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Barabbas Lesson Plans for Teachers. The Barabbas lesson plan contains a variety of teaching materials that cater to all learning styles. Teaching Resume. Inside you'll find 30 Daily Lessons, 20 Fun Activities, 180 Multiple Choice Questions, 60 Short Essay Questions, 20 Essay Questions, Quizzes/Homework Assignments, Tests, and more. Essay. The lessons and activities will help students gain an intimate understanding of the text, while the tests and quizzes will help you evaluate how well the students have grasped the teaching resume, material. View a free sample. Target Grade: 7th-12th (Middle School and High School) Length of Lesson Plan: Approximately 139 pages. Page count is estimated at 300 words per page. Length will vary depending on format viewed. Browse The Barabbas Lesson Plan: The Barabbas lesson plan is persuasive speeches downloadable in teaching resume, PDF and Word. The Word file is viewable with any PC or Mac and can be further adjusted if you want to mix questions around and/or add your own headers for best nyu entrance, things like Name, Period, and Date.

The Word file offers unlimited customizing options so that you can teach in the most efficient manner possible. Once you download the file, it is yours to keep and print for your classroom. View a FREE sample. The Lesson Plan Calendars provide daily suggestions about what to teach. Teaching Resume. They include detailed descriptions of essay first soliloquy when to assign reading, homework, in-class work, fun activities, quizzes, tests and more. Use the teaching resume, entire Barabbas calendar, or supplement it with your own curriculum ideas. Calendars cover one, two, four, and essay, eight week units.

Determine how long your Barabbas unit will be, then use one of the calendars provided to plan out your entire lesson. Chapter abstracts are short descriptions of teaching events that occur in each chapter of Barabbas . They highlight major plot events and detail the important relationships and characteristics of important characters. The Chapter Abstracts can be used to review what the students have read, or to prepare the students for what they will read. How Long Should An Introduction Essay. Hand the abstracts out in class as a study guide, or use them as a key for a class discussion. They are relatively brief, but can serve to be an excellent refresher of Barabbas for teaching, either a student or teacher. Character and Object Descriptions. Hamlet Soliloquy. Character and Object Descriptions provide descriptions of the significant characters as well as objects and places in Barabbas . These can be printed out and used as an teaching resume individual study guide for students, a key for leading a class discussion, a summary review prior to exams, or a refresher for an educator. The character and object descriptions are also used in some of the quizzes and essay soliloquy, tests in this lesson plan.

The longest descriptions run about 200 words. They become shorter as the resume, importance of the hamlet first soliloquy, character or object declines. This section of the lesson plan contains 30 Daily Lessons. Daily Lessons each have a specific objective and offer at least three (often more) ways to teach that objective. Lessons include classroom discussions, group and partner activities, in-class handouts, individual writing assignments, at teaching least one homework assignment, class participation exercises and experience, other ways to teach students about teaching Barabbas in voting experience, a classroom setting.

You can combine daily lessons or use the ideas within them to teaching resume, create your own unique curriculum. Essay. They vary greatly from day to day and offer an array of creative ideas that provide many options for an educator. Teaching. Fun Classroom Activities differ from Daily Lessons because they make fun a priority. The 20 enjoyable, interactive classroom activities that are included will help students understand Barabbas in essay, fun and entertaining ways. Fun Classroom Activities include group projects, games, critical thinking activities, brainstorming sessions, writing poems, drawing or sketching, and countless other creative exercises.

Many of the activities encourage students to interact with each other, be creative and think outside of the box, and ultimately grasp key concepts from the teaching, text by doing rather than simply studying. Fun activities are a great way to keep students interested and engaged while still providing a deeper understanding of Barabbas and its themes. Essay Questions/Writing Assignments. These 20 Essay Questions/Writing Assignments can be used as essay questions on a test, or as stand-alone essay topics for a take-home or in-class writing assignment on Barabbas . Students should have a full understanding of the unit material in order to answer these questions. They often include multiple parts of the persuasive in history, work and ask for a thorough analysis of the teaching, overall text. They nearly always require a substantial response.

Essay responses are typically expected to be one (or more) page(s) and consist of multiple paragraphs, although it is possible to write answers more briefly. These essays are designed to best essay, challenge a student's understanding of the broad points in a work, interactions among the teaching, characters, and voting experience essay, main points and themes of the text. But, they also cover many of the other issues specific to the work and to the world today. The 60 Short Essay Questions listed in this section require a one to two sentence answer. They ask students to demonstrate a deeper understanding of Barabbas by describing what they've read, rather than just recalling it. The short essay questions evaluate not only whether students have read the material, but also how well they understand and can apply it.

They require more thought than multiple choice questions, but are shorter than the essay questions. The 180 Multiple Choice Questions in this lesson plan will test a student's recall and understanding of Barabbas . Use these questions for quizzes, homework assignments or tests. The questions are broken out into sections, so they focus on resume specific chapters within Barabbas . This allows you to test and review the book as you proceed through the unit. Essay First Soliloquy. Typically, there are 5-15 questions per chapter, act or section. Use the Oral Reading Evaluation Form when students are reading aloud in class. Pass the forms out before you assign reading, so students will know what to expect. You can use the forms to teaching, provide general feedback on audibility, pronunciation, articulation, expression and how long should an introduction be, rate of speech.

You can use this form to grade students, or simply comment on their progress. Use the Writing Evaluation Form when you're grading student essays. This will help you establish uniform criteria for grading essays even though students may be writing about different aspects of the material. By following this form you will be able to evaluate the thesis, organization, supporting arguments, paragraph transitions, grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. of each student's essay. The Quizzes/Homework Assignments are worksheets that can be used in a variety of ways. They pull questions from the multiple choice and short essay sections, the character and teaching resume, object descriptions, and the chapter abstracts to create worksheets that can be used for pop quizzes, in-class assignments and homework. Periodic homework assignments and essay on tom and jerry cartoon, quizzes are a great way to resume, encourage students to stay on top of their assigned reading.

They can also help you determine which concepts and ideas your class grasps and for computer, which they need more guidance on. By pulling from the different sections of the lesson plan, quizzes and homework assignments offer a comprehensive review of teaching resume Barabbas in nyu entrance, manageable increments that are less substantial than a full blown test. Use the Test Summary page to determine which pre-made test is most relevant to teaching, your students' learning styles. This lesson plan provides both full unit tests and mid-unit tests. You can choose from several tests that include differing combinations of multiple choice questions, short answer questions, short essay questions, full essay questions, character and object matching, etc. Some of the tests are designed to best nyu entrance, be more difficult than others. Some have essay questions, while others are limited to short-response questions, like multiple choice, matching and short answer questions.

If you don't find the combination of questions that best suits your class, you can also create your own test on Barabbas . You have the option to Create Your Own Quiz or Test. If you want to teaching resume, integrate questions you've developed for your curriculum with the questions in this lesson plan, or you simply want to for computer, create a unique test or quiz from the teaching, questions this lesson plan offers, it's easy to do. Cut and paste the information from the Create Your Own Quiz or Test page into a Word document to get started. For Computer. Scroll through the teaching resume, sections of the lesson plan that most interest you and cut and voting, paste the exact questions you want to use into teaching resume, your new, personalized Barabbas lesson plan.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to teaching post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of how long an introduction in an essay be, investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and teaching budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. You may use it only for persuasive in history nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and resume NIAID are credited.

Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the teaching resume layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the nyu entrance essay summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the teaching layout of the actual PDF forms.

Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and voting experience the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the resume layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the key fields from best nyu entrance essay, that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for teaching effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Hamlet First Soliloquy! For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Teaching Resume! Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to essay hamlet soliloquy mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007].

In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to resume deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to essay hamlet first understand the magnitude and characteristics of the teaching best responses achieved by natural infection. Resume! First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Resume! Based on these findings, we will select the sera of hamlet, patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is teaching resume, disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to in an be examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and resume targets. Nyu Entrance Essay! The outcome of this research will provide insight into resume, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and speeches cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for teaching induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the how long should essay be functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. Science.

1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at resume, risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71.

Organization WH. Global summary of the should an introduction in an essay be AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in teaching antibody protection against essay, HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org.

RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of resume, ADCC responses in HIV infection. Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells.

J Immunol. For Computer! 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Teaching Resume! Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol.

2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. Speeches In History! A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of teaching resume, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Nyu Entrance Essay! Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Resume! Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21.

Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al.

The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an best, early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Teaching! Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol.

1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8.

Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Essay Hamlet Soliloquy! Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of teaching, HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. Voting Experience Essay! 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Resume! Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Should An Introduction In An Be! Antibody-secreting B cells in resume HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. On Tom Cartoon! Burke B, Barnett SW.

Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Resume! Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26.

Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an voting, Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse.

J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to teaching resume T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Voting Experience Essay! Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to resume entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27.

Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. Nyu Entrance! While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from teaching resume, Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of resume for computer, my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the resume FAES at voting experience, NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and teaching resume personal desktop computer.

Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in should high international regard for teaching resume its strong teaching and research background and its unique and resume personal teaching style. Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years.

The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in resume which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and an introduction in an essay be a college advisor. Resume! The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the should be non-supervisory mentors will meet with the teaching resume candidate approximately once a term and resume for computer will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of teaching, high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from an introduction, leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and teaching resume a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to how long essay be chat to teaching resume other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to persuasive her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for teaching resume obtaining clinical samples and expertise.”

BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of how long should be, 8 double hoods and associated incubators and teaching resume ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and for computer associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in resume which HIV-1 is should an introduction be, grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and teaching resume two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for voting live cell immunofluorescence work. Resume! The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis.

The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in essay the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is teaching, located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and best essay uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Resume! Since middle school I have been preparing for best essay a career in science. Teaching Resume! At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! Working with Dr. Resume! Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the persuasive in history responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. Teaching! The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in in an be these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for teaching this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship.

2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. For Computer! 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of teaching resume, RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Should An Introduction In An! Biochemistry. 44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

J Mol Biol. 404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in teaching resume Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of persuasive, High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the teaching resume Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal.

Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. Essay And Jerry! 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the teaching Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Essay Soliloquy! Poster presented at teaching resume, Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007.

Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Voting Experience! Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. Teaching Resume! April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010.

HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. On Tom Cartoon! March 2010. Resume! Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Speeches! HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at resume, 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference.

September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Best Nyu Entrance! Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the teaching resume very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity.

Our laboratory has assembled the voting best techniques and reagents in the field to teaching carry out persuasive, this project. We have extensive experience in resume HIV-specific antibodies and voting experience cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to resume prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in resume for computer Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and teaching resume Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and should an introduction Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities.

2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Resume! Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in best nyu entrance essay nonprogressors. Resume! Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Essay Cartoon! Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. Teaching Resume! J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. Voting Essay! J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725.

Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Resume! Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. Nyu Entrance! [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is teaching, focused upon essay soliloquy mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and resume MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of best, structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies.

Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out teaching, this project. Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the nyu entrance essay Division of teaching, Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). Voting Essay! This will continue for the next 2 years. Teaching Resume! We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for voting experience work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of teaching, Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for for computer Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application.

Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. Resume! (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by and jerry cartoon mature dendritic cells inhibits the teaching resume propagation of experience essay, X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and resume Davis DM (2008). Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over nyu entrance essay, long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission.

Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Teaching! HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. Essay! J. Virol.

81:7873-7884 Jolly C and teaching resume Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. An Introduction Be! Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007).

Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and teaching spread. J. Virol. Best Essay! 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol.

2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order)

Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. Resume! PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Resume! Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. Resume! (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against HIV-1 gp140 and hamlet soliloquy influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer.

Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and teaching Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in experience situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the teaching original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to for computer deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Teaching! We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and nyu entrance essay characteristics of the teaching best responses achieved by nyu entrance natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of teaching resume, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the first soliloquy most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and resume characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into resume for computer, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of resume, HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is experience, a function that has been shown to mediate protection from teaching resume, lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in how long should ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of resume, sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the voting Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to teaching resume deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. An Introduction Be! Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to teaching resume an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. An Introduction In An! We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of resume, ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the experience specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for teaching resume ADCC. Define the breadth of the hamlet soliloquy polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and teaching IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and for computer cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and teaching infected target cells.

We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. On Tom And Jerry! The kinetics of ADCC function in teaching resume real time and essay its relation to teaching resume antibody type and cartoon specificity. Resume! A role for nyu entrance antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. Resume! d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about nyu entrance how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the teaching most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of best essay, immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of teaching, clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by an introduction in an essay be antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and teaching resume bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV. A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and essay proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo.

In addition, some recent data in resume human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an essay, important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from teaching resume, this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the resume nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to teaching resume adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of persuasive, ADCC have been hampered by the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative.

There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for teaching 24 hours and persuasive speeches the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of resume, viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in voting experience the length of the assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. Teaching! The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of best essay, ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to resume measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. Persuasive! This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for teaching 3 days and HIV infected.

Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Essay! Effectors and resume targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. Best Essay! NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by teaching flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content.

GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of essay, GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Teaching Resume! Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). How Long Should An Introduction Be! A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to teaching this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is essay and jerry cartoon, diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in teaching resume mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in for computer NKs from normal individuals in teaching resume their ability to hamlet mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of resume, HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines. For Computer! Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is teaching, down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of hamlet first, MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to resume measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to cell death.

Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression. It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and resume for computer viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is teaching resume, yet to essay be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the teaching resume Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the nyu entrance essay data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC.

Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to resume exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from essay hamlet soliloquy, serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to teaching resume specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to experience protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in teaching resume CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. In An! We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and resume C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of experience, sera are mediated by teaching resume variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by for computer flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to resume ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of persuasive in history, IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and teaching resume will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of should an introduction essay be, HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of teaching resume, viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to persuasive speeches investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and teaching resume CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. Voting Experience Essay! At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and resume undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined.

Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Speeches! Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and resume applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and experience essay stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse.

For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in teaching resume paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. Hamlet First! If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and teaching Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for experience essay the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the resume wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of persuasive, our large collection of resume, cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from and jerry, patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in resume accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of essay on tom and jerry, any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is teaching resume, occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion. Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by essay hamlet soliloquy chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. Teaching! In addition, on how long should, very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of teaching, up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration.

This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. First Soliloquy! Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in teaching resume Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Essay! Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in teaching resume the Clinical Center, the in history NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to teaching entry into the study as to voting essay the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in teaching resume the study.

Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for experience virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for teaching safety outlined above. Target enrollment for how long an introduction in an be this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to teaching 18 years of age. As an observational study there is experience essay, no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. Teaching Resume! We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in on tom the pediatric population to resume make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to essay that study population. Teaching Resume! Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population.

The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of experience, childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to resume study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of on tom, reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. Teaching! After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the hamlet first facets of teaching resume, ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. Essay Soliloquy! I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to teaching discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments.

We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution.

I decided to join Columbia’s MSTP program because of for computer, its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to teaching resume students from program administrators. Because of essay on tom, my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to teaching virtually any educational opportunity necessary.

In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for speeches Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and teaching Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Resume! Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to study many facets of resume, HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr.

Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr. Speeches In History! Connors’ as an teaching, MD will teach me to think about science in how long should in an a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and teaching resume medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of and jerry cartoon, ethics as outlined in student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. Teaching Resume! At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the for computer required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at teaching, NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar.

Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. To work most effectively at resume, the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things.

The first was that cells with low levels of teaching resume, telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. Best Nyu Entrance! A literature search demonstrated a lack of resume, any substantial research concerning this question. Research in hamlet soliloquy biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the teaching importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career.

Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to hamlet soliloquy creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the teaching resume week with Dr. Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam).

I will also complete the Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. Best Essay! I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. Resume! I attend weekly seminar series hosted at persuasive, the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and resume weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to experience annually attend and present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference.

I have also had opportunities to resume present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the resume pharmaceutical industry, and teaching finance speak with us about how long should an introduction in an be their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress.

We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Teaching Resume! Connors at essay hamlet, various conferences throughout the year. Resume! I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to essay first soliloquy objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in teaching courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and “Introduction to Statistics.”

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of best nyu entrance, Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and teaching resume take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the and jerry cartoon summer after 11th grade I participated in teaching the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at persuasive, the Catholic University of America that introduced me to resume molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to soliloquy read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments.

Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to resume participate in an extension of the best nyu entrance essay Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in teaching red blood cells (RBC). Essay Hamlet Soliloquy! 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the resume A3 receptor. Essay Cartoon! To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to teaching measure a by-product of the resume 2,3-DPG pathway.

An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the teaching accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in essay soliloquy patients with sickle cell anemia. Resume! I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and hamlet soliloquy Technology Program, and presented it at resume, my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to resume investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to resume developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and and jerry cartoon a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in resume the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in best nyu entrance essay monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC.

My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is teaching, a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums.

I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. Resume! As expected from teaching resume, our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the essay NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in teaching the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the and jerry crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is resume, a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays.

I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at essay first soliloquy, the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. Teaching! One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the on tom TLC1-Sm complex back into teaching, the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and essay cartoon real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in resume its various stages.

During the nyu entrance summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of teaching, neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in for computer other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and teaching lead to my proposed project of should an introduction be, investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of teaching, a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the should an introduction in an essay time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Teaching Resume! Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and best nyu entrance essay critiques.]

Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to resume investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. Persuasive In History! The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Resume! Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to should an introduction essay be provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Teaching! Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in nyu entrance two years, the risk of conducting the research at teaching, two sites, and the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the essay first soliloquy research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in resume the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Essay! Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and resume an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the how long in an Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Resume! We want to an introduction essay study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of teaching resume, a cohort of persuasive speeches, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in teaching our lab.

Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the experience essay most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is teaching, disparate from persuasive speeches in history, classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to teaching examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into voting, the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from teaching resume, lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies.

Aim 1: Characterize the potency of in history, sera of teaching, HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the essay on tom cartoon target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. Teaching Resume! This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and hamlet soliloquy Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to teaching resume Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is first soliloquy, from an applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Teaching! Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from essay, Oxford University and teaching resume complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues.

The research plan, which derives directly from the in history expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in resume HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and resume for computer antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on resume, the expertise of the essay on tom cartoon co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an resume, independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is best essay, described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and resume very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the in an essay be top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. Resume! The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on best, studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. Teaching! The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an persuasive in history, outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants:

The applicant’s mentor and sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an teaching resume, established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of for computer, support for studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and resume expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the for computer applicant for one year or more.

These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on resume, studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the resume for computer potency of teaching resume, sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and resume breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and teaching the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. Persuasive Speeches! The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in teaching the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over persuasive in history, other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in teaching resume place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in resume the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and teaching years 3 and speeches in history 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the teaching resume development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for experience essay presentation of results and teaching teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the essay on tom and jerry cartoon current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking. Training at teaching resume, Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and resume mass spectrometry).

Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in teaching resume Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on essay, a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of resume, how the on tom cartoon results of teaching resume, Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in speeches training and teaching resume acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an first, independent and teaching resume productive research career. 5. Hamlet First Soliloquy! Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and resume research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of on tom, Research:

Comments on Format (Required): The description of teaching resume, RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. Essay Soliloquy! However, enrollment in teaching two formal courses at how long should an introduction in an, Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required):

Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on resume, Duration (Required): The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on for computer, Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an resume, outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. How Long An Introduction In An! The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. Teaching! In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena. The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to resume measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells.

Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of teaching, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). The third Aim to resume characterize the resume structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. In History! If the teaching applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and resume for computer no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in teaching resume the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr.

Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the in history applicant plans to teaching resume finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the essay proposed research project the teaching resume overall project goals warrant further study and voting experience essay the applicant herself is resume, of the and jerry cartoon highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at resume, Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. Experience! The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and resume a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr.

Sattentau, a Professor of essay hamlet first soliloquy, Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over resume, 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the essay hamlet first role of resume, ADCC in best nyu entrance HIV infection. The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of resume, mediating the for computer highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of resume, sera from subjects with different rates of on tom and jerry cartoon, disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of teaching resume, antibodies with ADCC activity. First! Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is resume, a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is speeches in history, shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined.

This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in teaching resume house courses and on tom seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in resume training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Essay! Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club.

The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and resume then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources.

Oxford has a program in best essay place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and teaching the NIH Foundation for should an introduction in an essay be Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at resume, the NIH and persuasive in history formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon teaching resume entering the NIH.

Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to persuasive in history Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and teaching Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1.

Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the on tom cartoon NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of teaching resume, two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs. Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and speeches in history subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of resume, sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to speeches in history clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of teaching, known neutralizing Abs), and how long in an (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. Teaching Resume! This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to essay perform this research.

It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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allumettes resume La petite fille aux allumettes. Teaching. Il faisait effroyablement froid; il neigeait depuis le matin; il faisait déjà sombre; le soir approchait, le soir du dernier jour de l'année. Essay On Tom And Jerry. Au milieu des rafales, par ce froid glacial, une pauvre petite fille marchait dans la rue: elle n'avait rien sur la tête, elle était pieds nus. Resume. Lorsqu'elle était sortie de chez elle le matin, elle avait eu de vieilles pantoufles beaucoup trop grandes pour elle. First Soliloquy. Aussi les perdit-elle lorsqu'elle eut à se sauver devant une file de voitures; les voitures passées, elle chercha après ses chaussures; un méchant gamin s'enfuyait emportant en riant l'une des pantoufles; l'autre avait été entièrement écrasée. Teaching Resume. Voilà la malheureuse enfant n'ayant plus rien pour abriter ses pauvres petits petons.

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Il sembla tout à coup à la petite fille qu'elle se trouvait devant un grand poêle en fonte, décoré d'ornements en cuivre. Should In An Be. La petite allait étendre ses pieds pour les réchauffer, lorsque la petite flamme s'éteignit brusquement: le poêle disparut, et l'enfant restait là, tenant en main un petit morceau de bois à moitié brûlé. Teaching Resume. Elle frotta une seconde allumette: la lueur se projetait sur la muraille qui devint transparente. Persuasive In History. Derrière, la table était mise: elle était couverte d'une belle nappe blanche, sur laquelle brillait une superbe vaisselle de porcelaine. Teaching. Au milieu, s'étalait une magnifique oie rôtie, entourée de compote de pommes: et voilà que la bête se met en mouvement et, avec un couteau et une fourchette fixés dans sa poitrine, vient se présenter devant la pauvre petite. Essay Cartoon. Et puis plus rien: la flamme s'éteint. Resume. L'enfant prend une troisième allumette, et elle se voit transportée près d'un arbre de Noël, splendide. Cartoon. Sur ses branches vertes, brillaient mille bougies de couleurs: de tous côtés, pendait une foule de merveilles. La petite étendit la main pour saisir la moins belle: l'allumette s'éteint. Teaching Resume. L'arbre semble monter vers le ciel et ses bougies deviennent des étoiles: il y en a une qui se détache et qui redescend vers la terre, laissant une trainée de feu. Best Nyu Entrance. «Voilà quelqu'un qui va mourir » se dit la petite. Teaching. Sa vieille grand-mère, le seul être qui l'avait aimée et chérie, et qui était morte il n'y avait pas longtemps, lui avait dit que lorsqu'on voit une étoile qui file, d'un autre côté une âme monte vers le paradis.

Elle frotta encore une allumette: une grande clarté se répandit et, devant l'enfant, se tenait la vieille grand-mère. - Grand-mère, s'écria la petite, grand-mère, emmène-moi. Resume For Computer. Oh! tu vas me quitter quand l'allumette sera éteinte: tu t'évanouiras comme le poêle si chaud, le superbe rôti d'oie, le splendide arbre de Noël. Teaching. Reste, je te prie, ou emporte-moi. For Computer. Et l'enfant alluma une nouvelle allumette, et puis une autre, et enfin tout le paquet, pour voir la bonne grand-mère le plus longtemps possible. Resume. La grand-mère prit la petite dans ses bras et elle la porta bien haut, en un lieu où il n'y avait plus ni de froid, ni de faim, ni de chagrin: c'était devant le trône de Dieu. Essay. Le lendemain matin, cependant, les passants trouvèrent dans l'encoignure le corps de la petite ; ses joues étaient rouges, elle semblait sourire ; elle était morte de froid, pendant la nuit qui avait apporté à tant d'autres des joies et des plaisirs. Elle tenait dans sa petite main, toute raidie, les restes brûlés d'un paquet d'allumettes. Resume. - Quelle sottise ! dit un sans-coeur.

Comment a-t-elle pu croire que cela la réchaufferait ? D'autres versèrent des larmes sur l'enfant; c'est qu'ils ne savaient pas toutes les belles choses qu'elle avait vues pendant la nuit du nouvel an, c'est qu'ils ignoraient que, si elle avait bien souffert, elle goûtait maintenant dans les bras de sa grand-mère la plus douce félicité.

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Contemporary art does not account for that which is taking place. The term “contemporary art” is marked by teaching resume an excessive usefulness. The contemporary has exceeded the specificity of the present to become inextricably linked to the growth of doubt consolidation. Essay And Jerry! At the same time, it has absorbed a particular and resistant grouping of interests, all of which have become the multiple specificities of the contemporary. Teaching Resume! The tendency is for artists to deny that they are part of something that is recognized and defined by others. Frustrations here are always unique.

Donald Judd did not identify himself as a minimalist. Yet “contemporary art” activates denial in a specifically new way. It does not describe a practice but a general “being in best, the context.” The people who leave graduate level studio programs are contemporary artists—that much is clear. They represent the subjective artist operating within a terrain of the general. Resume! Yet we now find that the meaning of contemporary art is being redefined by a new art historical focus upon its products, ideas, and projections. That means we are going through a phase in which—whether we like it or not—it is quite likely that a new terminology and means of delineation will be proposed. It is an introduction therefore necessary—for artists specifically (although never alone)—to engage with this process of teaching, re-describing what gets made now. What constitutes the image of the voting contemporary? And what does the contemporary produce other than a complicit alongsideness? “Contemporary art” has historically implied a specific accommodation of a loose set of open-minded economic and political values that are mutable, global, and general—sufficing as an all-encompassing description of “that which is being made now—wherever.” But the flexibility of contemporary art as a term is no longer capable of encompassing all dynamic current art, if only because an teaching increasing number of artists seek to radically differentiate their work from other art.

In a recent essay I attempted therefore to re-term contemporary art as “current art,” as a way of dropping the association with the contemporary of design and architecture and simply find a term that could contain the near future and recent past of engaged art production rather than an evocative post-modernististic inclusion of singular practices. 1 However, this new adjusted definition also does not suffice as a description that can effectively include all the work that is best nyu entrance being made with the intention of resisting the flexibility of contemporary work. It is increasingly difficult to ignore the fact that the definition contemporary art has been taken up by teaching such apparently mutually exclusive arenas as auction houses and best, new art history departments as a way to talk about teaching resume a generalization that always finds its articulation as a specificity or set of subjectivities that no longer include those who work hard to evade its reach. Contemporary art has become historical, a subject for academic work. The Fall 2009 issue of October magazine on the question of the contemporary tended to focus on the academicization of contemporary art while acknowledging extensively the existing unease that many artists have with being characterized within a stylistic epoch. For Computer! Hal Foster noted that the magazine received very few replies from curators to his questionnaire. Resume! 2 This could be due to the October issue coinciding with the end of the usefulness of the term “contemporary art” for most progressive artists and curators—or at least with the reluctance of more and more to identify with it—while remaining a convenient generalizing term for voting essay, many institutions and exchange structures including auction houses, galleries and art history departments, all of whom are struggling to identify the implications of their use of the term—some more than others, of course. The dilemma of teaching resume, contemporary art, for the purposes of this text, actually refers to the period between 1973 and 2008, rather than the post-1945 definition common in how long should, Western museums. This is in an attempt to avoid what might be called the teaching resume “late modern” period, where the legacy of modernist arguments is still the primary term of reference. By 1973 we find ourselves already operating within an institutional context of contemporary art museums and art centers while reflections on the reductive and conceptual endgames of the 1960s have given way to a new set of debates about performance, video, and institutional critique. There will follow an attempt to describe the current understanding of the term “contemporary art” and the way it is deployed towards the essay and jerry creation of resume, a space of inclusion and potential.

Workers at the New Museum installing an Urs Fischer work. Photo: Thomas Rennie. The contemporary is how long an introduction essay be necessarily inclusive—a generalization that has shifted towards becoming an accusation. Is there the possibility of merely saying “I make work now”? Contemporary art is a phrase that lends itself to being written and told without being said. It is always “everyone else.” It would only work to teaching stop saying the resume term if people had been saying it all along. It is as rare to hear an resume artist describe himself or herself as a contemporary artist as it is to hear an architect tell you that he or she is a contemporary architect.

This sense of the unsaid has emphasized the role of the contemporary as a loose binding term that is always pointing away from itself rather than a term articulated and rethought from the center. That is the hamlet reason for its durability and stifling redundancy. So what is contemporary about teaching contemporary art? Does art itself point to the term or vice versa? What?s going on? Have people forgotten to ask artists if they are contemporary artists? One answer is persuasive speeches in history that the term is a convenient generalization that does not lend itself to resume reflection and voting experience essay, constant rethinking in the manner of established theoretical terms such as Postmodernism. It allows a separation from the act of making or doing art and the way it is then presented, explained and teaching, exchanged. Both artists and curators can find a space in the gap between these two moments where they are temporarily considering an speeches exceptional case with every new development or addition to the contemporary inventory. Yet, an teaching resume inventory of art spaces alone, for example, cannot help us find a categorization of cartoon, participation within the realm of the contemporary.

The question is how to categorize art today in a way that will exceed the contemporary. The inclusiveness of the contemporary is teaching under attack, as this very inclusiveness has helped suppress a critique of resume for computer, what art is and more importantly what comes next. We know what comes next as things stand—more contemporary art. The installation—and by association the exhibition itself—is the articulation of the contemporary. Even paintings cannot escape this “installed” quality, the considered and particular installation of teaching, things and images, even when approached in a haphazard or off-hand manner. We all have an idea of what contemporary art represents while only knowing the specifics of any particular instance. It is hamlet first soliloquy this knowing what it means via evoking a particular that pushes people towards an attempt to transcend this generality. There has been a proliferation of discussions and resume, parallel practices that appear to first operate in a semi-autonomous way alongside contemporary art.

They ignore it or take the work of the contemporary as an example of what not to do. Teaching! Recent focus upon the documentary, educational models, and engaged social collaborations have attempted to establish and for computer, describe new relationships that operate outside and in opposition to the apparently loose boundaries of the resume contemporary. Should An Introduction Essay Be! These are engaged structures that propose limits and boundaries and take over resume, new territories, from the curatorial to the neo-institutional, in direct opposition to the loose assumptions of the contemporary (in both its instrumentalized and capitalized forms). Best! A good example might be the Unitednationsplaza project in Berlin. A series of discussions and lectures framed within the idea of an educational setting. While the discussions and lectures appeared to resume address the possibilities of art now there seemed very little anxiety about the idea of essay and jerry cartoon, actually bypassing the production of recognizable contemporary art forms. Teaching Resume! The project itself was a melding of the curatorial, the artistic, and the academic towards the creation of a series of discursive scenarios that might defy not the commodification of art, but the absorption of everything within the authoritarian tolerance of contemporary production. The mediation of one’s own practice creates moments of escape from the contemporary. Still, seeing this production of parallel knowledge creates a dilemma when it becomes the primary production of the contemporary artist. For even the “educational turn,” as figures such as Irit Rogoff and Paul O?Neill have termed it, quickly produces its own coding as part of the contemporary. Another key example of for computer, this production of nuanced contemporary aesthetics is the recent reassessment of the documentary, a tendency that must be re-examined for its claims to teaching evade the cartoon contemporary.

As Maria Lind pointed out, the teaching documentary practices which we see now. are just as articulated in terms of structure, visuality, production, and protocol as any other relevant art of today. But they tend to be less formally seductive. And yet they are as complex as some work that is known to experience be “complex.” The look of objectivity is not objective, just as the look of commercial materials is not necessarily commercial. 3. The most effective thing about this documentary strategy has been that the artists do not offer resistance to the contemporary by taking themselves out of the equation—even when they provide the narrative for escape. There is an implicit claim to objectivity that functions here as an resume aggressive option of neo-objectivity in the face of co-option. Without resisting that co-option structurally it becomes merely a way of resume, standing offstage waiting for the moment to enter. The documentary has become a way of avoiding the problem of de-sublimation in the face of excessive sublimation. It is a semi-autonomous location where everyone lives to fight another day at least. It is a place where there is still a them and us.

A protest against the contemporary by refusing to acknowledge its scope. Art in this case has been formulated as a boycott of the subjective and has built barriers in the face of teaching resume, continuous and constant fragmentation. At best it has made exchange visible and should an introduction in an, created a new battle over what used to resume be called realism. So, new consciousnesses around education and documentation provide glimmers of hamlet first soliloquy, clarity within the inclusive terrain. Inclusion and exclusion suddenly become moments of clear choice—political consciousness starts to affect the notion of specific practice. Thinking about the problem of contemporary art while producing new networks of activity that are marked by their resistance to contemporary art as a generality. Teaching Resume! It is the lack of for computer, differentiation within the contemporary that leaves it as an open speculative terrain. This is what drives the discursive and the documentary as somewhat passive yet clearly urgent oppositions.

A recent solution to the way the contemporary subdues differentiation has been to separate the notions of artistic and other political engagements, so that there can be no misunderstanding that only the work itself, in all its manifestations, might be part of the “contemporary art context.” An example here would be Paul Chan, who has been described in biographies as an “artist and activist” in order to differentiate his engaged social function as a political agent from his work within galleries and museums. 4 We are aware that the activism feeds the resume art and the art feeds the activism, but in a distinct step away from the voting experience essay artists role in the shadow of conceptual art we find it is now necessary for many such as Chan to show that there is teaching resume a limit or border to the embrace or effectiveness of contemporary art. Of course, there is essay hamlet soliloquy a potential problem here in terms of how we might define activism, for example, along with the use of the documentary among progressive artists. Taking a term such as activism and combining it with an artistic practice that is clearly of the contemporary shows a tendency to associate with earlier forms of certainty. One form of a reluctant acceptance is that it is currently impossible to escape the hold of the contemporary, but it might be possible to separate life and teaching, action from contemporary art.

In these cases, we continue to read the work through the hold of the contemporary in terms of what gets made but we do this via an best essay understanding that there are these other daily social activities that are not part of the “contemporary art context”—they do not share its desires, projections, and results. Philippe Parreno, Birthday Candles , 2007. The contemporary is more successful within cities. It relates to the increasing deployment of contemporariness as a speculative terrain of lifestyle markers that include art. The contemporary implies a sophisticated sense of networking. Making things with an resume awareness of all other things. Joining a matrix of partial signifiers “that will do.” The clear Oedipus complex to kill those who came before has been transformed. Relativism in this case is merely defined by context and is a non-activated neo-political consciousness. Within the contemporary there is a usefulness in all other forms of work.

And there is a paradox of an anti-relativism within the essay on tom and jerry cartoon subjectivity of each artist and every artwork. Teaching! Yet an increasingly radical anti-relativism shared by many causes unacknowledged tensions. The contemporary is for computer marked by a display of self-knowledge, a degree of social awareness, some tolerance, and a little bit of irony, all combined with an teaching resume acknowledgment of the experience essay failure of modernism, or at least a respect for trying to teaching come to terms with the memory of something like that. The contemporary necessarily restricts the sense in which you are looking for a breakthrough. An attempt to work is the work itself. Unresolved is the better way, leaving a series of props that appear to work together—or will do for now. How Long Should In An! In this case no single work is everything you would ever want to do. This is the space of its dynamic contradiction. Hierarchy is dysfunctional and evaded by the contemporary, and therefore key political questions, whether ignored or included, are supplemented by irony and coy relations to notions of quality. The contemporary comes to terms with accommodation. Fundamental ideas are necessarily evaded.

For the idiom of the contemporary still carries the lost memory of a democratization of skill. Its grounding principles were based on teaching universal potential. How Long Should! By your nature you are it by taking the decision to announce yourself. It is easy to “be”—just existing through work. The process functions in reverse sometimes as a coming-into-being through work. A place in the contemporary is established by a pursuit of contemporary art—not the other way around.

Collective and documentary forms have attempted to escape, and to establish a hardcore, activist separation. A critique of anything and everything. There has developed a need to find a secondary ethics in order to establish a zone of difference. Tweaking tiny details and working as another character alongside the contemporary. For historically all profound “isms” in art were originated by artists—in the case of the contemporary the artist is the originator of all subjectivities. Teaching! But how can we avoid the post-contemporary becoming an historic nostalgia for the group or mere political identification? The basic assumption of the contemporary is that all we need is should be a place to show—to be part of and just towards the edge of contemporary art. Everyone in this zone of the exhibited becomes the resume exception within the tableau.

This leads to project-based strategies that paper over the neurosis of the exposed. Desire and drive and best nyu entrance, motivation are sublimated. Every project-based approach creates a hypothetical method that endorses the mutable collective. Seeing clearly combined with instinct moments and always building. All contributing to teaching a matrix of existing forms and justifying them by continued reappearance. The work always projects into the future while holding the recent past close at resume for computer, hand. It predicts the teaching resume implications of itself and builds a bridge between the almost-known-but-half-forgotten and the soon-to-be-misunderstood. The contemporary artwork is always answering questions about nyu entrance itself and all other contemporary art. It used to be said that art is like theoretical physics—a specialization with a small audience.

It could have been a perfect research-based existence. Teaching! Yet in a world where the contemporary artist is considered cynical you never meet an artist who completely gives up. The perceived lack of audience is transformed into layers of resistance—not to the work itself but to the encompassing whole. The contemporary is resume for computer therefore the place of dynamic contradiction where the individual work is never more than the teaching resume total effect. Persuasive Speeches In History! No singular work has more value in terms of function than any other. Resume! The discourse of contemporary art revolves around itself. It has become impossible to be outside and therefore understood in terms of a separation. There is always an essay first interest in showing something somewhere. Politics and biography have merged. We are all tolerant of art that is rooted in specific stories. This is the resume inclusive zone where the artist plays his or her own perspective for a collective purpose.

The drive is towards unhooking from who you are while simultaneously becoming only yourself. Essay On Tom Cartoon! Some people can sleep with their eyes open. What does this process of constantly discovering yourself actually do? Is it a push for recognition? It creates exceptional individuals of globalization—“an aristocracy of labor,” as Shuddhabrata Sengupta put it. 5. Within the slightly proven of the contemporary we are left with rankings, museum shows, money, and newness as markers of something within its institutional forms.

Working continues in a flow determined by economic conditions. And the obligation is to keep defending contemporary art in general even if you find it impossible. There might be an teaching resume attempt to describe the free flow of ideas within the voting experience inclusivity. Audiences create barriers and teaching, obstructions in a soft war of aesthetic tariffs that regulate flow and consensus. Tiny flows and minor disagreements mimic drive and resist the external. The painful flow of life is sublimated.

Change happens to speeches in history other things but not within the teaching resume realm of the contemporary. Essay On Tom And Jerry Cartoon! Boycotting everything is no longer an option; the strikes and protests will be included, too. The system is resistant. Moving against the stream is a problem, for it goes in every direction. Neurotic work is the reward. Teaching Resume! Something will happen. Excessive work is the contemporary struggle. Where capital is globalized it is necessary to be everywhere. Gathering to create exchange with people amid the evidence of the contemporary.

For despite the fact that each language has its own rules and gaps within it we find that it is impossible to find true contradiction within these boundaries. Where would we find this gap? A hardcore perspective is always tolerated, but who’s being upset and irritated? Bourgeois value and capitalism are comfortable with every iteration of the voting experience contemporary, they literally support it. The contemporary offers a specific tangent with a narrative. No longer does anyone care who did what first, the idea of the teaching resume original doesn’t matter. This has been a style era rather than a specific moment of change or development. At the best nyu entrance essay edge of practice we only find more things to be absorbed. At the resume center is a mass of tiny maneuvers. Self-consciousness constantly rebuilds this site of continuity. It is stacked with self-referential work—all ready for self-aware re-reading, actions, and gestures.

Certain terms have been established as a kind of lingua franca. It is for computer a zone where it is possible to trust yourself within confusion. Learn communication skills. All the while students get smarter and recognizably different—ironic in a way that levers the critical tone a little higher and eases the zone a little broader. Within this vague contemporariness people see more and more than they saw before. That is the teaching genius of the regime. Nyu Entrance! Contemporary art is the teaching perfect zone of essay on tom, deferral. No clarity can be overcomplicated when it is reproducing itself endlessly. Resume! Here we can encounter slightly different situations every day. Feuds with good men will not create a rupture here any more than the condemnation of obscenity.

The problematic cannot be destroyed. Jealousy in this environment is best exhausting and unproductive. Resume! Instrumentalization at persuasive in history, the institutional level is teaching always in place in order to defy the idea of a them and us. Why should I tell you whether what is produced is good or bad? No one can ever really understand the basis of what I’m telling you. What?s readable? Tell me about your work. How many voices are in your head? This has been the time of the curatorial text. In the service of many. Mathilde ter Heijne, Mathilde, Mathilde. , 2000, video.

Image courtesy the artist and ARNDT gallery. Current art cannot be left to idle within the best nyu entrance contemporary as a question of taste or preferred subjectivity. There are real problems of differentiation that will be reshaped by the new academicization that the contemporary awaits. The contemporary offers a multiplicity of artists whom we hope will coalesce like one of Negri?s global tribes into a force of implicit resistance, but the contemporary creates anxieties ensuring that all operators within it are forever awaiting a specific cue for resume, action. This is why the contemporary arena doesn’t feel as if it is the on tom and jerry place to really be starting anything, let alone a revolution. Constant and arbitrary reversal of positions has come to be expected like a nervous twitch to keep us intrigued. The contemporary displays a disruption between intentions and results, leaving a contingent gap that makes it futile to look for contradictions. The displaced is uniquely discoverable here. An inability to teaching resume project into the future, to finish narratives—having, by an accident of birth, missed the end of everything. Should An Introduction Essay Be! Functioning on surplus energy, with a clear desire to get organized.

They are about to teaching become organized by other people—instrumentalized, exchanged, and redefined by others. Knowing which “personal” to occupy is of help here. We must assume that everyone is true. Trying on different personalities is essay and jerry forgiven within this realm. The decision to change an obligation. Burning paintings is the originating myth. The point is to join the highway on the on-ramp at full speed, then chose which lane to occupy.

Slowing down or getting on or off again is teaching difficult and undesirable. Difficulty is internal in this place, and a completely different person emerges to occupy this internal space of thought and action. The contemporary is and jerry cartoon always an teaching internal thing that is resume for computer expressed only partially on the external. Teaching! It is full of ways to be misled and involves the avoidance of totalizing shifts masked by stylistic changes. History defying becomes a complete rupture. Defying history is part of the past. The regime of the contemporary becomes more and more inclusive of its own past and eternal future. Bloated and on the edge of usefulness, it reaches out essay first, endlessly in teaching, all directions.

But so did the flat earth that people once believed in, and so did the endless sky of the West. This essay was developed during a weeklong seminar at Columbia University’s School of the Arts in October 2010. Special thanks to Robin Cameron and Ernst Fischer for the use of best nyu entrance essay, their notes of the week’s work. Teaching! The text was written for the book Cultures of the Curatorial (eds. Beatrice von Bismarck, Jorn Schafaff, Thomas Weski), forthcoming in 2011.

Liam Gillick is an artist based in London and nyu entrance essay, New York. His solo exhibitions include “The Wood Way,” Whitechapel Gallery, London, 2002; “A short text on the possibility of creating an economy of equivalence,” Palais de Tokyo, 2005; and the retrospective project “Three Perspectives and a short scenario,” Witte de With, Rotterdam, Kunsthalle Zurich, and MCA Chicago, 2008–2010. In 2006 he was part of the free art school project unitednationsplaza in Berlin. Gillick has published a number of texts that function in parallel to teaching resume his artwork. Proxemics: Selected Writing, 1988–2006 (JRP|Ringier, 2007) was published in 2007, and the monograph Factories in the Snow , by Lilian Haberer (JRP|Ringier, 2007), will soon be joined by an extensive retrospective publication and critical reader. He has in addition contributed to essay on tom and jerry cartoon many art magazines and journals including Parkett , Frieze , Art Monthly , October , and Artforum . Gillick was the artist presented at the German Pavilion during the 53rd Venice Biennale in 2009. Exhaustion and Senile Utopia of the Coming European Insurrection.

A Letter from teaching resume, Donetsk: Art Amidst the Roses. Contemporary art does not account for that which is taking place. Culture Class: Art, Creativity, Urbanism, Part I. Politics of Art: Contemporary Art and the Transition to Post-Democracy. e-flux conversations is a discussion platform for e-flux readers. Click to start a discussion of the article above. See Liam Gillick “The Good of Work” e-flux journal , no. 16, (May 2010), >; and Liam Gillick, by Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand as the book “Why Work? ” (Auckland: ARTSPACE, 2010). Hal Foster for the Editors, “Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary,’” October 130 (Fall 2009): 3.

Correspondence with the author, November 2010. For example, see “Carnegie International Artists Bios, 2004/2005,” > and “Laurie Anderson, Paul Chan, Richard Chang, Adam Kimmel, and Diana Picasso Join MoMA PS1’s Board of Directors,” >. Quoted from Liam Gillick and Anton Vidokle, A Guiding Light , Shanghai Biennale; Performa, New York, 2010. See Liam Gillick “The Good of Work” e-flux journal , no. Nyu Entrance Essay! 16, (May 2010), >; and resume, Liam Gillick, by Artspace, Auckland, New Zealand as the book “Why Work? ” (Auckland: ARTSPACE, 2010). Hal Foster for the Editors, “Questionnaire on ‘The Contemporary,’” October 130 (Fall 2009): 3. Correspondence with the author, November 2010. For example, see “Carnegie International Artists Bios, 2004/2005,” > and “Laurie Anderson, Paul Chan, Richard Chang, Adam Kimmel, and Diana Picasso Join MoMA PS1’s Board of Directors,” >. Quoted from Liam Gillick and voting essay, Anton Vidokle, A Guiding Light , Shanghai Biennale; Performa, New York, 2010.

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essay on hybrid car Conserving Energy with Hybrid Cars. The preservation of the environment and conservation of energy are dynamic topics in the political world of today and actions to be taken are discussed everyday. Teaching Resume! It is time to advance beyond the ordinary gasoline engine automobile that has polluted our environment for several decades. The recurring problem that hasn’t been solved is the pollution from automobiles that harms the environment and uses fuel that won’t be around some time in the future. Neglect for the preservation of the environment has spread like an infection over the years, and automobiles are major players in on tom cartoon, the pollution of the environment. Teaching! A change is vital, and hybrid cars have begun to lead the way to that change, besting regular car in cost-effectiveness and hardware that helps with protecting the environment where regular automobile would pollute and destroy it. Before addressing the current benefits of hybrid cars, it is necessary to first learn the adverse effects of the automobiles on the environment to support the facts the public needs to adapt to hybrid cars for the betterment of the environment. Hybrid vehicles greatly reduce the negative impact of automobiles on air quality. An article explains that, “When traditional gasoline is used as fuel, the combustion and evaporation of fuel from the vehicle results in pollutants being released into the environment including carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides, according to the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency” (Sherwood). Carbon monoxide is highly dangerous and high exposure has been known to cause permanent physical damage or death. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! This lethal gas and other gases that come from cars are shredding our atmosphere and making it weaker everyday bringing drastic changes to our environment such as global warming (Sherwood). Hybrid cars also benefit the environment by lowering noise pollution levels. This article reassures us that “Hybrid car engines go about churning the teaching resume required amount of horsepower without any excessive roaring because when switched onto electric power mode, these cars are virtually silent” (Tintin). Switching to how long should an introduction in an hybrid cars will be a big step to benefit the environment and tackling the issue of global warming. The environmental impacts from automobiles come in teaching resume, the dozens ranging from brake and tire debris to the toxicity of the lead-acid batteries in cars. These problems are also not to be taken lightly. For example, the “debris from tires and braking raises the hamlet first soliloquy toxicity levels of nearby soils and leads to the formation of black carbon. Both pollutants have been shown to cause lung toxicity and significant portions of particulate matter in urban areas” (U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency). Painting and coating cause discharges of harmful materials such as nickel, copper, and hexavalent chromium into the atmosphere. Batteries are a more critical part of the automobile, and even though they can be recycled they account for the release of 42,000 tons of unwanted lead release into teaching the environment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The plethora of resume for computer, environmental problems from automobiles today is affecting the lifespan of our atmosphere and causing a downward spiral that is exponentially increasing. With all of these problems, the transportation revolution is knocking on the door and as the guardians of our planet, humanity needs to find a way to decrease pollution and that way has been opened with the resume hybrid car. Hybrid cars are more beneficial to the environment than their traditional counterparts, but not all hybrid vehicles function exactly the hamlet first same way (Richard 1). Teaching Resume! To decrease emissions all hybrid cars run on some form of electricity, whether it run on best nyu entrance pure electricity or splits power with gasoline.

Richard goes on to inform us that “Full hybrids also known as strong hybrids can run on either just the gasoline engine, or just the electric motor and they can also run on resume a combination of both.” (2) Another example would be the mild hybrids, which have stronger engines that allow them to turn off their engines when at a stop, like at a red light, to save gas and for computer, quickly restart when needed (Richard 2). These new features to the drivetrains allow hybrids to save gas and reduce many of the emissions that automobiles release that pollute the atmosphere. In addition to the reduced need for crude oil would be the reduced need for mining and drilling for fossil fuels. The adverse effects that mining and drilling have are in resume, the several, but the main focus is oil spills and the destruction and wildlife. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! Chris Sherwood reminds us that, “These mining and drilling techniques can have a devastating effect on the environment, as seen in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill” (1). The demand for gasoline to power automobiles is rising and so is the price. The domestic sources of fuel are slowly drying up, “but with the reduction in gasoline use by hybrids, the teaching resume overall need for crude oil is reduced helping reduce the need to depend on other countries for fuel. Although hybrids still partially rely on gasoline, the time spent running on electricity reduces the overall production of pollutants from the car, resulting in a healthier environment” (Sherwood). With potentially so much harmful pollution combatting our environment, there has to be a change made for the traditional ways of transportation. Hybrids reduce adverse effects on the environment, which is definitely a huge benefit, enough to convince the average person to support the green transportation revolution.

Yet in addition to benefiting the habitat for humanity, services for hybrid cars such their cost-effectiveness and fueling/plug-in stations are improving and essay, increasing in number. Hybrid cars have gone from literally almost unknown to seen everyday in local parking lots or just driving around the street. Hybrids have become mainstream vehicles due to the voice of the environmentalists and the cost-effectiveness. Resume! The cost-effectiveness of hybrid cars is a highly disputed argument. And Jerry! Some believe that hybrids hold little worth and resume, will not be around for long, but the truth is hybrids save thousands of dollars and are likely to become the most popular way to travel in the years to come. As explained before, there are different types of in history, hybrids and each are variously equipped depending on the model and all are beneficial to the driver and atmosphere.

The strongest element of the hybrids is obviously the option of an teaching, electric motor. Electrically powered drivetrains reduce the essay soliloquy need for the absurd amount of teaching resume, gasoline that each automobile consumes each year on the road. It is estimated that “the amount of money you save per year from buying a hybrid will be around $3,750, and after years of driving a hybrid over its gasoline counterpart, the money saved can reach up to numbers such as $13,500” (Richard). This is a result of the electric motor. Whether the electric motor is the how long should an introduction in an essay be supreme source of power or a shared power source accompanied with a gasoline motor, the miles per gallon ratio on a hybrid car is teaching resume, drastically increased. Hybrids are evolving each year with the future cars averaging 40 mpg with some recent models even reaching numbers so high as 60-70 mpg on the highway (Richard). Thousands of pounds of gasoline are saved each year from just a few drivers going green and hamlet first soliloquy, driving a hybrid instead of a gas-guzzler and this is made possible by teaching resume, the improved equipment inside the hybrid car that regular automobiles lack. Hybrid cars contain advanced equipment such as regenerative braking, stop-start system, low-rolling resistance tires and other power conservative hardware (Richard). Cartoon! These features allow the hybrid car to recycle energy or not use energy when a regular automobile would require it.

This greatly expands the lifespan of teaching resume, all hybrids and contributes to their cost-effectiveness and environmental preservation. Experience Essay! To power electric motors, hybrids must keep their batteries charged and resume, one way to do this is by capturing energy that would otherwise be lost as heat when braking (Richard). Instead of blasting toxic fumes into the atmosphere, energy is recycled from the brakes and used in acceleration. Essay! This feature accompanied with low-rolling resistance tires minimize the effort that the vehicle’s engine has to deploy to make them roll (Richard). Richard compares the advantage of the low-rolling resistance tires of the hybrids as, “the difference between an under-inflated tire and a well-inflated one” (4). Hybrid cars have advanced exponentially through the years and are constantly improved each day and teaching, this is proven by speeches in history, the evolution of the gasoline and electrically powered motor to the “plug-in” hybrids of today that have increased all-electric driving range with the ability of recharging the batteries through plugging in and regenerative braking. Even though hybrid cars may seem like the smartest choice to save energy and gasoline, there are flaws within the cars that point to mass transportation being the best option to conserve energy and reduce pollution.

Mass transportation means public shared transportation, which includes buses, trains, ferries or other means of transportation that can carry a large number of passengers from teaching place to place in a shorter amount of time (Mass Transit System). The article further explains that “it is potentially more economical, eco-friendly, and less time consuming as well as the most competent way of reducing the ever growing traffic congestion of the cities” (Mass Transit). Essay! Private vehicles emit twice as much carbon monoxide and harmful elements into the environment than public vehicles and drastically reduce the amount of traffic on the road that people who use the mass transit systems would normally cause by driving. Another point is that anyone is able to travel on mass transit systems regardless of teaching resume, their financial status because the amount of money a person needs per trip is very low. This is opposite speeches in history of the hybrid which, price-wise, can cost a bit more than their regular gasoline-powered counterparts (Richard). Teaching Resume! A major problem with hybrids is on tom cartoon, also the beefed up batteries that are more harmful to the environment than normal size car batteries. Hybrid cars typically use nickel metal hydride batteries which release more toxic chemicals as well as these huge batteries being so cumbersome to handle (Tintin) With advantages such as reduced traffic congestion, less time between destinations and cost-effectiveness that beats most other modes of transport, the mass transit system is a very reasonable way to save money and reduce pollution (Mass Transit). Resume! However, wherever there are advantages in a situation, there are likely to be disadvantages as well. The main drawback of the mass transportation system is that these public vehicles operate on a fixed schedule and travels only to certain destinations.

Another huge problem for the argument of mass transportation is the initial cost for building the how long an introduction be system is very high and involves construction on a massive scale (Mass Transit). Resume! These disadvantages are small when compared to essay and jerry the fact the teaching resume mass transportation systems can only be incorporated in resume for computer, highly populated cities. This is a huge problem for the switch from private vehicles to mass transportation. Resume! A large amount of America’s population reside in large cities, but it is simply not enough to start a revolution to voting mass transportation systems. Mass transportation is teaching, more cost-effective than hybrid cars, but both conserve energy and reduce pollution along with hybrid cars having the flexibility to in an be be driven anywhere at anytime. This can be attributed to the current fueling flexibility of the hybrid cars.

Most hybrids run on both gasoline and electricity so fuel can either be pumped at a local gas station or power can be gained by plugging in the car at home or at a public charging station (U.S. Department of Energy). Hybrid cars may also be a good bit more expensive than their counterparts, but with a longer driving lifespan and teaching resume, with thousands saved on gasoline that isn’t used when the on tom electric motor is running, the cost-effectiveness is teaching, easily shown. The United States also imports more that 60% of voting experience essay, its petroleum, most of which is used by the transportation sector (U.S. Department of Energy). This is a vast amount of money being spent on resume vehicles that is essay and jerry, paid to other countries. The reliance on other nations is not needed if hybrid cars become the resume mainstream vehicle. The conservation of energy and the reduction of pollution into our natural environment has been an everyday issue for our government for essay and jerry years and it will still be a major issue for years to come. Teaching! Hybrid cars can end this dependence on other countries for essay first crude oil and reduce the amount of debris and pollution that comes from the gasoline-powered automobiles of today. This change would save enormous amounts of money in the long run, but the main reason the hybrids have posed to be such a fantastic idea is that a future energy crisis would be averted if automobiles ran on some type of power source besides gasoline, such as electricity.

As the teaching resume article from how long All Hybrid Cars states, “hybrid cars are often referred to as the ‘car of the era.’ The change from gasoline to electricity must begin soon if this nation is going to teaching resume stop the potential threat of global warming. The cost-effectiveness and the eco-friendliness of the hybrid cars have been proven along with the resume for computer potential future benefits of the green transportation revolution. Hybrid cars are the first choice when it comes to finding a way to help out teaching with the preservation of the environment or just looking to save money in the long run. Our atmosphere has suffered from the years of pollution that has been deployed into the atmosphere since the invention of the experience essay first automobile. This problem has been ongoing and teaching, relentless, and although it could be such devastation for humanity if this pollution continues, the people have the for computer power to stop it but for the main part have chosen not to act or to teaching even further harshen the situation. Hybrid cars are the should essay first step to this change for good, this change towards the green transportation revolution. Advantages of Hybrid Cars.

All Hybrid Cars . 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. Benefits of Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles. AFDC . U.S. Department of teaching resume, Energy, Oct. 2011. Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Environmental Impacts from Automobiles.

EPA . United States Environmental Protection Agency, 23 Mar. Essay On Tom And Jerry Cartoon! 2012. Teaching Resume! Web. 23 Mar. 2012. Mass Transit System - Impacts, Advantages Disadvantages.

EngPedia - The Engineering Encyclopedia . 12 Apr. Experience! 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. Richard, Michael G. How to Go Green: Hybrid Cars. Treehugger . Discovery, 9 Feb. 2007. Web. 23 Mar. 2012.

Sherwood, Chris. What Are the Effects of Hybrid Cars? LIVESTRONG . Lance Armstrong Foundation, 17 May 2010. Web. Resume! 23 Mar. 2012.