of the Long Parliament. Let us suppose that he had exhibited to wpix us the wise and maths past papers lofty self-government of Hampden, leading while he seemed to follow, and propounding unanswerable arguments in the strongest forms, with the modest air of an inquirer anxious for information; the delusions which misled the noble spirit of wpix homework help, Vane; the coarse fanaticism which concealed the yet loftier genius of Cromwell, destined to control a mutinous army and a factious people, to abase the flag of fellowship essay, Holland, to arrest the victorious arms of Sweden, and to hold the balance firm between the homework help rival monarchies of France and Spain. Let us suppose that he had made his Cavaliers and Roundheads talk in their own style; that he had reported some of the ribaldry of tolkien essay on fairy stories, Rupert's pages, and wpix homework help some of the cant of Harrison and Fleetwood.

Would not his work, in that case, have been more interesting? Would it not have been more accurate? A history in which every particular incident may be true, may on essay on fairy the whole be false. The circumstances which have most influence on the happiness of mankind, the changes of manners and morals, the transition of homework help, communities from poverty to wealth, from knowledge to ignorance, from ferocity to humanity - these are, for the most part, noiseless revolutions. Essay Comparing And Contrasting And Islam? Their progress is rarely indicated by what historians are pleased to call important events. Wpix? They are not achieved by armies, or enacted by essay comparing and contrasting senates. They are sanctioned by no treaties, and recorded in no archives. They are carried on in every school, in wpix every church, behind ten thousand counters, at ten thousand firesides.

The upper current of society presents no certain criterion by which we can judge of the direction in death salesman which the under current flows. We read of defeats and victories. But we know that nations may be miserable amidst victories, and prosperous amidst defeats. We read of the fall of wise ministers, and of the rise of profligate favorites. Homework Help? But we must remember how small a proportion the good or evil affected by a single statesman can bear to the good or evil of a great social system. Bishop Watson compares a geologist to a gnat mounted on an elephant, and laying down theories as to the whole internal structure of the vast animal, from the phenomena of the hide. The comparison is unjust to the geologists; but it is very applicable to those historians who write as if the body politic were homogeneous, who look only on the surface of affairs, and never think of the mighty and various organization which lies deep below. In the works of such writers as these, England, at the close of the Seven Years' War , is in the highest state of prosperity.

At the close of the American War, she is in maths past a miserable and degraded condition; as if the people were not on the whole as rich, as well governed, and as well educated at the latter period as at the former. We have read books called Histories of wpix, England, under the reign of the communication, George the Second in which the rise of Methodism is not even mentioned. A hundred years hence, this breed of authors will, we hope, be extinct. If it should still exist, the late ministerial interregnum will be described in terms which will seem to imply that all government was at an end; that the social contract was annulled, and wpix homework help that the hand of every man was against his neighbor, until the wisdom and virtue of the new cabinet educed order out of the chaos of anarchy. We are quite certain that misconceptions as gross prevail at this moment, respecting many important parts of our annals. The effect of the communication, historical reading is analogous, in many respects, to wpix help that produced by foreign travel.

The student, like the tourist, is transported into essay the communication, a new state of society. He sees new fashions. He hears new modes of expression. His mind is wpix help enlarged by contemplating the wide diversities of laws, of morals, and of manners. but men may travel far, and return with minds as contracted as if they had never stirred from their own market-town. In the same manner, men may know the dates of many battles, and the genealogies of many royal houses, and yet be no wiser. Most people look at shakespeare fellowship essay competition past times as princes look at homework help foreign countries. More than one illustrious stranger has landed on our island amidst the shouts of a mob, has dined with the king, has hunted with the master of the stag-hounds, has seen the guards reviewed, and a knight of the garter installed; has cantered along Regent street; has visited St. Paul's, and shakespeare fellowship essay noted down its dimensions, and has then departed, thinking that he has seen England. He has, in fact, seen a few public buildings, public men, and public ceremonies. But of the vast and complex system of society, of the fine shades of national character, of the practical operation of government and laws, he knows nothing. He who would understand these things rightly, must not confine his observations to palaces and solemn days.

He must see ordinary men as they appear in wpix their ordinary business, and in their ordinary pleasures. He must mingle in the crowds of the exchange and the coffee-house. He must obtain admittance to the convivial table and the domestic hearth. He must bear with vulgar expressions. He must not shrink from exploring even the retreats of misery. He who wishes to understand the condition of mankind in former ages, must proceed on the same principle. Comparing And Islam? If he attends only to public transactions, to wars, congresses, and debates, his studies will be as unprofitable as the travels of those imperial, royal, and serene sovereigns, who form their judgment of our island from having gone in state to a few fine sights, and homework from having held formal conferences with a few great officers. The perfect historian is he in whose work the the communication collapse character and spirit of an homework, age is exhibited in miniature. He relates no fact, he attributes no expression to his character, which is not authenticated by sufficient testimony. But by writing judicious selection, rejection, and arrangement, he gives to truth those attractions which have been usurped by fiction.

In his narrative a due subordination is observed; some transactions are prominent, others retire. But the scale on help which he represents them is increased or diminished, not according to the dignity of the persons concerned in essay stories them, but according to help the degree in which they elucidate the condition of society and the nature of man. He shows us the court, the camp, and lp4 resume writing the senate. But he shows us also the nation. Wpix Homework Help? He considers no anecdote, no peculiarity of manner, no familiar saying, as too insignificant for his notice, which is not too insignificant to illustrate the operation of laws, of edexcel maths intermediate past, religion, and of education, and to mark the progress of the wpix homework human mind. Essay? Men will not merely be described, but will be made intimately known to us. Wpix Homework Help? The changes of manners will be indicated, not merely by a few general phrases, or a few extracts from statistical documents, but by edexcel maths past papers appropriate images presented in every line. If man, such as we are supposing, should write the homework help history of lp4 resume, England, he would assuredly not omit the battles, the sieges, the negotiations, the seditions, the ministerial changes. But with these he would intersperse the details which are the charm of historical romances. Wpix Help? At Lincoln Cathedral there is a beautiful painted window, which was made by an apprentice out on fairy of the pieces of wpix help, glass which had been rejected by his master. It is so far superior to every other in the church, that, according to the tradition, the vanquished artist killed himself from mortification.

Sir Walter Scott, in the same manner, has used those fragments of and contrasting, truth which historians have scornfully thrown behind them, in a manner which may well excite their envy. He has constructed out of their gleanings works which, even considered as histories, are scarcely less valuable than theirs. But a truly great historian would reclaim those materials which the novelist has appropriated. The history of the government and the history of the people would be exhibited in that mode in wpix help which alone they can be exhibited justly, in inseparable conjunction and intermixture. Shakespeare? We should not then have to wpix homework look for the wars and votes of the Puritans in Clarendon8, and for their phraseology in salesman dream essays Old Mortality; for one half of wpix homework, King James in Hume, and for the other half in the Fortunes of Nigel.

The early part of our imaginary history would be rich with coloring from romance, ballad, and tolkien essay on fairy chronicle. We should find ourselves in the company of knights such as those of Froissart, and of pilgrims such as those who rode with Chaucer from the Tabard. Society would be shown from the highest to the lowest - from the royal cloth of state to the den of the outlaw; from the throne of the wpix legate to the chimney-corner where the begging friar regaled himself. Palmers, minstrels, crusaders - the stately monastery, with the good cheer in its refectory, and the high-mass in its chapel - the manor-house, with its hunting and hawking - the essay on fairy stories tournament, with the heralds and ladies, the trumpets and the cloth of gold - would give truth and life to the representation. We should perceive, in a thousand slight touches, the importance of the privileged burgher, and the fierce and homework help haughty spirit which swelled under the collar of the degraded villain. The revival of letters would not merely be described in few magnificent periods. Of A Salesman American? We should discern, in innumerable particulars, the wpix homework help fermentation of mind, the eager appetite for knowledge, which distinguished the sixteenth from the fifteenth century. In the Reformation we should see, not merely a schism which changed the ecclesiastical constitution of England and the mutual relations of the European powers, but a moral war which raged in every family, which set the father against the son, and the son against the father, the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother. Henry would be painted with the skill of Tacitus.

We should have the change of his character from his profuse and joyous youth to his savage and imperious old age. We should perceive the gradual progress of selfish and tyrannical passions, in a mind not naturally insensible or ungenerous; and to the last we should detect some remains of that open and writing noble temper which endeared him to a people whom he oppressed, struggling with the hardness of despotism and the irritability of disease. We should see Elizabeth in all her weakness, and in all her strength, surrounded by the handsome favorites whom she never trusted, and the wise old statesmen whom she never dismissed, uniting in herself the most contradictory qualities of both her parents - the coquetry, the caprice, the help petty malice of Anne - the haughty and resolute spirit of Henry. We have no hesitation in saying, that a great artist might produce a portrait of this remarkable woman, at least as striking as that in the novel of Kenilworth , without employing a single trait not authenticated by ample testimony. In the mean time, we should see arts cultivated, wealth accumulated, the conveniences of life improved. We should see the keeps, where nobles, insecure themselves, spread insecurity around them, gradually giving place to the halls of peaceful opulence, to the oriels of Longleat, and the stately pinnacles of Burleigh. Essay On Fairy Stories? We should see towns extended, deserts cultivated, the hamlets of fishermen turned into wpix homework help, wealthy havens, the meal of the peasant improved, and his hut more commodiously furnished. Lp4 Resume? We should see those opinions and feelings which produced the great struggle against the house of Stuart, slowly growing up in the bosom of private families, before they manifested themselves in parliamentary debates. Homework Help? Then would come the civil war. Death Of A Salesman Essays? Those skirmishes, on which Clarendon dwells so minutely, would be told, as Thucydides would have told them, with perspicuous conciseness. They are merely connecting links.

But the great characteristics of the age, the loyal enthusiasm of the wpix homework help brave English gentry, the intermediate papers fierce licentiousness of the swearing, dicing, drunken reprobates, whose excesses disgraced the royal cause - the austerity of the Presbyterian Sabbaths in homework help the city, the extravagance of the Independent preachers in the camp, the precise garb, the severe countenance, the essay comparing and contrasting and islam petty scruples, the affected accents, the absurd names and phrases which marked the Puritans - the valor, the policy, the public spirit which lurked beneath these ungraceful disguises - the dreams of the raving Fifth-monarchy-man - the dreams, scarcely less wild, of the philosophic republican - all these would enter into the representation, and render it at once more exact and more striking. The instruction derived from history thus written would be of a vivid and practical character. Wpix? It would be received by the imagination as well as by the reason. It would be not merely traced on the mind, but branded into it. Many truths, too, would be learned, which can be learned, in no other manner. Essay On Fairy Stories? As the wpix help history of states is generally written, the greatest and most momentous revolutions seem to come upon them like supernatural inflictions, without warning or cause. But the lp4 resume fact is, that such revolutions are almost always the consequence of homework, moral changes, which have gradually passed on the mass of the community, and which ordinarily proceed far before their progress is indicated by any public measure. An intimate knowledge of the domestic history of nations is therefore absolutely necessary to the prognosis of political events.

A narrative defective in this respect is as useless as a medical treatise which should pass by all the symptoms attendant on the early stage of a disease, and mention only what occurs when the patient is beyond the reach of remedies. An historian, such as we have been attempting to describe, would indeed be an intellectual prodigy. In this mind, powers scarcely compatible with each other, must be tempered into an exquisite harmony. We shall sooner see another Shakespeare or another Homer. The highest excellence to which any single faculty can be brought would be less surprising than such a happy and delicate combination of qualities.

Yet the contemplation of imaginary models is not an unpleasant or useless employment of the mind. It cannot indeed produce perfection, but it produces improvement, and nourishes that generous and liberal fastidiousness, which is not inconsistent with the on fairy stories strongest sensibility to homework merit, and which, while it exalts our conceptions of the art, does not render us unjust to the artist. 1 From Macaulay's essay On History, as first published in essay the communication collapse the Edinburgh Review , May, 1828. 2 This would be William Mitford (1744-1827). Mitford wrote the 5 volume, pugnacious anti-democratic History of Greece . 3 This would be Charles Rollin (1661-1741), the French historian and the author of Histoire ancienne (1730-8) and Histoire romaine (1738-48).

4 Barthelemi? I suppose Macaulay might be referring to either Auguste Marseille Barththelemy (1796-1867), the French poet and political satirist; though, more likely, it was Jean Jacques Barththelemy (1716-95), best known for his work Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grece (1788). 5 John Lingard (1771-1851) was an English historian and a Catholic, indeed, an ordained priest, whose History of England was fiercely assailed in the Edinburgh Review ( Chambers ). 6 Brodie? I do not know to whom Macaulay refers. 7 Jean Francois Marmontel (1723-99), another French historian.

8 Edward Hyde (1609-74), First Earl of Clarendon, wrote the History of the Rebellion in England (3 vols. 1704-07).

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Newsweek: Koran Toilet Story Wrong. Newsweek now confesses that its report that American soldiers in Guantanimo had flushed a Koran down a toilet as a means of gaining information from hostages–blamed by many for inciting violence that has killed at least nine people–was erroneous. Last Friday, a top Pentagon spokesman told us that a review of the probe cited in our story showed that it was never meant to look into charges of wpix homework help Qur’an desecration. The spokesman also said the Pentagon had investigated other desecration charges by death essays, detainees and wpix homework found them “not credible.” Our original source later said he couldn’t be certain about reading of the tolkien essay on fairy, alleged Qur’an incident in the report we cited, and said it might have been in other investigative documents or drafts. Top administration officials have promised to continue looking into the charges, and wpix so will we. But we regret that we got any part of our story wrong, and writing extend our sympathies to homework help victims of the violence and to the U.S. soldiers caught in fellowship essay competition its midst.

NEWSWEEK was not the first to report allegations of desecrating the Qur’an. As early as last spring and summer, similar reports from released detainees started surfacing in British and Russian news reports, and in the Arab news agency Al-Jazeera; claims by other released detainees have been covered in other media since then. But the NEWSWEEK report arrived at a particularly delicate moment in Afghan politics. Help. Opponents of the essay, Karzai government, including remnants of the deposed Taliban regime, have been looking for ways to exploit public discontent. The Afghan economy is weak, and the government (pressed by the United States) has alienated farmers by help, trying to essay collapse eradicate their poppy crops, used to make heroin in homework help the global drug trade. Afghan men are sometimes rounded up during ongoing U.S. military operations, and innocents can sit in death dream essays jail for months. When they are released, many complain of abuse. President Karzai is still largely respected, but many Afghans regard him as too dependent on and too obsequious to the United States. Wpix. With Karzai scheduled to come to Washington next week, this is a good time for his enemies to make trouble. That does not quite explain, however, why the salesman american dream, protest and rioting over Qur’an desecration spread throughout the homework, Islamic region. After so many gruesome reports of torture and abuse at Abu Ghraib and elsewhere, the vehemence of comparing and contrasting feeling around this case came as something of help a surprise.

Extremist agitators are at death of a salesman american essays, least partly to blame, but obviously the reports of Qur’anic desecration touch a particular nerve in wpix homework the Islamic world. U.S. officials, including President George W. Bush, are uneasily watching, and last week Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice pointedly remarked that any desecration of the Qur’an would not be “tolerated” by the United States. (As a legal matter, U.S. citizens are free to deface the Qur’an as an exercise of free speech, just as they are free to death of a american dream burn the American flag or tear up a Bible; but government employees can be punished for violating government rules.) On Friday night, Pentagon spokesman DiRita called NEWSWEEK to complain about the original PERISCOPE item. He said, “We pursue all credible allegations” of prisoner abuse, but insisted that the investigators had found none involving Qur’an desecration. Help. DiRita sent NEWSWEEK a copy of rules issued to the guards (after the incidents mentioned by General Myers) to guarantee respect for Islamic worship. On Saturday, Isikoff spoke to his original source, the senior government official, who said that he clearly recalled reading investigative reports about mishandling the Qur’an, including a toilet incident. But the official, still speaking anonymously, could no longer be sure that these concerns had surfaced in the SouthCom report. Told of what the NEWSWEEK source said, DiRita exploded, “People are dead because of lp4 resume what this son of a bitch said. Wpix Homework. How could he be credible now?” A U.S. Lp4 Resume Writing. military spokesman, Army Col.

Brad Blackner, dismissed the wpix help, claims as unbelievable. And Contrasting And Islam. “If you read the Al Qaeda training manual, they are trained to make allegations against the infidels,” he said. Quite right. Wpix. One would think that incredulity would be the first instinct of the communication any decent newsman upon hearing such tales. While it’s certainly true that there have been incidents at Guantanimo and Abu Ghraib that would make this type of thing seem perfectly plausible, the truth of the matter is that sensitivity on religious matters has been the homework help, norm in our handling of prisoners from the outset. Indeed, part of what made the Abu Ghraib scandal so aggregious was that it undermined our efforts to build trust within the Islamic world. I understand, too, the pressures journalists are under to american essays get to press as quickly as possible.

That’s true even in the blogosphere. But given the homework help, high profile Newsweek has and the communication collapse the incredible sensitivity of the allegations at hand, they had a duty to homework help be damned sure they had it right before running with the story. Tolkien Stories. Their haste and willingness to believe the worst about America’s military helped get a lot of people killed. Update (5-16, 0851): Greyhawk and Michelle Malkin have some thoughts as to who the wpix homework help, leaker might be. Meanwhile, Dean Esmay believes this incident proves that Newsweek ‘s editors are “enemy propagandists” and LaShawn Barber concurs, noting this week’s anti-George Washington cover story as further evidence of their “anti-American bias.” While I wouldn’t go that far, it’s hard to argue that Newsweek and many other mainstream press outlets are less than eager to report news that puts the American war effort in a bad light. Essay The Communication. The difference is morally substantial. Sadly, it’s effectively no difference at all. Belmont Club’s Wretchard and others argue that Newsweek should be held liable for the deaths incited by their shoddy story.

Jay Tea argues, correctly in homework my view, that this is nonsense. The proper sanction against Newsweek is increased public skepticism of stories with a “ Newsweek ” byline, which CBS News and the NYT also suffered recently. Credibility is the lp4 resume writing, chief currency of the press. Newsweek is much poorer than it was last week. About James Joyner. James Joyner is the publisher of wpix help Outside the Beltway , an associate professor of writing security studies at the Marine Corps Command and wpix homework help Staff College, and lp4 resume a nonresident senior fellow at wpix homework, the Atlantic Council. He's a former Army officer and shakespeare fellowship competition Desert Storm vet. He earned a PhD in political science from wpix help The University of Alabama. Views expressed here are his own. Follow James on Twitter.

[…] truction. Austin Bay has more, as does Dean Esmay. Also, see Joe Gandelman, Instapundit, James Joyner, Malkin, and Roger Simon. Like or Dislike: 0 0. It may be a good sign that two of the major Islamic organizations–the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League–called for an investigation, rather than lynchings. See my comments at Crossroads Arabia. The same rule that suggests one shouldn’t accept the good stuff one reads in essay a newspaper without checking it out should also apply to the bad stuff. Global, Internet-mediated communication should make verification all the more necessary. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Newsweek lied, people died.

A few more incidents like this and the press can kiss their proposed Shield Law goodbye for wpix help good. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Newsweek Retracts Riot-Sparking Koran Story. Newsweek has now basically said “Never mind!” in what is essentially a retraction of a report claiming that interrogators at Guantanamo Bay had desecrated the fellowship essay, holy Koran a … Like or Dislike: 0 0. Does anyone have the public relations phone number for Newsweek or any credible phone number to call and ream their asses up one side and down the help, other. If Mark Whitaker had any guts at all, he would be on plane right now over to Afghanistan to spend the next month over there apologizing to the U.S. and Afghan troops, as well as meeting with every Muslim leader #038; organization possible in order to apologize and recant over and over again. Typical liberal, left-wing RAT bastards….

Newsweek lied, people died! And Newsweek expresses its “regrets.” Maybe if we’re lucky, Mark Whitakger would be caught out in shakespeare essay the open in some firefight…I bet he would have a different view of our troops instantaneously! Like or Dislike: 0 0. Is the homework, Newsweek story on the alleged Qur’an desecration really wrong? I think Newseek’s backtracking raises more questions than it answers. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Here’s a chance for John Edwards and his wife, both lawyers, to make a few more bucks to help pay for those 100 acres and the mansion in writing NC and, at the same time, do something altruistic. Wpix Help. Find a military family whose relative was killed in intermediate papers the riots the homework, story caused, and writing sue the pants off the homework, mag’s publisher, editor, story writer and researchers who botched things.

Like or Dislike: 0 0. What’s worse: the past papers, false story and wpix it’s impact on world affairs, or that so many left-minded Americans so readily and completely believe that it’s true? Is this “Supporting our Troops”, by the communication, erring on the side of those who turn to violence, who would make Jihad based on a false claim? What was clearly intended as a jab at the policy of an administration, is yet again a blow to the character of our service men and women doing an unbelievably difficult job. In the absence of proof, we owe it to them to have faith in homework their values. Like or Dislike: 0 0. James, last week you were interpreting the “anti-American” component of the riots as minor. Is that still your view? And what component of the anti-American component of the riots was the Newsweek story, in your estimation? Final question: could there be any conceivable reason beyond having misspoken in the first place why Newsweek’s source would retract his story?

Like or Dislike: 0 0. Jim, I added an update to that post later in the day after your comment and others. Clearly, the Newsweek story was the thing that was used to spark the violence. My instinct remains that the leadership which incited the violence, though, was motivated primarily by fellowship competition, internal political considerations and the “Koran flushing” report was merely something that could motivate the masses. And, sure, it’s possible that there was pressure from on wpix homework help high for the guy to recant. On the essay comparing and contrasting christianity and islam, other hand, given the obvious implications of the story for American soldiers in homework harm’s way, one would think that more than a single source would be sought before running with the allegations. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Newsweek lied, people died –Turk 182.

Newsweek printed a story two weeks ago about stories, supposed desecration of the Koran at Guantanamo Bay.The story insisted that military interrogators at the prison there desecrated the Muslim holy book, with one supposedly flushing a copy of the Koran down… Like or Dislike: 0 0. Newsweek fallout: Muslims don’t believe apology, still upset. Muslims in Afghanistan and Pakistan are still upset with the United States on the heels of homework help Newsweek’s apology for their false contention two weeks ago that Guantanamo Bay interrogators flushed the Koran down a toilet.The apology, released on the ‘net… Like or Dislike: 0 0. Something got screwed up here royally, and essay whomever is responsible should have to homework help pay. Essay Comparing Christianity And Islam. It seems like the person responsible is the source, though — Newsweek is hopefully leaning on him. If he was making up crap, he should be exposed. Help. If there really is a legitimate discrepancy in report drafts, which can be explained by there being a *lot* of reasons an incident like that would be left out of a final copy of essay competition a report, then it raises a whole new set of questions. But for people who say that running a story with corroboration from a U.S. official makes you an “enemy propagandist,” please, take a deep breath and realize that you have gone totally insane.

You’re just making words up. You might as well call them a bunch of devil monkeys who throw exploding bananas from wpix their perch on the Sky Kingdom of writing Kazimiran. Help. Partisanship has diven you nuts. Sure, there’s something cathartic about essay the communication collapse, saying crap like that, just like there’s something cathartic about wpix help, believing Bush is really a Nazi. It makes living in your own little world so much easier.

Take a deep breath, count to ten thousand, take a vacation from politics, whatever. Salesman Dream. Get back to homework help sanity. Like or Dislike: 0 0. So much for media accountability… Accountability of the professionals, the alleged point of differentiation between bloggers and professional journalists. Well just how many heads are actually going to roll from this one: NEW YORK – In its issue dated May 9, Newsweek magazine report…

Like or Dislike: 0 0. I visited my local bookstore today, gathered up all copies of the communication Newsweek, proceeded to the rest room and wpix attempted to flush them down the toilet. It didn’t work very well, but I hope to do better with next week’s issue. Perhaps a few thousand of you out there will be inclined to do the same. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Newsweeks apology just isn’t good enough.. Their faulty reporting has caused deaths , many injuries and really damaged America’s reputation.. They should be charged with murder and boycotted…

Like or Dislike: 0 0. What Newsweek did is horrible. As with all media (liberal or conservative) there is tolkien incredible pressure to rush out homework help, scandalous, headline grabbing stories at the expense of accuracy and ethics. Editorial boards should of course be permitted to publish stories like this. Shakespeare Fellowship. But when a story could have a negative impact on wpix our war effect and directly endanger our troops, they need to report with absolute assurance in the facts and have a real discussion on whether the story is worth publishing. Tolkien Stories. Newsweek failed on both accounts.

However, the people inciting the violance over wpix, a Newsweek story are the ones at fault here. Newsweek didn’t cause anyone to do anything. These people are lunatics. Collapse. While Newsweek should certainly be censured by homework, its readers, I would prefer everyone to stop blaming Newsweek for violance. Like or Dislike: 0 0. What i wrote to newsweek editor: I am very upset that you reported news that put my family in collapse danger do you not think about the wpix, devastation you cause when you report things about the middle east that only inflame the situation? What your paper reported on interrogation techniques did not benefit anyone. Maths Papers. It only put our soldiers in danger. Wpix Homework Help. Congratulations.

Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to worry every time you hear an explosion? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to cry when your brother and sisterA?AˆA™s are killed? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to writing try to wpix help protect your children from harm? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to wake in collapse the middle of the night to guns firing? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to wonder if itA?AˆA™s the last time your family will be together? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to hold your breath waiting on wpix help the list of dead to maths past be posted? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to homework help live in a country where people talk about your family with hate?

Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to shakespeare fellowship watch your child break down because his dad is gone? Do you know what itA?AˆA™s like to spend every waking moment with a knot in your stomach? Do you think IA?AˆA™m from wpix homework help another country? Well youA?AˆA™re wrong. Life of a military wife. Like or Dislike: 0 0. “Our original source later said he couldn’t be certain about reading of the alleged Qur’an incident in the report we cited, and said it might have been in other investigative documents or drafts.” So basically, the essence of the death of a salesman american essays, report is true. It’s just not in the report originally cited. And the adminstration, who can’t figure out who committed treason by outing Valerie Plame, who deemed the Geneva Convention as “quaint” as justification for torture. that administration is to be trusted in this case also. Sorry, I didn’t swallow the blue pill.

Like or Dislike: 0 0. So Many Facets, So Little Time. I can’t believe the number of angles in the Newsweek story; an industrious blogger could fill screen upon homework help screen with pontifications and deliberations if he were to explore the issue thoroughly. But it is literally impossible for a single blo. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Come on… you really believe that this story is not true.

ROFL. This was a forced retraction. Our government has authorized torture. To us as a people we do not see objects as possessing anything. Edexcel Maths Intermediate. However, we as a people do have compassion for other people. I think it was compassionate of the “torturer” to harm a book instead of wpix a human being.

If I had been in the same situation, I would probably be in prison for disobeying the commit torture order, but if give no choice except “slice off his toes or flush this book” then I’d flush the book too. Anyone who believes this didn’t happen is a shallow mind. Lp4 Resume Writing. Look up “Northwoods Project” to open up your mind. Like or Dislike: 0 0. WE’RE MAD AS HELL, and we’re not going to take it anymore! As much as journalists feel that they are the guardians of the First Amendment, its true protectors are standing watch in homework help Iraq, Afghanistan and places no one will… Like or Dislike: 0 0. […] against the terrorists and have even gone to alleging stories of U.S. guards at Guantanomo flushing the holy Qu’aran down a toilet enraging Muslims worldwide. Now you […] Like or Dislike: 0 0.

So after a Pentagon review, it appears that soldier peed on a Koran, but did not flush one down the toilet. Boy you guys look foolish. Like or Dislike: 0 0. Visitors Since Feb. Competition. 4, 2003. Trump is the Leader of the GOP, not an help “Independent” Trump, The Arpaio Pardon, And The Constitution. Did Police Do Too Little to Stop Charlottesville Violence? Donald Trump’s Words On Charlottesville Were Weak, Inadequate, And Cowardly. All Original Content Copyright 2003-2017 by shakespeare, OTB.

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3 line writing paper This seasonal lined writing packet includes a variety and wpix homework creative ways for your students to write their stories, letters, reports, and the communication journal entries. Below is a detailed summary of the pages included in each season for this 375+ page packet: ***All pages include writing lines. Some pages only have writing lines half of the page with a space for illustrations and a second page that has writing lines full page. Wpix. Those are noted below in the summary. WINTER: -Full page border *Red and white. Lp4 Resume. Lined Writing Papers Clipart Set — Over 45 Graphics! You will receive 48 clipart graphics that were hand drawn by myself – 24 Landscape and 24 Portrait Paper Graphics!

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File input (or “upload”) in HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into homework the form submission. The form is often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is why file input (or file submission) is often called “file upload.” File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is still limited and generally of poor quality even in newest versions. Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is a legacy document, with many references to outdated browser versions. It does not cover features such as the File API or the new features in file upload in HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data. And Contrasting Christianity! For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of text. Wpix! For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the only practical way.

For more information on the design principles of death of a salesman american dream file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML . Writing an wpix homework help HTML form with a file input field is of a salesman rather simple. The difficult thing is help actually to find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. Death Salesman American Dream Essays! And the help, really difficult thing is to make such processing robust and stories, controlled so that all data is processed properly and so that someone won’t e.g. fill your server’s disk space with gigabytes of help junk, by ignorance or by malevolence. You need to know the general basics of writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on essay, forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the help, action attribute refers to a server-side script which is death american capable of handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in multipart/form-data format; as explained below, don’t even dream about using mailto: URLs in help, action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field. input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is a name you assign to the field as you like; the form data set will contain the content of the file “under that name”, and the communication, that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an wpix homework integer specifying the tolkien on fairy, desired width, as a number of characters, of the filename box to be displayed; the size attribute is optional, but setting it to some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is wpix rather narrow for typical filenames. (See notes on the size attribute.)

Minimally, the death salesman dream, form needs to contain a a submit element too. Homework! It may also contain any other fields you like, and explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the american dream essays, name of the file is included. The reason is wpix homework help typically that the form element does not contain the attributes mentioned above. Since browser support to of a dream essays, file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of submitting data, too. It is homework help hopefully evident that what happens in file input is the submission of a copy of the file content . The file on edexcel papers, the user’s disk remains intact, and homework, the server-side script cannot change it , only the copy of the data. As mentioned above, the server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for submitting files. There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is a difficult programming issue, and outside the scope of this document of edexcel maths intermediate past papers mine. I just wish to emphasize—in addition to help, security issues discussed below - that what happens to the data after submission is at the hands of the server-side script . It could “upload” it, i.e. Death Of A Salesman American Dream! save onto the server’s disk under some name, but it might just as well process the homework help, data only by essay the communication collapse extracting some information from it, or send the data by E-mail somewhere, or even send it to a printer.

For example, the WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for homework help submitting a file to validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to the technique you use, which is usually dictated by the characteristics of the server software. In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to edexcel, check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in CGI Resource Index . (See also the links under “Related Categories” for scripts in other languages.) You might find a script suitable for wpix homework your purposes, or at comparing, least ideas for writing your own script. In your own coding using Perl with CGI, you’ll probably benefit from using the CGI.pm module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in help, its documentation, and my Fool’s Guide to CGI.pm . As an another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in PHP Manual . Essay The Communication! For ASP, see e.g. Pure ASP File Upload by Jacob Gilley.

The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in my document on homework, testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of a file field. It simply echoes back the comparing christianity, data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown. The HTML markup is: And on your browser, with its current settings, and as possibly affected by my stylesheet, this is what the form looks like. RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of type FILE is encountered, the browser might show a display of (previously selected) file names, and a “Browse” button or selection method. Selecting the help, “Browse” button would cause the browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for example.

In such a file selection dialog, the user would have the option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc. Stories! Browser implementors might choose let the list of homework help file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is past present, the browser might constrain the wpix help, file patterns prompted for to match those with the essay and contrasting and islam, corresponding appropriate file extensions for wpix the platform. Upon form submit, the contents of the files would then be included into the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the essay collapse, quality of homework implementations is poor. Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on tolkien essay, browser support are mostly historical and based on fairly old observations of mine (on Win95, Win98, and WinNT). These notes are followed by more interesting notes users’ problems especially caused by the poor quality of support on wpix help, modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an input box and lets the user type a filename there—and it sends the essay comparing and contrasting, name as part of the form data!

Generally, any browser without any code which tries to homework, support input type=file can be expected to behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to ignore that attribute, which means that the essay the communication, default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.) IE 4 has an input box and a “Browse” capability, and help, it actually sends the file content, but it still allows one file only to be selected. The “Browse” function display is unfiltered, i.e. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to file input has a “Browse” capability, too, but the browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to “HTML files”. The user can manually change this, though it is questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified.

There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in Netscape 4.5. Here is an example of the user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in collapse, Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in wpix homework, several versions) gives no user option to the communication collapse, switch to homework, a filtered view! Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Netscape tradition in implementing file input. Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a “Browse” menu, though the button for activating it carries the label “. ”, which might be somewhat confusing. It lets the user specify several files from the menu: Normally when you click on a file, the selection is changed, but. Essay Comparing Christianity And Islam! if you keep the Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to wpix homework, the selection, and if you keep the Shift key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of files, from the file you clicked on to the file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isn’t perfect though. The Browse window is rather small, and it is impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on writing, the files individually unless you want to homework help, select just one contiguous range. And the essay, box for file names is quite small too, and its size is not affected by the size attribute. Wpix Help! See also notes on setting the lp4 resume writing, default filename.

When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into a multipart message inside a multipart message. The Safari browser is popular in the Mac environment and is now available for wpix homework Windows as well, as a beta version. I have been told that on Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled “Choose file…,” with no filename field. On the browsers discussed above, if the essay, user types a filename directly into the input box, it must be the full pathname and it must be typed exactly. If the input is not a name of an existing file (e.g. due to a typo), then the form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the name given by wpix help the user), and no warning is given. People who encounter file input for the first time might be expected to get very confused, since the tolkien on fairy, filename box appears first and looks like an area where the user should type something. The user probably often wishes to view the contents of files in the dialog, since it is difficult to wpix, select the file on comparing, the basis of its name only. On Windows systems, the browsers discussed here seem to use widgets where normal clicking on a file icon selects it, and to wpix help, open it (in some program) one needs to use right click and collapse, select a suitable action.

I guess most users won’t find that out without being helped. The following screen capture presents the dialogue on IE 4 (on WinNT) in a situation where the user has right clicked on wpix, an icon and dream essays, an action menu has popped up and wpix, the user is about to select the O pen action (which would, in this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in tolkien essay, a new browser window. There’s little you can do as the author of a form to help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think it’s useful to refer to instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the instructions apply to. The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to file input. There’s a section on accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the Browse button and the filename box. All the wpix, browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for the widget used to implement a file input element: a text input box for the filename looks similar to normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is often grey), and it has the text “Browse” or its equivalent in another language.

That text is under the control of the browser, not the author. It has however been reported that on Netscape, the text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and browse buttons visually obvious. Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons. There is no way to guarantee that Browse buttons “look different” or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. Comparing And Contrasting Christianity And Islam! See the document Affecting the presentation of form fields on Web pages for an overview and examples. The Browse button is particularly “immune” to wpix help, any presentational suggestions; it’s typically a “hard-wired” part of the browser’s user interface. Tolkien Essay Stories! In particular, on IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that “looking different” is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements).

However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons don’t! So it seems that it’s best to let browsers present Browse and wpix help, submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on the other hand, seems to be affected by similar factors as normal text input boxes. You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is far from tolkien on fairy, obvious what they should mean for a file input widget or what they actually cause in each browser. Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in HTML. However, such markup is often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . /font might increase the font size and set the font to Courier. Specifically, this happened on Netscape 4 but not on most other browsers. (As a side effect, on Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the dimensions of the Browse button but not the font size of the the text “Browse”. Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.) You could suggest presentational properties in a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . Help! style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by Netscape 4 but applied, to essay collapse, some extent at least, by most other graphic browsers. It is difficult to say how CSS rules should affect the widget, since it is an open question whether e.g. the text of the Browse button (which is help not part of the textual content of the writing, HTML document) should be formatted according to the font properties of the input element. (For example, IE 4 and Mozilla seem to apply the font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. IE 6 applies font-family too.

The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in help, HTML and in CSS: The example has the HTML markup. and the the communication, following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to users that there is a special input box. But try to avoid making it look too special, since there is then the risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an wpix homework help input box at all. At Quirksmode.org, there is a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for edexcel maths past changing the appearance of wpix homework help file input elements, in a sense: Styling an input type=file . Comparing And Contrasting Christianity And Islam! I?would however advice against any substantial changes in the appearance.

Any esthetic improvement over browser defaults (in addition to being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the experienced user uncertain of what the widget is. File input is a challenge to many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in file input. Wpix Homework Help! For an overview of essay on fairy stories what accessibility is and wpix homework help, why it is important, please refer to the Guide to Web Accessibility and Design for and contrasting christianity All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the help, JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in file input. This is understandable, since the common implementation in shakespeare, browsers is oriented towards visual interaction. Even the “normal” browsers have serious difficulties in wpix help, file input without using a mouse. (There are different reasons, including physiological and neurological problems, why the user may need to tolkien on fairy stories, work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the Browse button by tabbing, but if you try to use the homework, keyboard to activate it, hitting the Enter key, the edexcel past papers, browser submits the form instead! You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on wpix help, the Browse button) activates the comparing christianity, file selection dialogue. Netscape 7 skips over the browse button entirely when tabbing—it cannot be selected without a mouse.

Not surprisingly, on wpix, Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and death salesman american, activate it by pressing the homework, enter key, then select a file for upload from the file system; you would use the arrow keys move around in essay, the file selection. On the Lynx text browser, at least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is wpix no Browse button, and there is edexcel maths past papers no dialogue for accessing the computer’s file system. Thus, the user needs to know the exact path name and syntax to type in wpix help, the file name for upload, as is apparently also the of a salesman, case for IE and wpix help, Netscape. There is also the usability problem that the essay, browsing may start from help, a part of the lp4 resume writing, file system in a manner which is not so natural to homework, the user. Essay The Communication! The initial selection might be e.g. Help! that of the directory where the Web browser itself resides! So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it.

They might not recognize the Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding what’s going on fellowship essay, when they click on it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the presence of a file input field before the field itself. This can usually me done in wpix homework help, a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and type of file should be submitted. For example, the explanation could say: “Please specify, if possible, an image file containing your photo in essay on fairy stories, JPEG format.” Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for wpix homework help the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the lp4 resume writing, eventual problems with a concept of file input and to help, explain his problems when seeking for on fairy stories help. And if he has tried to use file input before, it tells him to stay tuned to something special, and perhaps at help, this point, before entering the shakespeare fellowship competition, file input field, to access the wpix homework help, file system outside the browser and find the exact path name of the edexcel maths past papers, file he wants to homework, submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. A plain text file is on fairy submitted without information about character encoding, so the recipient needs to guess the encoding or infer it somehow. For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and that it is used to wpix homework, submit a plain text file.

If the user wrote the shakespeare fellowship competition, file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and homework help, its content is sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the lp4 resume, data? In general, the browser cannot tell the encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the data. The reason is that commonly used file systems lack indication of the character encoding of a plain text file; it just needs to be known. Thus, if your form is meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is probably to ask users to save their text files in UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). Wpix Homework Help! You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in forms (or the support is of so poor quality that they don’t want to use it). You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form.

This would work especially for text files in the sense that a user could open his file in an editor and cut paste the data into the textarea. Lp4 Resume! Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to have a textarea along with a file input field. Your server side script would need some more code to handle both. You could simply include an E-mail address and encourage people to send their files to that address as attachments. You would need to have some processing for wpix homework help such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail. On the american dream, other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and process them “by hand.” Make sure the address is visible on the page itself. Homework! You could make it a mailto: link too, but don’t risk the functionality by some misguided attempt to include a fixed Subject header!

Just tell people what they should write into that header (and into the message body). Sometimes you might consider setting up an FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. You would then just specify the server and writing, the area, and wpix help, people could use their favorite FTP clients. Note that for fellowship essay competition the submission of a large number of files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field. Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to which people can bring or send their files e.g. on homework, diskettes or CD roms.

Make it clear to them in advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in the description of the input element in HTML 4.0 Reference by essay the communication WDG. That document is also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. Answer to the question How can I allow file uploads to homework, my web site? in WDG’s Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in Denmark. Notes on client-side scripting issues. In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of a fileupload form field? FAQ 561 How can I extract just the file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on an input type=file button? See also notes on filtering above as regards to support to event attributes for file input.

The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to file input fields along with other types of fields. The notes below hopefully help in essay collapse, locating and interpreting the help, relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an enctype attribute for writing the form element. Its value is generically defined as being a “media type”, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is actually just one part of a large set of wpix homework help documents which what media types are. In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in the context of form submission, the and contrasting christianity, use of help a media type as the value of the enctype attribute is meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. This means the exact way of encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of fellowship name / value pairs, into a particular data format. The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to process the data in help, a useful, robust way by computer programs.

The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by ampersands ( ) and the communication, uses some special “escape” mechanisms for homework help characters, such as %28 for stories the “(” character. It’s confusing if people try to read it—it was meant to be processed by programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each “control”) is help presented in a format suitable for that field, and stories, the data set as a whole is a multipart message containing those presentations as its components. This is homework wasteful for “normal” forms but appropriate, even the essay on fairy stories, only feasible way, for forms containing file fields. The multipart structure means that each file comes in a nice “package” inside a larger package, with a suitable “label” (content type information) on the inner “package.” This type was originally defined in RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and wpix homework help, it is generally unsafe to use them. Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is no specification of the exact method of encoding a form data set into such a format, and browsers are not required to support such an attribute—so anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the data into a convenient format for you to process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that). But e.g.

IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the enctype is defaulted in such a case: they send the name of the file instead of its content! The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for the communication the “control” (i.e. form field) created by wpix homework help an input type=file element. It specifies file select so that this control type allows the user to select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Note the plural “files”—the idea is clearly that one such field should allow the inclusion of on fairy several files. Note that there is nothing an author needs to homework, do, and nothing he can do, to make a browser allow the selection of several files per shakespeare fellowship competition input field. It depends on the browser whether that is wpix help possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and death salesman dream, these do not include the help, newest versions. And in shakespeare fellowship, fact, even if a browser allows users to wpix, pick up several files for one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that!

Thus, an essay and contrasting author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is wpix homework help desirable that users can include several files into one form submission. Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the essay and contrasting christianity, appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in wpix help, a server-based way) so that “the user isn’t immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes.” Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to “zip” several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the essay, value attribute for a file input field by saying that browsers (user agents) “may use the value of the value attribute as the initial file name.” This however is usually not supported by browsers . The usual explanation is “security reasons.” And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the user’s disk were submitted without the user’s content. It might be all too easy to wpix homework help, lure some users into submitting some password files! But in fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is on fairy important that a user agent not send any file that the user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the use of wpix homework value “is probably platform dependent” but then goes on: “It might be useful, however, in edexcel maths past, sequences of more than one transaction, e.g., to avoid having the user prompted for the same file name over and over again.” This isn’t particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to wpix homework help, another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to get the user’s config file for problem analysis.

Setting the default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to implement it , for tolkien essay stories no good reason. This isn’t a very important flaw, however. The situations where it would make sense to suggest a default file name are rare. Netscape’s old HTML Tag Reference says, in the description of wpix homework help input type=file , that “ VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element,” but no actual support to this in Netscape browsers has been reported. Collapse! Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in wpix help, Microsoft’s HTML Elements reference. It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: “Sets or retrieves the death dream essays, value of the INPUT type=file .” The description links to wpix homework, a description of the value attribute which says: “The value, a file name, typed by the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only.” This probably relates to using the value property in client-side scripting. And in competition, fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an error message); the same applies to Netscape (but on wpix help, Opera, even an attempt to read the value seems to fellowship competition, confuse the browser). Note that the examples in the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an homework input type=file element with a value attribute.

However, support to file input in several versions of tolkien essay Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the homework, value is displayed in shakespeare, the box for file name input that value can be edited by wpix homework the user (as an alternative to using the Browse menu, which changes the content of that box) however if the user submits the form so that the initial value has not been changed by and contrasting and islam the user, there will be a security alert and the user is homework help requested to confirm the submission. there does not seem to be any working way to specify a set of files in the value attribute. Such support, however, is absent in Opera 7.54, for some reason. The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to lp4 resume, set the initial file name: An example of Opera’s security alert in wpix, the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users’ files without their knowing, i.e. Essay Comparing Christianity! bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a ‘filename’ parameter either of the ‘content-disposition: form-data’ header or in the case of multiple files in a ‘content-disposition: file’ header of the subpart. The client application should make best effort to wpix homework, supply the of a american, file name; if the help, file name of the client’s operating system is not in US-ASCII, the death of a salesman american dream essays, file name might be approximated or encoded using the wpix help, method of RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for example, the uploaded files might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in subsection 3.3 of section 3. Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. Essay! You shouldn’t count on having a filename included. It seems that Netscape, IE, and Opera actually include the filename parameter.

However, only Opera uses the format which seems to be the intended one, as deduced from the homework, examples in RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement. Is the Netscape and IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of path name system for file names, one would expect to see path names in examples if the intent had been that path names are sent. This is consistent with the fact that in essay, order to actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the one mentioned in RFC 1867: “the uploaded file might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description,” which clearly calls for wpix homework help relative file names). When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is strongly system-specific, and lp4 resume, there is even no provision for telling the server what the browser’s file system is. Sending relative names only is also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the user’s file system structure. Note that the security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names.

The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of course, and wpix, would apply e.g. to a file submission containing a set of HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, it’s clear that the processing script would need to christianity, strip off the path part of the names (which is in wpix help, principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on many systems!). Moreover, since the submission of collapse several files is currently clumsy at best, the idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of files that refer to each other by wpix names would be best handled as packaged into death salesman american dream formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to be handled by zipping and homework, unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.) Although the user is not expected to type the filename(s) into a filename box but use the Browse function, the size of the box matters. When the essay christianity and islam, user selects a file by clicking on it, the homework help, browser puts the filename into the filename box, and the name is a full pathname which can be quite long. It may confuse users if they see the name badly truncated.

And most browsers seem to treat the size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is given in pixels except when type attribute has the value text or password . In that case, its value refers to tolkien essay on fairy stories, the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for input type=file , the size attribute specifies the wpix homework, width in pixels, not characters. This is probably an oversight, and tolkien essay, the risk of wpix homework a browser acting literally according it is ignorable. On the other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to the size attribute.

Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the size attribute; this currently seems to essay collapse, happen on IE 4 and newer only, but it should do no harm on browsers which don’t support it. Wpix Homework! However note that although it might seem attractive to use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, there’s the problem that at lp4 resume writing, least IE 4 puts the Browse button on the same line as the box. Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the box and the button will then usually fit. Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if “file upload” means storing the file on wpix homework help, the server’s disk, it is necessary to death of a salesman american dream, consider imposing various restrictions.

It would be nasty if some user filled the wpix homework, disk with gigabytes of junk, by ignorance, or by misclicking, or by malevolence. Edexcel Intermediate Papers! See section Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks in wpix homework, the documentation of essay on fairy stories CGI.pm; even if it isn’t directly applicable to help, you since you use other techniques than CGI and essay competition, Perl, it gives some food for wpix help thought in general. The server-side form handler can be coded to do whatever the programmer wants, and imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. (That is, the code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.) Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by stories a browser prior to form submission, are unreliable and should be considered as extra comfort to wpix, users only—so that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to and contrasting christianity and islam, represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the server will accept for transferred files. It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and there’s no statement about such a feature in HTML specifications.

On the contrary, the HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an wpix homework help upper limit to salesman dream essays, the length of file names using the maxlength attribute. Thus, it is wpix homework help better not to use the essay the communication, maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on this: it describes maxlength as defined for wpix help input type=text and tolkien essay on fairy stories, input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter) Thus you could specify, for example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to help, get image files in GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at least initially.

And the HTML 3.2 specification even claims: “Some user agents support the writing, ability to restrict the kinds of files to those matching a comma separated list of MIME content types given with the ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to images.” (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Obviously the intent is that some “wildcarding” could be applied, but there doesn’t seem to be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is currently nonexistent. No filtering is applied, except on Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to HTML documents, no matter what there is in wpix, an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of course couldn’t rely on such filtering, for many reasons. If it worked, it would be basically for tolkien essay stories user comfort, not for setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by wpix help the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they won’t submit data of wrong type. For example, assume that we wish to have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified. And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and christianity, check, in a client-side script, that the value of the field matches that.

Note that the value is the filename, not the file content. However one must be extra careful here. Although the event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and problems. In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and the obvious idea—associate checking code with onblur —seems to make Netscape run in an eternal loop. Homework! Thus, it is probably best to associate the checks with file submission only . This means using the onsubmit attribute in the form tag. Example: The status of the original description of input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is essay collapse vague. Wpix Homework Help! The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an essay on fairy informative reference to it, and help, mentions a “work in progress” in this area: This is however outdated information; the URL does not work, and the communication, the draft has expired.

There does not seem to be anything else even at the level of Internet-Drafts to replace RFC 1867. There is wpix homework help however RFC 2388, Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. Shakespeare Fellowship Essay! However it is not specified to obsolete RFC 1867. In the homework help, HTML 4.01 Specification , the informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to RFC 2388, with a note “Refer also to RFC 1867.” In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued.

It’s basic purpose was to “to remove HTML from IETF Standards Track” officially, i.e. to essay christianity, make it explicit that work on HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C. It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. Homework Help! But note that there is writing very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about “file upload” than HTML specifications. It explains the original idea and how it might be implemented.

However, its normative status is help vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.