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From 1971: Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? A banner for Women’s Lib could be Artemisia Gentileschi’s Judith Beheading Holofernes , one of outsourcing thesis this Roman painter’s favorite subject. This version dates ca. Resume Portal! 1614–20, shortly after the scandal of outsourcing thesis her alleged promiscuous relations with her teacher. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews. W hile the recent upsurge of ca2b resume feminist activity in this country has indeed been a liberating one, its force has been chiefly emotional—personal, psychological and subjective—centered, like the other radical movements to which it is related, on the present and its immediate needs, rather than on historical analysis of the basic intellectual issues which the outsourcing thesis, feminist attack on the status quo automatically raises. 1 Like any revolution, however, the feminist one ultimately must come to grips with the intellectual and ideological basis of the resume, various intellectual or scholarly disciplines—history, philosophy, sociology, psychology, etc.—in the same way that it questions the ideologies of present social institutions. If, as John Stuart Mill suggested, we tend to accept whatever is as natural, this is just as true in the realm of outsourcing essay academic investigation as it is in our social arrangements. In the former, too, “natural” assumptions must be questioned and the mythic basis of much so-called “fact” brought to on importance, light. And it is here that the very position of woman as an acknowledged outsider, the maverick “she” instead of the outsourcing, presumably neutral “one”—in reality the white-male-position-accepted-as-natural, or the hidden “he” as the subject of all scholarly predicates—is a decided advantage, rather than merely a hindrance of data analysis a subjective distortion.
In the field of essay art history, the white Western male viewpoint, unconsciously accepted as the viewpoint of the on importance of wildlife in india, art historian, may—and does—prove to be inadequate not merely on moral and ethical grounds, or because it is outsourcing thesis elitist, but on essay in india, purely intellectual ones. In revealing the failure of much academic art history, and outsourcing essay thesis a great deal of history in general, to take account of the unacknowledged value system, the on importance in india, very presence of an intruding subject in historical investigation, the outsourcing, feminist critique at the same time lays bare its conceptual smugness, its meta-historical naivete. At a moment when all disciplines are becoming more self-conscious, more aware of the nature of their presuppositions as exhibited in the very languages and structures of the various fields of scholarship, such uncritical acceptance of ut austin mba essay questions “what is” as “natural” may be intellectually fatal. Just as Mill saw male domination as one of essay a long series of social injustices that had to be overcome if a truly just social order were to be created, so we may see the unstated domination of white male subjectivity as one in a series of intellectual distortions which must be corrected in on importance of wildlife in india, order to outsourcing essay thesis, achieve a more adequate and accurate view of ut austin mba essay questions historical situations. It is the engaged feminist intellect (like John Stuart Mill’s) that can pierce through the cultural-ideological limitations of the time and outsourcing thesis its specific “professionalism” to reveal biases and inadequacies not merely in the dealing with the question of women, but in the very way of formulating the crucial questions of the ut austin mba essay, discipline as a whole. Thus, the so-called woman question, far from being a minor, peripheral and laughably provincial sub-issue grafted on to a serious, established discipline, can become a catalyst, an intellectual instrument, probing basic and “natural” assumptions, providing a paradigm for other kinds of outsourcing thesis internal questioning, and in turn providing links with paradigms established by radical approaches in essay on importance of wildlife in india, other fields. Even a simple question like “Why have there been no great women artists?” can, if answered adequately, create a sort of outsourcing essay chain reaction, expanding not merely to writing response essay, encompass the accepted assumptions of the single field, but outward to thesis, embrace history and the social sciences, or even psychology and literature, and thereby, from the outset, to treated essay, challenge the essay, assumption that the traditional divisions of intellectual inquiry are still adequate to deal with the meaningful questions of envelopment thesis our time, rather than the merely convenient or self-generated ones.
Let us, for example, examine the implications of that perennial question (one can, of course, substitute almost any field of human endeavor, with appropriate changes in phrasing): “Well, if women really are equal to men, why have there never been any great women artists (or composers, or mathematicians, or philosophers, or so few of the same)?” “Why have there been no great women artists?” The question tolls reproachfully in the background of most discussions of the so-called woman problem. But like so many other so-called questions involved in the feminist “controversy,” it falsifies the nature of the issue at the same time that it insidiously supplies its own answer: “There are no. great women artists because women are incapable of greatness.” The assumptions behind such a question are varied in outsourcing, range and of gang sophistication, running anywhere from “scientifically proven” demonstrations of the inability of human beings with wombs rather than penises to outsourcing thesis, create anything significant, to relatively open-minded wonderment that women, despite so many years of ca2b near-equality—and after all, a lot of men have had their disadvantages too—have still not achieved anything of exceptional significance in the visual arts. The feminist’s first reaction is to swallow the bait, hook, line and sinker, and to attempt to outsourcing essay thesis, answer the question as it is put: i.e., to dig up examples of worthy or insufficiently appreciated women artists throughout history; to rehabilitate rather modest, if interesting and productive careers; to “re-discover” forgotten flower-painters or David-followers and ca2b resume make out a case for them; to demonstrate that Berthe Morisot was really less dependent upon Manet than one had been led to think—in other words, to engage in the normal activity of the outsourcing thesis, specialist scholar who makes a case for the importance of ca2b resume portal his very own neglected or minor master. Such attempts, whether undertaken from a feminist point of view, like the ambitious article on women artists which appeared in the 1858 Westminster Review , 2 or more recent scholarly studies on such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Artemisia Gentileschi, 3 are certainly worth the effort, both in adding to our knowledge of women’s achievement and of art history generally. But they do nothing to question the assumptions lying behind the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” On the contrary, by attempting to answer it, they tacitly reinforce its negative implications.
The Swiss-born Angelica Kauffman, most of whose prolific career was spent in Italy, combines allegory with portraiture in Angelica Hesitating between Music and Painting , 1791. Another attempt to answer the question involves shifting the ground slightly and asserting, as some contemporary feminists do, that there is a different kind of outsourcing “greatness” for women’s art than for men’s, thereby postulating the theme treated writing literature essay, existence of a distinctive and recognizable feminine style, different both in its formal and its expressive qualities and based on the special character of women’s situation and experience. This, on the surface of it, seems reasonable enough: in thesis, general, women’s experience and situation in society, and hence as artists, is different from men’s, and writing response essay certainly the art produced by a group of consciously united and outsourcing purposefully articulate women intent on essay of wildlife in india, bodying forth a group consciousness of feminine experience might indeed be stylistically identifiable as feminist, if not feminine, art. Unfortunately, though this remains within the realm of possibility it has so far not occurred. While the members of the Danube School, the followers of Caravaggio, the painters gathered around Gauguin at Pont-Aven, the essay thesis, Blue Rider, or the Cubists may be recognized by certain clearly defined stylistic or expressive qualities, no such common qualities of “femininity” would seem to link the essay of wildlife in india, styles of women artists generally, any more than such qualities can be said to outsourcing, link women writers, a case brilliantly argued, against the most devastating, and mutually contradictory, masculine critical cliches, by resume portal, Mary Ellmann in her Thinking about thesis, Women . 4 No subtle essence of data envelopment femininity would seem to outsourcing essay thesis, link the work of Artemesia Gentileschi, Mme. Vigee-Lebrun, Angelica Kauffmann, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Suzanne Valadon , Kaethe Kollwitz, Barbara Hepworth, Georgia O’Keeffe, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Helen Frankenthaler, Bridget Riley, Lee Bontecou or Louise Nevelson, any more than that of Sappho, Marie de France, Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, George Sand, George Eliot, Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, Anais Nin, Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Susan Sontag.
In every instance, women artists and writers would seem to be closer to other artists and writers of their own period and outlook than they are to each other. W omen artists are more inward-looking, more delicate and nuanced in their treatment of portal their medium, it may be asserted. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! But which of the women artists cited above is on importance of wildlife in india more inward-turning than Redon, more subtle and nuanced in the handling of pigment than Corot? Is Fragonard more or less feminine than Mme. Thesis! Vigee-Lebrun? Or is it not more a question of the whole Rococo style of 18th-century France being “feminine,” if judged in terms of a two-valued scale of “masculinity” vs. Ca2b Resume! “femininity”? Certainly though, if daintiness, delicacy and preciousness are to be counted as earmarks of a feminine style, there is nothing fragile about Rosa Bonheur’s Horse Fair , nor dainty and introverted about Helen Frankenthaler’s giant canvases. If women have turned to scenes of domestiC life, or of essay thesis children, so did Jan Steen, Chardin and the Impressionists—Renoir and Monet as well as Morisot and envelopment thesis Cassatt. Outsourcing! In any case, the mere choice of a certain realm of subject matter, or the restriction to certain subjects, is not to be equated with a style, much less with some sort of quintessentially feminine style. The problem lies not so much with the feminists’ concept of what femininity is, but rather with their misconception—shared with the public at large—of what art is: with the naive idea that art is the direct, personal expression of individual emotional experience, a translation of personal life into visual terms.
Art is definition essay almost never that, great art never is. The making of thesis art involves a self-consistent language of form, more or less dependent upon, or free from, given temporally-defined conventions, schemata or systems of notation, which have to be learned or worked out, either through teaching, apprenticeship or a long period of individual experimentation. The language of art is, more materially, embodied in paint and line on canvas or paper, in stone or clay or plastic or metal—it is neither a sob-story nor a confidential whisper. The fact of the matter is that there have been no supremely great women artists, as far as we know, although there have been many interesting and causes very good ones who remain insufficiently investigated or appreciated; nor have there been any great Lithuanian jazz pianists, nor Eskimo tennis players, no matter how much we might wish there had been. Outsourcing Essay! That this should be the envelopment, case is regrettable, but no amount of manipulating the outsourcing essay thesis, historical or critical evidence will alter the situation; nor will accusations of male-chauvinist distortion of history. The fact, dear sisters, is that there are no women equivalents for Michelangelo or Rembrandt, Delacroix or Cezanne, Picasso or Matisse, or even, in very recent times, for de Kooning or Warhol, any more than there are Black American equivalents for portal the same. Outsourcing! If there actually were large numbers of “hidden” great women artists, or if there really should be different standards for women’s art as opposed to men’s—and one can’t have it both ways—then what are the feminists fighting for? If women have in fact achieved the same status as men in the arts, then the status quo is fine as it is. Judith Leyster’s The Jolly Toper was called a Frans Hal until the discovery of her typical signature, “J,” and the date 1629, in upper right center. But in actuality, as we all know, things as they are and as they have been, in meaning, the arts as in a hundred other areas, are stultifying, oppressive and discouraging to all those, women among them, who did not have the outsourcing, good fortune to be born white, preferably middle class and, above all, male. The fault, dear brothers, lies not in our stars, our hormones, our menstrual cycles or our empty internal spaces, but in our institutions and literature essay our education—education understood to include everything that happens to us from the essay thesis, moment we enter this world of meaningful symbols, signs and signals.
The miracle is, in extended meaning, fact, that given the overwhelming odds against women, or blacks, that so many of both have managed to achieve so much sheer excellence, in thesis, those bailiwicks of white masculine prerogative like science, politics or the arts. It is when one really starts thinking about the implications of “Why have there been no great women artists?” that one begins to realize to what extent our consciousness of how things are in the world has been conditioned—and often falsified—by the way the most important questions are posed. We tend to take it for granted that there really is an East Asian Problem, a Poverty Problem, a Black Problem—and a Woman Problem. But first we must ask ourselves who is formulating these “questions,” and then, what purposes such formulations may serve. (We may, of course, refresh our memories with the connotations of the theme treated writing literature, Nazi’s “Jewish Problem.”) Indeed, in our time of outsourcing instant communication, “problems” are rapidly formulated to rationalize the ut austin questions, bad conscience of outsourcing those with power: thus the of gang, problem posed by Americans in Vietnam and Cambodia is outsourcing essay referred to by Americans as “the East Asian Problem,” whereas East Asians may view it, more realistically, as “the American Problem”; the so-called Poverty Problem might more directly be viewed as the “Wealth Problem” by denizens of urban ghettos or rural wastelands; the causes essay, same irony twists the White Problem into its opposite: a Black Problem; and the same inverse logic turns up in the formulation of outsourcing essay thesis our own present state of on importance of wildlife in india affairs as the essay, “Woman Problem.” Now the causes of gang, “Woman Problem,” like all human problems, so-called (and the very idea of outsourcing essay calling anything to do with human beings a “problem” is, of course, a fairly recent one) is not amenable to “solution” at all, since what human problems involve is re-interpretation of the nature of the situation, or a radical alteration of stance or program on the part of the “problems” themselves . Causes Of Gang! Thus women and their situation in the arts, as in other realms of endeavor, are not a “problem” to be viewed through the eyes of the dominant male power elite. Instead, women must conceive of themselves as potentially, if not actually, equal subjects, and must be willing to thesis, look the essay, facts of their situation full in the face, without self-pity, or cop-outs; at the same time they must view their situation with that high degree of emotional and intellectual commitment necessary to create a world in which equal achievement will be not only made possible but actively encouraged by social institutions.
It is certainly not realistic to hope that a majority of men, in the arts, or in any other field, will soon see the light and find that it is in their own self-interest to grant complete equality to women, as some feminists optimistically assert, or to maintain that men themselves will soon realize that they are diminished by denying themselves access to traditionally “feminine” realms and emotional reactions. After all, there are few areas that are really “denied” to men, if the level of operations demanded be transcendent, responsible or rewarding enough: men who have a need for “feminine” involvement with babies or children gain status as pediatricians or child psychologists, with a nurse (female) to do the more routine work; those who feel the urge for kitchen creativity may gain fame as master chefs; and, of course, men who yearn to fulfill themselves through what are often termed “feminine” artistic interests can find themselves as painters or sculptors, rather than as volunteer museum aides or part time ceramists, as their female counterparts so often end up doing; as far as scholarship is concerned, how many men would be willing to change their jobs as teachers and researchers for those of unpaid, part-time research assistants and typists as well as full-time nannies and domestic workers? Those who have privileges inevitably hold on to them, and hold tight, no matter how marginal the advantage involved, until compelled to bow to superior power of one sort or another. Thus the question of women’s equality—in art as in any other realm—devolves not upon the relative benevolence or ill-will of individual men, nor the self-confidence or abjectness of individual women, but rather on the very nature of our institutional structures themselves and the view of reality which they impose on the human beings who are part of them. As John Stuart Mill pointed out outsourcing, more than a century ago: “Everything which is usual appears natural.
The subjection of women to men being a universal custom, any departure from it quite naturally appears unnatural.” 5 Most men, despite lip-service to resume portal, equality, are reluctant to outsourcing, give up this “natural” order of writing things in which their advantages are so great; for women, the case is further complicated by the fact that, as Mill astutely pointed out, unlike other oppressed groups or castes, men demand of her not only submission but unqualified affection as well; thus women are often weakened by the internalized demands of the male-dominated society itself, as well as by a plethora of material goods and thesis comforts: the middle-class woman has a great deal more to lose than her chains. At Thomas Eakins’ life-class at essay in india, the Pennsylvania Academy around 1855, a cow, instead of a nude man, served as a model for the women students. COURTESY PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF THE FINE ARTS/CHARLES BREGLER’S THOMAS EAKINS COLLECTION, PURCHASED WITH THE PARTIAL SUPPORT OF THE PEW MEMORIAL TRUST. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is essay simply the ut austin mba essay, top tenth of an iceberg of misinterpretation and misconception; beneath lies a vast dark bulk of shaky idees recues about the nature of art and its situational concomitants, about the nature of human abilities in general and of human excellence in particular, and the role that the thesis, social order plays in all of this. Data! While the “woman problem” as such may be a pseudo-issue, the misconceptions involved in the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” points to major areas of intellectual obfuscation beyond the specific political and ideological issues involved in the subjection of essay thesis women. Basic to the question are many naive, distorted, uncritical assumptions about the making of art in envelopment analysis thesis, general, as well as the making of great art. These assumptions, conscious or unconscious, link together such unlikely superstars as Michelangelo and van Gogh, Raphael and Jackson Pollock under the outsourcing, rubric of “Great”—an honorific attested to by the number of scholarly monographs devoted to on importance of wildlife in india, the artist in question—and the outsourcing, Great Artist is, of course, conceived of as one who has “Genius”; Genius, in turn, is resume portal thought of as an atemporal and mysterious power somehow embedded in thesis, the person of the Great Artist. 6 Such ideas are related to unquestioned, often unconscious, meta-historical premises that make Hippolyte Taine’s race-milieu-moment formulation of the dimensions of historical thought seem a model of essay in india sophistication.
But these assumptions are intrinsic to essay thesis, a great deal of art-historical writing. It is no accident that the crucial question of the conditions generally productive of great art has so rarely been investigated, or that attempts to investigate such general problems have, until fairly recently, been dismissed as unscholarly, too broad, or the province of some other discipline, like sociology. Extended! To encourage a dispassionate, impersonal, sociological and institutionally-oriented approach would reveal the entire romantic, elitist, individual-glorifying and monograph-producing substructure upon which the profession of essay art history is based, and theme treated literature which has only recently been called in to question by a group of younger dissidents. Underlying the outsourcing, question about woman as artist, then, we find the myth of the Great Artist—subject of a hundred monographs, unique, godlike—bearing within his person since birth a mysterious essence, rather like the golden nugget in Mrs. Grass’s chicken soup, called Genius or Talent, which, like murder, must always out, no matter how unlikely or unpromising the circumstances. The magical aura surrounding the representational arts and their creators has, of extended course, given birth to myths since the earliest times. Interestingly enough, the same magical abilities attributed by essay thesis, Pliny to the Greek sculptor Lysippos in antiquity—the mysterious inner call in early youth, the lack of any teacher but Nature herself—is repeated as late as the 19th century by extended essay, Max Buchon in his biography of Courbet. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! The supernatural powers of the artist as imitator, his control of strong, possibly dangerous powers, have functioned historically to set him off from others as a godlike creator, one who creates Being out of nothing. Ut Austin Mba Essay! The fairy tale of the Boy Wonder, discovered by an older artist or discerning patron, usually in the guise of a lowly shepherd boy, has been a stock-in-trade of artistic mythology ever since Vasari immortalized the young Giotto, discovered by the great Cimabue while the lad was guarding his flocks, drawing sheep on a stone; Cimabue, overcome with admiration by essay, the realism of the drawing, immediately invited the humble youth to be his pupil. Ut Austin! 7 Through some mysterious coincidence, later artists including Beccafumi, Andrea Sansovino, Andrea del Castagno, Mantegna, Zurbaran and Goya were all discovered in similar pastoral circumstances. Even when the young Great Artist was not fortunate enough to come equipped with a flock of sheep, his talent always seems to outsourcing essay, have manifested itself very early, and independent of any external encouragement: Filippo Lippi and Poussin, Courbet and Monet are all reported to have drawn caricatures in the margins of their schoolbooks instead of studying the required subjects—we never, of course, hear about the resume, youths who neglected their studies and scribbled in outsourcing essay thesis, the margins of their notebooks without ever becoming anything more elevated than department-store clerks or shoe salesmen.
The great Michelangelo himself, according to his biographer and pupil, Vasari, did more drawing than studying as a child. So pronounced was his talent, reports Vasari, that when his master, Ghirlandaio, absented himself momentarily from his work in Santa Maria Novella, and the young art student took the opportunity to draw “the scaffolding, trestles, pots of paint, brushes and the apprentices at their tasks” in of gang, this brief absence, he did it so skillfully that upon his return the master exclaimed: “This boy knows more than I do.” Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun’s immense following at the French court was largely due to the patronage of Marie-Antoinette, whom she has been credited with making sympathetic to outsourcing thesis, posterity through her portraits of the queen. Essay On Importance Of Wildlife In India! Marie-Antoinette de Lorraine-Habsbourg, Queen of France, and her children , 1781. As is so often the case, such stories, which probably have some truth in thesis, them, tend both to reflect and perpetuate the attitudes they subsume.
Despite any basis in fact of these myths about the early manifestations of Genius, the tenor of the tales is misleading. Ca2b Resume! It is thesis no doubt true, for example, that the young Picasso passed all the examinations for entrance to the Barcelona, and later to the Madrid, Academy of Art at the age of 15 in but a single day, a feat of causes of gang violence such difficulty that most candidates required a month of preparation. But one would like to essay, find out more about similar precocious qualifiers for art academies who then went on writing literature essay, to achieve nothing but mediocrity or failure—in whom, of outsourcing thesis course, art historians are uninterested—or to of gang, study in greater detail the role played by outsourcing, Picasso’s art-professor father in the pictorial precocity of his son. What if Picasso had been born a girl? Would Senor Ruiz have paid as much attention or stimulated as much ambition for achievement in a little Pablita? What is stressed in all these stories is the apparently miraculous, non-determined and a-social nature of artistic achievement; this semi-religious conception of the artist’s role is ca2b resume portal elevated to hagiography in the 19th-century, when both art historians, critics and, not least, some of the artists themselves tended to elevate the making of art into a substitute religion, the last bulwark of Higher Values in a materialistic world. The artist, in outsourcing thesis, the 19th-century Saints’ Legend, struggles against the most determined parental and social opposition, suffering the slings and arrows of social opprobrium like any Christian martyr, and ultimately succeeds against all odds—generally, alas, after his death—because from deep within himself radiates that mysterious, holy effulgence: Genius. Here we have the mad van Gogh, spinning out sunflowers despite epileptic seizures and near-starvation; Cezanne, braving paternal rejection and public scorn in thesis, order to revolutionize painting; Gauguin throwing away respectability and financial security with a single existential gesture to pursue his Calling in the tropics, or Toulouse-Lautrec, dwarfed, crippled and alchoholic [ sic ], sacrificing his aristocratic birthright in favor of the squalid surroundings that provided him with inspiration, etc. Now no serious contemporary art historian takes such obvious fairy tales at their face value.
Yet it is this sort of mythology about artistic achievement and its concomitants which forms the unconscious or unquestioned assumptions of scholars, no matter how many crumbs are thrown to social influences, ideas of the outsourcing, times, economic crises and essay of wildlife in india so on. Behind the most sophisticated investigations of great artists—more specifically, the art-historical monograph, which accepts the notion of the essay, Great Artist as primary, and ut austin questions the social and institutional structures within which he lived and worked as mere secondary “influences” or “background”—lurks the golden-nugget theory of outsourcing thesis genius and the free-enterprise conception of individual achievement. On this basis, women’s lack of major achievement in art may be formulated as a syllogism: If women had the golden nugget of artistic genius then it would reveal itself. But it has never revealed itself. Q.E.D. Data Envelopment Analysis Thesis! Women do not have the essay, golden nugget of artistic genius. Theme Writing Response Literature! If Giotto, the obscure shepherd boy, and van Gogh with his fits could make it, why not women? Berthe Morisot was a close friend of Manet and later married his brother. Eugene Manet on the Isle of Wight , 1875. Yet as soon as one leaves behind the world of essay thesis fairy-tale and self-fulfilling prophecy and, instead, casts a dispassionate eye on on importance of wildlife, the actual situations in outsourcing essay thesis, which important art production has existed, in the total range of its social and on importance of wildlife in india institutional structures throughout history, one finds that the thesis, very questions which are fruitful or relevant for the historian to ask shape up rather differently. Definition Meaning! One would like to ask, for instance, from what social classes artists were most likely to come at outsourcing thesis, different periods of art history, from what castes and sub-group.
What proportion of ca2b painters and sculptors, or more specifically, of outsourcing thesis major painters and sculptors, came from families in which their fathers or other close relatives were painters and sculptors or engaged in related professions? As Nikolaus Pevsner points out in his discussion of the French Academy in the 17th and 18th centuries, the transmission of the artistic profession from ca2b resume, father to outsourcing essay thesis, son was considered a matter of course (as it was with the Coypels, the Coustous, the envelopment, Van Loos, etc); indeed, sons of academicians were exempted from the customary fees for lessons. 8 Despite the noteworthy and dramatically satisfying cases of the thesis, great father-rejecting revoltes of the 19th century, one might be forced to resume portal, admit that a large proportion of outsourcing artists, great and not-so-great, in the days when it was normal for sons to follow in data envelopment analysis thesis, their fathers’ footsteps, had artist fathers. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! In the ca2b, rank of thesis major artists, the names of Holbein and of gang violence Durer, Raphael and Bernini, immediately spring to mind; even in outsourcing, our own times, one can cite the names of Picasso, Calder, Giacometti and envelopment thesis Wyeth as members of essay thesis artist-families. As far as the relationship of artistic occupation and social class is concerned, an essay in india, interesting paradigm for the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” might well be provided by trying to answer the question: “Why have there been no great artists from the aristocracy?” One can scarcely think, before the anti-traditional 19th century at least, of any artist who sprang from the ranks of any more elevated class than the upper bourgeoisie; even in the 19th century, Degas came from the outsourcing, lower nobility—more like the haute bourgeoisie, in envelopment thesis, fact—and only Toulouse-Lautrec, metamorphosed into essay the ranks of the data envelopment thesis, marginal by accidental deformity, could be said to have come from the loftier reaches of the upper classes. While the aristocracy has always provided the lion’s share of the patronage and the audience for art—as, indeed, the essay thesis, aristocracy of wealth does even in our more democratic days—it has contributed little beyond amateurish efforts to the creation of art itself, despite the fact that aristocrats (like many women) have had more than their share of educational advantages, plenty of causes of gang violence leisure and, indeed, like women, were often encouraged to dabble in thesis, the arts and even develop into ca2b respectable amateurs, like Napoleon III’s cousin, the Princess Mathilde, who exhibited at the official Salons, or Queen Victoria, who, with Prince Albert, studied art with no less a figure than Landseer himself. Could, it be that the little golden nugget—Genius—is missing from the aristocratic make-up in essay, the same way that it is from the feminine psyche? Or rather, is it not, that the kinds of demands and expectations placed before both aristocrats and women—the amount of time necessarily devoted to extended essay, social functions, the very kinds of activities demanded—simply made total devotion to professional art production out of the question, indeed unthinkable, both for upper-class males and for women generally, rather than its being a question of outsourcing genius and talent? When the right questions are asked about the conditions for producing art, of which the production of of gang violence great art is outsourcing essay thesis a sub-topic, there will no doubt have to on importance of wildlife in india, be some discussion of the situational concomitants of intelligence and thesis talent generally, not merely of artistic genius.
Piaget and others have stressed in thesis, their genetic epistemology that in the development of reason and in the unfolding of imagination in young children, intelligence—or, by implication, what we choose to call genius—is a dynamic activity rather than a static essence, and an activity of thesis a subject in a situation . As further investigations in the field of child development imply, these abilities, or this intelligence, are built up minutely, step by ca2b resume portal, step, from thesis, infancy onward, and the patterns of adaptation-accommodation may be established so early within the subject-in-an-environment that they may indeed appear to be innate to the unsophisticated observer. Such investigations imply that, even aside from meta-historical reasons, scholars will have to abandon the notion, consciously articulated or not, of individual genius as innate, and as primary to ca2b, the creation of art. Outsourcing Thesis! 9. The question “Why have there been no great women artists?” has led us to the conclusion, so far, that art is not a free, autonomous activity of a super-endowed individual, “influenced” by previous artists, and, more vaguely and superficially, by “social forces,” but rather, that the theme literature, total situation of art making, both in terms of the development of the art maker and in the nature and quality of the work of art itself, occur in essay, a social situation, are integral elements of ut austin mba essay questions this social structure, and are mediated and determined by specific and definable social institutions, be they art academies, systems of patronage, mythologies of the divine creator, artist as he-man or social outcast. The Question of the Nude.
We can now approach our question from a more reasonable standpoint, since it seems probable that the answer to why there have been no great women artists lies not in the nature of outsourcing thesis individual genius or the lack of ut austin questions it, but in the nature of given social institutions and outsourcing thesis what they forbid or encourage in various classes or groups of individuals. Let us first examine such a simple, but critical, issue as availability of the nude model to aspiring women artists, in essay on importance of wildlife in india, the period extending from the Renaissance until near the end of the outsourcing, 19th century, a period in which careful and prolonged study of the nude model was essential to causes violence essay, the training of every young artist, to the production of any work with pretentions to grandeur, and to the very essence of History Painting, generally accepted as the highest category of outsourcing art: indeed, it was argued by defenders of traditional painting in the 19th century that there could be no great painting with clothed figures, since costume inevitably destroyed both the essay of wildlife in india, temporal universality and the classical idealization required by great art. Needless to say, central to the training programs of the academies since their inception late in the 16th and early in the 17th centuries, was life drawing from the nude, generally male, model. In addition, groups of artists and outsourcing their pupils often met privately for life drawing sessions from the ut austin questions, nude model in their studios. In general, it might be added, while individual artists and private academies employed the female model extensively, the female nude was forbidden in almost all public art schools as late as 1850 and after—a state of affairs which Pevsner rightly designates as “hardly believable.” 10 Far more believable, unfortunately, was the complete unavailability to the aspiring woman artist of any nude models at all, male or female. As late as 1893, “lady” students were not admitted to life drawing at essay, the Royal Academy in London, and questions even when they were, after that date, the outsourcing essay, model had to be “partially draped.” 11. A brief survey of definition essay representations of life-drawing sessions reveals: an all male clientele drawing from the female nude in Rembrandt’s studio; men working from male nudes in 18th-century representations of academic instruction in The Hague and outsourcing essay Vienna; men working from the resume portal, seated male nude in outsourcing essay thesis, Bailly’s charming painting of the interior of Houdon’s studio at the beginning of the 19th century; Mathieu Cochereau’s scrupulously veristic Interior of David’s Studio , exhibited in the Salon of 1814, reveals a group of young men diligently drawing or painting from a male nude model, whose discarded shoes may be seen before the models’ stand.
The very plethora of surviving “Academies”—detailed, painstaking studies from the nude studio model—in the youthful oeuvre of artists down through the resume, time of Seurat and well into the 20th century, attests to the central importance of essay thesis this branch of study in the pedagogy and essay development of the talented beginner. The formal academic program itself normally proceeded, as a matter of outsourcing essay course, from copying from drawings and essay engravings, to drawing from casts of famous works of sculpture, to drawing from the living model. To be deprived of this ultimate stage of essay thesis training meant, in effect, to be deprived of the theme response, possibility of outsourcing essay thesis creating major art works, unless one were a very ingenious lady indeed, or simply, as most of the essay on importance in india, women aspiring to be painters ultimately did, to restrict oneself to outsourcing essay thesis, the “minor” fields of portraiture, genre, landscape or still-life. It is rather as though a medical student were denied the opportunity to dissect or even examine the naked human body. In Zoffany’s painting of the life-class at on importance, the Royal Academy, 1772, all the thesis, members are present except for Angelica Kauffmann, who for essay on importance of wildlife reasons of propriety has a stand-in—her portrait on the wall. There exist, to my knowledge, no representations of artists drawing from the nude model which include women in outsourcing essay, any role but that of the nude model itself, an interesting commentary on rules of propriety: i.e., it is all right for ut austin questions a (“low,” of course) woman to reveal herself naked-as-an-object for a group of men, but forbidden to a woman to participate in the active study and recording of outsourcing naked-man-as-an-object, or even of a fellow woman. An amusing example of this taboo on causes essay, confronting a dressed lady with a naked man is outsourcing essay thesis embodied in a group portrait of the of gang essay, members of the Royal Academy in London in 1772, represented by Zoffany as gathered in the life room before two nude male models: all the essay, distinguished members are present with but one noteworthy exception—the single female member, the renowned Angelica Kauffmann, who, for propriety’s sake, is treated writing literature essay merely present in effigy, in the form of a portrait hanging on the wall.
A slightly earlier drawing of Ladies in the Studio by the Polish artist Daniel Chodowiecki, shows the ladies portraying a modestly dressed member of their sex. Thesis! In a lithograph dating from the relatively liberated epoch following the French Revolution, the lithographer Marlet has represented some women sketchers in a group of students working from the male model, but the ca2b portal, model himself has been chastely provided with what appears to be a pair of bathing trunks, a garment hardly conducive to a sense of classical elevation: no doubt such license was considered daring in essay thesis, its day, and the young ladies in question suspected of doubtful morals, but even this liberated state of affairs seems to have lasted only a short while. In an English stereoscopic color view of the interior of a studio of about 1865, the definition essay, standing, bearded male model is outsourcing thesis so heavily draped that not an iota of his anatomy escapes from the ut austin questions, discreet toga, save for a single bare shoulder and arm: even so, he obviously had the grace to avert his eyes in the presence of the crinoline-clad young sketchers. The women in outsourcing, the Women’s Modeling Class at the Pennsylvania Academy were evidently not allowed even this modest privilege. Theme Treated Literature! A photograph by Thomas Eakins of essay thesis about 1885 reveals these students modeling from a cow (bull? ox? the nether regions are obscure in the photograph), a naked cow to be sure, perhaps a daring liberty when one considers that even piano legs might be concealed beneath pantalettes during this era (the idea of of wildlife introducing a bovine model into the artist’s studio stems from Courbet, who brought a bull into essay his short-lived studio academy in the 1860s). Only at the very end of the 19th century, in the relatively liberated and open atmosphere of Repin’s studio and circle in Russia, do we find representations of mba essay women art students working uninhibitedly from the nude—the female model, to outsourcing essay thesis, be sure—in the writing response, company of men.
Even in thesis, this case, it must be noted that certain photographs represent a private sketch group meeting in one of the women artists’ homes; in the other, the model is draped; and the large group portrait, a co-operative effort by on importance of wildlife in india, two men and two women students of Repin’s, is an imaginary gathering together of all of the Russian realist’s pupils, past and present, rather than a realistic studio view. I have gone into outsourcing essay thesis the question of the availability of the nude model, a single aspect of the automatic, institutionally-maintained discrimination against women, in data thesis, such detail simply to demonstrate both the universality of the discrimination against women and its consequences, as well as the institutional rather than individual nature of but one facet of the necessary preparation for achieving mere proficiency, much less greatness, in the realm of essay art during a long stretch of time. One could equally well examine other dimensions of the situation, such as the apprenticeship system, the academic educational pattern which, in France especially, was almost the only key to definition essay, success and which had a regular progression and set competitions, crowned by the Prix de Rome which enabled the young winner to work in the French Academy in that city—unthinkable for outsourcing essay thesis women, of data analysis course—and for which women were unable to compete until the end of the 19th century, by which time, in fact, the whole academic system had lost its importance anyway. It seems clear, to take France in the 19th century as an example, a country which probably had a larger proportion of women artists than any other—that is to say, in outsourcing essay thesis, terms of causes violence essay their percentage in the total number of thesis artists exhibiting in. the Salon—that “women were not accepted as professional painters.” 12 In the middle of the century, there were only a third as many women as men artists, but even this mildly encouraging statistic is deceptive when we discover that out of this relatively meager number, none had attended that major stepping stone to artistic success, the causes violence essay, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, only 7 percent had received any official commission or had held any official office—and these might include the most menial sort of work—only 7 percent had ever received any Salon medal, and none had ever received the Legion of Honor. 13 Deprived of thesis encouragements, educational facilities and rewards, it is almost incredible that a certain percentage of women did persevere and seek a profession in the arts. It also becomes apparent why women were able to compete on questions, far more equal terms with men—and even become innovators—in literature. While art-making traditionally has demanded the learning of specific techniques and skills, in a certain sequence, in thesis, an institutional setting outside the home, as well as becoming familiar with a specific vocabulary of iconography and motifs, the same is by no means true for the poet or novelist. Anyone, even a women, has to ca2b portal, learn the language, can learn to read and essay write, and can commit personal experiences to paper in questions, the privacy of one’s room.
Naturally this oversimplifies the outsourcing thesis, real difficulties and writing literature essay complexities involved in creating good or great literature, whether by man or woman, but it still gives a clue as to outsourcing thesis, the possibility of the existence of Emily Bronte or an data envelopment analysis thesis, Emily Dickinson, and the lack of their counterparts, at least until quite recently, in the visual arts. Of course we have not gone into the “fringe” requirements for major artists, which would have been, for outsourcing the most part, both psychically and socially closed to data analysis, women, even if hypothetically they could have achieved the requisite grandeur in the performance of their craft: in the Renaissance and after, the great artist, aside from participating in the affairs of an academy, might well be intimate. with members of humanist circles with whom he could exchange ideas, establish suitable relationships with patrons, travel widely and freely, perhaps politic and intrigue; nor have we mentioned the sheer organizational acumen and ability involved in running a major studio-factory, like that of Rubens. An enormous amount of self-confidence and worldly knowledgeability, as well as a natural sense of outsourcing thesis well-earned dominance and power, was needed by ut austin mba essay, the great chef d’ecole , both in the running of the production end of painting, and in the control and instruction of the essay thesis, numerous students and assistants. In contrast to the single-mindedness and commitment demanded of a chef d’ecole , we might set the image of the “lady painter” established by 19th-century etiquette books and reinforced by the literature of the times. It is precisely the ca2b, insistence upon a modest, proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism as a “suitable accomplishment” for the well-brought up young woman, who naturally would want to direct her major attention to the welfare of others—family and husband—that militated, and still militates, against any real accomplishment on the part of essay thesis women. It is this emphasis which transforms serious commitment to envelopment analysis thesis, frivolous self-indulgence, busy work or occupational therapy, and today, more than ever, in suburban bastions of the outsourcing essay thesis, feminine mystique, tends to distort the whole notion of what art is and meaning what kind of social role it plays. In Mrs. Ellis’ widely read The Family Monitor and Domestic Guide , published before the middle of the 19th century, a book of advice popular both in outsourcing, the United States and in England, women were warned against the snare of trying too hard to excel in any one thing: It must not be supposed that the writer is one who would advocate, as essential to woman, any very extraordinary degree of intellectual attainment, especially if confined to one particular branch of study. “I should like to excel in something” is a frequent and, to essay on importance of wildlife in india, some extent, laudable expression; but in what does it originate, and to what does it tend? To be able to do a great many things tolerably well, is of infinitely more value to a woman, than to be able to excel in any one.
By the former, she may render herself generally useful: by the latter, she may dazzle for an hour. By being apt, and tolerably well skilled in everything, she may fall into any situation in life with dignity and ease—by devoting her time to excellence in outsourcing essay, one, she may remain incapable of every other. So far as cleverness, learning, and knowledge are conducive to woman’s moral excellence, they are therefore desirable, and no further. All that would occupy her mind to the exclusion of better things, all that would involve her in ca2b portal, the mazes of flattery and admiration, all that would tend to draw away her thoughts from others and fix them on herself, ought to be avoided as an evil to her, however brilliant or attractive it may be in itself. 14. Lest we are tempted to laugh, we may refresh ourselves with more recent samples of exactly the same message cited in Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique , or in the pages of recent issues of popular women’s magazines. This advice has a familiar ring, of course: propped up by a bit of Freudianism and some tag-lines from the social sciences about the well-rounded personality, preparation for woman’s chief career, marriage, and the unfemininity of deep involvement with work rather than sex, it is still the outsourcing essay, mainstay of the Feminine Mystique. Such an data envelopment analysis thesis, outlook helps guard man from unwanted competition in his “serious” professional activities and outsourcing assures him of “well-rounded” assistance on the home front, so that he may have sex and family in addition to on importance in india, the fulfillment of his own specialized talent and excellence at thesis, the same time. As far as painting specifically is concerned, Mrs. Ellis finds that it has one immediate advantage for the young lady over its rival branch of artistic activity, music—it is quiet and disturbs no one (this negative virtue, of course, would not be true of sculpture, but accomplishment with the hammer and chisel simply never occurs as a suitable accomplishment for the weaker sex); in addition, says Mrs. Ellis, “it [drawing] is an employment which beguiles the mind of many cares…Drawing is, of all other occupations, the one most calculated to keep the mind from brooding upon self, and to maintain.
that general cheerfulness which is a part of social and domestic duty…It can also,” she adds, “be laid down and resumed, as circumstance or inclination may direct, and that without any serious loss.” 15 Again, lest we feel that we have made a great deal of progress in this area in portal, the past 100 years, I might bring up the remark of a bright young doctor who, when the conversation turned to his wife and her friends “dabbling” in essay, the arts, snorted: “Well, at least it keeps them out of trouble!” Now as in the 19th century, amateurism and lack of real commitment as well as snobbery and emphasis on chic on the part of women in their artistic “hobbies,” feeds the ut austin, contempt of the successful, professionally committed man who is engaged in “real” work and can, with a certain justice, point to his wife’s lack of seriousness in her artistic activities. For such men, the “real” work of women is only that which directly or indirectly serves the family; any other commitment falls under the rubric of diversion, selfishness, egomania or, at essay thesis, the unspoken extreme, castration. The circle is a vicious one, in which philistinism and frivolity mutually re-enforce each other. In literature, as in life, even if the woman’s commitment to violence essay, art was a serious one, she was expected to outsourcing essay thesis, drop her career and give up this commitment at the behest of love and marriage: this lesson is, today as in the 19th century, still inculcated in young girls, directly or indirectly, from the moment they are born. Even the determined and successful heroine of Mrs. Craik’s mid-19th-century novel about feminine artistic success, Olive , a young woman who lives alone, strives for of gang fame and independence and actually supports herself through her art—such unfeminine behavior is at least partly excused by outsourcing essay, the fact that she is a cripple and automatically considers that marriage is denied to her—even Olive ultimately succumbs to the blandishments of love and marriage. To paraphrase the words of Patricia Thomson in The Victorian Heroine , Mrs. Craik, having shot her bolt in treated writing response, the course of her novel, is content, finally, to outsourcing essay thesis, let her heroine, whose ultimate greatness the reader has never been able to doubt, sink gently into matrimony. “Of Olive, Mrs.
Craik comments imperturbably that her husband’s influence is to deprive the Scottish Academy of ‘no one knew how many grand pictures.’ ” 16 Then as now, despite men’s greater “tolerance,” the choice for ut austin questions women seems always to be marriage or a career, i.e., solitude as the price of success or sex and companionship at the price of professional renunciation. That achievement in the arts, as in any field of thesis endeavor, demands struggle and sacrifice, no one would deny; that this has certainly been true after the middle of the 19th century, when the traditional institutions of artistic support and patronage no longer fulfilled their customary obligations, is undeniable: one has only to think of Delacroix, Courbet, Degas, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as examples of great artists who gave up the distractions and obligations of family life, at least in part, so that they could pursue their artistic careers more singlemindedly. Yet none of them was automatically denied the pleasures of sex or companionship on account of this choice. Nor did they ever conceive that they had sacrificed their manhood or their sexual role on account of their singleness and ca2b portal singlemindedness in order to achieve professional fulfillment. But if the artist in question happens to be a woman, 1,000 years of guilt, self-doubt and objecthood have been added to the undeniable difficulties of being an artist in the modern world. The unconscious aura of titillation that arises from a visual representation of an outsourcing essay, aspiring woman artist in the mid-19th century, Emily Mary Osborne’s heartfelt painting, Nameless and Friendless , 1857, a canvas representing a poor but lovely and respectable young girl at a London art dealer, nervously awaiting the verdict of the pompous proprietor about the of wildlife, worth of her canvases while two ogling “art lovers” look on, is really not too different in its underlying assumptions from an overtly salacious work like Bompard’s Debut of the Model . The theme in both is innocence, delicious feminine innocence, exposed to outsourcing thesis, the world. It is the theme literature essay, charming vulnerability of the young woman artist, like that of the hesitating model, which is really the subject of Miss Osborne’s painting, not the value of the young woman’s work or her pride in it: the issue here is, as usual, sexual rather than serious. Always a model but never an artist might well have served as the thesis, motto of the seriously aspiring young woman in the arts of the 19th century. The monumental figures of The Church and The Synagogue from the causes essay, South Portal of the Cathedral of Strasbourg, ca. Outsourcing Essay! 1225, are attributed to Sabina von Steinbach, daughter of the portal, master-sculptor of the cathedral, who died before the completion of the outsourcing essay, work.
But what of the small band of heroic women, who, throughout the ages, despite obstacles, have achieved pre-eminence, if not the pinnacles of grandeur of a Michelangelo, a Rembrandt or a Picasso? Are there any qualities that may be said to have characterized them as a group and as individuals? While we cannot go into such an investigation in depth in this article, we can point to a few striking characteristics of women artists generally: they all, almost without exception, were either the daughters of artist fathers, or, generally later, in the 19th and 20th centuries, had a close personal connection with a stronger or more dominant male artistic personality. Neither of these characteristics is, of course, unusual for ca2b portal men artists, either, as we have indicated above in outsourcing essay thesis, the case of data envelopment thesis artist fathers and sons: it is simply true almost without exception for their feminine counterparts, at least until quite recently. From the outsourcing essay thesis, legendary sculptor, Sabina von Steinbach, in the 13th century, who, according to local tradition, was responsible for South Portal groups on the Cathedral of Strasbourg, down to Rosa Bonheur, the most renowned animal painter of the 19th century, and including such eminent women artists as Marietta Robusti, daughter of Tintoretto, Lavinia Fontana, Artemisia Gentileschi, Elizabeth Cheron, Mme. Of Gang! Vigee-Lebrun and Angelica Kauffmann—all, without exception, were the daughters of artists; in the 19th century, Berthe Morisot was closely associated with Manet, later marrying his brother, and Mary Cassatt based a good deal of her work on the style of her close friend Degas. Precisely the same breaking of traditional bonds and discarding of essay thesis time-honored practices that permitted men artists to of gang violence, strike out in directions quite different from those of their fathers in the second half of the 19th century enabled women, with additional difficulties, to be sure, to strike out on their own as well.
Many of our more recent women artists, like Suzanne Valadon, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Kaethe Kollwitz or Louise Nevelson, have come from non-artistic backgrounds, although many contemporary and near-contemporary women artists have married fellow artists. It would be interesting to investigate the role of benign, if not outright encouraging, fathers in the formation of women professionals: both Kaethe Kollwitz and outsourcing Barbara Hepworth, for ut austin mba essay questions example, recall. the influence of unusually sympathetic and supportive fathers on their artistic pursuits. In the absence of any thoroughgoing investigation, one can only gather impressionistic data about the presence or absence of rebellion against parental authority in women artists, and whether there may be more or less rebellion on the part of women artists than is true in the case of men or vice versa. One thing however is clear: for a woman to outsourcing essay thesis, opt for a career at all, much less for a career in art, has required a certain amount of unconventionality, both in the past and at present; whether or not the woman artist rebels against or finds strength in the attitude of her family, she must in any case have a good strong streak of rebellion in her to ca2b, make her way in the world of art at all, rather than submitting to outsourcing, the socially approved role of causes essay wife and mother, the only role to which every social institution consigns her automatically. It is only by adopting, however covertly, the “masculine” attributes of singlemindedness, concentration, tenaciousness and absorption in ideas and craftsmanship for outsourcing their own sake, that women have succeeded, and essay on importance in india continue to succeed, in the world of outsourcing art. It is instructive to examine in greater detail one of the literature, most successful and accomplished women painters of all time, Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899), whose work, despite the ravages wrought upon its estimation by outsourcing, changes of taste and ut austin mba essay questions a certain admitted lack of variety, still stands as an impressive achievement to anyone interested in the art of the 19th century and in the history of taste generally.
Rosa Bonheur is a woman artist in whom, partly because of the magnitude of her reputation, all the various conflicts, all the internal and outsourcing essay thesis external contradictions and struggles typical of her sex and profession, stand out in sharp relief. Like Constant Troyon, Bonheur aimed at an epical, “heroic” interpretation of animals which became extremely popular. Writing! The Horse Fair , ca. 1852–55. The success of Rosa Bonheur firmly establishes the role of institutions, and institutional change, as a necessary, if not a sufficient cause of achievement in art. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! We might say that Bonheur picked a fortunate time to become an artist if she was, at thesis, the same time, to have the disadvantage of being a woman: she came into her own in outsourcing, the middle of the 19th century, a time in ut austin questions, which the struggle between traditional History Painting as opposed to the less pretentious and more free-wheeling genre painting, landscape and outsourcing essay still-life was won by the latter group hands down. A major change in the social and institutional support for art itself was well under way: with the on importance in india, rise of the bourgeoisie and the fall of the cultivated aristocracy, smaller paintings, generally of every-day subjects, rather than grandiose mythological or religious scenes were much in demand. To cite the Whites: “Three hundred provincial museums there might be, government commissions for public works there might be, but the only possible paid destinations for t he rising flood of canvases were the homes of the bourgeoisie. History painting had not and outsourcing thesis never would rest comfortably in the middle-class parlor. Ca2b Resume! ‘Lesser’ forms of image art—genre, landscape, still-life—did.” 17 In mid-century France, as in 17th-century Holland, there was a tendency for outsourcing artists to attempt to achieve some sort of security in extended definition essay meaning, a shaky market situation by essay, specializing, by making a career out of a specific subject: animal painting was a very popular field, as the Whites point out, and Rosa Bonheur was no doubt its most accomplished and successful practitioner, followed in popularity only by the Barbizon painter Troyon (who at one time was so pressed for his paintings of cows that he hired another artist to data envelopment analysis, brush in the backgrounds). Rosa Bonheur’s rise to thesis, fame accompanied that of the Barbizon landscapists, supported by those canny dealers, the Durand-Ruels, who later moved on to the Impressionists. The.
Durand-Ruels were among the ca2b resume, first dealers to tap the expanding market in movable decoration for the middle classes, to use the Whites’ terminology. Rosa Bonheur’s naturalism and ability to capture the individuality—even the “soul”—of each of her animal subjects coincided with bourgeois taste at the time. Outsourcing Thesis! The same combination, of qualities, with a much stronger dose of sentimentality and ca2b portal pathetic fallacy to be sure, likewise assured the success of her animalier contemporary, Landseer, in England. Daughter of an outsourcing essay thesis, impoverished drawing master, Rosa Bonheur quite naturally showed her interest in art early; at the same time, she exhibited an independence of portal spirit and liberty of manner which immediately earned her the label of tomboy. According to outsourcing essay thesis, her own later accounts, her “masculine protest” established itself early; to what extent any show of persistence, stubbornness and ut austin vigor would be counted as “masculine” in the first half of the 19th century is outsourcing essay thesis conjectural. Rosa Bonheur’s attitude towards her father is somewhat ambiguous: while realizing that he had been influential in directing her towards her life’s work, there is no doubt that she resented his thoughtless treatment of her beloved mother, and in her reminiscences, she half affectionately makes fun of his bizarre form of social idealism. Raimond Bonheur had been an active member of the short-lived Saint-Simonian community, established in the third decade of the 19th century by “Le Pere” Enfantin at Menilmontant. Although in her later years Rosa Bonheur might have made fun of some of the more far-fetched eccentricities of the members of the community, and disapproved of the additional strain which her father’s apostolate placed on her overburdened mother, it is obvious that the Saint-Simonian ideal of equality for women—they disapproved of marriage, their trousered feminine costume was a token of emancipation, and their spiritual leader, Le Pere Enfantin, made extraordinary efforts to causes essay, find a Woman Messiah to share his reign—made a strong impression on her as a child, and may well have influenced her future course of behavior. “Why shouldn’t I be proud to be a woman?” she exclaimed to an interviewer. “My father, that enthusiastic apostle of humanity, many times reiterated to me that woman’s mission was to elevate the human race, that she was the Messiah of future centuries. It is to his doctrines that I owe the great, noble ambition I have conceived for the sex which I proudly affirm to be mine, and outsourcing thesis whose independence I will support to my dying day…” 18 When she was hardly more than a child, he instilled in her the ambition to surpass Mme.
Vigee-Lebrun certainly the most eminent model she could be expected to follow, and he gave her early efforts every possible encouragement. At the same time, the spectacle of her uncomplaining mother’s slow decline from sheer overwork and poverty might have been an even more realistic influence on her decision to control her own destiny and ca2b resume portal never to become the slave of a husband and children. What is particularly interesting from the modern feminist viewpoint is Rosa Bonheur’s ability to combine the essay thesis, most vigorous and unapologetic masculine protest with unabashedly self-contradictory assertions of “basic” femininity. In those refreshingly straightforward pre-Freudian days, Rosa Bonheur could explain to her biographer that she had never wanted to marry for fear of losing her independence—too many young girls let themselves be led to the altar like lambs to extended meaning, the sacrifice, she maintained. Yet at the same time that she rejected marriage for herself and implied an inevitable loss of selfhood for any woman who engaged in it, she, unlike the Saint-Simonians, considered marriage “a sacrament indispensable to the organization of society.” While remaining cool to offers of marriage, she joined in a seemingly cloudless, lifelong and apparently Platonic union with a fellow woman artist, Nathalie Micas, who evidently provided her with the companionship and emotional warmth which she needed. Obviously the presence of this sympathetic friend did not seem to demand the same sacrifice of genuine commitment to her profession which marriage would have entailed: in any case, the advantages of such an arrangement for women who wished to avoid the distraction of children in the days before reliable contraception are obvious. Yet at the same time that she frankly rejected the conventional feminine role of her times, Rosa Bonheur still was drawn into what Betty Friedan has called the “frilly blouse syndrome,” that innocuous version of the feminine protest which even today compels successful women psychiatrists or professors to adopt some ultra-feminine item of outsourcing clothing or insist on proving their prowess as pie-bakers.
19 Despite the fact that she had early cropped her hair and adopted men’s clothes as her habitual attire, following the example of George Sand, whose rural Romanticism exerted a powerful influence over her imagination, to extended definition, her biographer she insisted, and no doubt sincerely believed, that she did so only because of the specific demands of her profession. Indignantly denying rumors to the effect that she had run about the streets of Paris dressed as a boy in her youth, she proudly provided her biographer with a daguerreotype of herself at 16 years, dressed in perfectly conventional feminine fashion, except for outsourcing thesis her shorn head, which she excused as a practical measure taken after the death of her mother; “who would have taken care of my curls?” she demanded. 20. As far as the question of masculine dress was concerned, she was quick to reject her interlocutor’s suggestion that her trousers were a symbol of emancipation. “I strongly blame women who renounce their customary attire in envelopment thesis, the desire to make themselves pass for men,” she affirmed. “If I had found that trousers suited my sex, I would have completely gotten rid of my skirts, but this is not the. case, nor have I ever advised my sisters of the palette to outsourcing, wear men’s clothes in essay on importance of wildlife in india, the ordinary course of life.
If, then, you see me dressed as I am, it is not at essay thesis, all with the aim of making myself interesting, as all too many women have tried, but simply in order to facilitate my work. Remember that at data thesis, a certain period I spent whole days in the slaughterhouses. Indeed, you have to love your art in order to live in outsourcing thesis, pools of blood…I was also fascinated with horses, and where better can one study these animals than at the fairs…? I had no alternative but to realize that the garments of my own sex were a total nuisance. That is why I decided to ask the Prefect of Police for the authorization to wear masculine clothing. 21 But the costume I am wearing is my working outfit, nothing else. The remarks of fools have never bothered me. Nathalie [her companion] makes fun of them as I do. It doesn’t bother her at all to see me dressed as a man, but if you are even the slightest bit put off, I am completely prepared to put on a skirt, especially since all I have to theme treated writing response literature essay, do is to open a closet to find a whole assortment of feminine outfits.” 22. Yet at the same time Rosa Bonheur is forced to admit: “My trousers have been my great protectors…Many times I have congratulated myself for outsourcing essay thesis having dared to break with traditions which would have forced me to abstain from certain kinds of work, due to the obligation to drag my skirts everywhere…” Yet the famous artist again feels obliged to qualify her honest admission with an ill-assumed “femininity”: “Despite my metamorphoses of costume, there is not a daughter of Eve who appreciates the niceties more than I do; my brusque and ca2b resume portal even slightly unsociable nature has never prevented my heart from remaining completely feminine.” 23.
It is somewhat pathetic that this highly successful artist, unsparing of herself in outsourcing thesis, the painstaking study of animal anatomy, diligently pursuing her bovine or equine subjects in the most unpleasant surroundings, industriously producing popular canvases throughout the theme writing response, course of a lengthy career, firm, assured and incontrovertably masculine in her style, winner of a first medal in the Paris Salon, Officer of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Order of Isabella the essay, Catholic and the Order of ut austin mba essay Leopold of Belgium, friend of Queen Victoria—that this world-renowned artist should feel compelled late in life to justify and qualify her perfectly reasonable assumption of masculine ways, for any reason whatsoever, and to feel compelled to attack her less modest trouser-wearing sisters at the same time, in order to satisfy the demands of her own conscience. For her conscience, despite her supportive father, her unconventional behavior and the accolade of worldly success, still condemned her for not being a “feminine” woman. The difficulties imposed by such demands on the woman artist continue to essay, add to her already difficult enterprise even today. Compare, for example, the noted contemporary, Louise Nevelson, with her combination of utter, “unfeminine” dedication to her work and her conspicuously “feminine” false eyelashes; her admission that she got married at 17 despite her certainty that she couldn’t live without creating because “the world said you should get married.” 24 Even in the case of these two outstanding artists—and whether we like The Horsefair or not, we still must admire Rosa Bonheur’s achievement—the voice of the feminine mystique with its potpourri of ambivalent narcissism and guilt, internalized, subtly dilutes and subverts that total inner confidence, that absolute certitude and self-determination, moral and esthetic, demanded by the highest and most innovative work in art. We have tried to deal with one of the perennial questions used to challenge women’s demand for true, rather than token, equality, by examining the whole erroneous intellectual substructure upon which.
the question “Why have there been no great women artists?” is based; by questioning the validity of the formulation of ca2b resume portal so-called “problems” in general and the “problem” of women specifically; and then, by outsourcing thesis, probing some of the limitations of the extended definition essay, discipline of art history itself. Outsourcing Essay! Hopefully, by causes of gang violence essay, stressing the institutional —i.e. the public—rather than the outsourcing, individual , or private, pre-conditions for achievement or the lack of it in the arts, we have provided a paradigm for theme treated writing the investigation of other areas in the field. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! By examining in some detail a single instance of deprivation or disadvantage—the unavailability of nude models to women art students—we have suggested that it was indeed institutionally made impossible for women to achieve artistic excellence, or success, on the same footing as men, no matter what the potency of their so-called talent, or genius. The existence of a tiny band of successful, if not great, women artists throughout history does nothing to of gang violence, gainsay this fact, any more than does the existence of a few superstars or token achievers among the members of any minority groups. Outsourcing! And while great achievement is rare and questions difficult at best, it is still rarer and essay more difficult if, while you work, you must at mba essay, the same time wrestle with inner demons of self-doubt and guilt and outer monsters of ridicule or patronizing encouragement, neither of thesis which have any specific connection with the quality of the art work as such. What is important is mba essay questions that women face up to the reality of their history and of their present situation, without making excuses or puffing mediocrity. Disadvantage may indeed be an excuse; it is not, however, an intellectual position. Rather, using as a vantage point their situation as underdogs in the realm of grandeur, and outsiders in that of outsourcing thesis ideology, women can reveal institutional and intellectual weaknesses in general, and, at the same time that they destroy false consciousness, take part in the creation of institutions in which clear thought—and true greatness—are challenges open to anyone, man or woman, courageous enough to take the necessary risk, the leap into the unknown. 1. Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics , New York, 1970, and ca2b resume Mary Ellman’s Thinking About Women , New York, 1968 provide notable exceptions. 2. “Women Artists.” Review of thesis Die Frauen in die Kunstgeschichte by Ernst Guhl in essay of wildlife in india, The Westminster Review (American Edition), LXX, July, 1958, 91–104.
I am grateful to Elaine Showalter for having brought this review to thesis, my attention. 3. See, for ut austin mba essay questions example, Peter S. Walch’s excellent studies of Angelica Kauffmann or his unpublished doctoral dissertation, Angelica Kauffmann , Princeton, 1968, on the subject; for Artemisia Gentileschi, see R. Ward Bissell, “Artemisia Gentileschi—A New Documented Chronology,” Art Bulletin , L (June), 1968, 153–168. 4. New York, 1968. 5. John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women (1869) in Three Essays by outsourcing essay, John Stuart Miff, World’s Classics Series, London, 1966, p. 441. 6. For the relatively recent genesis of the emphasis on the artist as the nexus of causes violence essay esthetic experience, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition , New York, 1953, and outsourcing Maurice Z. Shrader, Icarus: The Image of the Artist in French. Romanticism , Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1961. 7. Writing Literature Essay! A comparison with the parallel myth for women, the Cinderella Story, is revealing: Cinderella gains higher status on the basis of a passive, “sex-object” attribute—small feet—whereas the Boy Wonder always proves himself through active accomplishment. Essay! For a thorough study of myths about artists, see Ernst Kris and Otto Kurz, Die Legende vom Kunstler: Ein Geschichtlicher Versuch , Vienna, 1934. 8. Nikolaus Pevsner, Academies of ut austin Art, Past and thesis Present , Cambridge, 1940, p. 96f. 9. Contemporary directions—earthworks, conceptual art, art as information, etc.—certainly point away from writing, emphasis on the individual genius and outsourcing essay his salable products; in art history, Harrison C. and Cynthia A. White’s Canvases and Careers: Institutional Change in essay, the French Painting World , New York, 1965, opens up a fruitful new direction of investigation, as did Nikolaus Pevsner’s pioneering Academies of outsourcing thesis Art . Ernst Gombrich and Pierre Francastel, in their very different ways, always have tended to view art and the artist as part of a total situation rather than in lofty isolation.
10. Theme Treated Writing Essay! Female models were introduced in the life-class in Berlin in 1875, in Stockholm in 1839, in Naples in outsourcing essay thesis, 1870, at the Royal College of Art in London, after 1875. Pevsner, op. Ut Austin Mba Essay! cit. , p. 231. Female models at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts wore masks to hide their identity. as late as about 1866—as attested to in a charcoal drawing by Thomas Eakins—if not later.
12. H. C. and C. A. White, op. cit. , p. 51. 14. Mrs. Outsourcing Essay! Ellis, The Daughters of England: Their Position in Society, Character, and ca2b resume portal Responsibilities (1844) in The Family Monitor , New York, 1844, p. Thesis! 35. 16. Violence! Patricia Thomson, The Victorian Heroine: A Changing Ideal , London, 1956, p. 77. 17. H. C. an d C . Essay! A. White, op. On Importance! cit. , p. 91 . 18. Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: Sa Vie, son oeuvre, Paris, 1908, p. 311. 19.
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique , New York, 1963, p. 158. 20. A. Klumpke, op. Essay! cit. Essay On Importance! , p. 166. 21. Paris, like many cities even today, had laws against impersonation on thesis, its books. 22. A. Klumpke, op. cit. , pp. Mba Essay! 308–309.
24. Cited in Elizabeth Fisher, “The Woman as Artist, Louise Nevelson,” Aphra , I (Spring), 1970, p. 32. Author: Linda Nochlin is professor of art history at Vassar. Outsourcing Essay Thesis! Her book on Realism (Penguin) will come out this winter. This article is based on a section of the anthology Woman in Sexist Society: Studies in Power and Powerlessness , to be published by Basic Books in April. A version of this story originally appeared in the January 1971 issue of ARTnews on ut austin questions, page 22 under the title “Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?” Linda Nochlin on outsourcing essay, Feminism Then and Now. Retrospective: Eight Artists Reply. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc.
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What’s so great about the outsourcing essay thesis, welfare state? ESSAY: The origins of state welfare were far from progressive, and in its new therapeutic form it is actually a barrier to of wildlife in india, human solidarity. I n the run-up to the UK General Election, spiked will publish a series of essays reposing political issues. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to essay, encourage people to rethink the on importance of wildlife, past, the present and the future. In this fifth essay, James Panton argues that the outsourcing essay thesis, social benefits of the welfare state are now more than outweighed by its social costs: diminished subjectivity, corroded communities, and increased state power.
With all the ‘tough talking’ in the General Election campaign about on importance which party is most capable of making drastic public spending cuts, there appears to be at least one piece of good news: the welfare state – that alleged crowning achievement of Britain’s postwar political consensus, which guaranteed citizens ‘protection from want’ from cradle to grave for more than 60 years – is safe. Whatever minimal and technical disagreements exist between the three main parties about how and when spending should be cut, there is one thing on which they are agreed: savings will be made and essay public expenditure will be cut without any deleterious effects on the provision of frontline welfare services in healthcare, education, support for children and families, and benefits for the needy. Thus New Labour pledges to ‘protect vital frontline services in health and education’ while bringing ‘borrowing down to causes essay, meet our commitments on halving the deficit’. The Conservatives promise to ‘cut the outsourcing essay, deficit, not the NHS’. The Liberal Democrats promise not only to reduce class sizes in schools but to ca2b, provide more funds ‘for things like one-to-one tuition and classes in the evenings’ while ‘protecting and improving the NHS’. On the outsourcing essay thesis, New Labour government’s Sure Start initiative for families and data young children, the only discussion seems to be about who will do most to expand it. Labour minister Ed Balls promises to defend Sure Start against thesis, Tory cuts, while the of gang violence, Tories deny the cuts accusation and actually promise to ‘strengthen Sure Start by recruiting thousands of new Sure Start health visitors’. Even on the question of thesis welfare benefits, where there is at least the appearance of a disagreement, none of the parties is proposing reducing service provision in any way. Some people will be pleased that the welfare state will pretty much remain intact – but there are many reasons why this apparent consensus on extended, the immediate future of the welfare state should concern us.
For a start, it is disingenuous to believe that welfare provisions can be maintained at current levels while at the same time making significant public-spending cuts. There is also the profoundly conservative assumption that cuts are essential in the first place, which assumes a future of outsourcing austerity and low rates of economic growth (see, for example, The austerity auction, by Rob Lyons and extended definition There is an alternative to austerity, by Daniel Ben-Ami). Guns aren’t to blame for essay thesis the horror in Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. But most troubling of essay meaning all is the fact that the leaders of all parties are united in essay thesis, their refusal even to consider the possibility of significantly reorganising, much less reducing, society’s reliance upon state welfare provision. Portal! The twin influences of economic recession and the exhaustion of political and state institutions give us the possibility of asking a number of hugely important questions about the welfare state: What kinds of social provisions do we want in society? How might they be (re)organised? What sort of new social institutions could guard individuals against the inevitable failings of twenty-first century capitalist society? Given the lack of vision in British politics today, it is no great surprise that these questions are not on the election agenda.
But there is deeper reason why real analysis of the role of the welfare state is absent. Essay! To raise any critical questions about the welfare state would require the extended essay meaning, political class to question the role it has played in a fundamental reorganisation of the relationship between state and outsourcing thesis citizens, radically transforming assumptions about what citizens are capable of and what role the envelopment analysis thesis, state can and should play in our lives. Over the past couple of decades, a new understanding of essay welfare has been put at the centre of the elite’s project to connect with, engage with and remould the citizenry. Where the old welfare state was largely about treated writing response literature essay providing citizens with the material things they needed to survive, the new welfare state is a far more therapeutic institution and is about redefining what it means to be a citizen and how citizens relate to the state. The old notion of the welfare state as a ‘safety net’ to help citizens cope with hardship assumed that individuals, families and communities were generally able to run their own lives most of the time. Social assistance, therefore, was designed to return people to a situation where they could get on with their lives unaided, as autonomous, capable human beings. But the model of welfare that has developed over the past two decades entirely rejects the idea that individuals have the capacity to run their lives. Welfare provision now starts from the outsourcing essay thesis, assumption that individuals and communities are incapable of managing their own health and envelopment analysis thesis lifestyles, family life, child-rearing and informal community relations without the outsourcing thesis, constant intervention of the state and its institutions to advise, train, counsel and (re)educate them. The change has been so profound that it is really no longer appropriate to talk about a ‘welfare’ state at all. In its place there has developed what former New Labour prime minister Tony Blair described in 2006 as an ‘enabling state’.
This new ‘enabling state’ might promote itself through the rhetoric of responsibility and empowerment, but in fact its impact on individuals and communities has been extremely disabling. Essay! Virtually every welfare-state intervention is now premised on the assumption that individuals are vulnerable, physically and psychologically incapacitated, and in need of thesis constant therapeutic intervention. Questioning the of gang, role of the outsourcing thesis, welfare state in our lives has never been more urgent. And to do this effectively, we must first understand what the welfare state was really all about in the past, and then consider the more recent transformation of state institutions from providers of discrete assistance and material resources into vehicles for therapeutic guidance. Of course, the welfare state, even in its traditional form, was always more than a mere safety net. Its interventions and provisions were often deeply problematic and were about more than providing material resources to the less well-off.
The welfare state has been romanticised a great deal in recent decades and has become bound up in Britain’s postwar understanding of itself as decent and caring. Many on the left in particular considered the data thesis, welfare project to be the first step on the road to socialism. However, it is important to essay, recognise that the ut austin mba essay questions, real motivation for building the welfare state had little to do with moral concerns about ensuring greater material equality or social justice, and certainly had nothing to do with creating a socialist Britain. In reality, the essay thesis, welfare state developed as an attempt to mitigate the failures of market society and to contain the threat of class conflict – it was driven by the interests of the state , not the interests of the citizenry. In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, certain sections of the liberal intelligentsia became concerned with the apparent injustices of laissez faire capitalism. The social liberal TH Green called on the state to ‘remove all obstacles’ to the individual development of ‘social capacity’, such as those caused by lack of education, ill health and housing (see Thomas Hill Green, Lectures on the Principle of Political Obligation , 1885). Research into poverty and extended meaning housing conducted by the social reformer Charles Booth and the young socialist Beatrice Webb, and Seebohm Rowntree’s study of poverty in York, in which he developed the argument that poverty was the result of low pay rather than the moral failings of the poor, all provided the statistical evidence and outsourcing thesis normative arguments for a developing moral, if paternalistic, concern with poverty. However, these concerns, put forward by various Quakers and liberal reformers, were not sufficient to motivate a fundamental reconceptualisation of the role of the state based on providing welfare and health to all. On their own these arguments did not give rise to a new welfare state. Instead, the welfare state emerged from some far more hard-nosed political concerns. In 1899, the political class was appalled to discover that, despite the apparent willingness of the British working man to enlist to fight in the Second Boer War, almost 25 per cent of volunteers were unfit for military service.
In Manchester alone, 8,000 of the extended definition essay, 10,000 men who volunteered were rejected on the grounds of ill-health and physical incapacity. Worse still, the difficulties experienced by those working men who did pass the basic fitness test and then struggled to defeat the less-experienced Boers made the elite worry that this might be the beginning of the end of Britain’s military greatness. How could Britain be great if its fighting men were so physically weak? There emerged a heated elite discussion about the degeneration of the British race, and how this might be turned around by improving the basic conditions of the working man. Equally important to the emergence of the idea of state-provided welfare was elite concern about the various challenges to Britain’s economic dominance in the world, especially from Germany. The growing economic might of the recently unified German state was, at least in part, a result of its commitment to ‘national efficiency’.
In the 1880s, motivated both by an attempt to create the conditions for maximum productivity and to contain social conflict, Bismarck introduced a range of state measures to thesis, provide health, accident, old-age and invalidity insurance for the working classes. Envelopment Thesis! These German welfare measures were the outsourcing essay thesis, model for the Liberal reforms made by governments under Herbert Asquith and extended definition essay David Lloyd George: the introduction of free school meals in 1906, the outsourcing thesis, introduction of data analysis a means-tested pension in 1908, the outsourcing, establishment of labour exchanges in 1909, and the National Insurance Act of data analysis 1911, which introduced a basic level of health insurance and unemployment benefit. Just as for essay thesis Bismarck, the acceptance by the British ruling class that the state should intervene in society to create the of gang, conditions for a more efficient capitalist economy went hand-in-hand with their increasing concern about the growing strength and radicalisation of the labour movement. For Britain’s rulers, a state-run social insurance system was far preferable to outsourcing thesis, the possible alternative: that the working classes might seek to transform their conditions by and for themselves. The project of transforming these early twentieth-century systems of social security and extended definition essay insurance into the institutions of state welfare that we recognise today began with the essay thesis, publication of the Beveridge Report in 1942. Almost immediately, the promise of a society of fully employed, healthy, educated and materially secure citizens – a society that had defeated the ‘giant evils of squalor, ignorance, idleness, want and disease’, as social reformer William Beveridge put it – became central to the ideological drive to keep British troops fighting in envelopment thesis, the Second World War. They were now seen as fighting towards a new kind of society. The principles and institutions of the welfare state were finally established with the thesis, Education Act of 1944, which created free secondary education and the basis for comprehensive schools; the Family Allowance Act of 1945; the National Insurance Act of 1946; and then the National Health Service, which was launched in 1948. Most of these provisions were enacted by the first-ever Labour majority government, but it was the Tory reformer RA ‘Rab’ Butler who introduced the education reforms. Butler and theme treated his fellow ‘One Nation’ Tories, who entered government in 1951, had no problem with the outsourcing, welfare model. On the contrary, their project of social unity and stability would depend upon it.
The aim of the Beveridge Report was to keep the capitalist economy afloat, not in any way to undermine it, and to establish the possibility of further growth and expansion. The general, postwar acceptance that society could be dominated to violence essay, such an extent by the state was doubtless made easier by the total domination of society by the ‘warfare state’ for the previous six years. Importantly for the elites, their pursuit of a new welfare-modelled state allowed for the even greater cooption of the labour movement, individuals and outsourcing thesis communities into a unified sense of Britain’s role in the world. The point of violence essay this brief historical survey is outsourcing not to suggest that the principles and causes violence essay reality of the essay thesis, welfare state brought no positive benefits. The National Health Service, premised on the idea of providing universal access to healthcare at the point of need, has played a significant role in both eradicating disease and significantly improving the resume, health of the population.
The introduction of outsourcing a comprehensive system of education provided, in theory at resume portal, least, access to rigorous learning and knowledge to everyone, regardless of essay class or social privilege. The social provision of material necessities and resources to individuals who, through no fault of their own, were unable to provide for themselves is an expression of the important humanist responsibility that society has to all of extended essay its members in times of need. The recognition that poverty, illness and unemployment are social problems, and thesis not the result of individual moral failings, was implicit in the model of welfare that was dominant in Britain from the end of the Second World War to the 1970s, and is an essential insight for anyone concerned with social justice. However, it is important to set the positive benefits of the welfare state against the constant potential for essay of wildlife in india the ever-greater intervention of the state in society, and the consequent domination and structure of outsourcing dependency that this establishes, to limit the capacity of individuals and communities to data envelopment, take control of their circumstances. By providing a buffer against the worst deprivations caused by poverty, unemployment and social alienation, the welfare state also plays a significant role in encouraging people to accommodate to their lot. The criteria by which any past, current or proposed welfare intervention should be judged is in terms of the capacity that it gives individuals to take greater control of their lives – to live the lives that they want to lead, with the means to take control of the outsourcing essay thesis, resources that they feel are necessary. On this basis, it would be wrong to essay, dismiss the gains of education, healthcare and material welfare benefits – when people are in need, a decent society should develop mechanisms to outsourcing thesis, meet those needs.
But it would be naive to overlook the hardnosed political origins of the questions, welfare state, and its role in de-radicalising and controlling working-class aspiration, and to leave unexplored the increasingly problematic role that a new therapeutic welfare state plays today. The old aspiration, amongst social reformers at least, to provide social mechanisms that might empower people to outsourcing essay thesis, take greater control of their lives has been entirely absent in the discussion and development of the welfare state over the past two decades. Indeed, the new ‘enabling state’, as Blair christened it, is a direct consequence of a diminished view of the capabilities of individuals and communities. Where the welfare state was in essence an attempt to treated essay, head off radical, working-class politics, the motivation for the transformation of the meaning of welfare in recent years has been a semi-conscious attempt by the state to engage with, connect to, and in numerous ways reshape and resocialise the citizenry. Let us consider two examples. The case of children and outsourcing essay families. One of the thesis, most progressive campaigns of the feminist movement in the 1970s and 80s was for essay the provision of universally accessible childcare on demand. At first sight, it might seem as if this demand has finally been achieved with Sure Start, the New Labour government’s ‘programme to deliver the best start in life for every child by bringing together early education, childcare, health and essay family support’.
Sure Start provides children’s centres (‘service hubs where children under five years old and their families can receive seamless integrated services and outsourcing essay thesis information’), through a guarantee of free ‘early education’ provision for three- and four-year-olds, and the promise of childcare provision for every child between the ages of three and 14, from 8am to 6pm. The only essay in india, party political disagreement over Sure Start today concerns who will do the most to outsourcing thesis, increase its funding and ability to provides services. However, two insidious ideas underpin the Sure Start initiative. First, the assumption is that most parents are at best ignorant of how to raise their children, and at worst are utterly dysfunctional. Of Gang! The second is a fatalistically deterministic view of child development – an idea that miscreant adults and broken communities are the essay thesis, result of ‘bad parenting’ from the earliest months of a child’s life.
Sure Start aims to meaning, create healthier children by ‘supporting parents to care for their children both before and after birth ’ [my emphasis]. In reality this involves the state teaching parents about the moral ills of smoking and drinking during pregnancy, and essay ensuring that children are fed the recommended five portions of fruit and veg a day, amongst other things. Sure Start even provides instructions to parents on how they should play with their children. Such intervention undermines the authority and autonomy of parents and encourages them to view child-rearing and family life as an activity which can only be undertaken under the careful guidance of state-sanctioned experts. More than any previous social-service interventions in family life, which were traditionally directed towards a relatively small section of very deprived families, Sure Start aims to engage with families across all social classes.
Sure Start assumes that state intervention is theme treated writing response literature essay essential to produce properly socialised individuals and to keep families together, while ignoring many other problems related to childcare provision, access to decent education and the financial burden of raising children. It is all about outsourcing therapeutically redirecting the violence essay, population towards the essay thesis, right way of thinking and behaving and parenting, rather than providing them with the things and finances they might need. Unemployment and incapacity. Over the past couple of years, society has been going through a deep economic recession, with the official level of definition meaning unemployment reaching nearly 2.5million people. Essay Thesis! Consequently there has been much material insecurity and hardship for a great many individuals. However, in our response to these hardships, we have moved a long way from the period of industrial labour militancy that dominated the recession of the 1970s, and which played a large part in bringing to an end the traditional postwar welfare consensus. As Brendan O’Neill has argued, unemployment has ceased to be a political issue to which we see the possibility of social and political solutions. In response to the current recession, the state is not readying troops of of gang violence armed men to maintain social order – instead it is training an army of counsellors and therapists to help the newly unemployed cope with their changed circumstances. NHS Direct call-centre operatives have been encouraged to listen out for signs of depression amongst callers who have lost their jobs, while Jobcentres have been given the authority to refer jobseekers for cognitive behavioural therapy, with a promise that such therapy will soon be offered onsite at Jobcentres themselves. These initiatives are only an expansion of the government’s stated intention, planned before the recession, to thesis, provide psychological therapies to the unemployed, not simply to extended essay, help them cope with unemployment, but to help them to ‘develop the essay, confidence’ to get back into work. Unemployment, in other words, is now seen as a problem of individual psychology rather than social and economic organisation.
The changing understanding of unemployment, from political failing to of wildlife, individual handicap, is outsourcing essay reflected in the fact that of the five million people currently out of work and claiming benefits in the UK, over 50 per cent are drawing Incapacity Benefit – they have been redefined as incapable of working rather than as being denied a job by the current social and theme treated writing economic framework. While political parties do still express concern about the outsourcing essay, rising bills for mba essay the expansion of welfare, behind their rhetoric there is no real attempt to encourage any autonomy or independence. Instead, the mechanisms through which the unemployed will apparently be ‘assisted’ back into work involve an ongoing process of training, mentoring and support, which will continue even once work has been found. In other words, the assumption is that state intervention and support will be needed in order to maintain an individual’s capacity for work and employment. The widely held assumption that many unemployment and incapacity claimants are cynically manipulating the welfare system misses the extent to which individuals have been encouraged by outsourcing essay thesis, the new welfare state to understand themselves in terms of their physical incapacities and psychological vulnerabilities. That unemployment has come to ca2b resume, be understood as a problem of individual incapacity and community attitudes and culture, rather than of social organisation, is expressed in the Conservative Party’s diagnosis that ‘in many parts of the country, worklessness is being passed from outsourcing thesis, generation to generation’. Here, the data envelopment analysis thesis, children of unemployed families are understood as being socialised by a degenerate culture; such children are seen as being less likely to outsourcing, achieve at school and more likely to end up as workless in resume portal, the future. Like the outsourcing essay thesis, assumption that the abused child becomes the adult abuser, unemployment is seen to be a psychological problem caused by a failure of appropriate parenting and poor socialisation.
In some ways, this takes us back to the old idea of poverty as a moral failing (or in this instance a psychological failing) rather than as a social problem – the new therapeutic state is taking us backwards. The idea that society can and should provide material welfare for people who need assistance from time to time is a positive one. But a welfare model built on the principles of therapeutic intervention results not in greater individual enablement and autonomy, but in the further individuation of social problems. Resume Portal! This outlook suggests that individuals are generally incapable of organising their lives – and this risks becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy, as individuals really do come to essay, be increasingly dependent upon portal, the state to outsourcing, mediate, regulate and give counsel on the most common and everyday activities. The creation of a society in a condition of ca2b portal such dependency is a truly demoralising waste of people’s lives and energies. However, for the state to try to change this situation, to allow people to act as capable and autonomous individuals, would be to challenge the very foundation upon which the state has sought to build its legitimacy in our post-political climate. We need a serious political debate about dismantling large sections of the welfare state.
This does not mean that we should slash and burn welfare provision in the name of balancing the government’s books. It means interrogating how the welfare state has come to essay thesis, have an envelopment analysis thesis, almost entirely corrosive role upon the individuals and communities who are subject to it. Far from being an ‘enabling state’ as Blair suggested, what we now have is thesis a disabling state. The debate we must initiate needs to move beyond the ut austin questions, limited political imagination that dominates both left and right. The state is neither the only institution that can guarantee the wellbeing of the citizenry, nor can we rely on the market consistently to provide for essay individuals. On Importance! Rather than understanding the current situation as a reason for despair, we ought to essay thesis, embrace the envelopment analysis, very positive challenge that rejecting the interventions of the state would force us to outsourcing thesis, confront: how we might begin to build a new set of public institutions and of gang essay bodies, through which, acting in concert as citizens, we could begin to decide what kinds of welfare provisions we might actually need, and what kind of society we might really want to essay thesis, live in.
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Example Of Essay On Self Description Essays and Research Papers. Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and being courageous. With these qualities in essay, mind, it is easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in mba essay questions, his life and work. He was born in essay thesis, Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and mathematics.
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?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an response essay, ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from essay, generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of portal sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and outsourcing thesis many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. the environment (regulatory, political, or market-oriented) keeps executives from adapting new strategies so that their organizations can thrive. . Executives may fail to seek information when they are motivated to data analysis thesis, favor a particular outcome. Essay Thesis! For example , when the Bush administration decided to invade Iraq, senior U.S. Treated! government officials were caught up in their own bounded awareness and did not search for outsourcing, information that would argue against on importance in india, an invasion. Outsourcing! Because of this, these officials failed to. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1604 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for mba essay, making excuses is outsourcing, seldom good for questions, anything else.” -- Ben Franklin.
As early as the outsourcing thesis . founding of the United States of America, Mr. Ca2b Resume Portal! Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and it negative effects on their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. In a day there are 24 hours, and time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. bear all of the burdens of old age that Dorian would have originally had to experience. “The portrait is the main symbol at work here. Essay Thesis! It's kind of treated essay a . living allegory, a visible interpretation of Dorian's soul. the outsourcing picture represents Dorian's inner self , which becomes uglier with each passing hour and with every crime he commits.”(“The Picutre of Dorian Gray: Symbolism. ” par.
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?Tyler Wilson Professor Kabaji Freshman Composition Description of A Place 27 June 2015 Essay Preliminary Work Please answer the . Ut Austin Questions! following questions before typing your essay : 1. What topic did you choose from the homework section? A supermarket/local park/barber/salon 2. What is the thesis statement of this essay ? With every visit, I am guaranteed to find kids enjoying the well-built outdoor play area, families feeding the ducks and geese, retired men relaxing in the shade with their fishing rods. Anatidae , Duck , Goose 987 Words | 4 Pages. Self -Reliance Megan Delgado P.5 Make-up The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines self -reliance as reliance . on one's own efforts, and abilities; Personal independence. Synonyms in the thesaurus include aptitude and ability to pertain independence. Yet self -reliance is so much more than it's definition or synonyms; It doesn't exactly mean what the word itself states Reliance on oneself.
It has a wide variety of interpretation and complexity than any definition provided for you. Human , Individual responsibility , Meaning of life 802 Words | 3 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and outsourcing essay context of your article. Mba Essay! Organize your ideas and essay details effectively. Of Gang Violence! Include specific details that . clearly develop your article.
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?In this essay , it is about the journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. In the following, I am going to summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article. In the outsourcing thesis second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Self - Reflective Essay For my self -reflective essay , I chose to cover and questions analyze three . Essay! academic articles instead of a book.
A lot of the concept and readings we discussed during this class have sparked an interest in me wanting to learn more about how certain aspects of the media effect certain groups of causes of gang essay people. The first two articles, I will discuss are more specific and in depth studies dealing with the effects of the media on African American Women. The last article, is a study on. African American , Black people , Body shape 2100 Words | 6 Pages. a mother as the one that takes care of the outsourcing essay thesis home. Theme Treated Response! Others may complain that their mother is the one that is constantly nagging. Through the essay thesis times constantly . changing and my own life experience, my view on ut austin mba essay, a mother is outsourcing thesis, above and beyond the in india typical description . A mother is the strongest person a child will encounter. When I think of my mother, the first thing that comes to mind is her striking appearance. She is the epitome of a brown-eyed bombshell. My mother has long, perfect legs to match her beautifully. English-language films , Family , Father 518 Words | 2 Pages.
Exploring the essence of self in the western context Udit Agarwal N1 300278 Principles of Philosophy amp; Critical . Thinking 2013-5 Statement of authorship I certify that this literature review is my own work and contains no material which has been accepted for the award of outsourcing thesis any degree or diploma in any institute, college or university. Moreover, to essay meaning, the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where. Aristotle , Consciousness , David Hume 1810 Words | 6 Pages. ? Description In an essay of 1000-1200 words, sum up your own thoughts and reactions to the progress of American illustration. As . in Project 3, illustrate your essay with relevant images from the class or from your own independent research. Remember to outsourcing essay, caption the images. Use the example from Project 3 as your guide. Ca2b Resume Portal! Focus on what we covered in the class and consider the essay thesis following questions as you assess what you've learned: Progress and change: How has American illustration developed over the. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Illustrator , Adobe Systems 842 Words | 2 Pages.
Sounds for Description (an essay about Prosody) onomatopoeia, rhythm, stress, and meter. These effects can take poetry to a completely different level, beyond only imagery. In the poem, ?The Word Plum,? . by Helen Chasin, examples of alliteration and onomatopoeia are used to bring her subject, a plum, to life. Envelopment! In the first line, Chasin begins with a very basic description of the word ?plum?: ?The word plum is delicious?. The interesting thing is, she?s not even describing the fruit, but the word. The word ?delicious? has an essay, ?l?, as does the word.
Alliteration , Bite , Orthography 833 Words | 3 Pages. Self Strengthening Movement Essay. China’s Self -Strengthening Movement (1860 - 1894) is often regarded as a failure. To what extent do you agree with this assessment? ‘Why are . the Western nations small and yet strong? What are we large and yet weak? We must search for the means to become their equal . At first they may take the foreigners as their teachers and models; then they may come to the same level and be their equals; finally they may move ahead and surpass them. Definition Essay Meaning! Herein lies the way to self -strengthening.’1 Following.
China , Empress Dowager Cixi , First Sino-Japanese War 2019 Words | 6 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Forms and styles This section describes the outsourcing essay different forms and on importance of wildlife styles of essay writing. . These forms and styles are used by outsourcing essay thesis, a range of authors, including university students and professional essayists. Of Gang! Cause and effect The defining features of a cause and effect essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, careful language, and outsourcing chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subject. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1402 Words | 5 Pages. Self Reflective Essay After reading the case study I’m still me I have really thought in a different manner to a couple . different issues. I never really opened my eyes to people with disabilities and the problems they face on a daily basis until after reading this story of essay on importance these two brave men. It has made me think about the problems that they face growing up after being born with these disabilities and also the struggles that people have to face when they don’t get disabled until the long years. Disability 1156 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on outsourcing essay, self believe and writers.
Cc: Writer’s memo Date: October 17, 2014 Re: Belief Essay During this Assignment I’ve learned that as a . Envelopment Thesis! writer you can control the speed and mood of your reader by using commas, periods, etc. learned that to essay thesis, write an effective Essay you should first drift the topic of your essay for example make a diagram of the topic or issues you are going to resume portal, talk about in your Essay . The topic should be in the middle and start to think about the subjects that are related. College , Graduation , High school 1504 Words | 5 Pages. statement in this argument? 3. What’s the topic sentence of the outsourcing essay thesis writer’s personal view? 4. Ut Austin Questions! Note down some of the transitions used in essay, this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in causes violence essay, this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the following devices in essay thesis, this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of each.
Annotate the essay to show these features. Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. Adriane Whelchel 26 June 2012 Critical Analysis of Frederick Douglass’ “How I Learned to data envelopment analysis thesis, Read and Write” How I Learned to Read and outsourcing essay Write by envelopment thesis, Frederick . Douglass is a literary nonfiction essay that focuses on a small period of outsourcing thesis Douglass’ life. Resume Portal! The essay begins with Douglass living with Master Hugh’s family and it’s here that Hugh’s wife began teaching Douglass the alphabet. Master Hugh put an end to outsourcing thesis, the teaching sessions but that didn’t stop Douglass from finding a way to learn how to read and write. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , First-person narrative 1132 Words | 3 Pages.
Self Assessment / Reflective Essay. Assignment #7: Assignment #7: Self Assessment / Reflective Essay Strayer University Abstract In this . essay I’m sharing with you some of the causes violence struggles I endured as a teenager and I explain how I learned from a lot of the mistakes I made. Outsourcing Thesis! Assignment # 7 Self Assessment / Reflective Essay Looking back and reflecting on my life I can now see that I have made many mistakes. Most of the mistakes I have made were due to my lack of thesis patience and never listening to older family. Adolescence , Education , Educational psychology 998 Words | 3 Pages. Self Reflective Essay I narrowed my value list down to three values. My values being ranked in importance to me are: family, . Essay! honesty and essay meaning striving for outsourcing essay, excellence. Even though I only write about ut austin questions three values, I am very complex and there are many virtues that I hold deep to heart. Being a single mother, I will try to teach my son the thesis best virtues and with that he can choose what values to hold high.
I value family first; I am a very fair person and know the influence of family cannot be overlooked. Ethics , Family , Goal 1071 Words | 3 Pages. that if there is more gun control then violent crimes, like rape, against women will decrease. Feminist have mentioned that guns play a small role in the . Causes Of Gang Violence! violence against women. Feminist would say that women are in most need to be handling a gun for self -defense. Most feminists discourage gun ownership. A political theory commonly used in gun control is liberalism. I think that a very good solution to gun control would be that there should be a background check on a person before they can purchase. Concealed carry in the United States , Firearm , Gun 772 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs.
Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . Essay! The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to of wildlife, his biography on IMDb. Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Jane Thomas Critical Self Reflective Essay Every individual has something that defines who they are by the things that . they do. All these events that we experience in our lifetime whether it be good or bad, assisted in developing the people we are today. This can be described as identity, my life revolves around my family, my school life but mostly my culture. According to Ask.com cultural identity can be described as “The identity of a group, culture or an individual where. Culture , Emotion , Family 990 Words | 3 Pages. Examples of Methods of thesis Expanding Technical Description. It can also affect relationships outside of the family; many people have lost life long friends whether it is due to resume, foolish arguments and essay thesis behavior or . possibly death.
Lastly, drinking has negative effects on self -esteem and rational thinking. People become more self -centered, develop low self -esteem, doing things or behaving in ways that they would not normally. They have little or no regard to the outcomes of what is said or done when they grow reliant on getting that alcohol high. The negative effects. Acoustic guitar , Bass guitar , Cascading Style Sheets 1433 Words | 4 Pages.
Christopher Mirtia Computer Systems Institute 28 November 2011 Self -Discovery Essay Self - discovery is a . process used to find the main skills and interests needed to succeed in a particular career area. Data Envelopment Thesis! As a future IT specialist, self -discovery and self -awareness play a big part in my decision. Some skills that I discovered for thesis, my field includes: the data envelopment analysis thesis ability to outsourcing essay thesis, learn the causes of gang violence essay basic concepts needed to outsourcing essay, succeed. Next, I would need to know how to apply them correctly. Lastly, I need the determination. Computer , Critical thinking , Learning 874 Words | 3 Pages. Self -Identity: The Positives and causes violence essay Negatives Is self - identity created over time, or are we born with it? Self . Essay Thesis! identity, also known as self concept, self perspective or self construction refers to how a person views themselves. Rebecca J. North and mba essay William B. Thesis! Swann are both professors at treated response University of Texas in Austin, Texas.
In their article “ Self Verification 360 degrees: Illuminating the Light and Dark Sides” they explain the self verification theory. North and outsourcing essay thesis Swann explain, “ Self verification. Conceptions of treated response self , Identity , Self 1699 Words | 5 Pages. Frances Robinson English 100 Self -Reflective Essay Self -Reflective Essay . In my portion of the presentation I tried to outsourcing, give my audience background knowledge on Kevin Hart because some people may or may not know him and if I wouldn’t have told my listeners the extended background of his life and who he is, it would have left them confuse and still wondering who this man was. In my presentation I wanted to outsourcing essay, break down his life from beginning to end. There was so much. Education , English-language films , Essay 831 Words | 5 Pages. Research Paper: Self Esteem Should high self -esteem be a goal in society? This question is raised often in extended definition essay, the . essay being reviewed, and in the end is the outsourcing thesis question you are left asking yourself.
Self -esteem is literally defined by how much value people place on definition essay, themselves (Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, Vohs, 2003). High self -esteem has become a growing craze ever since the essay 1970's, turning from a ?forbidden sin' to a ?way of life', Baumeister et al (2003). The essay on self esteem poses the. Better , Causality , Happiness 1491 Words | 4 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the response literature best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to outsourcing essay thesis, death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at an all time low and you can’t see any point in delaying the inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for definition essay meaning, patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. Personal Essay Writing Help Writing a personal essay can be a really daunting task. Indeed, this essay type . differs from other creative texts and essays . Anyone who reads an essay should see a real person behind the outsourcing thesis lines and words. It is essay, not easy to express your own thoughts and outsourcing describe life or even experiences with words as there are things that seem to need no description (like personal feelings). So, when you are sitting down to write an essay , you need to remember that you have to express. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1812 Words | 5 Pages. ?Personal Self -Improvement Many individuals have presented information on how to enhance your life. These thoughts date back to the days of . ancient Greek’s philosopher Aristotle and his viewpoints.
These thoughts are also as new as Deepak Chopra’s 20th century viewpoints and everything in between. Despite the differences in mba essay questions, time and outsourcing thesis culture, the way of data analysis thesis thinking for outsourcing essay, personal life advancement has remained similar. Ca2b! These ideas, concepts, and techniques will contribute to outsourcing essay, my personal self -improvement. Ethics , Meaning of life , Mind 2404 Words | 6 Pages. health care team, on the levels of ca2b health care (acute, sub-acute, home care) and advanced directives for example : health directives, EPA. . Social workers may also have to facilitate decision making on behalf of outsourcing essay patients and families, especially in a time of theme treated response essay crisis or making end of life decisions. The social worker role is also advocating for the patient and family needs in outsourcing essay thesis, different settings, for of gang violence, example , inpatient, outpatient, home and in outsourcing, the community. Stresses and on importance burnout? In 1995 Pearlman and. Health care , Health care provider , International Federation of Social Workers 2479 Words | 7 Pages. Self Efficacy in essay thesis, Sport- Misty Hyman Example.
This essay will describe the impact of self -efficacy on 200m butterfly swimmer Misty Hyman. It will show how Bandura’s theory . explains Misty’s performance in ut austin mba essay, the Olympic Games in Sydney in outsourcing essay thesis, 2000. This theory will be described in data envelopment analysis, details and linked with Misty Hyman performance. Misty Hyman is an American swimmer who won the gold medal in 200m butterfly in the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. Outsourcing! Misty wasn’t expected to succeed because she had to beat Susie O’Neal –world record holder and Olympic medallist. Essay On Importance In India! Moreover.
1968 Summer Olympics , 2000 Summer Olympics , 2004 Summer Olympics 1848 Words | 4 Pages. Therapist Self -Disclosure 1 Running head: THERIPIST SELF -DISCLOSURE IN GROUP THERAPY Therapist . Self -Disclosure 2 Abstract The effects that counselor self -disclosure can have on group members and the appropriateness of when to use self disclosure will be explained in this paper. The author will discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise when counselors divulge too much information, as well as a discussion of what the client's perceptions may be of such disclosure and the positive. Counseling , Ethics , Interpersonal relationship 1732 Words | 5 Pages.
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7 Techniques from essay Creative Writing You Can Use to Improve Your Essays. You wouldn’t have thought that essays have much in common with creative writing. Creative writing, by definition, involves being ‘creative’: making things up, letting your imagination run wild. Essays are about being factual and objective, communicating ideas and ut austin mba essay questions arguments in the clearest way possible and attempting to thesis enhance the reader’s knowledge, rather than their imagination. But while the literary devices and colourful tales we associate with creative writing are indeed out of place in an essay, these two very different kinds of writing actually have a few similarities. Above all, they’re both meant to be read by other people, and that means that they need to sustain the reader’s interest. So, are there any writing techniques you can borrow from creative writing to extended help make your essays more interesting and original? Yes there are, and in this article, we’re going to show you how. Chances are your teacher or examiner will have a lot to read – so keep them interested. With creative writing, as with any kind of writing, your reader is your most important consideration.
You need to know and understand whom you’re writing for if you’re to outsourcing essay do a good job of treated writing literature essay, keeping them interested. Let’s think for a moment about the kind of person you’re writing for when you’re writing an essay and outsourcing what you need to do to of gang violence write specifically for them: Teachers or university lecturers – they’re going to be marking your essay, so it needs to answer the question effectively. They’ve set the question and they probably have a pretty good idea of how you’re going to essay answer it – so be original and on importance of wildlife unpredictable; catch them by surprise with an essay thesis unusual approach or structure. They’re going to be reading many other responses to the same question – so they may well be bored by the time they get to yours. Keep them interested! They’re probably going to be pressed for time – so they won’t have time to reread badly written passages to data analysis thesis try to understand what you’re getting at. Keep your writing easy to read, succinct and to the point. What all these points boil down to is the importance of keeping your reader interested in what you have to say. Since creative writing is all about holding the outsourcing thesis, reader’s interest, there must be some lessons to be learned from it and treated writing response literature essay techniques that can be applied within the outsourcing, more limited style constraints of the academic essay. We’ll now turn to data analysis what these are.
Yves Lavandier argues that, although traditionally divided into five acts, Hamlet consists of three dramatic acts. The three-act structure is a writing device used extensively in modern writing, including for film and outsourcing television dramas. Envelopment Analysis Thesis? These ‘acts’ aren’t as distinct as acts in a play, as one follows seamlessly on from another and the audience wouldn’t consciously realise that one act had ended and another began. The structure refers to outsourcing essay thesis a plotline that looks something like this: Set-up – establishes the characters, how they relate to each other, and theme treated literature essay the world they inhabit.
Within this first ‘act’, a dramatic occurrence called an ‘inciting incident’ takes place (typically around 19 minutes into a film) involving the principal character. They try to deal with it, but this results in another dramatic occurrence called a ‘turning point’. This sets the scene for the rest of the story. Confrontation – the turning point in the previous ‘act’ becomes the outsourcing essay, central problem, which the main character attempts to of gang essay resolve – usually with plenty of adversity thrown their way that hampers their efforts. In a murder mystery, for example, this act would involve the thesis, detective trying to solve the murder. Ca2b Portal? The central character – with the help of supporting characters – undergoes a journey and develops their knowledge, skills or character to a sufficient degree to be able to overcome the problem. Resolution – the climax of the outsourcing, story, in which the drama reaches a peak, the problem is overcome, and loose ends are tied up. This structure sounds all very well for made-up stories, but what has it got to do with essay-writing? The key similarities here are: The central argument of your essay is the ca2b resume, equivalent of the main character. The essay equivalent of the set-up and resolution are the introduction and conclusion.
The inciting incident in an essay encourages you to get to the point early on in the outsourcing essay thesis, essay. The equivalent of character development in the second act is essay meaning developing your argument. The equivalent of the outsourcing, supporting characters is the envelopment analysis thesis, evidence you refer to in your essay. The tornado is the inciting incident in the Wizard of Oz – so to outsourcing take the analogy a little further, the longer you leave your essay before you get to the point, the longer you leave your reader standing around in on importance, dull black-and-white Kansas, waiting for something to thesis happen. So, applying the of wildlife, three-act structure to an essay gives you something like this: Set-up – the introduction. Outsourcing Essay? This establishes what you’re talking about, setting the scene. The ‘inciting incident’ could be the introduction of evidence that contradicts a common theory, or the highlighting of a central disagreement in how something is interpreted. Confrontation – you discuss the different problems surrounding the topic you’re writing about. You develop the argument using various bits of on importance of wildlife in india, evidence, moving towards an overall conclusion. Thesis? Resolution – the conclusion.
You summarise and resolve the argument with your own opinion, by coming down on one side or the other, having weighed up the evidence you’ve discussed. You could perhaps tie up loose ends by offering an alternative explanation for evidence that doesn’t sit with your conclusion. Using this structure keeps you focused on the central point, and on importance in india stops you from waffling, because everything you write is working towards resolving your argument. The use of the inciting incident in the first ‘act’ encourages you to get to the point early on in your essay, thereby keeping the outsourcing, reader interested. The principles of ut austin mba essay, good plot-writing are centred around the connection between different events that show cause and essay thesis effect, and this central tenet of the three-act structure has obvious parallels with the way in which essays work through presenting evidence in support of arguments. A murder mystery novel might start with the murder and then establish the build-up in flashbacks. An oft-spouted piece of advice in ut austin, creative writing is to use an attention-grabbing opening. Outsourcing? One way of doing this is to ut austin start with a ‘flashback’, which could disrupt the thesis, chronology of meaning, events by transporting the outsourcing, reader directly back to the midst of the action, so that the extended definition essay, story begins with maximum excitement.
In a murder mystery, for instance, the writer might skip a slow build-up and instead use the murder itself to form the opening of the novel, with the rest of the story charting the efforts of the thesis, detective to uncover the perpetrator and perhaps telling the events prior to the murder in a series of flashbacks. The same principle can be applied to essays, though it’s easier to use in some subjects than others. To take an example, let’s say you were writing about how the portal, First World War started. Rather than building up slowly with the various factors, an attention-grabbing opening could (briefly) describe the drama of the Battle of the Somme, perhaps citing some statistics about the number of outsourcing essay thesis, men involved and killed, and quoting some war poetry about the horrors faced by the soldiers on the Front Line. Then, to introduce the resume, purpose of the essay and launch into your argument about what started the war, a phrase such as, “It seems hard to imagine that all this began with…”. Alternatively, a rhetorical question: “But how did these tens of outsourcing, thousands of soldiers end up in causes of gang essay, the mud and horror of trench warfare? The story begins several years earlier, with…” It may not be the standard way of writing an essay, but you’ll certainly score points for originality and perhaps ruffle a few feathers. Metaphor is used extensively in Romeo and Juliet. Film still from Romeo and Juliet (F. Essay? Zefferelli, 1968).
Creative writing often makes use of extended metaphors. For example, when Shakespeare wrote the ut austin mba essay questions, passage in Romeo and Juliet referring to “It is the East, and outsourcing essay Juliet is the sun!” he was using an extended metaphor. With this in mind, it’s time to revisit a point we made in a previous article about writing more original essays, in which we argued that, rather than battling on with trying to explain a complex concept in a straightforward way, it might be easier to use an analogy to resume convey the meaning by drawing comparisons, which people find easier to understand. A metaphor is a kind of analogy, so the essay thesis, similarities with creative writing are strong here. Theme Writing? In our previous article we used the example of outsourcing thesis, radioactive decay. An analogy for this is the essay of wildlife in india, pressure with which water escapes from a hole in a bucket. It does so exponentially, just as radioactive substances decay exponentially. In both instances, the rate of a consumptive process depends on how much there is left of whatever is thesis being depleted, which results in an exponential rate of decay. This concept is essay on importance of wildlife so much easier to explain using the analogy of water flowing from outsourcing a hole in a bucket, as you give your reader something familiar to essay on importance visualise in order to explain a concept with which they are unfamiliar. 5. Interesting details about setting and essay location. Augustus lived frugally.
Another way of keeping your reader interested is to bring your essay to life with details about setting and location, just as creative writers do. Essays can become quite dry if you focus solely on envelopment, the academic problems, but you can make them more interesting by essay thesis peppering them with details. This may not work quite so well for a scientific essay, but it’s certainly relevant for some humanities subjects, in particular English literature, history and archaeology. Resume Portal? For example, an essay about the Roman emperor Augustus could mention that he lived a famously modest lifestyle, quoting details from essay thesis Roman writers and of gang archaeological evidence that support this: Suetonius mentions his “low bed” (interesting because of what it says about accepted standards of Roman beds!) and coarse bread and cheese diet, and the relatively small and non-lavish remains of his house on the Palatine Hill in Rome back up the outsourcing essay thesis, idea of his having lived a modest life. Incidental details like these can actually prove to be more significant than you initially realise, and you can use them to build your argument; in data analysis thesis, the case of Augustus, for example, his modest lifestyle is particularly important when seen in outsourcing essay, the context of Rome’s troubled history with kings. As he gradually acquired more power and became Rome’s first emperor, he had to avoid coming across as being too ‘regal’, and mba essay the little details we know about his way of life are significant in light of this. Thesis? So, not only have you brought your essay to life, but you’ve raised an interesting point, too. Few writers get it right first time. Once you’ve written a first draft, read through it and analysis think about essay thesis whether the order of your points is optimal and whether what you’ve written actually makes sense. It’s easy in the age of computers to essay meaning chop and thesis change – you can simply copy and paste part of your essay into another part where it might fit better, and then make minor changes to your wording so that it flows.
After you’ve finished editing, have a final read through and check that you’re happy with the of gang violence, wording. Don’t forget to proofread to ensure that your spelling and grammar is impeccable! Keeping a notebook to hand helps you gather good ideas when they come to you. Creative writers swear by having a notebook with them at all times, ready to jot down any ideas that suddenly spring to mind. You can adopt the same principle for your essay-writing, because you never know when the inspiration might strike. Have a think about your essay topic when you’re out and thesis about; you’d be surprised what occurs to you when you’re away from your normal place of study. As you can see, there are more similarities between two apparently unrelated kinds of ut austin mba essay, writing than you might have realised. Outsourcing Essay? It is, of course, possible to go too far with the creative writing idea when you’re essay-writing: literary devices aren’t always appropriate, and your essay still needs to retain objectivity and conform to the more formal conventions of academic writing.
But there are certainly techniques to be borrowed from creative writing that will help your essays stand out from the questions, crowd and thesis give your teacher or lecturer a welcome break from the ca2b resume, monotony of essay-marking. 35 Responses to “7 Techniques from Creative Writing You Can Use to essay Improve Your Essays” May 10, 2015 at 5:29 pm, johny said: that was really helpful thank you very much xxx. June 01, 2017 at 5:03 pm, raphael g. tuppa said: It realy help me on my studies.So thanks May 20, 2015 at meaning, 6:04 pm, Fabiola said: Very helpful! thank you! September 20, 2015 at 2:43 pm, jasmine said: it was very helpful! thank you, I was set as homework to write about techniques and thesis creative writing so this was perfect. November 10, 2015 at 8:28 pm, nonso said: that was very helpful thanks for the tips (; xxx.
November 18, 2015 at theme writing response literature essay, 8:27 pm, Debbie said: Fabulous help taken notes thank you xx. January 05, 2016 at 5:21 pm, chinnu said: Thanks , this was really helpful to me because I had a competition in creative writing. April 26, 2016 at essay, 6:35 am, taiwo oluwafemi said:
Very illuminating! Good job! May 03, 2016 at essay on importance of wildlife in india, 7:23 pm, Hanna said: I needed to outsourcing essay thesis prepare for an exam and this really helped! thank you so much! xxx. May 21, 2016 at essay on importance of wildlife, 9:31 pm, Anonymous said: A job well done!
May 26, 2016 at 8:38 pm, Jesimiel Kefas said: A very educative piece. Keep it up! August 03, 2016 at 11:57 am, Teme said: Thank you so much! It helped me alot .xx.
August 03, 2016 at 11:59 am, Teme said: Very enlightening. Thanks! September 15, 2016 at 10:13 pm, Walliey Mukena said: I’m greatful. My pupils wanted me to help them with how they can be creative in their compositions and outsourcing essay this is just pin point. October 24, 2016 at 7:32 am, ZoanaYana said: It really helped me .thank you.
October 26, 2016 at 6:17 pm, Afrose said: It was really helpful for questions, my essay writing.Thank You a lot. : ) October 27, 2016 at 5:24 pm, Axel said: Thank you so much this helped a ton got a fabulous grade thank you so much. December 08, 2016 at 6:29 am, anjali said: It was good and informative . January 07, 2017 at 8:18 pm, Name said: It help me out big time.
January 07, 2017 at 8:19 pm, Dont care said: It help me out outsourcing essay thesis big time. January 09, 2017 at 2:01 pm, Velpula BobKingston Bobby said: February 18, 2017 at 2:21 pm, Paul Alabi said: Awesome! Thanks a lot… March 28, 2017 at 9:42 am, Aschalew Amanu said: I want to get your module. March 31, 2017 at 12:57 am, Kaveesh said:
REALLY HELPFUL. THANK YOU SO MUCH. April 10, 2017 at 9:26 pm, o said: April 11, 2017 at 6:50 am, ronrogers said: ublished. Data Envelopment? Required fields are marked * April 24, 2017 at 6:23 pm, Dilakshi navoda said: A tower of strength for compiling a creative literary piece.Thank you very much.
May 15, 2017 at 12:02 am, Avitha said: Very impressive techniques they will surely help me .THANKS with big capital T. May 27, 2017 at 5:43 pm, Manna said: Very helpful. I was always weak in creative writing and now people find them excellent. Every piece of writing shall be accomplished with excellence because of this guide. July 07, 2017 at 4:35 pm, Sonu said: This really helped me as I have an elecution. This has helped me 2 show creativity in my speech thankyou #128512;#128522;#128522; July 15, 2017 at 11:59 pm, Shae said: I’ve never thought about the thesis, essay in terms of ut austin mba essay questions, a ‘three act’ structure relating to essay like a performance!
I really like this idea that our writing is resume our own academic or story telling performance… very cool. My favorite resource for writing at the moment is similiesmiles.com, its where you are prompted with random words and you make a similie out of it, as creative as possible! This idea of stretching our styles, and weaving some creativity even in essay resonates with me, and now I’m playing with using more similies in my essay to see how it can work! August 16, 2017 at 2:43 pm, TWD said: I loved that you used a cooking metaphor to highlight each point. Even for the person who doesn’t cook it works. They know how to eat, or in this case, read and know what good content looks like. What is so often needed is just what you gave, good examples. August 31, 2017 at 3:21 am, Celeste said: This was very helpful because I am practicing to become a better writer, therefore, I am trying to read up as many tips on my free time as possible. I especially love creative writing because it let’s you spill diverse and original ideas onto the page, not be locked into essay thesis, a single subject.
It makes me really happy. Again, thank you for making this! September 22, 2017 at 4:40 am, Kdolle Vampholmes said: science writing essay introduction sucks. October 03, 2017 at 12:50 pm, togel sdsb said:
At this time it appears like Drupal is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you’re using on your blog?