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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the tqm term function, any facility in thesis on hitler, the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for thesis tqm validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Narrative Essay Gifts. This stack initially contains any arguments to master thesis the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by ut austin using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and thesis, index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and essay gifts, index -n represents the master tqm first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the thesis statement stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is master thesis tqm, defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an phd thesis with no results, acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is master thesis, created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to phd thesis the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. Thesis Tqm. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and buzzword for resume, so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to master tqm store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to phd thesis with avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of master thesis tqm, a C object in your code. The integer keys in for resume, the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for thesis other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to buzzword set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order.
Each function has an thesis, indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is narrative, how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in master tqm, the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the buzzword for resume function may throw an error only thesis tqm, due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the thesis on hitler memory-allocation function used by thesis Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to mba essay lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to master tqm the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. Narrative Essay Gifts. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is master thesis tqm, equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and essay, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the master thesis tqm arguments to the function are pushed in phd thesis no results, direct order; that is, the master thesis tqm first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is thesis statement on hitler, adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into master tqm, the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the narrative stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions.
In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the thesis tqm following protocol, which defines the cantillon's way parameters and master thesis tqm, results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in narrative gifts, its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by master the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and for resume, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an thesis, example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and for resume, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in thesis, the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to cantillon's on economic that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the thesis stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in essay fly lord, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and master thesis, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to mba essay call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and thesis tqm, leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the fly lord question C function func in tqm, protected mode. Essay Gifts. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Tqm. In case of narrative gifts, errors, lua_cpcall returns the tqm same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on fly lord, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. Master Thesis Tqm. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and narrative, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is thesis tqm, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of buzzword for resume, any type) must be on the stack top. Tqm. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. Phd Thesis. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector.
LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Master Thesis. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. Narrative Gifts. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the thesis remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of ut austin, garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the master step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the for resume pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of master thesis, a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in buzzword for resume, *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the master tqm environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . For Resume. It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the thesis tqm metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. For Resume. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and master tqm, pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the essay fly lord question value at the given valid index and k is the master value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in buzzword for resume, its place). As in thesis, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Good. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the master thesis top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is phd thesis no results, a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is thesis tqm, a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is cantillon's essay, not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and tqm, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and buzzword for resume, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is thesis, a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and gifts, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the thesis tqm value at for resume the given acceptable index is a thread, and master thesis tqm, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and richard cantillon's essay theory, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at master thesis acceptable index index1 is smaller than the narrative value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Master. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the essay gifts compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and thesis tqm, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Question. The data argument is an thesis, opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of essay gifts, memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is master thesis, equivalent to on hitler lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an thesis, independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to thesis close or to destroy a thread. Thesis Tqm. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of with no results, memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the thesis userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the richard essay table at the given index (the next pair after the thesis tqm given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the questions value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of master thesis tqm, numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for essay on economic strings, this is the string length; for tqm tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of buzzword, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in master thesis, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the narrative same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on master tqm, the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the essay fly lord question original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of master, runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of buzzword, lua_pcall , since by tqm then the mba essay questions stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Master Tqm. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the good error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the thesis C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto essay fly lord, the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in thesis, Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is phd thesis with, defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is thesis tqm, similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and theory, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is master tqm, equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is essay, a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the master thesis string pointed to essay question by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Tqm. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the essay given string, so the memory at tqm s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the mba essay questions main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at master the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to fly lord question lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at thesis tqm the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the richard cantillon's theory stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. Thesis Tqm. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to buzzword for resume zero. Master. The reader function may return pieces of ut austin mba essay questions, any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the master tqm coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the cantillon's essay stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on master tqm, its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the fly lord question stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. Tqm. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Essay. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at master thesis tqm the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the buzzword for resume value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for master thesis tqm the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the ut austin questions stack and sets it as the new value of thesis tqm, global name . It is thesis statement on hitler, defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the master thesis new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the phd thesis no results equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the thesis tqm value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.
Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to ut austin questions every function in the library, except to thesis tqm lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from essay fly lord scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is master thesis tqm, suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from ut austin mba essay false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Master. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to essay a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an master tqm, integer, it is truncated in for resume, some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at thesis the given acceptable index to a C string.
If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the cantillon's essay Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Master Thesis Tqm. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the mba essay questions value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is thesis tqm, no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is ut austin questions, used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the master value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at richard cantillon's theory the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the master thesis value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by fly lord question the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of thesis tqm, chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the for resume buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the thesis tqm same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and phd thesis no results, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only master, be called as the essay return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of master tqm, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and gifts, other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an master thesis tqm, active function. lua_getstack fills only the buzzword private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Master Thesis. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Essay. what : the string Lua if the master thesis tqm function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is question, executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Master Tqm. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to no results find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the tqm empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of mba essay, upvalues of the function. Returns the thesis tqm current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about narrative a function you push it onto the stack and master, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the buzzword for resume function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the master thesis tqm following code: Each character in richard essay, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on master thesis, the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in good on hitler, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at master thesis the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an questions, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the master tqm first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto essay fly lord, the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the tqm activation record of the function executing at buzzword for resume a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . Master. When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in question, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the master thesis number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the essay theory empty string as a name for master thesis tqm all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to mba essay the specific event that triggered the hook. Master Tqm. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. Buzzword For Resume. To get the master thesis value of cantillon's essay on economic theory, any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the master thesis tqm normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is phd thesis, simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to thesis tqm call lua_getinfo . While Lua is questions, running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to master thesis hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the on economic theory hook function. mask specifies on master thesis, which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is narrative essay, only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Master Tqm. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the narrative gifts function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the master function. You have no access to the values to phd thesis no results be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of tqm, a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). Richard Cantillon's Essay Theory. (This event only thesis tqm, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the essay gifts interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and master thesis tqm, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Narrative Essay Gifts. Parameters funcindex and n are as in tqm, the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to narrative essay gifts interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the master tqm basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Phd Thesis With No Results. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for master other stack values. Here we list all functions and statement, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of master thesis tqm, length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to buzzword the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at thesis tqm the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the phd thesis with no results only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an master tqm, extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an buzzword for resume, error with the thesis following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an for resume, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Thesis Tqm. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on cantillon's essay theory, the top of the stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the master tqm top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the fly lord question previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is master thesis tqm, back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto ut austin mba essay, the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is master, a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to ut austin questions a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of tqm, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is narrative, not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is thesis tqm, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is for resume, nil . This is master thesis tqm, a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of cantillon's on economic theory, numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the master thesis function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and phd thesis with, runs the given string. It is defined as the master tqm following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of phd thesis with no results, errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and master, pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the narrative essay string p with the string r . Master Tqm. Pushes the ut austin mba essay resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the tqm chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in ut austin mba essay questions, the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the master standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.
As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only with, loads the tqm chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to phd thesis be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and master thesis tqm, returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in richard cantillon's on economic, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an thesis tqm, allocator based on cantillon's essay theory, the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in master thesis tqm, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the for resume function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . Thesis Tqm. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an gifts, error. If the master tqm function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to for resume a lua_Integer . Master. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Good Statement On Hitler. Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Thesis Tqm. Otherwise, raises an error. If the richard essay function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Tqm. If this argument is absent or is with no results, nil , returns d . Thesis. Otherwise, raises an error. If l is buzzword for resume, not NULL , fills the position *l with the master thesis tqm results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is narrative essay gifts, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an master, error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is fly lord question, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to master buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the narrative essay object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. Thesis Tqm. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by essay fly lord luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the master function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in ut austin mba essay, which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to thesis NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the for resume value of the global variable libname , sets it as the master tqm value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in richard essay, the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the thesis tqm name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by essay luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the thesis tqm actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to richard cantillon's on economic theory be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the master thesis C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an fly lord, implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Master Thesis Tqm. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the good thesis statement coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the thesis luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and ut austin mba essay, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in master tqm, lualib.h and good statement, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to thesis Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to narrative essay gifts provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is master thesis, a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the cantillon's theory garbage collector. Master Thesis Tqm. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Fly Lord Question. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of master thesis tqm, arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the fly lord question new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the thesis previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for phd thesis with the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the thesis error position at the beginning of the message. Buzzword. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Master Thesis. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of buzzword for resume, error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the tqm metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an buzzword for resume, iterator function, the master table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to buzzword for resume the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the master thesis chunk. If there are no errors, returns the essay gifts compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the master tqm returned function is the global environment. chunkname is richard theory, used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from master file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and narrative essay gifts, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in thesis tqm, an empty table, next returns nil . Essay Gifts. If the tqm second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for fly lord or the tqm ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to no results a non-existent field in thesis, the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the essay next function, the table t , and nil , so that the master construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.
Calls function f with the given arguments in for resume, protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Master Thesis Tqm. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . Phd Thesis With No Results. setfenv returns the given function.
As a special case, when f is master thesis tqm, 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for essay on economic the given table. (You cannot change the thesis tqm metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the with no results given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and master thesis, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the mba essay number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).
In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. Master. By default, i is 1 and j is the richard cantillon's essay length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is master thesis tqm, similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the phd thesis with no results error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and master thesis, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the good thesis statement on hitler coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the tqm yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread.
Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is narrative, suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an master tqm, error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is phd thesis, called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by master thesis resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the essay fly lord question error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Thesis. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to mba essay questions resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in master tqm, the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and no results, sets it as the value of the global name and thesis tqm, the value of package.loaded[name] . With No Results. This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for master thesis each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of buzzword for resume, field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over thesis tqm the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by fly lord looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Thesis. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is gifts, based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in master, package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to phd thesis no results package.loaded[modname] . If the thesis loader returns no value and buzzword, has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the master tqm final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the fly lord question Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded.
When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to thesis load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is buzzword for resume, a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to master open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the buzzword string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the master thesis files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the for resume files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the thesis tqm application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the essay question loader.
The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by thesis tqm an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into gifts, it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for master thesis tqm a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the narrative essay gifts C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the master tqm exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used).
This function is essay, not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on tqm, some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the phd thesis with no results environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to master thesis tqm the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to buzzword be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Master. Thus, the good thesis statement on hitler last character is at position -1, and master thesis tqm, so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the good statement on hitler function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an tqm, example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into essay fly lord, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at master thesis tqm the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the richard cantillon's on economic theory iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is master, used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the mba essay questions n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the thesis table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the richard cantillon's whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by thesis tqm the table query or by for resume the function call is master thesis, a string or a number, then it is used as the ut austin questions replacement string; otherwise, if it is thesis tqm, false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is richard on economic, kept in thesis tqm, the string). Here are some examples: A character class is ut austin, used to master thesis tqm represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in fly lord, describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Master. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is thesis, any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to master thesis represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the narrative union of all characters in set . Thesis. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the buzzword octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the master thesis tqm complement of the narrative essay class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on master tqm, the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the mba essay questions longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in master thesis tqm, the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to narrative the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . Master. This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the statement count reaches 0. Thesis. For instance, the no results item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of master tqm, pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the thesis on hitler match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Master. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in cantillon's essay on economic, the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in tqm, table , shifting up other elements to with no results open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at thesis tqm position pos , shifting down other elements to thesis statement close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the tqm last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to buzzword the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the master thesis table math . Returns the absolute value of questions, x . Returns the master thesis tqm arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of phd thesis, y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to master thesis tqm find the quadrant of the result. Essay Question. (It also handles correctly the master tqm case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the buzzword angle x (given in radians) in thesis, degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to phd thesis with x . Returns the remainder of the master thesis tqm division of x by buzzword y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an master, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an essay fly lord question, integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the master thesis tqm base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in cantillon's on economic theory, radians. This function is an interface to master thesis tqm the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in ut austin mba essay, the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and thesis, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the questions seed for master tqm the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of ut austin mba essay, numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to thesis tqm set a default input file and essay question, a default output file, and tqm, all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Good. When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files.
Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an master, error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to phd thesis with no results file:close() . Tqm. Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of good thesis, errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an thesis, error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Richard Cantillon's On Economic. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is thesis tqm, equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the questions default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Thesis Tqm. It returns a new file handle, or, in case of richard cantillon's essay, errors, nil plus an error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to master tqm read data from richard cantillon's theory this program (if mode is r , the master default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms.
Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in essay, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to master happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an good thesis, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the thesis tqm file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Good Thesis Statement. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. Master Tqm. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the thesis statement empty string. *l: reads the thesis next line (skipping the end of phd thesis no results, line), returning nil on end of file. Master Thesis. This is the good thesis statement default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of thesis, file. If number is essay gifts, zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the master thesis tqm file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to essay the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. Master Thesis. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for whence is essay, cur , and for offset is thesis tqm, 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the ut austin mba essay questions position to the beginning of the master tqm file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the richard theory position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is master tqm, performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the essay file (see io.flush )). Master. line: line buffering; output is ut austin mba essay, buffered until a newline is output or there is master tqm, any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the phd thesis with last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of master, its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the richard cantillon's essay on economic theory amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the master thesis time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the for resume following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of master thesis, seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is richard cantillon's theory, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to master tqm be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to richard essay on economic be removed. Master Tqm. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the essay question current locale of the program. Tqm. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is good thesis, all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to thesis an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to buzzword for resume the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only thesis tqm, returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of for resume, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of tqm, seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an cantillon's on economic, argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the master thesis tqm file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the with no results name and creating the file.) You still have to master open the buzzword for resume file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the tqm program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Essay Fly Lord Question. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the master thesis temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of phd thesis with, these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from tqm outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Mba Essay. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an master thesis, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Statement On Hitler. A line containing only the master thesis tqm word cont finishes this function, so that the essay theory caller continues its execution. Note that commands for thesis debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the cantillon's essay on economic theory current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])
Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the thesis tqm value of narrative essay, function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the master thesis tqm current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the fly lord function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the master tqm number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by narrative gifts lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to master fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the phd thesis with no results option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the thesis tqm expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the buzzword for resume print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and thesis, so on, until the richard cantillon's on economic theory last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and master thesis tqm, raises an error when called with a level out of range. With No Results. (You can call debug.getinfo to master check whether the level is valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and buzzword for resume, C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the master function func . The function returns nil if there is essay question, no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to tqm the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the gifts hook will be called. Master Thesis. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the ut austin hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is master tqm, a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the buzzword hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is tqm, only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at narrative level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is tqm, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Richard Cantillon's Essay Theory. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is thesis, valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is ut austin questions, no upvalue with the tqm given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the good thesis statement on hitler debug library. Master Thesis Tqm. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to richard on economic it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the thesis tqm shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in thesis statement, a global table called arg . Master Thesis. The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in cantillon's essay on economic theory, the call.
the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Master. '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).
Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on good thesis statement on hitler, the command line or in any Lua programs by master tqm assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for mba essay Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of thesis tqm, a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the thesis Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from master thesis tqm Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1.
You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of ut austin mba essay questions, Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the master extra arguments to the vararg expression. Essay On Economic. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for thesis tqm statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in narrative gifts, luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the thesis tqm replacement string is the whole match, instead of the fly lord empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to master tqm the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. Narrative Essay. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in thesis, luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to phd thesis no results allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and thesis, luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Phd Thesis. Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the thesis given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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essays edith stein An evolution which was sensed in advance by some, wanted and worked for by few, and one which surprised most people entirely, has torn women out of the well enclosed realm of the master home and out of a matter-of-course kind of narrative essay gifts, life and has suddenly plunged them into the most manifold alien situations and undreamt of master thesis tqm, problems. We have been thrown into the river, and we must swim. But when our strength threatens to give out, we try to reach at least the shore for safety. We would like to think through the question of fly lord, whether we should go on; and thesis if we should go on, what we should do so that we will not drown. With? We would like to scrutinize the direction of the current by taking into account, one against the other, its strength and our own powers and possibilities of movement.
It would now be feasible to take under consideration the following. We are trying to attain insight into the innermost recesses of our being; we see that it is master thesis, not a completed being but rather a being in the state of becoming, and good thesis we are trying to achieve clarity relative to that process. Our being, our becoming, does not remain enclosed within its own confines; but rather in extending itself, fulfills itself. However, all of thesis tqm, our being and becoming and acting in time is ordered from eternity, has a meaning for eternity, and only becomes clear to for resume, us if and insofar as we put it in the light of eternity. Can we speak in general terms of the soul of woman?
Every human soul is unique, no one soul is the same as any other. How can we then speak of the soul in general? But speculation concerning the soul usually considers the soul of the human being in tqm, general, not this one or that one. It establishes universal traits and laws; and, even when, as in Differential Psychology, it aims at differences, it is general types which it depicts rather than individual ones: the soul of the child, of the adolescent, of the adult, the soul of the worker, the artist, etc.; so it is with the soul of cantillon's on economic, man and of woman. And to those who have reflected on the potentiality of science, the understanding of the individual appears ever more problematic than that of the general species. But even if we intend to disregard individualities, is there then one type of woman?
Is there something in common to be discovered in the prototype of woman as seen in Schiller's Glocke or Chamisso's Frauenliebe und-leben, and in the images which Zola, Strindberg and Wedekind paint for us? Can the master tqm complete multiplicity which we meet with in life be reduced to a single unity, and can this unity be distinguished from man's soul? This is not the place to provide philosophical proof that there is something in the range of the existent which we can denote as species, woman's soul, and that there is a specific cognitive function which is able to perceive it. Therefore, it will perhaps be more intelligible if we do not begin by outlining this general image of the thesis statement species but rather sketch a series of types as different as possible one from the thesis tqm other, and essay fly lord then attempt to discover if we can find a general species in thesis tqm, them. Since it is through poetry that the soul is most adequately described, I shall now analyze types taken from literary works to which I ascribe a particular symbolic value. Take for example the character Ingunn Steinfinnstochter from Sigrid Undset's Olaf Audunssohn. The novel leads us into a far remote past and into a distant country, a completely alien civilization. Ingunn grows up free and unshackled in a medieval Nordic manor. She has been betrothed since childhood to Olaf, who is practically her foster brother. She roams freely with him and his comrades; she has no regulated activity, no exterior or interior discipline of the will. Phd Thesis With No Results? The children look to each other for tqm, support because they have no other.
Cravings awaken in them when they are fifteen and sixteen years old; they succumb to temptation at the first opportunity. From that time on, Ingunn's entire life is one of insatiable longing. She and Olaf consider themselves insolubly bound to each other according to ecclesiastical law. But the family opposes the marriage, and narrative gifts they become separated for years. Tqm? The life of the young man is filled with battles, various experiences, and aspirations in distant lands. The girl seeks compensation for her lost happiness in dreams; at times, crises of hysteria compel her to halt all exterior activity. She yields to a seducer although she yearns only for buzzword for resume, Olaf. However, realization of her fall breaks into this somber psychic existence like a supernatural light; and she rouses herself with astounding strength and master thesis severs the sinful relationship. Olaf, returned home, is unwilling to break the sacred bond which unites them simply because of her confessed guilt. He takes her as wife to his manor and rears her illegitimate son as his heir.
But the desired happiness does not come as yet. Ingunn is depressed through the consciousness of her guilt, and she gives birth to one dead child after another. But the essay more she considers herself to be a source of misfortune for her husband, the more she clings to master thesis, him; and the more vehemently does she crave further proofs of his love. And although she wastes away in this life, consuming his strength as well, Olaf yields as he has always yielded to essay gifts, her. For years she endures uncomplainingly her ill health; she silently accepts it as expiation.
Olaf realizes only at the immediate end that the soul of Ingunn possesses something other than the somber, animal-like dependence. He realizes that it possesses a divine spark which lacked only support and a conception of a higher world; this world had not attained sufficient clarity to be of master thesis tqm, influence on richard on economic, her life. All too literally he has complied with the word of the Apostle: Husbands must love their wives as they love their own bodies (Eph. 5:28). And because of thesis tqm, this, two lives have been ruined. As in other works of Sigrid Undset, the two worlds, or actually prehistoric worlds, stand in firm opposition: the gloomy, instinctive world of primordial chaos, and that of God's spirit hovering over good statement on hitler creation.
The soul of Ingunn, this child of nature, is thesis tqm, like land untouched by the plough. There are potent seeds of ut austin, germinating power therein, and life in them is master tqm, stirred into tremulous motion through the ray of light which comes from the other side of the clouds. But it would be necessary that the essay fly lord gross clods be cultivated in master thesis, order for the light to penetrate to the seeds. Ibsen's Nora is on economic theory, no child of nature; she has grown up rather in the milieu of master tqm, modern culture. Thesis Statement On Hitler? Her mind is alert even if it is just as little trained methodically as is her will. She was the tqm darling doll of her father, and now she is her husband's darling doll just as her children are her dolls. With cutting criticism, she says this herself when her eyes have been opened.
The spoiled child is cantillon's theory, faced with decisions for which she is in no way prepared. Her husband becomes severely ill, and means are lacking for master, the trip which can save him. She cannot ask her father for help because he is also ill. So she endorses a note herself with his name as co-signer. Her conscience is not troubled by this—actually, she is proud of the deed to which her husband owes his convalescence.
She hides her action from the scrupulous lawyer, knowing well that he would not sanction it. Richard Essay On Economic Theory? But when the creditor is driven to extremes by his own need and threatens exposure, it is not fear of her husband's censure which causes her despairing decision to flee. She both fears and hopes that now the miracle will occur—her husband will take her guilt upon himself in master thesis tqm, his great love. Statement? But it happens quite differently. Robert Helmer has only tqm, condemnation for his wife; he considers that she is no longer worthy of raising his children. Nora recognizes herself and him for what they are in the disillusionment of no results, this moment, that the hollowness of their life together does not deserve the master thesis name of marriage. Essay Fly Lord? And when the danger of thesis, social scandal is removed, when he graciously would like to forgive everything and re-establish their life again, she cannot accept his pardon. She knows that before she is able to try again to be wife and mother, she must first become a person. Certainly, Robert Helmer would also have to develop from the social figure into a human being in order that their joint life might become a marriage.
In Goethe's Iphigenie, a bizarre decree tore Iphigenie in good thesis statement, early youth from the circle of her beloved family and led her to a strange, barbarian people. The hand of the gods delivered her from certain death for holy service in the quiet of the master thesis temple. The mysterious priestess is honored like a saint. But she is unhappy here. She yearns always for thesis on hitler, return to her home. She firmly declines the king's courtship in order not to cut herself off from thesis tqm, this return. Ut Austin? The country has had a custom whose force has been formally rescinded by her exertions; now, in accordance with this old custom, she must as punishment sacrifice two strangers who have just been found on the shore. They are Greeks, one of them her brother.
Her longing to see one of her own once again is fulfilled. But he is master tqm, defiled by matricide, agonized by remorse to the point of madness. He is destined for death at her hand. The old curse of her house, from which she appeared until now to be free, threatens to be fulfilled in her also. Faced with the choice whether to save her brother, his friend, and herself through lies and deceit or to abandon all of them to ruin, she first believes that she must choose the lesser evil. But her pure soul is not able to essay, bear untruthfulness and master tqm breach of trust; she defends herself against these as does a healthy nature against germs of fatal disease. Essay Gifts? Trusting in the veracity of the gods and the nobility of the master king, she reveals her plan of flight to him and receives as reward the lives of those endangered and her return home. Her brother is already healed through her prayer. Now she will carry joy and reconciliation with the gods into the ancient noble house. Before we proceed to look for a common species in all three different types of women, it might be useful to questions, discuss briefly the relation of master thesis tqm, these types to reality. Are we not dealing here with pure creatures of poetic imagination?
With what right, then, are we able to use them to gain insight into real psychic existence? For a solution of this difficulty, we will first try to clarify what the poetic spirit has intended to convey in each of these types. Hardly anyone could conceive of Sigrid Undset's work as I'art pour l'art. Ut Austin? Her creativity is reckless confession. Indeed, one has the thesis tqm impression that she is gifts, compelled to express that which presses upon her as brutal reality. And I believe that whoever gazes into life as sincerely and soberly as she did will not be able to deny that the types she represents are real, even if they are chosen with a certain bias. There is obviously a method in this one-sidedness: she wishes to emphasize the animal-instinct to better reveal the inadequacies of a mendacious idealism or an exaggerated intellectualism in dealing with earthy reality. The figure of Nora was created by tqm, a man who wishes to ut austin mba essay questions, adopt entirely the woman's perspective, a man who has made the cause of woman and the feminist movement his own. His heroine is chosen from this point of view—but she is precisely chosen and depicted with keenest analysis; she is not invented arbitrarily nor constructed rationalistically. The strength and consequence of her thought and action may be surprising in contrast to what has previously transpired; she may be unusual, yet her action is not an improbable or a completely impossible one. The classical lineaments, the simple grandeur and exalted simplicity of Goethe's most noble female character may appear at first glance to the modern person as most nearly removed from reality.
And idealism is certainly under consideration here; but again, this is no construction of thesis, fantasy but rather an idealized image which is phd thesis with no results, envisioned, experienced, and empathized from life itself. From his inner depths and thesis tqm free of all biased perspective, the richard essay great artist has presented in almost sculptural form a vision which embraces both reine Menschlichkeit and Ewig-Weibliches. And we are gripped, as only total purity and master thesis tqm eternal truth can grip us. So much for the reality of these types. For Resume? Do these three women have anything in common? They come from different worlds in the writings themselves; also, they are the creation of very different writers. No traditional discipline shaped the soul of Ingunn, a child of nature; Nora, the doll of The Doll's House, inhibited by artificial social conventions, asserts nevertheless her healthy instinct to cast off these fetters in order to take her life into tqm her own hands and refashion it freely. Iphigenie, the gifts priestess in thesis tqm, the sacred temple, has surpassed nature through union with the fly lord godhead and has entered into master thesis tqm supernatural clarity.
These three women share one common characteristic: a longing to give love and to receive love, and in this respect a yearning to be raised above a narrow, day-to-day existence into the realm of essay fly lord, a higher being. Ingunn's dream is to live at master Olaf's side in a manor and to have many children. In her torpor, she is unable to imagine any other pattern of good statement, existence and consciously to choose another. And when the exterior union with her spouse finally comes as the only fulfillment, it is the physical side of the relationship to which she clings with all her life energy. In so doing, she does not find the longed-for happiness; but she knows no other way to find it or even to look for it, and she remains with what she does have. Nora's real life, concealed behind her doll's existence of which she is at first scarcely aware, consists in waiting for the miraculous, which is master, nothing else but the end of her puppet existence, the breaking forth of great love which will reveal the true being of richard cantillon's on economic, her spouse and of herself. And as there is no response from tqm, her husband, as she becomes aware that nothing exists behind his mask of social convention, she is determined to make the effort alone to break through to her true being, to its very core. With Iphigenie, it is no longer a question of the breakthrough to true being; she has already achieved true being, in having reached the highest level of human perfection; she has only to put it to the test and to allow it to gifts, have its effect.
She longs that the level of being she has reached will serve as an master thesis tqm, instrument of that redeeming love which is her true destiny. Do these examples suitably illustrate the essence of woman's soul? We could, of course, provide here just as many types of women as you like; however, I believe, just as long as they are types of women, we will always find fundamentally the essay compulsion to become what the soul should be, the drive to master, allow the latent humanity, set in her precisely in its individual stamp, to ripen to the greatest possible perfect development. The deepest feminine yearning is to achieve a loving union which, in its development, validates this maturation and simultaneously stimulates and furthers the desire for perfection in others; this yearning can express itself in the most diverse forms, and some of these forms may appear distorted, even degenerate. As we shall show, such yearning is an essential aspect of the eternal destiny of for resume, woman.
It is not simply a human longing but is specifically feminine and opposed to the specifically masculine nature. Man's essential desires reveal themselves in action, work, and objective achievements. He is less concerned with problems of being, whether his own or of others. Master Tqm? Certainly being and doing cannot be wholly separated. Phd Thesis With No Results? The human soul is not a complete, static, unchanging, monolithic existence. It is being in the state of becoming and in the process of becoming; the soul must bring to fruition those predispositions with which it was endowed when coming into thesis the world; however, it can develop them only through activation. Thus woman can achieve perfect development of narrative, her personality only by activating her spiritual powers. So do men, even without envisaging it as a goal, work in the same way when they endeavor to perform anything objectively. In both instances the structure of the soul is fundamentally the same. The soul is housed in master thesis tqm, a body on whose vigor and health its own vigor and health depend—even if not exclusively nor simply. On the other hand, the body receives its nature as body—life, motion, form, gestalt, and spiritual significance—through the soul.
The world of the spirit is founded on sensuousness which is spiritual as much as physical: the intellect, knowing its activity to be rational, reveals a world; the will intervenes creatively and good statement on hitler formatively in this world; the emotion receives this world inwardly and puts it to thesis tqm, the test. But the extent and relationship of these powers vary from one individual to another, and particularly from good on hitler, man to woman. I would also like to believe that even the relationship of soul and body is not completely similar in man and woman; with woman, the soul's union with the body is naturally more intimately emphasized. (I would like to thesis, underline the questions term naturally, for there is—as I have at one time intimated—the possibility of an extensive emancipation of the master thesis soul from the body, which now, oddly enough, seems to be more easily accomplished normally in the case of woman.) Woman's soul is present and lives more intensely in all parts of the phd thesis no results body, and it is inwardly affected by that which happens to the body; whereas, with men, the body has more pronouncedly the character of an instrument which serves them in their work and which is master, accompanied by a certain detachment. This is closely related to the vocation of motherhood. The task of assimilating in oneself a living being which is essay, evolving and growing, of containing and nourishing it, signifies a definite end in itself. Thesis? Moreover, the buzzword mysterious process of the formation of a new creature in the maternal organism represents such an intimate unity of the tqm physical and spiritual that one is well able to understand that this unity imposes itself on the entire nature of essay gifts, woman. But a certain danger is involved here. If the correct, natural order is to exist between soul and body (i.e., the order as it corresponds to unfallen nature), then the necessary nourishment, care, and master tqm exercise must be provided for buzzword for resume, the healthy organism's smooth function. As soon as more physical satisfaction is given to thesis, the body, and it corresponds to its corrupted nature to demand more, then it results in a decline of fly lord question, spiritual existence. Instead of controlling and spiritualizing the body, the soul is controlled by it; and the body loses accordingly in its character as a human body.
The more intimate the relationship of the soul and master tqm body is, just so will the danger of the spiritual decline be greater. (On the other hand, certainly, there is also the ut austin mba essay greater possibility here that the soul will spiritualize the body.) Now, after considering the relationship of soul and body, let us turn to the interrelationship of the spiritual faculties. We see that they are in a state of interdependence—one cannot exist without the other. Intellectual cognition of reality is the necessary point of departure for emotional response. The incitements of the emotions are the mainsprings of the will; on the other hand, the concern of the will is to regulate intellectual activity and emotional life. But the faculties are in no manner equally dispensed and developed.
Man's endeavor is master tqm, exerted to be effective in good thesis on hitler, cognitive and creative action. The strength of thesis tqm, woman lies in the emotional life. This is in accord with her attitude toward personal being itself. With? For the soul perceives its own being in the stirrings of the emotions. Through the emotions, it comes to know what it is and how it is; it also grasps through them the relationship of another being to itself, and then, consequently, the significance of the tqm inherent value of exterior things; of unfamiliar people and impersonal things. The emotions, the essential organ for comprehension of the existent in its totality and in its peculiarity, occupy the center of her being. Phd Thesis? They condition that struggle to develop herself to a wholeness and to help others to a corresponding development, which we have found earlier to be characteristic of master thesis, woman's soul. Therein, she is better protected by nature against a one-sided activation and development of her faculties than man is. Essay Fly Lord Question? On the other hand, she is less qualified for thesis, outstanding achievements in an objective field, achievements which are always purchased by a one-sided concentration of all spiritual faculties; and this characteristic struggle for development also exposes her more intensely to the danger of fragmentation. Richard Cantillon's? Then, too, the one-sidedness, to which by nature she inclines, is particularly dangerous: unilateral emotional development. We have attributed much importance to emotion in the total organismus of spiritual being.
It has an essential cognitive function: it is the master thesis central pivot by which reception of the existent is no results, transmuted into personal opinion and action. But it cannot execute its function without the cooperation of intellect and will, nor can it attain cognitive performance without the preparation of the intellect. Intellect is the light which illuminates its path, and without this light, emotion changes back and forth. In fact, if emotion prevails over the intellect, it is able to obscure the light and distort the picture of the entire world just as of individual things and events and drive the master thesis will into erroneous practice. Emotional stirrings need the ut austin control of reason and the direction of the will. The will does not reach any absolute power for invoking or suppressing emotional reactions, but it does adhere to its freedom to permit or to restrict the thesis tqm development of mounting agitations. Where discipline of ut austin mba essay, mind and will are lacking, emotional life becomes a compulsion without secure direction. And because it always needs some stimulation for its activity, it becomes addicted to sensuality, lacking the guidance of the higher spiritual faculties. Thus given the intimate union of body and soul, it results in the decline of thesis tqm, spiritual life to that of the sensuous-animalistic one.
Consequently, only question, if its faculties are correspondingly trained will the feminine soul be able to mature to that state conformable to its true nature. The concrete feminine types which we have cited represent to us not only diverse natural predispositions but also diverse formative levels of the soul of woman. We have seen in master, Ingunn a woman's soul which was nearly like unformed matter but which still permitted intuitions of thesis on hitler, its capacities. Another, Nora, through the influences of chance and social conventions, had found a certain formation but not that proper to her. Master? And, finally, Iphigenie was like a perfect creation of the master hand of God. This presents us with the task of investigating what the formative powers are through which woman's soul can be led to the nature for which it is intended and can be protected from the degeneration with which it is threatened. II. Woman's Formation. The particular spiritual disposition of which we have been speaking is the substance which must be formed: the basic faculties which exist originally are unique in degree and in kind to each human soul. Questions? It is not inanimate material which must be entirely developed or formed in an exterior way, as is clay by the artist's hand or stone by master tqm, the weather's elemental forces; it is rather a living formative root which possesses within itself the driving power (inner form) toward development in a particular direction; the seed must grow and ripen into the perfect gestalt, perfect creation.
Thus envisaged, formation of the phd thesis no results spirit is thesis tqm, a developmental process similar to that of the plant. However, the plant's organic growth and development do not come about wholly from within: there are also exterior influences which work together to determine its formation, such as climate, soil, etc.; just so, in the soul's formation, exterior factors as well as interior ones, play a role. We have seen that the soul can be developed only through activation of essay fly lord question, its faculties; and the faculties depend on material to be activated (and, indeed, on material which is suitable to them): the senses, through impressions which they receive and thesis tqm process, the intellect through mental performance, the will through achievements which are characteristic to it, the narrative emotions through the thesis variety of feelings, moods, and attitudes. Definite motives which place the faculties into questions motion are needed for all of this. Simple contact with other people and with one's surroundings is often sufficient to stimulate certain responses. Ordinary daily existence conditions the formation of the thesis tqm spirit. However, instruction and guidance are needed for other responses, especially those involving the higher faculties.
Allowance should be made for spontaneity as well as planned work and instruction. Formation requires the creation of educational subject matters which will place duties before intellect and fly lord will, stir the emotions, and fulfill the soul. But here we enter into the realm of values- -the good, the beautiful, the noble, the sacred—the specific values which are unique to master tqm, each soul and to its individual quality. Cognitive work and achievements of the will are free actions; so, too, surrender to or rejection of original, involuntary, self-governing emotional stimulations is a matter of ut austin mba essay questions, freedom. Master Thesis Tqm? Thus, the human being awakened to freedom is not simply delivered to exterior formative influences; but, on the contrary, he can yield himself to them or reject them as he searches for buzzword, or avoids possible formative influences. And so, individual free activity is also a factor in spiritual formation.
All of the exterior educational factors—everyday existence, planned as well as free, self-developmental work—are bound in their efficacy to master tqm, the first factor, the natural predisposition; they cannot endow the person with qualities which are not in him by nature. All human education can only provide subject matter and render it palatable; it can lead the way and demonstrate in order to stimulate activity, but it cannot force acceptance or imitation. Nature sets the limits of personal formative work. Nature and essay on economic the subject's freedom of will impose limits on spiritual formation. But there is one Educator for whom these limits do not exist: God, who has given nature, can transform it in a manner which turns it from its natural course of development (just as He can intervene by His miracles in the normal course of master thesis tqm, external natural occurrences). And even though He has excluded also a mechanically necessary rule of the human will by His gift of freedom, He can bring the essay question will's interior inclination toward a decision to execute that which is presented to it. Thus we have attained a certain insight into the nature of education: the process of shaping the natural spiritual predisposition. Thesis? In customary usage, the term education also signifies the result of these processes— the gestalt which the soul assumes thereby, perhaps also the soul thus formed, and buzzword for resume even the spiritual matters which it receives. In trying to tqm, formulate a proper educational program for women, the stress is often laid on questions of good on hitler, method.
Whoever is concerned with the spiritual formation of woman must first of all be aware of the material with which he is dealing, that is, the predisposition of the human being whom he is supposed to educate. He must especially understand the unique quality of thesis tqm, feminine spirituality and the individual nature of his pupils. He must also be aware of earlier influences, such as home environment, which have already affected and questions still affect his students. He must know whether they are in harmony or not with his own aims and tqm purposes or whether, if they are not, an effort should be made to eliminate them. The educator must be fully conscious of the objectives he has set for himself and for others, which, of course, depend on thesis, his total vision of the world. And there must be a continued effort to differentiate between goals common to all human beings, the educational goals which are specifically feminine, and individual goals.
These cannot be set up arbitrarily but are determined by God Himself. Holy Scripture counsels us on the destiny of the human being in general and master that of woman in particular. Church tradition and the teachings of the faith help us to interpret this scriptural teaching. The parable of the talents refers to the unique gift given to each individual; the Apostle's word describes the good thesis statement multiplicity of gifts afforded in the Mystical Body of Christ. The individual must discover his own unique gift. God has given each human being a threefold destiny: to grow into the likeness of God through the development of master thesis tqm, his faculties, to phd thesis no results, procreate descendants, and to hold dominion over the earth.
In addition, it is promised that a life of faith and personal union with the master thesis tqm Redeemer will be rewarded by eternal contemplation of God. Good Thesis? These destinies, natural and supernatural, are identical for both man and woman. But in master, the realm of duties, differences determined by richard on economic theory, sex exist. Lordship over the earth is the primary occupation of man: for this, the woman is thesis tqm, placed at his side as helpmate. The primary calling of essay fly lord, woman is the procreation and raising of children; for this, the man is given to her as protector. Thus it is suitable that the same gifts occur in both, but in different proportions and master relation. In the case of the for resume man, gifts for struggle, conquest, and dominion are especially necessary: bodily force for taking possession of that exterior to him, intellect for master thesis tqm, a cognitive type of penetration of the world, the powers of will and action for works of creative nature. With the woman there are capabilities of caring, protecting, and promoting that which is becoming and narrative essay gifts growing. She has the gift thereby to live in an intimately bound physical compass and to collect her forces in silence; on the other hand, she is created to endure pain, to master tqm, adapt and abnegate herself. She is psychically directed to buzzword, the concrete, the individual, and the personal: she has the ability to grasp the concrete in its individuality and to adapt herself to it, and she has the tqm longing to help this peculiarity to its development. An equipment equal to the man's is included in the adaptive ability, as well as the good statement possibility of performing the same work as he does, either in common with him or in master, his place.
In the Old Testament, those testimonies from the Fall on, i.e., those which reckon with fallen nature, marriage and maternity are presented with a certain exclusiveness as the destiny of woman. These are even the means for fulfilling her supernatural goal: she is to bear children and raise them in faith in essay gifts, the Redeemer so that one day she will behold her salvation in them. (This interpretation is also voiced from time to time in the Pauline epistles.) Next to this, the New Testament places the ideal of virginity. In place of the marriage bond, there is master, offered the most intimate, personal communion with the Savior, the development of all faculties in His service, and spiritual maternity—i.e., the winning of souls and ut austin their formation for thesis, God. One should not interpret this differentiation of vocation as if in one case it were only the natural goal being considered, and, in the other case, only the supernatural one. Essay? The woman who fulfills her natural destiny as wife and mother also has her duties for God's kingdom—initially, the propagation of human beings destined for this kingdom, but then, also works for the salvation of souls; only for her, this lies first within the family circle. On the other hand, even in the life which is master tqm, wholly consecrated to God, there is also need for the development of natural forces, except that now they can be more exclusively dedicated to problems pertaining to the kingdom of God and can thereby even benefit for a wider circle of people. These works for God's kingdom are not foreign to gifts, feminine nature but, on the contrary, are its highest fulfillment and also the highest conceivable enhancement of the human being. This is master thesis, true as long as the action of personal relationship is narrative essay, born out of love for God and thesis neighbor, works through love of buzzword, God and neighbor, and leads to love of master thesis tqm, God and neighbor.
Thus the education of the Christian woman has a dual goal: to lead her to phd thesis, that which makes her capable of either fulfilling her duties as wife and mother in the natural and supernatural sense or of thesis, consecrating all her powers to the kingdom of God in a God- dedicated virginity. Richard Cantillon's? (Marriage and master tqm the religious life should not be set up as alternatives. Signs indicate that our time needs people who will lead a God dedicated life in essay, the world; this is certainly not to say, however, that conventual life is thesis, outmoded.) What can we do to essay, aim towards this goal? We have already indicated that woman was created for this purpose; in fallen nature, however, there are drives working at the same time in opposition to master tqm, it. So it will be a question of supplying the educational subject matters which are necessary and conducive to the soul's pure development and qualified to impede unwholesome drives. And these matters must be presented in the manner which facilitates their reception in accordance with potentiality. The emotions have been seen as the center of woman's soul. For that reason, emotional formation will have to be centrally placed in woman's formation.
Emotion exists in sentiments such as joy and sorrow, moods such as cheerfulness and gloom, attitudes such as enthusiasm and with no results indignation, and dispositions such as love and thesis tqm hate. Such emotional responses demonstrate the conflict of the individual with the world and also with himself. Essay? It is only the person who is deeply involved with life whose emotions are stirred. Whoever is aiming to arouse emotion must bring it into contact with something which will hasten this involvement. Above all, these are human destinies and human actions as history and literature present them to master, the young—naturally, this will be contemporary events as well. It is beauty in all its ramifications and the rest of the aesthetic categories. It is truth which prompts the searching human spirit into endless pursuit. It is everything which works in this world with the phd thesis mysterious force and pull of master, another world. The subjects which are especially affective in emotional training are religion, history, German, and thesis possibly other languages if the student succeeds in overcoming the external linguistic difficulties and is able to penetrate to the spiritual content. But, generally speaking, it is not enough only to stir the emotions. An evaluating factor exists in all emotional response.
What the master thesis tqm emotions have grasped are viewed as being either positively or negatively significant, either for the concerned individual himself or, independent of him, viewed in the significance of the richard cantillon's on economic object in itself. Master Tqm? It is thereby possible for the emotional responses themselves to be judged as being right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate. It is a matter of essay, awakening joyful emotion for authentic beauty and goodness and disgust for that which is base and vulgar. It is important to master thesis tqm, guide the young person to perceive beauty and goodness, but this is not sufficient. Phd Thesis No Results? Often the child is first awakened to the value of things by his awareness of the tqm adult's responses— above all, that of the teacher—enthusiasm inspires enthusiasm. The guidance of attitudes is simultaneously a method of training the ability to ut austin mba essay, discriminate. One cannot introduce him only to the good and the beautiful: life will also bring him into contact with ugliness, and by then the child should have already learned to differentiate between the positive and the negative, the noble and the base, and to learn to adapt himself in suitable ways. The most efficacious method thereto is to experience environmental attitudes. The attitude of the developing individual towards the world depends greatly on environmental influences which are both arbitrary and instinctive. Tqm? And thus it is of extraordinary significance that the child's education be placed in the hands of people who themselves have received proper emotional formation.
However, this most essential, even indispensable, method of emotional formation through value judgments is accompanied by a certain danger as well: feelings and emotional attitudes are contagious; they are easily picked up by one person from another. These attitudes are, indeed, but pure predispositions in the affected soul. In the first place, the mind is not open to the values presented; and these sentiments, moreover, are neither momentarily or generally vital. A real education is thus not attained because illusion is assumed as reality. Hence there is need for education relevant to question, the authenticity of sentiments, the master tqm differentiation of appearance from reality both in the environment and in one's own soul. This is not possible without sufficient intellectual training. Intellect and emotion must cooperate in a particular way in order to transmute the good thesis statement purely emotional attitudes into one cognizant of values. (It is not our concern here to thesis tqm, demonstrate this method of cooperation.) Whoever knows exactly why something is good or beautiful will not simply assume the attitudes of another. And then the exercise of this intellectual critique develops the phd thesis ability to distinguish between spiritual truth and falsehood.
Emotional reactions invoke action. The authentic art lover will gladly sacrifice comfort for master tqm, the sake of artistic enjoyment. Those who truly love their neighbor will not be unsympathetic and apathetic to their neighbor's need. Words should inspire action; otherwise, words are mere rhetoric camouflaging nothingness, concealing merely empty or illusory feelings and buzzword for resume opinions. In earlier decades, the subjects which trained the emotions constituted the principal aim of the education of young women. Such formation corresponded to feminine nature. But there was a neglect of the indispensable complement, the practical training and activation of the intellect. This kind of education produced a type of woman who lives on master thesis tqm, illusion, a woman who either denies realistic duties or surrenders herself helplessly to fluctuating sentiments and moods, who constantly seeks excitement. Such a woman is but weakly formed for life and does not effect productive works. The modern school seeks to buzzword for resume, remedy such deficiencies.
It has introduced more subjects designed to master tqm, train the mind—mathematics, natural sciences, and the classics. In order that the thematic content be grasped by the intellect, mere memorization is de-emphasized and spontaneity is encouraged. Phd Thesis No Results? By such means, both intellect and will are trained and prepared for their proper tasks. Modern education also stresses community life and master thesis practical participation in it by phd thesis with no results, such means as school clubs, walking tours, celebrations, and team activities. Such activities certainly contain fruitful seeds, despite the many children's diseases which always endanger radical innovations.
The great danger is that the reform may not take sufficiently into account the unique nature of woman and the type of education it needs, while being only too narrowly confined to master thesis tqm, the model of educational institutions for males. The changing demands of practical life make this danger obvious. Formerly it was a matter of ut austin mba essay questions, course that a girl's education would form her to be a spouse, a mother, or a nun. For centuries, hardly any other feminine vocation was known. Girls were expected to be initiated into tqm domestic activity and religious practices either in mba essay, family or convent life, and thereby prepared for their later vocation. The nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution revolutionized average domestic life so that it ceased to be a realm sufficient to engage all of woman's potentialities. At the same time, the diminishing life of faith excluded convent life as a serious consideration for most people. Thesis Tqm? In passive natures, this climate has led to an immersion into buzzword for resume an overly sensual life or empty dreams and flirtations.
In strongly active natures, there has resulted a turning away from the house towards professional activity. So the feminist movement came into being. Thesis? Vocations other than domestic had been exercised for centuries almost exclusively by men. Narrative Essay Gifts? It was natural, therefore, that these vocations assumed a masculine stamp and that training for them was adapted to tqm, the masculine nature. The radical feminist movement demanded that all professions and branches of education be open to women. Buzzword For Resume? In the face of severe opposition, the movement was able to master tqm, advance only very gradually until, almost suddenly, it obtained nearly all its demands after the revolution. In the beginning of the movement, the women who entered into professional life were predominantly those whose individual aptitude and inclination went in this direction; and they were able, comparatively speaking, to thesis statement on hitler, acclimate themselves easily.
The economic crisis of recent years has forced against their will many women into professional life. Various conflicts have thus emerged, but valuable experiences have also been made. And we have reached the point where we may ask questions which, according to right reason, should have been cleared up before the movement began. Thesis Tqm? Are there specifically feminine professions? What are they? Do women require education different from that given to men? If so, how should such education be organized? Let us now summarize briefly these various approaches to the education of women which we have been discussing.
The nature and richard cantillon's destiny of woman require an education which can inspire works of master, effective love. Thus, emotional training is the buzzword for resume most important factor required in the formation of woman; however, such authentic formation is related to intellectual clarity and energy as well as to practical competence. This education forms a proper disposition of the soul in thesis, accordance with objective values, and it enables a practical execution of this disposition. Good? To place supernatural values above all earthly ones complies with an objective hierarchy of values. The initiation of this attitude presents as well an thesis tqm, analogy with the future vocation of forming human beings for the kingdom of phd thesis no results, God.
That is why the essence of all feminine education (as of education in general) must be religious education, one which can forcefully convey the truths of the faith in a manner which appeals to the emotions and inspires actions. Such formation is master tqm, designed to exercise simultaneously the practical activities by the life of questions, faith. The individual will be concerned with these activities through his entire life: the development of the life of faith and master of prayer with the Church through the liturgy, as well as with creating a new personal relationship to the Lord, especially through an understanding of the Holy Eucharist and a truly Eucharistic life. Phd Thesis No Results? Of course, such religious education can only be imparted by those personalities who are themselves filled with the spirit of faith and whose lives are fashioned by it. Along with this religious education, there should go an awareness and response to humanity. Subjects which can contribute to such awareness are history, literature, biology, psychology, and pedagogy; of course, these subjects should be presented in a simplified form to meet the student's potential. But such instruction will be fruitful only master, with proper guidance and if opportunities are provided to apply it to practical life. Necessary for intellectual development are the predominantly formal educational subjects—mathematics, the natural sciences, linguistics, and grammar. But they should not be overstressed at the expense of the student's capacity or the more essential elements of feminine education. Instructional methods should be free and flexible in order to take into account not only the essay gifts specifically gifted but also to provide opportunity for all to study theoretical subjects and cultivate technical and artistic talents. The individual's later choice of a profession must be kept in mind.
Obviously, in doing all this, the teachers themselves must be thoroughly trained in their respective fields. And, of course, for thesis tqm, women to be shaped in buzzword, accordance with their authentic nature and destiny, they must be educated by authentic women. But even the best teachers and the best methods cannot necessarily guarantee success since human powers are limited. However, formal education is only one part of the integral educational process. Formal education must reckon with the capacities of the student and with the outside influences to which the student is master thesis, subjected; but it has neither the possibility to identify all these factors nor to good statement on hitler, deal effectively with them. Moreover, formal education ends long before the total educational process is completed. The instructor may even consider the education successful if the pupil has been prepared to continue her education independently in the initiated direction. But the circumstances of daily life often intervene and master tqm make it possible for the purely natural drives to prevail. Uncertainty permeates the whole process of human education, and the educator tends to remain modest in calculating his own contribution to the results.
Yet he must not yield to skepticism or despair. The educator should be convinced that his efforts are important, even though he cannot always measure the results of his efforts, even though sometimes he can never be aware of them at all. He must never forget that, above all, the primary and most essential Educator is not the human being but God Himself. He gives nature as He does life's circumstances under which it comes to development; He also has the power to transform nature from within and to with, intervene with His works where human powers fail. If religious education succeeds in breaking down resistance to master thesis tqm, divine instruction, then one can be certain about everything else.
We should also be convinced that, in ut austin, the divine economy of master tqm, salvation, no sincere effort remains fruitless even when human eyes can perceive nothing but failures. III. Feminine Vocation s. What formation does woman's soul yearn for? The question is fly lord, related to another: To what occupations does woman's nature call her? It is not our concern here to compile statistical data to demonstrate the vocations in which contemporary woman is engaged. (She is engaged in tqm, nearly all of theory, them.) Rather, our intent is to thesis, discover woman's genuine inclinations. In doing so, statistics are of little help. A presentation of cantillon's, numbers involved in particular vocations does grade the master tqm inclinations and essay talents concerned; even so, it can inform only clumsily regarding the success of the various activities.
Even less could it show how woman adjusts to the occupation, and, on the other hand, how she may transform it. We must here limit ourselves to that which nature and destiny demand in thesis, true feminine vocations. But it is necessary to cite concrete examples. For Resume? Therefore, we shall attempt to show how woman can function in marriage, in religious life, and in various professions in conformity with her nature. According to Genesis, woman was placed by man's side so that he would not be alone but would have a helpmate who suits him; she will primarily fulfill her vocation as spouse in making his concerns her own. Thesis Tqm? Normally, we understand his concerns to mean his profession. The woman's participation in her husband's profession can be performed in statement, various ways. In the first place, it will be her duty to thesis tqm, shape their home life so that it does not hinder, but rather furthers, his professional work. If his work is in the home, she must see to it that disturbances are kept as far away from him as possible; if his work is away from the home, she must be sure that the home affords appropriate relaxation and mba essay recovery when he returns to it. There can be immediate participation in the performance of direct help; indeed, this happens frequently in modern marriages between people of similar or related professional training, or at least with those of congenial interests.
In former times this was the case to a large extent, generally in country life but also frequently in business enterprise (especially in master thesis tqm, those on a small scale), in doctor's households, and richard essay on economic theory also very prominently in tqm, those of Protestant pastors. Man's concerns, however, does not only refer to the purely objective content of his work but also to the procurement of his family's livelihood—the battle for existence. In this respect, the wife primarily acts as helpmate in prudent housekeeping; moreover, this is not only a private economic duty in these times but also a very important national one. But possibly more nowadays than in cantillon's theory, former times, both husband and wife will work. Therein arises the difficult problem of the double vocation: there is danger that her work outside of the home will so take over that finally it can make it impossible for her to be the heart of the family and the soul of the home, which must always remain her essential duty. But the woman who suits man as helpmate does not only participate in his work; she complements him, counteracting the dangers of master thesis, his specifically masculine nature. It is essay fly lord, her business to ensure to the best of her ability that he is not totally absorbed in his professional work, that he does not permit his humanity to become stunted, and that he does not neglect his family duties as father. Thesis? She will be better able to do so the more she herself is mature as a personality; and it is vital here that she does not lose herself in association with her husband but, on the contrary, cultivates her own gifts and powers. Her mission as mother relates closely to her mission as spouse, only here she must primarily care for the children and bring them to development.
She must guide and then gradually withdraw to attain, in face of the mature human being, the role of a companion. This demands, on the one hand, an even more refined gift of statement, sympathy because it is necessary to comprehend the dispositions and faculties of which the young people themselves are as yet unaware; she has to feel her way towards that which wishes to become, but which as yet does not exist. On the other hand, the possibility of influence is greater. The youthful soul is still in the formative stage and declares itself more easily and openly because it does not offer resistance to master, extraneous influences. However, all this increases the mother's responsibility. In order to develop to the highest level the humanity specific to husband and children, woman requires the attitude of selfless service. She cannot consider others as her property nor as means for her own purposes; on the contrary, she must consider others as gifts entrusted to her, and richard essay on economic theory she can only do so when she also sees them as God's creatures towards whom she has a holy duty to fulfill. Surely, the master thesis tqm development of their God-given nature is a holy task. Of even higher degree is their spiritual development, and we have seen that it is woman's supernatural vocation to ut austin mba essay, enkindle, in the hearts of husband and children, the sparks of love for God or, once enkindled, to fan them into greater brightness. This will come about only if she considers and prepares herself as God's instrument. How this can be will be considered at a later time.
It would not be difficult to mention women in the most diverse professions who have achieved excellence, but this would not prove that their occupations were specifically feminine ones. Not every woman is tqm, a pure embodiment of feminine nature. Individualities are not simply variations of feminine nature but are often approximations of masculine nature and richard theory qualify, thereby, for an occupation not regarded as specifically feminine. Master? If the care and development of human life and humanity are women's specific duty, so the specifically feminine vocations will be those in which such efforts are possible outside of marriage as well. I do not wish to enter here into the question of domestic service because here it is not a question of specifically feminine work, and in many respects it produces tasks other than those which the woman of the house must fulfill. Narrative Essay Gifts? It is more important to clarify the significance of occupations outside of the master household, occupations which were denied women for some time and have only become available for women gradually through the struggles of the feminist movement. The medical profession has turned out to be a rich area of genuine feminine activity, particularly that of the medical practitioner, gynecologist and pediatrician. There have been severe objections to good, the admission of women into this profession: a young lady may encounter many things in her medical studies which would otherwise be kept away from her; a serious objection has been that the studies make extraordinary demands of bodily strength and nervous energy, and professional practice even more. Indeed, professional practice requires a particular physical and spiritual constitution, as well as the professional zeal necessary for the assumption of the difficulties unique to master, that profession.
Such misgivings are dispelled when these stipulations are respected. Of course, one will always be grateful to encounter the untroubled, innocent beauty which moves us, and which is completely unaware of the narrative essay seamy side of human nature. Today it is hardly possible, but in former times how many women who were so protected in their innocence until marriage were suddenly robbed of all their ideals, in the cruelest manner, in marriage itself! In this respect, could one not say that the matter-of-fact and objective, scientific approach is still one of the most accepted methods, if not the absolutely best one, to become acquainted with natural data? Since most women are obliged to master thesis tqm, come to grips with these data, should not individual women who have the calling and opportunity make all sacrifices in richard essay, order to fulfill this calling and stand by master tqm, their sisters' side? Experience indicates that this has happened in large degree.
It is gratifying to ascertain that after any initial distrust, women generally prefer treatment by a woman doctor rather than by a man. I believe that this is conditioned not only by the patient's modesty but even more so by the specifically feminine manner of empathy which has beneficial effects. The human being, especially the invalid, needs sympathy in his total condition. The widespread method of modern specialization does not satisfy this need in with, treating a limb or organ while disregarding the rest of the person, even though the specific treatment is pertinent. Master Tqm? (Also, in ut austin mba essay questions, many cases, specialization is not the master thesis best method because most illnesses are illnesses of the total human being even if they are manifested in only one organ; the patient needs treatment in his individual peculiarity as a whole organism.) Counteracting this abstract procedure, the specifically feminine attitude is oriented towards the concrete and whole person. Phd Thesis No Results? The woman doctor has only to exercise courage in following her natural inspiration and liberating herself whenever necessary from methods learned and practiced according to rule. (Of course, it must not be denied that it often happens as well with masculine specialists, although not generally— in thesis, earlier times the house doctor typified this total approach.) It is not only a question of summoning up the patience to listen to ut austin mba essay questions, much which is absolutely irrelevant to the subject. The intent must be to understand correctly the whole human situation, the spiritual need which is often greater than the corporal one, and perhaps to master, intervene helpfully not only by medical means but also as a mother or a sister. So conceived, the medical profession is a truly charitable one and belongs together with other social professions.
These professions have been developed for the most part only in recent years, and they are specifically feminine vocations as rightfully as the housewife's. In all such vocations, it is a matter of actions which are truly maternal in no results, the care of a large family: parishioners, the poor or sick of a rural parish or of a municipal precinct, the inmates of a prison, endangered or neglected youth. There is always the potentiality, and basically the necessity, of understanding and helping the whole person whether one initially encounters these human beings to care for them in thesis, bodily sickness or to assist them financially, or to give them legal counsel. Demands here on the power of love are even greater than in phd thesis no results, one's own family: the natural bond is lacking, the number of people in need is greater, and tqm preponderantly there are people who repel rather than attract by their disposition and frame of buzzword for resume, mind. In this type of work more than others, it will be shown that normal psychic power does not suffice in thesis tqm, carrying out the tasks noted above.
It must be sustained by Christ's power and love. And where it is so supported it will never stop at mere attendance to natural humanity; but, on the contrary, it will always aim at the same time towards the supernatural goal of winning these human beings for God. 1. These are two citations from Goethe: reine Menschlichkeit, i.e., pure humanity, and Ewig-Weibliches, i.e., the eternal feminine. (Tr.'s note) 2. This Thomistic concept (inner form) connotes the essay question essence of being. Thesis Tqm? (Tr.'s note) 3. See the essay The Separate Vocations of Man and Woman According to Nature and Grace, (Eds.' note)
4. This sentence is an allusion to the economic crisis and the emergency ordinances of the with 1930s, which were of decisive significance for the total German educational system. See the essay on emergency and education in the forthcoming pedagogical volume of Edith Steins Werke. (Eds.' note) Taken from the works of Edith Stein as published by ICS Publications in the book The Collected Works of Edith Stein, Volume Two Essays on Woman, 1987.