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B120 Tma03 Essays and Research Papers. Essay On Customer. Asset , Balance sheet , Debt 1125 Words | 4 Pages. ? TMA03 - PART 1. Beloved Essays. ASSIGNMENT PLAN Go through each heading and explain what the table is essay telling me. Argumentative Research Paper. Why would the figure be what it is – for . what reason? TMA03 - PART 2. Essay On Customer Service. ASSIGNMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION: ? Explain the text given ? What is assignment about ? What is identification – categories ? Phoenix and Pattynama - ref MAIN PART ? Who is Narendra and what does he do ? What identities does he have ? What are the discourses of application questions visitor. Linguistic rights , Minorities , Minority 1774 Words | 4 Pages. TMA 03 TMA 3 1a. Profit and argumentative essay service, Loss account A profit and loss account is intended to show a business its income and expenditures and calculate the assignment help uk review . company’s net profit or loss based upon the difference between those figures.
It is extremely useful in determining past performance and to try and predict future results. It enables a business to on customer service see what changes could make to improve on its profit. It also give enough information to argumentative paper assignment sheet help a business to set targets. We can learn more from the. Asset , Balance sheet , Cash flow 1294 Words | 4 Pages. ?Part I Question 1 a.) The income statement, also called the profit loss account (P L), is used to illustrate a company’s revenues and expenses over a . particular period of time. It shows the net profit and/or loss for the given period (the difference between the business’ total income and its total costs).
It also allows shareholders to see the performance of the business and if it has made an acceptable profit. An income statement is very useful when assessing the performance of argumentative essay on customer service John’s Furniture. Dissertation Consultation. Balance sheet , Cash flow , Financial statements 1098 Words | 3 Pages. company could have an effect on reputation such as current holidays on offer. | Overall word count - 373 References Preston, D, Fryer, M, . Watson, G (2012), What is on customer service a business? Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2011) B120 Study Companion, “Study Companion”, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Essay Contest. External Stakeholders http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/reed-elsevier/corporate-responsibility-and-stakeholders/external-stakeholders.html#axzz3192Qo8XX SWOT Analysis http://www. Buckinghamshire , Management , Marketing 594 Words | 3 Pages. “fitting in” B120 TMA02 Part 1 November 2012 CONTENTS PAGE Contents page . Essay. Pg 2 Executive summary Pg 3 1.0 Problem analysis and solution 2.1 A description of the HRM-related work problem that I have encountered and why I think it relates well to my chosen study session. Dissertation Consultation Service Dublin. . Employment , Feeling , Tour de Georgia 1401 Words | 5 Pages. technology (social media or a website, for example) and regular communication such as emails or newsletters.
I hope you find this report use and it gives . you an argumentative service insight into how to deal with your current situation. References: The Open University (2006) B120 An introduction to business studies, Book 1, ‘What is a business?’ Milton Keynes, The Open University Word count: 510 Part 2 I have chosen activity 1.3 of the Tutor Group Forum discussions. In this discussion the group were asked: Do you think it. Change , Consumer , Management 730 Words | 4 Pages. B120 An Introduction to Business Studies TMA01 By Student Name PI TMA01 – Part 1 CONTENTS: Page No. Part I – . Report on Lodge Bistro 3 Summary Introduction 3 Part (a) Identifying the problem 3 Part (b) Concepts applied to issues identified 3 Part (c) Recommendations 3 Part II: Contribution Understanding - TGF 4 References 4 Part I – Report on Lodge Bistro To Patricia Lodge From xxxxxxxxxxxxx Date: Summary. Writing Response. Customer , Customer service , Human resource management 838 Words | 5 Pages. ? B120 An Introduction to Business Studies TMA01 By TMA01 – Part 1 CONTENTS: Page No. Part I – Report on . Lodge Bistro 3 Summary Introduction 3 Part (a) Identifying the problem 3 Part (b) Concepts applied to argumentative on customer issues identified 3 Part (c) Recommendations 3 Dear Patricia 3 I have written you this report as requested on helping you understand and application 2012, hopefully change the current situation of your business my findings will be broken down into 3 parts as.
Business , Loyalty program , Management 884 Words | 4 Pages. B120 TMA 02 Contents Page 3………………………………. Executive Summary . Page 4……………………………………. Part I Part (a) Page 5……………………………………….Part I Part (b) Page 7……………………………………….Part I Part (c) Page 9……………………………………….Part I Part (d) Page 10……………………………….…….Part II Part (b) Page. Human resource management , Human resources , Management 1576 Words | 6 Pages. B120 TMA01 Part 1 Dear Patricia Lodge, In this report, as requested, I hope to help you understand the current situation, of the Lodge . Bistro Chain. Service. I believe the theme writing response literature essay issues affecting the business are: staffing problems, growing competition, inconsistency in the approach of argumentative essay on customer service management, attracting lower spending customers, disagreement between managers and paper assignment, company standards lowering. Part (a) The staffing issue, more specifically the high staff turnover, is affecting the expenditure of the company. On Customer Service. Consistency , Management 662 Words | 3 Pages. ?Part I In this short report, I hope to help you understand and change your current situation, using a concept from service dublin Study Session 2, The External . Environment ( B120 Book 1). Part (a) I believe the problems affecting The Lodge Bistro are: High staff turnover. Growing completion.
Inconsistency in the approach of the managers. Conflicting Managers. Reduced spending by customers. Argumentative Service. Company Standards lowering. Dated Decor and Menu. Inexperienced staff. Low quality food being served. Custom. Business , Consumer , Customer 742 Words | 4 Pages.
Assessing a Underachieving Employee B120 An Introduction to Business Studies TMA02 May 2013 Submitted by: Michelle Kenyon Tutor: Maria . Assessing a Underachieving Employee Contents Page Part 1 Executive Summary page 3 The problems that arose page 4 The analysis of the problems that arose page 5 A solution to the problems that occurred page 6 Research from the internet page 7 References page 8 Part 2 Tutor group forum page 9 Assessing a Underachieving Employee . Human resource management , Management 1284 Words | 5 Pages. ? Tma03 1) PROMPT ANALYSIS FORBES ARTICLE Presentation – is the information presented in a clear and beloved essays, readable way? Yes Relevance – . is the information appropriate and essay on customer service, relevant to the purpose in hand? Yes Objectivity – is the content balanced or is there some bias? It has some bias since the argumentative research sheet writer is Mr. Shuchman is a New York fund manager Opinions are expressed in this article. Method – how was the information gathered together? Provenance – who or what originated the information.
Columnist , Concrete , Critical thinking 639 Words | 4 Pages. Consider systemic and on customer service, socio-cultural issues in theme response essay, a counselling case study Family context and argumentative essay service, wider socio-cultural influences are widely recognised in treated response literature, . counselling and psychology as major contributory factors that help to shape the way people think, perceive and feel about themselves, their relationships and essay on customer service, the way things are in their society (Barker, 2010; Vossler, 2010). Importantly, Barker (2010) points out the dichotomous socio-cultural divisions that are prevalent within most modern societies. Anxiety , Emotion , Fear 2019 Words | 6 Pages. ?Ideas of social justice are both changeable and contestable. These ideas differ between individuals and societies. The term social justice is consultation dublin ambiguous . but can briefly be summed up as - social justice involves having the capabilities to voice feelings and opinions but also for argumentative essay on customer service, these to be heard. Georgetown Application 2012. To do so, there has to be an argumentative essay on customer service active participation within society in order to shape it. In short, social justice focuses on the individual and paper sheet, their values and beliefs.
Social harm refers to the harm. 1844 Words | 4 Pages. Milgrams’ study of obedience and its relevance to the conduct of soldiers at war Summary The armed forces rely on orders being given through the chain . of command and being obeyed unquestioningly. Argumentative Essay. Some of the georgetown application questions actions you, as a soldier, may be told to do could go against what you feel is the right thing to do. Would you be able to refuse?
Stanley Milgram conducted research to ascertain to what extent people would follow instructions and under what circumstance. Background Stanley Milgram. Adolf Eichmann , Electric shock , Experiment 872 Words | 4 Pages. Student notes For the third assignment you need to essay provide a fictional case study of a counselling client with issues relating to treated writing response literature fear and sadness, and then . Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. consider how their individual problems might be located in their family system relationships and the social context in identity, which they are embedded. Your case study should focus on the family and relationships of the client, and sociocultural issues such as culture, race, gender and sexuality. In the guidance here we have given an example fictional. Case study 1766 Words | 5 Pages. On Customer. Essay Plan 1) Read the question - make sure I understand it. 2) Re-read and essays identity, listen again to appropriate material - make sure to note references and . Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. if/where they will be used.
Obtain material from external sources 3) Do rough copy of assignment. Make sure it has a beginning, middle and end. Consider what kinds of school contest things affect the throw away society - could this way of thinking be altered? 4) See what could be improved 5) Check word length 6) Re-do if necessary 7) Spell check. Great Pacific Garbage Patch 1273 Words | 4 Pages. ? Part I - 512 words Part (a) - 200 words Dear Patricia, Having read about your current situation in relation to argumentative service your Lodge Bistro chain, I have . identified several problems including: Inconsistency in the approach of managers High staff turnover Decor and dissertation consultation dublin, furniture Training Stakeholder concerns Targets The high turnover of argumentative service staff is costing the georgetown application essay questions company valuable time and service, money, recruiting new staff and having to carry out training to enable them to be able to 2012 work in the Bistro.
This. Bistro , French cuisine , Management 783 Words | 3 Pages. information management system.( B120 book 1 page 70) This is useful to accumulate information and to use it for the best intentions of the . Argumentative On Customer. business this will enable the dissertation company to keep records and to on customer use them efficiently. Having an argumentative assignment operations manager monitoring existing processes and analysing their effectiveness can ensure that the organization is running as smoothly and argumentative service, efficiently as possible, and that the goods and services produced meet client or customer needs. ( B120 book 1, page 69) Word count. Customer , Decision making , Decision making software 932 Words | 3 Pages. Title of theme literature essay report B120 TMA02 June 2012 Submitted by: Your name Tutor: xxxxx Contents page Not included in . word count and on essay, a separate page. List each section of the report and note the assignment help uk review page number by each.
Contents page will be the last thing you do. For example, your contents page may look a little like this: ************ CONTENTS PAGE Contents Page Pg2 Executive summary Pg3 1. Problem analysis and solution (Part. Explanation , Job satisfaction , Maslow's hierarchy of argumentative essay service needs 933 Words | 5 Pages. improve the relationship with management as well and the feeling of being involved. · Offer incentives to the staff for reduction in wastage and . improvement in sales similar to those offered to questions 2012 management. 4.0 References Preston, D. (2006) B120 Book 1 An Introduction To Business, Milton Keynes, The Open University, [p30 SWOT Analysis] TMA 01 PART II What I learnt in Activity 1.3 In TGF Activity 1.3 I learnt that the size of a business. Essay. Change , Human resource management , Management 947 Words | 4 Pages. ?Spelling, references, abbreviations TMA03 Option two: How has Bowlby’s Formulation of attachment theory been modified in the light of . subsequent research? Attachment is a deep and emotional bond connecting one person to consultation another (Lamb, Lewis and Oates, 2005). Attachments form as security to child in essay on customer service, times of distress and upset.
They are not just to satisfy basic needs of survival. Essays Identity. This essay will explore how work by essay Bowlby has been modified in assignment, terms of how it has been developed in light of later. Attachment in adults , Attachment theory , Developmental psychology 2028 Words | 5 Pages. Informal report of problems at argumentative service The Lodge Bistro Chain using concepts from session 2, The External Environment ( B120 , Book 1). * Growing . Response Essay. competition from on customer surrounding food outlets * No healthy alternatives offered * No web based advertisement * Not appealing to the younger generation * No choice of less expensive meals or snacks Part B Using the STEEP model ( B120 , Book 1) I will highlight the problems at The Lodge Bistro in more detail. Sociological Factors The Bistro chains. Economics , Environment , Fair trade 542 Words | 2 Pages. Charter School. TMA03 PART 1 Table 1 provides information on argumentative essay on customer service, household composition by type in Great Britain between 1971 and 2008 in 10 year increments. Application Essay. The . table is sourced from the Office of National Statistics (2011) ‘Households and families’, Social Trends, Volume 39, p4.
In one person households, there was a slight increase of 6 percentage points from 1971 to 2008, going from 6-12%. This is on customer consistent with one family households comprising a lone parent where, in help uk review, 1971, 4% made up this, increasing to 11% in. 1904 , 1912 , 1913 452 Words | 2 Pages. Below is a free essay on B120 Tma02 from Anti Essays, your source for free research papers, essays, and argumentative on customer, term paper examples. BU130 Working . and Learning: Learning Contract Establishing your Learning Objectives My Learning Objective is to improve my prioritisation and planning skills to give me more time to do my work. I have chosen this objective because sometimes I feel overwhelmed with the amount of work I have to do.
My approach under these circumstances can be haphazard and I. Ken Blanchard , Learning , Management 356 Words | 2 Pages. The main reason for this is the theme writing response literature radical changes put in place so rapidly with immediate effect. This resulted in on customer service, lack of structure and consistency throughout . the georgetown application questions whole chain stores, as you gave each store manager to much autonomy to on customer change the store i.e. decor, food menu etc., the business culture values as a whole was lost and that was what made the business a success before. Assignment Help Uk Review. I understand some changes had to be made but not so drastically.
The loss of business culture and lack of dimension of structure. Case study , Change , Iain Banks 1003 Words | 4 Pages. TMA 01 02 MAY 2013 WORD COUNT: 697 PART I – 543 PART II - 154 TMA01 PART I THE LODGE BISTRO CHAIN Word Count 544 . CONTENTS Part (a) Lodge Bistro Problems Part (b) Understanding the Problems Part (c) Addressing the Problems Part (a) Lodge Bistro Problems My report for argumentative essay on customer, The Lodge Bistro will be focusing on identifying the current issues, understanding their impact on the business, and charter essay contest, ensuring the essay on customer service correct steps to resolve them. Dissertation Service Dublin. I will do. Management , Marketing , Social media marketing 717 Words | 4 Pages. ?TMA04: The Invention Of Tradition.
How selective did Irish Nationalists have to be to establish continuity with the argumentative essay on customer service national past? The Invention of . Tradition as described by Hobsbawm and Ranger, “Is taken to mean a set of practices, normally governed by overtly or tacitly accepted rules and of ritual or symbolic nature, which seek to inculcate certain values as norms of theme treated behaviour by reputation.” (E. Hobsbawm, T Ranger, 1983. p.3) The concept of tradition is the passing down of practices. Easter Rising , Ireland , Irish Republican Brotherhood 1344 Words | 5 Pages. Personal Experience relating to HRM Concepts within Book 2 (Demotivated people and high rate of employee turnover) Contents . Service. page Executive summary. p. 3 Part I Problem description and analysis. p. 3 Recommendations. Abraham Maslow , Employment , Human resource management 1793 Words | 7 Pages.
Social justice is a notion that shapes norms, values and practices of individuals and groups within societies, by highlighting social harms, injustices, . inequalities and discrimination experienced by individuals and argumentative research paper assignment, groups a mobilising force is on customer created which challenges and contests pre-existing ideas of georgetown essay questions what is considered to argumentative be just. Treated Essay. Through mobilising new ideas of social justice new social welfare and crime control policies are created to regulated and enforced, and service, resources can be redistributed. Capitalism , Finland , Justice 1593 Words | 5 Pages. ?Claire Smith P6590497 Assignment 03 Part 1 THE DALAI LAMA Identify two of the reputations of the Dalai Lama revealed in this newspaper extract and discuss . them in relation to Book 1, Chapter 7. This essay will discuss and consider two of the several reputations that surround the 14th Dalai Lama, as found in the newspaper extract and other sources. well done for giving your reader an idea of the consultation service dublin discussion that will follow, however, try to avoid single-sentence paragraphs. Also, it would be. 14th Dalai Lama , Dalai Lama , Lhasa 1614 Words | 6 Pages. ? B120 End-of-module assessment Question 1 a) In order to grow the business, I decided to complete a STEEP and SWOT analysis evaluating . Bremont’s HRM, accounting and finance, and marketing functions. I used my analysis table to argumentative on customer identify how the internal and external environmental factors relate to organization's competitive position in relation to its competitors. S(ociological) - greater numbers of low income groups, wider array of migrants from EU, inequality, geographic mobility, employment.
Luxury good 2572 Words | 10 Pages. Georgetown Application Essay Questions 2012. ?Tutor Marked Assignment 03 What developmental models best account for argumentative essay on customer, the cases of developmental difficulties A large area of research in developmental . psychology has been dedicated to identifying a primary cause for the development of disturbed and disturbing behavior as well as its comprehensive definition. Difficulties are due to the complexity of the several factors involved in its development and different models are used to account for causes including medical, social environment and transactional. Assignment. Attachment theory , Behavior , Behavioural sciences 1623 Words | 5 Pages. ? I confirm that for on customer, this assignment I have only research assignment sheet used material from my setting. I have got permission from my confirmer. In this assignment I have adhered . to the E105 13J ethical guidance by: Altering the names of the children and other individuals so that they cannot be identfied.
Task One. In this assignment I intend to discuss the involvement of parents/carers in supporting a child’s learning and development by considering how effective the Pen Green Loop is when used in partnerships. Need 2365 Words | 15 Pages. Argumentative. Attn : Patricia Lodge Having reviewed the Lodge Bistro and the state it is in, I have identified several areas of concern that management may wish . Charter School Contest. address. I have used a STEEP analysis (Preston, 2012) to identify the Sociological, Technological, Economical, Environmental and Political factors that are currently negatively impacting the business. By using this method, Patricia can gain a better understanding of the challenges she faces before deciding on a corrective course of action Sociological . Management 720 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction A few years ago I got involved in marketing an expensive brand of vacuum cleaners called Kirby.
The product was well designed, of high . quality and had many features that were lacking in other leading brands. The marketing strategy used were a combination of selling orientation and product orientation, where the business owners assumed that a sales force would be able to argumentative essay on customer sell the product as long as the right approached was used. I was trained to consultation effectively demonstrate the service features. Business , Marketing , Product 1036 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dear Patricia Lodge, I have conducted my report on the Lodge Bistro chain from the information provided using several analysis techniques and you will . see my findings/recommendations below. The first technique I used was something we call SWOT, which basically stands for strength’s, weaknesses, opportunities and argumentative assignment sheet, threats internally/externally within a business (see fig 1.1). I have included two tables below for your comparison, one based on the company in argumentative on customer service, early 2000’s and the other 2010 onwards. Brand , Customer , English-language films 573 Words | 3 Pages. Influence and Persuasion Situations in which theoretically I have autonomy to choose how to estimate projects, I should explain, and sometimes argue with . the manager to prove why my concept is more efficient. Most of the time I accept the school manager’s point, because of my lack of experience, but there are examples where it does not matter whether I have experience or not. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. Sometimes I am struggling to convince the manager to use my chosen method.
It is like to be scared of someone who is bigger and. Communication , Design , Feeling 552 Words | 2 Pages. Hi Nick, Here is the list of stakeholders you requested last time we spoke 1. Internal stakeholders are as follows yourself (Nick . Newbury), Alastair Poulain and Tom Barber. Obviously your main concern is financial return for uk review, your company. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. It is important that all members are well informed and happy with all decisions made within the company. Also that you don't lose your values or mission statement in the merge. Assignment. 2. Tim Best Travel. Management , Marketing , Merge 523 Words | 3 Pages. TMA03 DD101 Using the argumentative essay on customer data in the table provided, what can you say about the ethnicity of the argumentative research population in the national parks of England and Wales? ? TMA03 DD101 APRIL 2014. Question 1 Using the data in argumentative service, the table provided, what can you say about the ethnicity of the population in the . national parks of England and Wales?
The table provided shows the results of the 2011 Census and the distribution of multiple ethnic groups around the national parks of England and argumentative paper, Wales. The table gives the populations of 13 National Parks. Three of the national parks are found in Wales and ten are in England. There are 5 ethnic categories; white, mixed. England , Ethnic group , Minority group 1482 Words | 5 Pages. ? Finding people and argumentative essay on customer service, helping them fit in Hotel Housekeeping Department 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2. PROBLEMS DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS 3. Dissertation Consultation Service. RECOMMENDATIONS 4. . INFORMATION 5. REFERENCES Executive summary Attracting people to apply to work for argumentative on customer service, a business and being able to select the right mix of skills and personalities is uk review crucial to continuation of essay service any business. Once recruited, there is then the issue of helping new employees to find their place and essay questions, understand what is required of argumentative them. This. Employment , Hotel , Human resource management 1239 Words | 4 Pages.
TMA 03- Designer Labels Question 1 a) An income statement is essay questions 2012 used to on customer service show profit and loss; Kathryn can compare each financial year to see how the theme treated literature company . is getting on and what department is doing well. An income statement will show all expenses incurred in the business such as delivery, office space, staff wages and essay, the products. The income statement becomes useful to Kathryn when deciding to see how Designer Labels is getting on because it would show the questions 2012 income from essay service sales and this can be broken. Asset , Balance sheet , Debt 1283 Words | 4 Pages. PART ONE Part a) Dear Andy, I am sorry to hear about the issues you are having at your branch; after careful analysis I have decided to beloved essays discuss . stakeholder analysis to look at argumentative the issues and offer recommendations on how they could be remedied.( It is obvious that there has been a clear breakdown in the relationship between management and staff which has underlying causes such as low pay,( lack of training for junior staff and theme treated writing essay, Night Managers.( I believe that the argumentative essay on customer service pay and training issues. Essays. Employment , Management , Minimum wage 960 Words | 4 Pages. K218, Tma03 Imporance of Knowlege of the argumentative Law. Argumentative Assignment. Why is knowledge of the service law important to children, young people and families and to treated response those who work with them?
This essay will discuss the law and the . Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. government’s present policies relating to the issue of children’s rights and protection. Treated Literature Essay. Aspects of the argumentative service law, which are passed by Parliament as legislations then have to be interpreted by the Local Authorities so they can formulate policies for those who work with children young people and families. The Children Act 1989 and Every Child Matters. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Children's rights 1902 Words | 6 Pages. E111-TMA03-Observing and Assessing children. Charter Contest. ?E111 – Supporting Learning in Primary Schools - TMA03 Observing and argumentative essay, Assessing children In accordance to the ethical guidelines written by application essay . The British Education Research Association (BERA, 2011), the names of the children and school, where used, have been changed in order to argumentative on customer maintain confidentiality and charter school contest, anonymity.
KU 1.2/KU 1.5 A pen portrait of the argumentative essay child For this essay I will be using Aaron, the child I used for my last essay “Including all children”. Aaron is a six year old boy who has. Assessment , Education , Educational psychology 2040 Words | 8 Pages. For the georgetown application first assignment I have studied the 2 charts given and showing my findings below. Chart 1 The data shows that twice as many older people have . been questioned compared to 18-24 year olds. Argumentative. There are only paper 2 questions in relation to argumentative essay service “Community” compared to dublin 10 for neighbours and on customer service, 1 neutral question. Research Assignment. This shows that the balance of questions is argumentative displaced and also that interviewees could be placed in more than one question depending on beloved identity, how they interpret the question. There are similar question. Argumentative Essay Service. Bracket , Human communication , Interview 351 Words | 2 Pages. Q. 1 a) In order to grow the business, I have completed a SWOT analysis table, looking at the headings of the HRM, accounting and research assignment, finance and the . marketing departments as all of the essay findings need to be taken into account when making any business decisions.
Below I have shown my swot analysis table. This is used to ensure that I have taken all aspects of the business into account before I analyse where the strengths and weakness of the company lie. SWOT Analysis for SHP. (Second Hand Phones) . Balance sheet , Business , Business ethics 2372 Words | 8 Pages. Uk Review. ?When identifying the different stakeholders based around Nick Newbury’s company, Original Travel, we can pick out those who have the highest power and argumentative essay on customer, . interest. Nick Newbury and his co-founders, Alasdair and dissertation service dublin, Tom, whose main role is to provide tailor-made short breaks, possess these two factors. Their primary expectations are too make a profit from the sales of argumentative essay on customer their quirky holidays, but also see a growth on the company. By merging Original Travel with Tim Best Travel highlights this growth with.
Consultative selling , Customer , Customer service 541 Words | 2 Pages. Designer Labels It was 15 May 2012 and Kathryn Albeit had just received an offer of ?1 million for her retail stores business. The offer was tempting, . Theme Treated Writing. especially in light of the argumentative essay heavy workload she was carrying and theme writing literature essay, the increased pressures from her family responsibilities. She was unsure whether now was the time to argumentative on customer service sell and whether the uk review price offered was reasonable. Kathryn was sitting in on customer, her office contemplating her business’s future. Application Essay Questions. Designer Labels (which Kathryn ran as a Sole Trader) was a chain. Business , Commerce , Consultative selling 535 Words | 2 Pages.
Financial Aspects Of Transactions. B120 TMA03 31st January 2012 Submitted by: Tutor: Question 1: a: The profit and loss account reports on certain . financial aspects of transactions that have taken place during an accounting period. It does this by showing the income which has been earned and the expenses incurred in earning it. The difference between the argumentative essay two is consultation a profit if the on customer income is higher than the expenses or a loss if the expenses are higher than the identity income. Essay Service. (Day et al, 2011, page 39) In other words income statement. Asset , Balance sheet , Cash flow 474 Words | 2 Pages. The Lodge Bistro Chain The Lodge Bistro chain started out as something a bit different. This difference has enabled The Lodge to expand and become a . successful chain of Bistros. However as time has gone on Bistros and outlets selling food have become more and more common. There are food outlets everywhere, all competing for custom and trying to be a little different to their rivals.
The format of a French bistro has been replicated by many eating establishments and a large multinational chain. Change , Debut albums , French cuisine 638 Words | 2 Pages. What can you say about the identities of the people of Stratford, based on the tables provided? Social sciences often use quantitative data in order to charter school essay contest . compare a large group to another. Information can be taken from a group as a whole and used to create a generalised view of the people in the area.
I will be looking at Stratford, a very culturally diverse area of London and I will be using the information provided to discuss points of similarity, difference and a general view of the people in. Academic degree , Education , England 521 Words | 2 Pages. The Lodge Bistro Chain case study Part A The Lodge Bistro is a chain of restaurants established in 1989 by Joyce Lodge. It has grown into a group of 25 . restaurants. Uniform approach that worked in the early stages of the business stumbled across several external factors influencing the environment in which chain is operating and it has resulted in a numerous internal problems at service the chain. Argumentative Research Paper Sheet. Introduction of essay on customer a less informal management structure created inconsistency in a service and quality of the. Business cycle , Government spending , Late-2000s recession 569 Words | 2 Pages.
The Lodge Bistro After reading your summary about 2012 The Lodge Bistro Chain, I would like to argumentative outline the problems and possible causes and try to show you a . Treated Writing Essay. learning skill that you could implement to help solve these issues. The best way to do this is by argumentative essay service using SWOT Analysis which will help to determine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats within the company. The graph below will help you to beloved identify the areas and essay on customer, where they happen. (wikipedia.org) There are many problem areas or. Change , Management , Turn LP 498 Words | 2 Pages. Some people consider that it is essential for a nation’s sense of essay questions identity to have a common language shared by all its citizens. Argumentative Essay Service. Dominika Steadman, D1502643, L161, TMA03 Some people consider that it is essential for a nation’s sense of identity to have a common language . shared by beloved identity all its citizens.
There are many ways national identity can be described. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. One may associate it with sharing a nation’s culture and values, one may think about it as something everyone is school born with and others might look at argumentative on customer service it as a way of unity with the country. It can also be argued, national identity is a collection of all the above, culture, history. Black British , Buckinghamshire , Lingua franca 1038 Words | 4 Pages. Open University and Original Travel. B120 An introduction to business studies, TMA 01 Part 1 a) Dear Nick Newbury, In this report as requested, I hope to help you . understand the research paper sheet current situation of argumentative essay your company Original Travel. From the case study I was able to argumentative paper identify the stakeholders in the company which are the argumentative on customer service Founders of Original Travel (Internal Stakeholders), Customers (External Stakeholders) and Tim Best Travel (Internal Stakeholders). Founders of Original Travel (Internal Stakeholders) Your main concern. Argumentative Research Paper Sheet. Milton Keynes , Open University , Strategic management 504 Words | 3 Pages.
Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Local Social Organization. necessarily mean, you spend a lot of argumentative essay service time with your neighbours. References: Source:ICM(2011) Good Neighbours Survey:Prepared on Behalf of Band and Brown . by ICM Research.London,ICM Research Ltd. End of essay TMA03 part one Word count: 497 TMA03 Part 2 Examine the argument that “Good fences make good neighbours” 1. Social identity 2. Relationship with neighbours 3. Good fences do make good neighbours . Community , Difference , Identity 1230 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay. what motivates Tom to go to work. 1.2 Analysis of my experience using my chosen concepts To understand Tom’s motivation level’s I have analysed . his situation using Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs (1954) from session 1 (The Open University, B120 Book 2). Treated Writing Essay. According to Maslow, “a satisfied need is service not a motivator”. Matching which needs are met on the pyramid of application essay questions five categories will give an indication of which unmet need should be a motivator. Figure [ 1 ] Maslow's Hierarchy of essay needs pyramid.
Abraham Maslow , Fundamental human needs , Management 1201 Words | 5 Pages.
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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from service, a Life by Dr. Questions 2012. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at argumentative essay service, Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by treated writing essay Jean Ford Brennan (1971). On Customer Service. 76 pages, 25 photos.
The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from assignment sheet, Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by argumentative essay service Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the beloved essays identity Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the essay service Kermit Project, you can find some of consultation service, it below in argumentative essay, the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at beloved identity, the Computer History Museum HERE and argumentative service, HERE. Who am I and charter school, why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for on customer service, most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in school contest, so doing became fascinated with the on customer earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in georgetown 2012, the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to essay on customer service work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the beloved identity first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the argumentative service Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of writing essay, Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in on customer service, 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of assignment uk review, centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the argumentative on customer libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too.
I've made every attempt to treated writing check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for argumentative essay on customer service, good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for treated writing literature essay, both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to on customer service chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of georgetown questions 2012, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and essay on customer service, Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to application questions remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of essay, RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and assignment sheet, Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services).
I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and essay on customer, miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and dissertation consultation, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of argumentative essay on customer, photos and consultation dublin, materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and essay on customer, MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon argumentative research paper assignment, it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Argumentative On Customer. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of charter school essay, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in argumentative, their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the uk review online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the argumentative essay on customer computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and writing essay, specifications for computing machines to essay on customer IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in essays, the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the essay service child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of argumentative paper assignment, invention and innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of argumentative, it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web.
1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of theme treated literature, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to argumentative essay service its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to literature essay Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to essay service process the consultation service 1890 Census . Essay. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in theme treated writing response, 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about argumentative on customer, 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and essay contest, so on essay on customer service were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and paper, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the essay on customer service Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Beloved Essays. Computer was an actual job title in argumentative essay on customer, those days, referring to someone whose job was to dissertation consultation service compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of essay service, possible candidates at theme, the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of argumentative essay on customer service, 1885, and organized a gift from beloved, that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from argumentative, 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan . Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is theme response programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is essay on customer service founded by writing literature essay the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to argumentative on customer perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.
Prof. Research Paper. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the argumentative on customer service five computing machines . Consultation Service Dublin. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.
CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and argumentative, most especially the moon. In pursuit of argumentative, these interests, Eckert is to argumentative service become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Assignment. test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and essay, accessory equipment to essays the basement of argumentative essay service, Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of response literature, H.M.
Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and essay on customer service, a duplicating punch, in what is help uk review probably the argumentative essay service first use of these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to assignment sheet take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in argumentative essay on customer, the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from theme treated literature, 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Argumentative. Wood's operation became the sheet Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). On Customer Service. In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to essays identity outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and service, Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-)
1931: Walter S. Beloved. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Argumentative Essay On Customer. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and theme literature essay, IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to argumentative service provide almost instant transmission and beloved, receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Argumentative Essay. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. Service Dublin. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof.
Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the argumentative on customer service Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the assignment help uk review supervision of argumentative essay, IBM's G.W. Baehne  and beloved identity, dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of argumentative essay on customer, Pupin Hall. Charter. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of argumentative, Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in theme treated essay, the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent).
For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to essay on customer service solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of assignment, having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from on customer service, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and beloved essays, driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.
1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of essay service, processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the identity Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in on customer service, Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Help. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. Argumentative Essay. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and paper assignment sheet, performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and argumentative, other machines. Argumentative Paper Assignment. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for essay on customer service, a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. Uk Review. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on argumentative essay service to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.
Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from help, their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for argumentative on customer, scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at charter school essay, Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and argumentative service, verifier.
Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for application 2012, the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and argumentative on customer service, (5) problems of stellar statistics. Assignment. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and essay on customer, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of dissertation service dublin, Local History and service, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of dissertation consultation service, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and argumentative essay on customer, geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of essays identity, Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in argumentative essay on customer service, 1941.
In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Dissertation Consultation Service. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from argumentative on customer service, V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the research sheet Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S.
Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of essay service, Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in help, operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on argumentative service August 9th: Concerning the letter of help, Mr.
Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. Essay. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to assignment help David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from service, Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is essay thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the essay on customer service bulk of Soviet-American trade for beloved essays identity, many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in essay on customer service, connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from argumentative, Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the essay on customer German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of application essay, his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and essay service, construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and beloved, presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and argumentative essay service, others begin work on nuclear fission in essays, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the argumentative on customer service Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in school, the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of argumentative on customer service, other Columbia scientists worked on argumentative research assignment sheet the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of argumentative on customer, whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present.
The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to assignment sheet Computers on service the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at research, Los Alamos were originally done on argumentative on customer manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Beloved Essays. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from essay service, Columbia University to oversee procurement for georgetown application essay questions 2012, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and essay service, suggested the use of dissertation consultation, IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to argumentative essay service order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the assignment adder, and on customer service, this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and research assignment sheet, send it to argumentative essay the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the assignment site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in essay on customer, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof.
Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in charter essay contest, Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by argumentative on customer W.J. Help Uk Review. Eckert on astronomical calculations by essay machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to assignment help uk review process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the argumentative numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the georgetown vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. On Customer Service. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by service the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Argumentative Essay Service. This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Essays Identity. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for essay on customer, an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in questions, Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for argumentative on customer, the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to research assignment sheet War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff.
The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the argumentative families of employees in consultation, England to Toronto  and essay, assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to essays identity war and argumentative essay service, held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to writing response allegations in on customer, 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of assignment help uk review, punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.
In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the argumentative essay service present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in treated writing, 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the essay on customer Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in assignment help, fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the argumentative Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the paper sheet Registrar Proposal of 1957).
The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the argumentative service Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by service the Bureau's own equipment . Essay Service. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Treated Writing Response Essay. You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to argumentative essay on customer service do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.
Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. School Essay Contest. As for argumentative essay service, computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at beloved essays identity, BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by essay service Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at assignment, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the argumentative on customer Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of essays identity, cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.
In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and service, SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and assignment help, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to essay service Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the beloved identity 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of argumentative on customer, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at research, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of essay, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the beloved essays identity laboratory.
Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Argumentative. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is identity said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in on customer service, 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in dublin, the world, after the argumentative service US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the assignment uk review presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Essay On Customer Service. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . Argumentative Research Paper Sheet. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at essay service, Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the dissertation Army*, and on customer, really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of theme treated literature essay, temperature-pressure equations for argumentative on customer service, completion of the A-bombs at treated writing response, Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at essay, Columbia in 1939 did not believe the assignment A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of essay service, introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against application questions 2012 dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for on customer service, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman.
8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in research paper assignment sheet, Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against argumentative essay on customer service the use of atomic weapons and assignment uk review, asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for essay on customer service, circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of dissertation service dublin, putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Essay. Our use of atomic bombs in research sheet, this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the argumentative essay service consequences of further refusal to surrender.
Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for assignment help uk review, Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the argumentative only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the help uk review petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on argumentative on customer service Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the treated writing response essay two blasts. Was the argumentative essay service atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the essays identity facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the on customer war in charter school contest, the East, and argumentative service, even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the assignment Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at argumentative essay on customer service, any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and essays, then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the argumentative essay Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for dissertation consultation service, Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on argumentative Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an charter school contest act . . Essay. . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and theme, of the plan for using it, asked for on customer, my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and argumentative research, so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on argumentative the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and uk review, British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the argumentative service use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against theme treated essay Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Argumentative. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on research sheet permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)
Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of on customer service, mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to consultation service dublin get them . Argumentative. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to beloved essays identity the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for essay on customer service, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. Georgetown Essay. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to argumentative essay on customer service an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of response, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Argumentative On Customer Service. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Uk Review. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the essay complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.
While routine computation is not the aim of the uk review Laboratory, a considerable amount of argumentative, it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is assignment uk review not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Service. The first one was developed with the idea of charter contest, seeing how few relays it is argumentative on customer service possible to research paper sheet use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. On Customer Service. a combination of assignment, control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to on customer service use one control panel and assignment help, twenty master cards. Argumentative. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the response essay instructions of the machine, in essay on customer service, a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards.
It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and charter school contest, from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the essay on customer CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of essay questions 2012, control cards (along with the argumentative service specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on georgetown essay questions different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the essay on customer annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the assignment position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by argumentative on customer service any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in identity, the world fully integrated into essay service, a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228).
By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in research paper, Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the on customer service SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. Dissertation Dublin. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of argumentative service, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council.
More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at assignment help, no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for argumentative essay on customer service, study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is consultation service dublin a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and essay on customer service, varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of research paper sheet, sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of argumentative on customer service, Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of research sheet, Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and essay service, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the assignment sheet direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at service, 590 Madison Ave in identity, January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and argumentative on customer service, capable of consultation dublin, operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for essay on customer service, calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the theme writing response human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in service, the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the consultation service dublin application of essay, excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on theme treated literature essay a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at essay on customer service, Watson Lab in theme writing response literature essay, 1950-52 , and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and on customer, Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in consultation service dublin, machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of argumentative essay, machine. The idea of dissertation service dublin, a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. The first step was the assembler.
Such notions were not without controversy. Dissertation Consultation Dublin. John von Neumann, when he first heard about essay on customer, FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at help, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to argumentative essay on customer build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of dissertation consultation, a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to service do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of help, von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the service ACM , Vol. 13, No.
6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at response, Watson Lab from 1949 to service 1952  and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of consultation service dublin, Watson Lab. Essay On Customer. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. Charter. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the argumentative on customer first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on consultation service dublin computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the essay on customer square of the charter essay cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in essay on customer service, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the paper assignment sheet ACM at Columbia University in essay on customer, 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and essays, two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in argumentative service, existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and assignment help, 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it.
It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Essay Service. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Treated Writing Response. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog.
Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in argumentative essay on customer service, the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to charter school contest any student with the on customer service prerequisites and treated, the money. Essay On Customer Service. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to research assignment attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Argumentative On Customer. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for application 2012, astronomy calculations. . Most of argumentative essay on customer service, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . School. Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of on customer, differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at help uk review, desk calculator level, but I lectured from the essay point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an school contest advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and essay, error propagation, every other year. . Theme Writing Essay. My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in essay on customer, the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and theme writing literature, [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the argumentative essay on customer service Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the argumentative paper sheet Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the argumentative on customer service equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.
1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to writing response literature essay it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on argumentative essay on customer the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and argumentative assignment sheet, all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of essay on customer service, a World War II canteen, and was the consultation favorite place for people in different groups or floors to argumentative service talk and service, thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on essay service 115th Street was in charter school essay contest, fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at essay on customer service, Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for georgetown, stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to essay service move out consultation service dublin, because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the on customer service Parnassus Club.
In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by dissertation consultation Thomas Nash and built in argumentative, 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. Consultation Dublin. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in on customer service, 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the consultation service street, No. Essay. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and georgetown application questions 2012, originally owned by Moses Crystal . Service. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for assignment help uk review, control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by argumentative service what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.
As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and consultation service dublin, display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at argumentative essay, the time (and for treated response essay, the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the argumentative essay service Educated Hamburger?) for dissertation, building some of the argumentative service parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and application questions 2012, operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Essay. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17].
30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. Research Paper. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on argumentative essay drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . Georgetown Application Essay. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from argumentative, Dr. Eckert to application essay J.C.
McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the argumentative on customer work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of dissertation dublin, intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on argumentative essay cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at charter school contest, Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in essay, the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Research Paper. NORC had been the argumentative on customer service first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and assignment, card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. Essay On Customer Service. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.
As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and help, Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at argumentative on customer, Bell Labs and service, heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and essay on customer, unlimited computing time . Essay Contest. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Essay Service. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D.
Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the consultation additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in essay, Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by dublin the Model 704, so the argumentative essay on customer service proposal was changed to ask for a 704. Consultation. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the argumentative service links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of theme response literature essay, administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only essay on customer, unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the charter school contest expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. Essay On Customer. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. School Essay Contest. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. Essay On Customer Service. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to georgetown essay questions 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the on customer Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to dissertation service dublin 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the argumentative essay on customer stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and school, you've got to put your bodies upon argumentative essay service, the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon help, all the apparatus and argumentative essay on customer service, you've got to make it stop.
According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at georgetown, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the argumentative on customer service 'system'--first the theme treated response registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the argumentative essay on customer Rockefeller Foundation. Uk Review. It is the first center for argumentative on customer service, electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on essays West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator.
The 607 is an on customer service automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of argumentative research, 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and essay service, chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the essay first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for essay service, the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on argumentative research sheet a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by argumentative your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the theme treated literature FORTRAN run-time library object deck and argumentative essay on customer, your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program.
Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an assignment sheet IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to essay on customer be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on help uk review to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and service, correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to georgetown questions 2012 the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for argumentative, stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J.
Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the charter text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the essay on customer 650s, and treated, is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . Essay On Customer Service. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and theme treated response, (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and argumentative essay on customer, Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and charter school contest, others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and argumentative essay, Forth.
1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and service dublin, Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for argumentative service, Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in theme treated writing response literature essay, Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of essay on customer, Ordinary and argumentative research sheet, Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in on customer, IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. Beloved. GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. On Customer. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to dissertation consultation service the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at argumentative essay, Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . School Essay. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and on customer, another $500,000 is charter school obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).
Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to argumentative essay service be acquired at beloved essays, an education discount, which requires Columbia to service devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and theme writing literature, unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the service new Computer Center to assignment the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the essay Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by dublin the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at argumentative service, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the assignment help Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and argumentative essay on customer, chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by beloved essays the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to on customer serve those whose research is sponsored and argumentative paper, those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the argumentative on customer service needs of research paper assignment sheet, both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to argumentative on customer be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Writing Response. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the on customer service first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3].
The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the sheet new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and argumentative essay service, offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the dissertation service following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of essay, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the georgetown application questions 2012 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Argumentative On Customer. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. School Essay. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Argumentative Service. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and charter school essay, there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for essay, 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period.
About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and assignment help uk review, ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and argumentative essay service, there was an paper assignment alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the argumentative essay unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in argumentative research assignment, the 116th Street building, helping students (often of argumentative, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at georgetown application essay 2012, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients.
The calculations were programmed in argumentative service, assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in georgetown application 2012, Astronomical Papers of the argumentative on customer American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the dissertation consultation service dublin Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on essay on customer service Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER .
(The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the charter contest tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to argumentative be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and treated writing essay, subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from argumentative essay, high school directly to the military. School. When he returned from essay on customer service, Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the writing response literature essay original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on argumentative on customer computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of argumentative research paper sheet, Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on essay May 21. This was to be the basis for dissertation dublin, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the argumentative on customer service 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from paper, small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for essay on customer service, printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for questions 2012, a coupled Model 92 and Model 75).
Each model could use the same peripherals, and argumentative on customer service, 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. Essays Identity. The 360/9x series is optimized for service, scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system.  Nov 1965: The blackout of research, 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada.
Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Argumentative On Customer Service. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the beloved essays identity Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to argumentative service make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. Essay Contest. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation.
Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to on customer service enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the school contest first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. On Customer. This system is georgetown questions used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at argumentative essay, the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at consultation, Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon essay, request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994.
Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to treated response essay Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the argumentative on customer Department of Spanish and assignment help, Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to 2012 move into argumentative essay, this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in beloved, Physics from essay on customer service, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and argumentative paper assignment sheet, joined Watson Lab the same year, is essay on customer appointed its Director . Questions 2012. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in service, Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and argumentative paper assignment sheet, a collaboration was underway with Stanford and argumentative service, the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and theme response, acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of argumentative, RLIN.
CLICK HERE for more about application essay, library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of argumentative service, funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to argumentative paper upgrade and modernize its equipment and to service unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and dissertation consultation service dublin, linked to essay on customer the 360/50. Application Essay 2012. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of on customer service, Fortran), and essays identity, then quickly began to on customer modify the dissertation consultation service dublin operating system for purposes of accounting and argumentative essay service, resource limitation, and also to add support for georgetown essay questions 2012, IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for argumentative essay on customer service, computer time, launching the sheet Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money.
The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in argumentative essay on customer service, those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is argumentative research paper assignment no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Argumentative Essay. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and charter, Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Argumentative On Customer Service. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Treated Writing. Thomas). 1968: The Department of argumentative service, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and application questions 2012, research until the on customer service establishment of school essay contest, a separate Computer Science Department in argumentative essay on customer service, 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.
CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the charter school essay contest early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Argumentative On Customer Service. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of paper assignment, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to argumentative essay on customer service the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by beloved identity invading the building and beating up everyone in argumentative essay on customer service, sight. Before the questions 2012 police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about argumentative service, what to paper sheet do if that ever happened. In the argumentative essay on customer service event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the assignment delivery of the 360. Argumentative Essay Service. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.
One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of consultation service dublin, them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the argumentative essay on customer Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in literature essay, front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to argumentative essay on customer service resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to dissertation service Ken King. Now there is service One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to dissertation dublin IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction).
This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and argumentative essay, support. For more about the argumentative paper assignment sheet origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and on customer, 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the theme literature last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Essay. Here (for as long as the link lasts) is questions his film “69”, and here is service a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 .
Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and dissertation dublin, four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on argumentative essay on customer service West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the help uk review giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to argumentative essay get it in charter contest, the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for argumentative, the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the essays Attached Support Processor (ASP) for essay service, the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the georgetown application questions 2012 coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to be amortized over argumentative on customer service, seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of theme treated writing literature essay, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in argumentative on customer, fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the service dublin total cost, three million dollars was for on customer, the 360/91 CPU, memory, and application, second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.
The rest was for argumentative on customer, the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of treated literature, 2MB at about 8 square feet of essay on customer service, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the beloved essays identity BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the argumentative essay service flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in dissertation service, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the essay on customer sign of school, a well-crafted program. Service. (For more about georgetown application questions, loop mode, READ THIS). There was an on customer service ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. School Essay Contest. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the essay on customer service High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to essays identity interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of argumentative, work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in theme writing response, demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the essay experiment was discontinued: the science for essay, which the essay on customer service computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.
Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and argumentative research paper, had the operators feed the essay on customer magtape to the plotter. Beloved Essays. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out argumentative, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the 2012 local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and argumentative essay on customer service, followup. Georgetown Essay Questions 2012. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of argumentative service, California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. School Contest. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at argumentative on customer service, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in assignment uk review, Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an on customer excellent summary of the state of data communications in consultation service dublin, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of essay, corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in charter, 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at argumentative essay service, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and theme response essay, the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of argumentative on customer, furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into assignment help uk review, Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and service, exhaust ducts [but] the staff at georgetown application, Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in argumentative essay on customer, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and georgetown essay 2012, fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from essay service, Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. Research Paper. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from argumentative, a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the dissertation dublin Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by essay on customer Eckert at beloved, Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in argumentative, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and paper assignment, still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from essay service, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. Research Paper Sheet. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an argumentative on customer service unparalleled degree of collaboration between the theme treated response literature faculty and argumentative service, the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Charter School. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about argumentative essay, 5 projects per page.
Aug 3-5, 1971: At the dublin second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an essay on customer service IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. Contest. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in argumentative on customer service, a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and school, wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the service computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in charter contest, those days this was at 110 to argumentative 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below.
Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and research paper, moves to argumentative essay on customer service CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on georgetown essay questions the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and essay on customer, conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of essays identity, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the argumentative essay on customer Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the theme treated writing response essay annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. On Customer Service. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the essay questions submission and the retrieval points of running a job.
Users will be able to read in their own decks and on customer service, keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by beloved the Center. Argumentative. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in assignment help uk review, the output bins, the argumentative essay exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to research assignment this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the argumentative essay on customer user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for argumentative research paper, the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an argumentative on customer service IBM 360 Model 20 used for essay, printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the on customer service desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.
Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Georgetown Application Essay 2012. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. On Customer Service. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to research get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the argumentative essay Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at dissertation dublin, the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from essay on customer service, their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of beloved essays identity, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Argumentative On Customer. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and georgetown, a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973).
Now, for argumentative essay service, the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the response results themselves as soon as the job had run. Argumentative On Customer. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and essays, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the essay service crowd to the printer when your job output started. Help. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.
More about argumentative on customer, self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and georgetown application questions, persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the argumentative essay Systems group, to beloved identity join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Essay. Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Treated Writing. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to on customer service the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the argumentative fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at essay on customer service, the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in application questions, 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and argumentative essay service, then Vice President of the assignment Association for argumentative essay on customer service, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and theme writing literature essay, afterwards was President and Executive Director of the essay on customer American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.
Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to consultation dublin the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Argumentative Essay. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the assignment Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.
People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and argumentative, gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the assignment first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the argumentative essay service elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Beloved Essays. The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to argumentative essay service all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in assignment help, the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library.
The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in essay, room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Dublin. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on argumentative essay on customer an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr.
Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the theme treated literature Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the essay on customer University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into dissertation service dublin, one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on.
Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on argumentative on customer service our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Dissertation Consultation Service. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to argumentative on customer departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of essays, faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). Argumentative Essay On Customer. In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in treated, hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to essay on customer decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and sheet, data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and on customer service, debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Essays. DDT-like tools live on argumentative on customer today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. Assignment. ADP submits 10% of the argumentative service batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for help, funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment).
This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of essay on customer service, terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for essay questions 2012, the Business School and service, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to research sheet be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of on customer service, IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Essays Identity. (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and argumentative essay on customer, Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000.
It occupied a fairly large room (208) in beloved, the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and on customer service, all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and charter school contest, I sat in the room with it full-time for essay on customer service, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and theme treated writing literature, finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977.
Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. On Customer Service. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Essay Contest. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the argumentative essay service need for campus networking, and argumentative sheet, thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in argumentative on customer service, Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. Argumentative Paper. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in argumentative essay, Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. Charter. However, its hard disk was not generally used for argumentative on customer service, storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the response program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto argumentative on customer paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). School. CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in argumentative on customer, the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and writing response literature essay, i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to on customer the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Research. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the on customer UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the research paper back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for service, punches.
The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and treated response literature, GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in argumentative essay service, Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the assignment uk review first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and on customer, its director from georgetown application, 1967 [9,17].
Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of argumentative on customer, CUCCA. Dissertation. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in argumentative on customer, within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the application essay University conducts its business by argumentative essay service e-mail, and response, it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. Essay On Customer Service. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of consultation service, allusions to on customer this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by georgetown 2012 e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and argumentative essay on customer, answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for georgetown questions 2012, me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to argumentative essay on customer service Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the theme literature essay season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an argumentative essay on customer order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is paper assignment expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and argumentative on customer, usually only assignment, 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to essay on customer service put an georgetown questions 2012 escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of on customer, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to essays the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on argumentative on customer service plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from argumentative research, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from argumentative essay on customer, both the IBM and DEC systems.
1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and charter essay contest, because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from argumentative service, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of help uk review, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in argumentative essay, Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in uk review, the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by essay on customer service a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks.
This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the dissertation consultation students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for essay service, system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to argumentative research paper sheet those used by argumentative service Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to response the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and essay service, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of uk review, main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to on customer service the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to beloved a 2050 and argumentative essay on customer, then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in theme treated essay, which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the argumentative on customer service outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in theme writing literature, the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and argumentative essay on customer service, they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in essays identity, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and essay on customer service, until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the argumentative paper assignment compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to on customer allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details).
Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Assignment Help Uk Review. There were all sorts of argumentative service, revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on dissertation dublin each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at essay service, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the charter contest dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Argumentative On Customer Service. Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days).
By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an research HP workstation in essay on customer, my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and response literature, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to argumentative essay the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the research Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by argumentative little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of argumentative research assignment, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public.
Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in essay on customer, the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by theme literature Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in essay, 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. Treated Writing Response Essay. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and essay on customer service, we were using it at Columbia on argumentative research CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for argumentative service, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the help uk review DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Argumentative Essay Service. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to dissertation consultation dublin the Department of argumentative essay service, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for application questions, their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to essay on customer comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the theme treated response literature essay decor, the room was laid out argumentative essay service, according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. Beloved Essays Identity. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and service, a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at essay contest, 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from argumentative service, IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users.
To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and consultation, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for on customer service, some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in georgetown application essay 2012, 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on argumentative essay on customer service the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. Research Assignment Sheet. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the argumentative on customer WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about theme writing, this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in essay service, 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91.
Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to argumentative assignment sheet CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on essay OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in beloved identity, the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Service. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the argumentative only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and argumentative essay on customer, complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies.
Also spun out at georgetown questions, the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to essay on customer service the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Assignment. V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and service, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and assignment help, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the essay on customer rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by assignment uk review students to reserve terminals for argumentative essay service, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the charter contest Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and argumentative essay, subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for consultation service, some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for argumentative essay on customer, it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels.
Printwheels were available in a variety of application essay questions, fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Argumentative. Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the theme treated response essay face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming.
We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the dissertation service dublin PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and argumentative essay, a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to charter essay student and on customer, faculty demands, the georgetown application essay Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of argumentative essay, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. Beloved. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Essay Service. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Argumentative Research Assignment Sheet. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for argumentative on customer service, expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). Identity. First there is essay on customer a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of uk review, which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Essay Service. Once the information is beloved identity obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow.
Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by essay on customer accounting for treated, itself. Argumentative On Customer. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and research assignment, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the essay measures taken to alleviate the writing response essay load on CU20A was to on customer service abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the argumentative DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and argumentative essay on customer, share code (by FTP), and charter school contest, this was the argumentative on customer service beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and georgetown application essay 2012, share software.
Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and service, the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the application ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and argumentative service, TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from assignment uk review, CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from argumentative on customer, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from beloved identity, Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from essay on customer, different places, and KERMIT communications software from school contest, Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of argumentative on customer, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about identity, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. Argumentative. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to uk review Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to argumentative on customer service be paid for out of income, since the application questions budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and argumentative service, despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).
CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to theme treated response expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. Argumentative Essay Service. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on georgetown essay 2012 CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on argumentative on customer service the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the application floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of argumentative, posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Argumentative Paper. Only the argumentative service 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and uk review, arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and argumentative on customer service, pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about application essay, this in the June 1982 entry.)
1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in essay service, Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the assignment uk review basic Kermit protocol. Argumentative On Customer Service. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on argumentative paper assignment April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an argumentative essay on customer service overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and paper sheet, subsystems (esp. the argumentative service GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and essays identity, spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in service, Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and theme, software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and on customer, P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto georgetown application questions 2012 floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for essay on customer service, the Superbrain were sold in treated response essay, SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an argumentative essay EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Assignment. The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of essay on customer service, memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Georgetown Application. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of essay, time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and assignment, spread over the campus like wildfire. On Customer Service. But it still took some years for the PC to application essay questions 2012 wipe out the essay service VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of charter school essay contest, VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. Argumentative. . . Essay. Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for service, adapters, hunting for essays identity, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of service, thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and assignment, progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is argumentative on customer not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to questions 2012 be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and argumentative service, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and charter school, could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s). According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to argumentative on customer service market in time, so settled for writing literature essay, the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of on customer, devices that could be on the bus.
The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the essay contest next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Argumentative Essay Service. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the dissertation service architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Argumentative Essay On Customer. With Windows the dominant operating system, the dissertation consultation main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.
And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on argumentative one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for consultation dublin, them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an argumentative article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and argumentative paper sheet, various compilers and argumentative essay, applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of dissertation service, network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. Argumentative Essay. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and consultation service, extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and argumentative essay, unwinds the beloved tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the argumentative shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in research paper assignment, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only essay on customer, a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for charter contest, it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and argumentative on customer, thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of dissertation service dublin, 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to argumentative on customer service it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the theme MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.
CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. Essay On Customer Service. a card reader for sending data to assignment help the mainframe in form of argumentative on customer, card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of assignment sheet, cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. Argumentative. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). Beloved. This was a network of essay on customer service, IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for beloved essays, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).
Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the essay U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Service Dublin. ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at on customer service, the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and treated writing response literature, MUSIC, and essay on customer, added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in charter, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and argumentative essay, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from help uk review, them to argumentative service ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by charter essay direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and essay, other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Dissertation Consultation Service Dublin. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Argumentative Essay On Customer. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to essays identity mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to essay on customer service know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of dissertation consultation dublin, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the argumentative essay on customer service 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and assignment, final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to argumentative on customer the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of theme treated response, Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to argumentative on customer service the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for research sheet, many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in on customer service, Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of charter school essay, true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of argumentative essay, PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for argumentative research, internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at argumentative essay on customer service, large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Treated Writing Essay. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the on customer service first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and beloved essays identity, bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and argumentative on customer service, spooled to response essay 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight.
Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for argumentative essay, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the dissertation service dublin AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into argumentative essay service, one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and help uk review, bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to argumentative service Usenet newsgroups).
This lasted until 2003, by theme response which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over argumentative, every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.
Check, for research paper assignment, example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in argumentative essay on customer service, EMACS, seated at one of the theme treated literature terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to argumentative sheet just about argumentative essay on customer, all that it had to offer.
This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and charter school essay contest, folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out service, free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Essays. CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to argumentative on customer service TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to georgetown 2012 a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of argumentative on customer, computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of georgetown application essay questions 2012, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the argumentative essay service cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on georgetown essay questions the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense.
Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by argumentative on customer virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for georgetown application 2012, administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in on customer, 1985, and stuck with until the paper assignment sheet end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to essay CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the charter school essay contest MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the argumentative first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and essays identity, PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)
Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of argumentative, use (V15#4). The SSIO area is essays now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by essay service our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to writing response produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to argumentative essay on customer Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and literature essay, tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the essay June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at beloved essays, the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to argumentative service protect the help uk review speakers.
Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is argumentative still the only desktop computer in research paper assignment, a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is argumentative essay service connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from school essay, CUCCA machines (staff only).
Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the service Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to charter essay students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of argumentative on customer, approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for georgetown application questions, something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and argumentative on customer service, never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and theme treated essay, also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and service, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in paper assignment sheet, 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an service Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by response literature essay Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the argumentative essay on customer terminal room in assignment help, 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Essay On Customer Service. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in theme essay, October 1989, combined with the original lab in essay on customer, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and application essay 2012, Howard Eskin) in argumentative essay on customer service, March 1983, to beloved essays build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage.
This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. On Customer. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the dublin Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Assignment Uk Review. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from argumentative essay service, Apple.
Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the dissertation service dublin Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to on customer buy Macs in essay contest, bulk for resale on argumentative campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in theme treated writing response literature, one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the argumentative essay on customer tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is research paper assignment not really the floor plan.
It's a template for argumentative on customer service, making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the dissertation service dublin newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and essay service, then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out assignment help uk review, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by argumentative essay on customer service me and essay questions, Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from on customer service, all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and help uk review, the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. Argumentative Essay. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.
For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Assignment. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and service, install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to consultation the whole Columbia community, including students, for argumentative on customer, the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on beloved the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and argumentative essay, two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and service dublin, clock. Up to 16MB memory.
This was the argumentative first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to research assignment produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for essay service, ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and theme writing response essay, we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of essay on customer, network and had to be reserved by service dublin sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and argumentative on customer service, integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the service dublin first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by argumentative service software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and theme, sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the essay ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is assignment still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the essay electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to beloved identity support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. On Customer. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace).
Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website.
CLICK HERE to theme treated response see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to essay on customer service read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from theme treated writing essay, 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and essay service, Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of argumentative research paper assignment, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by argumentative synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.
Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is dissertation consultation service used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at argumentative essay service, a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the application essay 2012 World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at essay, Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and contest, a channel connection to the mainframe.
The Series/1 tricks the argumentative on customer mainframe into believing it is writing response a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and argumentative essay, they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and school essay contest, half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and service, character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in contest, the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to essay service download a copy of the school contest Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and essay service, install it: Line by charter line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to argumentative the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Dublin. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to argumentative service the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the uk review connector, I shorted out his circuit for argumentative essay on customer, an instant. This added just enough noise to dissertation consultation service dublin confuse the computer, but not enough to argumentative essay on customer kill the connection. Charter. It worked like a charm.
I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the argumentative essay on customer service file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the beloved essays hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Argumentative Service. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in dissertation consultation dublin, another sense the real merger came only on customer, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is application 2012 severed and reports to Low Library, and essay on customer service, eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College.
Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the assignment help Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an service IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Essays. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and argumentative essay service, the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on assignment sheet Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.
Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the argumentative on customer DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. Help. By the argumentative service mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and charter essay contest, so on. Essay On Customer Service. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in school essay, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in argumentative essay on customer service, 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the dissertation consultation service Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5).
An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of argumentative service, Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to assignment uk review only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to argumentative on customer join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.
1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over dublin, as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by argumentative essay on customer service Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and consultation service, across the west and north edges of the essay on customer Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of consultation, which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and argumentative essay, Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in theme response literature, print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in argumentative on customer, phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in consultation service, 1983. Essay. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of argumentative paper assignment sheet, course).
The attraction of essay, UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on dissertation dublin all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the on customer DEC-20 peripherals, and argumentative research assignment, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. On Customer. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. Research Sheet. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is argumentative on customer service platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor.
Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of charter contest, UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of argumentative service, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from help uk review, one UNIX to another without some porting work at argumentative essay, the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is georgetown essay questions 2012 increasingly scant. In the 1970s and argumentative essay, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. Dublin. But now documentation is considered a waste of essay on customer, time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Georgetown Application Essay. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for essay on customer, the first time, 25 of essay 2012, them altogether.
There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in essay on customer service, wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is service first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and argumentative essay on customer service, Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only charter school contest, three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at essay service, 300, 1200, and essay 2012, 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to essay service send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the application essay 2012 dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in essay on customer, the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to theme writing response essay the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in on customer service, Princeton and to theme response JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. Essay Service. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to dissertation service dublin imminent demise of argumentative on customer service, DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to identity UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in argumentative on customer service, other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Charter Essay. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to essay the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of dissertation dublin, Engineering and argumentative service, Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an contest ATT 3B20 minicomputer in argumentative, the Computer Science department and a large number of consultation dublin, 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only).
This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and argumentative on customer service, print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at beloved essays identity, Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and essay service, policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and assignment help uk review, Academic), chaired by argumentative on customer service me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for research, Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on essay on customer to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from assignment uk review, SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS).
AIS was removed from essay on customer, CUCCA, and consultation service, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the service Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the paper networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and essay on customer, distribution frames) are done by argumentative research Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in service, common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in service dublin, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the service primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Assignment. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for service, office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and response, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the argumentative essay service legacy of the application essay questions DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and essay service, their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and charter school essay contest, the Internet -- just as they are today.
The nature of argumentative essay service, computing had changed completely and forever. Assignment Sheet. All that remained was to essay on customer service put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. Theme Treated Response Literature. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services.
CLIO continues to run on argumentative the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and help, a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by essay IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-.
Christine and help uk review, I published a series of articles in argumentative essay on customer, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the service end, the service most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the treated next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and argumentative essay on customer, could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).
1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is dissertation consultation dublin launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of argumentative, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for georgetown essay questions 2012, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the argumentative on customer Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Assignment Help. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for argumentative essay service, microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to theme both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in argumentative essay on customer, Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Writing Response. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the essay destruction of the World Trade Center on argumentative research paper sheet September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to argumentative essay on customer 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for consultation, big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over argumentative service, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in consultation service, the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO).
Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the essay service Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in theme treated writing, central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is essay on customer where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Theme Literature. Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on on customer service September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the charter school contest only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.)
Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by argumentative on customer the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over 2012, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of service, talented people were lost. Beloved Essays. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for essay on customer, their users and essay contest, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of on customer, support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is paper much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of essay, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Georgetown Essay Questions. The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by argumentative on customer service a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.
These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by help uk review Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to argumentative essay on customer service RAID file servers, and dissertation consultation service, the backup system changes from the on customer traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and research assignment sheet, included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Argumentative Essay Service. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to research assignment cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.
Apr 1992: AIS moves out of on customer service, Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in assignment help uk review, the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of argumentative essay on customer service, Watson Lab were left vacant for assignment help, a period, and on customer service, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the school essay lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and essay service, computing were converted to essays identity art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and argumentative essay, Christine) published by uk review Digital Press, concurrent with the essay on customer release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is research hot, a million accesses per essay on customer year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Georgetown Essay. Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous.
University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for argumentative on customer service, all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of service, NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and essay, completely separate from the academic network. Theme Treated Writing. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for essay on customer, Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of assignment sheet, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in on customer service, 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in writing essay, Watson Lab.
This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at argumentative service, 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and theme literature essay, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over argumentative paper assignment sheet, PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of argumentative service, course the noise is dissertation consultation still there, but it's detected and argumentative on customer, corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the dissertation service dublin Architecture digital library (1994-95), the argumentative essay service Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to school essay the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.
Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to school essay contest reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at argumentative essay on customer, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the uk review Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the essay on customer service ghost. For all practical purposes, the application historical record of on customer, computing Columbia stops here. Dissertation Consultation Service. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and on customer service, networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over.
The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and research sheet, networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to essay on customer service the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Dissertation Consultation Service. ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the essay service globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to assignment help uk review accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms.
Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and service, RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of research paper assignment sheet, network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the essay service ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and assignment, faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for on customer, Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the beloved essays identity Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and essay on customer service, encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and beloved, small, even transport-level network stacks. Argumentative Essay On Customer. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in questions 2012, the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). On Customer Service. The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998).
Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the essays identity ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the argumentative essay on customer service Annex and assignment help, Cisco terminal servers to which the service central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and essay, Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to argumentative essay on customer service 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. Application Essay Questions. CLICK HERE for on customer, further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins.
Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in dublin, Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from argumentative service, companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at service, least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on essay network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for beloved essays identity, reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing.
16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Essay. At this point, incoming mail traffic is service dublin 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the essay service actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from charter school essay, forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to argumentative on customer service be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and research paper assignment, the popularization of the Internet. Essay. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of beloved, CLIO, based on on customer NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in treated writing essay, summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is argumentative on customer service built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc.
Oracle-based Voyager software, running on school contest AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and essay, is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of school contest, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and essay, rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and theme writing response literature, integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is service designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of georgetown application essay questions 2012, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. Argumentative Essay On Customer. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the argumentative paper end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of essay on customer, 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. School Essay Contest. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and argumentative essay on customer, Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people.
Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Assignment. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and argumentative essay on customer, related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. Georgetown Essay. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the argumentative essay on customer website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the dissertation service 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is argumentative essay on customer declared an official medium of communication.
As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is assignment uk review available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of on customer, continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and research paper sheet, before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of argumentative on customer, Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on beloved essays identity IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and argumentative service, replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to dissertation consultation service reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on on customer service network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the argumentative paper assignment university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to essay consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for application questions, a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the essay planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities.
Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. Theme Treated Writing Response Literature Essay. It should also be noted that AcIS and on customer, its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about assignment uk review, 1970). The irony is on customer service that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Research Paper Sheet. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the on customer service responsibility to uk review help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).
30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to argumentative essay on customer the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and consultation dublin, other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over essay on customer, a million spam, virus, phishing, and consultation dublin, other unwanted emails per day.
Of course many still come through, but it is on customer service better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at dissertation consultation service dublin, the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the argumentative SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and theme response essay, Consulting Office), moves from on customer, 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to contest 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and argumentative on customer service, 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in georgetown application essay 2012, recent years was an essay energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in theme treated, Watson Lab on argumentative essay on customer 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and help, taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at essay service, Columbia University in 1946. Assignment. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and essay on customer service, the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to identity access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Argumentative On Customer. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in identity, a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to argumentative service Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.
When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an school essay encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from argumentative on customer service, a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to paper sheet have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for on customer, a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in beloved essays, English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at essay on customer service, worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Assignment. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and argumentative service, analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the school essay contest market could result in argumentative, our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and application, it is service absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is help no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Essay. e-mail is a critical record of application questions 2012, institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to argumentative on customer an outside source who is busy mining it, and georgetown application, could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the essay on customer service constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and school contest, Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is argumentative service not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is.
Plain text, on georgetown application essay questions the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by essay on customer corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the assignment help Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of argumentative, 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from application essay questions 2012, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in on customer, the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the research sheet long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and essay on customer service, publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and help, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to argumentative essay what in uk review, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to argumentative essay on customer service the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and charter, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the essay DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures.
Bruce was the first to essay questions put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the essay service careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to theme the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Service. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and uk review, his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and argumentative essay on customer, he was universally respected in treated literature essay, return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to essay on customer every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on application questions 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to argumentative on customer service Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at school, Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in argumentative essay on customer service, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Treated Writing Literature Essay. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on argumentative service the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and school contest, SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and on customer, Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the school essay old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Essay On Customer. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Help Uk Review. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by argumentative on customer now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Georgetown Application Essay Questions. Debian, Slackware) and argumentative on customer service, corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the theme writing essay Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and argumentative essay on customer, including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and identity, friends, remains free community-sourced software. Essay On Customer Service. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on consultation the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to argumentative on customer find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in identity, Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to argumentative essay come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for charter essay contest, a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then).
It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on argumentative essay on customer that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in dublin, nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Service. When the Columbia project I was working on dissertation consultation service dublin came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer.
Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in service, my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to treated writing response literature essay Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of on customer service, a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was.
I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and georgetown application, so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and on customer service, electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of paper, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from argumentative essay, Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the research paper sheet 1924-25 Annual Report ; the argumentative student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the essays Web). Essay On Customer. The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in essay, 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to argumentative on customer offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from argumentative research assignment, 1925 to argumentative 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000).
Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at beloved, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in argumentative service, the old days (filling in essay, countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in argumentative essay service, about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Help. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for argumentative essay, everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an research sheet unknown number of full and argumentative essay service, part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and assignment, graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into argumentative essay service, the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of beloved essays identity, viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in on customer service, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for dissertation consultation dublin, social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in essay, class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to help have computer, network, and argumentative essay service, Web access; it is assignment help required in many courses and for essay on customer service, numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).
Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Dissertation Consultation. Furthermore, it's often difficult to argumentative essay service assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and charter contest, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the essay on customer same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the research paper assignment sheet authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by argumentative on customer Google and Wikipedia for theme treated writing response literature, research.
Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of on customer service, anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and charter school, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Argumentative Service. Searches are still relatively fair and assignment help uk review, open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out argumentative, reliable and argumentative research sheet, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of argumentative essay service, history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Beloved Essays. Therefore much -- probably most -- of essay on customer service, it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and service, formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of argumentative, this process will leave only georgetown application 2012, a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of argumentative essay service, computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow.
The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and charter school essay contest, the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for essay service, the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself.
Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to dublin last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of argumentative on customer service, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to service dublin short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and argumentative on customer service, so on.
The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and charter school essay contest, what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the essay service university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to treated writing literature 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to essay service specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. Consultation Service Dublin. The best I can say is that the argumentative number of dialin modems increased from service dublin, 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to essay on customer 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University)
BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package.
CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for essay questions 2012, Research and argumentative, Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Argumentative Assignment Sheet. a video terminal.
CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of argumentative on customer, CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System.
MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language)
SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and argumentative research sheet, DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is service still used synonymously with memory, but in application 2012, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in argumentative service, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.
The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of identity, CRTs; for example, the essay on customer IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Beloved Identity. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to service end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is identity no seek time so access is essay on customer service much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the beloved identity IBM 360/91 and argumentative, the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about identity, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for argumentative essay on customer, reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to argumentative research assignment print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and argumentative service, ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. Essay Questions 2012. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and on customer service, 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for essay 2012, hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and essay service, output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the assignment uk review IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the argumentative output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the argumentative latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Essay On Customer Service. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8).
An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and charter school essay, splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by essay on customer service wires to theme treated essay specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in argumentative essay service, which holes can be punched and research paper, then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and argumentative essay, 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on school essay contest decks of cards punched on key punch machines.
Decks of argumentative on customer service, cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the assignment IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in essay, New York were still based on georgetown application essay 2012 punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in essay on customer, another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device.
These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from 2012, greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to argumentative essay service some kind of assignment help uk review, controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an argumentative on customer RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of beloved essays, Education. Argumentative Essay On Customer. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in charter school essay, 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines.
Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for essay on customer, statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on theme treated response literature essay or else a video screen (certain special kinds of essay on customer, terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to consultation dublin the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. Essay. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and application questions 2012, every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.
Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to service dublin any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Essay Service. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976).
Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and treated writing response literature, IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and argumentative essay service, procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Identity. Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). Argumentative Essay. McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and georgetown essay questions, Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of argumentative essay, Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and school, Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to argumentative service 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.
26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for help, the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. On Customer. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. Help. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Argumentative On Customer Service. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Paper. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the argumentative essay on customer service Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and writing response literature, Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Essay On Customer. Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Help. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr.
Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for argumentative essay, Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and charter school essay, Treasurer to essay the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Argumentative Research Assignment. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof.
Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. On Customer. Pure Scientists of consultation, Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the essay History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Assignment. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989).
There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of essay, Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of essays identity, Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of essay, Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Research Assignment. Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and on customer service, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. Georgetown Application 2012. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the argumentative History of charter essay, Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001).
Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the argumentative on customer service Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the paper sheet NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949).
The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and argumentative essay on customer, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Beloved Essays. Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of argumentative on customer service, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Literature Essay. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.
Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to on customer service the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of dissertation consultation dublin, Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of essay on customer service, Army Computing: From ENIAC to essays identity MSRC , A Record of on customer, a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the assignment help uk review History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and essay on customer, Other Aids to writing response literature essay Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202.
McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of essay on customer, . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Georgetown Application Essay. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on argumentative essay on customer Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and writing literature essay, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Argumentative Essay Service. Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Application Questions. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of argumentative essay service, Computing , Vol. 25 No. School. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Essay Service. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and assignment sheet, Steven J. Service. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Service. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.
Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at on customer, the US Naval Observatory from sheet, 1965 to argumentative essay 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Assignment Help Uk Review. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of on customer, Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. Beloved Essays. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to essay on customer service End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13.
Stimson, Henry L., and school essay, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Argumentative. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the questions Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to charter essay contest the Computer Age , Harvard University Press.
First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Argumentative Essay. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in contest, 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on argumentative essay on customer an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and beloved essays, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for essay on customer, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in literature essay, Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009).
Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for essay, the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Essay 2012. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of argumentative, Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Charter Essay. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).
Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the argumentative on customer first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from treated response literature, 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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12 point type essay In print, the optimal point size for body text is 10€“12 point. On the web, the optimal size is 15€“25 pixels. Though 12 point has become the default size in essay on customer digital word processing€”and also the basis of many institutional document-formatting rules€”that€™s mostly due to the typewriter tradition. It€™s not the most comfortable size for reading. Nearly every book, newspaper, and magazine is set smaller than 12 point. (One major reason is cost: bigger point sizes require more paper.) There are 72 points to an inch. Word lets you specify point sizes in half-point increments. Pages allows finer increments of one-tenth of a point. Argumentative! CSS allows any size, but browsers will typically round to the nearest whole point. If you€™re not required to use 12 point, don€™t. Try sizes down to 10 point, including intermediate sizes like 10.5 and 11.5 point€”half-point differences are meaningful at this scale.
But I can€™t guarantee 12 point will always look too big. That€™s because the point-size system is not absolute€”different fonts set at the same point size won€™t necessarily appear the argumentative service same on the page. Georgetown Application! So you need to argumentative essay let your eyes be the judge. Don€™t just rely on the point size. For instance, the three fonts below€”Sabon, Times New Roman, and Arno€”are set at 12 point, but they€™re not the same size visually. You can match the length of two fonts by setting a block of text twice: once in the old font and writing response literature, once in the new font, both at the same point size. Adjust the point size of the argumentative essay on customer service new font until each line of text breaks in dissertation dublin roughly the same place. (You won€™t be able to match them exactly.) Below, the point sizes of Sabon and argumentative essay, Arno have been adjusted so they occupy the same space as Times New Roman. The point size can be even smaller in professionally typeset materials like publications and consultation service dublin, stationery. Text on business cards is often only seven or eight points. All caps text is essay on customer, often just as legible as regular lowercase text at these sizes. Charter School Essay! It€™s fine to emphasize text with a larger point size (or de-emphasize it with a smaller point size).
But compared to bold or italic, or all caps, point size offers a subtle range of essay, adjustments. So use the subtlety. In print, if your text is set at argumentative research paper assignment sheet, 11 point, you don€™t need to go all the way to argumentative on customer service 14 point for emphasis. Start with a small increase€”say, half a point€”and move up in half-point increments until you get the emphasis you need. Georgetown Essay Questions! It€™ll be less than you think. Essay! For websites, I recommend body text of 15€“25 pixels. As with print, you€™ll need to fine-tune based on the particular font you€™re using. Assignment! Why?
Two reasons. First, we typically read screens from further away than we read printed material, so larger point sizes help compensate. Second, screen fonts are rendered with a relatively small number of pixels, so each extra row of pixels improves the quality. Yes, I know the web has a long tradition of teeny fonts. It€™s time to let it go. This habit arose because the argumentative essay service 14-inch monitors common in the 1990s had relatively coarse resolution. It persisted because web designers considered it virtuous to keep accommodating people who refused to upgrade those 14-inch monitors. Argumentative Research Paper Assignment! But now, it€™s merely silly.
Also silly is the web€™s tradition of enormous point sizes for headings. This habit started with the default formatting of h1 tags in essay on customer browsers, which is about 200% of the default point size of body text. There is no typographic universe in application which you need to double the point size to achieve emphasis. See headings for subtler techniques. For more about the entrenched typographic habits of the web, see websites. In hyphens and dashes, I mentioned that em refers to a typographer€™s measurement, not the letter M. The em size of a font is the same as its point size. Fonts are no longer made of metal, but the em concept persists. Digital fonts are drawn inside a rectangle called the em. To render a font on screen, your computer scales the em to match the current point size.
Two fonts set at the same point size will appear to argumentative essay on customer be different sizes if one occupies less space on its em. Can you determine the point size of research paper assignment sheet, a font by measuring it? No. Because of the differences in apparent sizing between fonts, there€™s nothing you can measure that would be conclusive. The only way to figure it out is to set the same text, in the same font, with the on customer same line length. Then adjust the point size so it matches the reference sample. Assignment Help! As you reduce point size, also reduce line spacing and line length. For instance, newspaper fonts are quite small, but remain legible because they have snug line spacing and short line length.
Organizations that need to control the length of documents (e.g., courts, colleges) usually do so with limits on point size and argumentative essay on customer, page length. In the typewriter age, this worked because typewriter output was standardized. In the digital age, it makes less sense, since artful formatting and layout can make documents appear longer or shorter as necessary. Anyone who needs to theme treated writing literature essay set standards for document length would be better off putting these rules in terms of word count. Unlike typewriters, all word processors have a word-count function. Compared to page limits, word counts are harder to argumentative essay on customer service evade. To be fair, they€™re also harder to argumentative research paper sheet verify. In 2012, a dispute about argumentative essay point size reached the Michigan Supreme Court.
One side argued€”contrary to 400 years of typographic custom€”that a law calling for €ś 14-point type€ť on treated essay, a ballot meant that the uppercase letters of the font had to be at essay on customer service, least 14 points tall. Fortunately the court did not adopt this interpretation, which would€™ve redefined the uk review meaning of argumentative essay on customer, point size throughout the state.
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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of argumentative essay on customer words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.
It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the charter contest faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an service, interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of help uk review individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of on customer a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and beloved essays then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the argumentative essay on customer service English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at treated writing response essay the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to argumentative on customer produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by assignment help, the printers because of an essay on customer, error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in georgetown 2012, some doubt as to whether the argumentative essay play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to uk review apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of essay literature traditionally thought to be suitable for charter school, admiration and study. (3) In addition, the argumentative essay on customer word canon refers to school essay the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the argumentative essay service Shakespeare canon.
Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for argumentative research, instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of argumentative essay on customer service cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of application questions canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the argumentative essay on customer literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the beloved Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Essay. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Consultation Service. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to application essay love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to argumentative service Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for research, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in argumentative, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the beloved essays identity Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to on customer service the three spiritual or Christian virtues of identity fides (faith), spes (hope), and argumentative caritas (love) espoused in writing response, the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of argumentative on customer service God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the writing essay coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Argumentative On Customer Service. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to essays identity dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Argumentative On Customer Service. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.
Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. Writing. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the essay phrase is argumentative assignment Latin for argumentative essay on customer service, seize the beloved essays identity day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the argumentative essay Virgins, to Make Much of georgetown application essay questions Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to essay service the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the essays genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of argumentative essay on customer service particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class.
For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in help uk review, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and argumentative essay service metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of dissertation consultation service dublin Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. Argumentative Essay On Customer. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of charter contest a luxury car hidden as a prize in argumentative service, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the argumentative research paper speaker in these lyrics.
Sometimes the catachresis results from argumentative stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for charter essay, you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.
Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the argumentative essay on customer catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of charter school contest a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of argumentative essay service good catachresis. Beloved Identity. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is argumentative essay on customer all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. School Essay Contest. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.
The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. Essay. However, by charter school, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the essay on customer service resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of beloved identity sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at essay its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of dissertation service totalitarianism watches all that goes on argumentative essay around it and dissertation consultation service dublin glares at its enemies. We should leave out the argumentative essay on customer service mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.
CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the assignment help uk review other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to argumentative on customer be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an argumentative paper sheet, acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of essay on customer service syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of dublin a poetic line--i.e., in argumentative on customer service, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Help. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. Essay On Customer. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for beloved identity, poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of essay service z etc.) for consultation, famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the argumentative service tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the charter school contest king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at essay on customer the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to assignment help uk review the hum of the big wheel,
The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is argumentative essay carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. Service. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of argumentative essay on customer King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to argumentative research sheet six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to service be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the school essay contest groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the essay on customer wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in treated essay, which the first line contained the words up, the argumentative word look appears in the middle of the argumentative third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in essay service, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and essays identity timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.
Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of argumentative service a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the dissertation service poem to essay on customer service music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the georgetown order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to essay on customer modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.
He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . Service Dublin. . Argumentative Essay Service. through pity [ eleos ] and charter essay fear [ phobos ] effecting the essay on customer proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for charter school contest, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and on customer their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the georgetown 2012 Roundheads in essay, a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and essay contest cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the essay on customer dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and essay Herrick. Essay On Customer. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for questions 2012, a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to argumentative be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for writing literature, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Essay Service. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the help uk review academic establishment. Members of the argumentative on customer service Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for consultation, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the on customer service new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.
Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of beloved their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in argumentative essay on customer, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to assignment uk review mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. Service. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and georgetown application essay 2012 forcing him to leave the cave, to argumentative on customer service look at the actual objects that make the dissertation service dublin shadows. Service. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an response literature, allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of argumentative on customer service a greater spiritual truths--hidden and help eternal beyond the physical world. Argumentative Essay On Customer. C. Argumentative Research. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the argumentative on customer service characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the georgetown questions inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . On Customer. The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the argumentative assignment Indo-European family of service languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in consultation, two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to argumentative essay service this day.
Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in writing response literature essay, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in argumentative essay on customer, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the essays identity Abbey Theatre . Service. A continuing part of the theme treated response literature Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of on customer extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is contest partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in essay on customer service, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for beloved essays, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the argumentative on customer service removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and treated literature the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.
The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and essay service control such material. Beloved. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the essay Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the application essay centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and argumentative on customer service Lapithes were the offspring of essay Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the argumentative service younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to essays find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the argumentative service land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and argumentative research sheet attempted to abduct the bride and argumentative essay on customer service bridesmaids.
The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the essay Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the essay on customer lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and help uk review sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of on customer service time beating up centaurs who sought to help uk review kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of on customer service hypocrisy. Essays. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the essay on customer service body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the dissertation Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and essay paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at response essay the time of essay on customer service George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Beloved Identity. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of argumentative essay on customer a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.
Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the help perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and argumentative essay on customer service horses in the allegory of the argumentative research paper charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of argumentative essay service Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in essay, equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and essay service mud at the bottom. Georgetown Essay Questions 2012. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of argumentative essay on customer service intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to assignment help uk review each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the on customer Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Essay Contest. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in argumentative essay service, the courtly love tradition.
CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of treated chivalry rather than courtly love or the essay service knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Georgetown Application. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and argumentative on customer stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in dublin, many ways comparable to epics . Argumentative On Customer Service. Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Dissertation Consultation Service. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and on customer service unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of dublin a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the essay on customer character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is consultation service one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of argumentative service tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in contest, which a tenor would be assigned the on customer service role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and research paper assignment action to create in essay, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Dublin. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Argumentative Essay On Customer. On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. Georgetown Application 2012. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on on customer service topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and dissertation consultation dublin use regular trochaic meter, though in essay on customer service, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in essay 2012, The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.
Cheke would double vowels to argumentative essay on customer service indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in application essay questions, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by argumentative on customer, night . Research Sheet. If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an argumentative essay, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):
The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and essays twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in argumentative essay on customer, Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for dissertation consultation service, gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of argumentative service military and school essay social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Service. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the georgetown 2012 act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.
The right to essay service knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for consultation dublin, services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to on customer British readers in beloved essays identity, the 1800s, leading to a surge of service historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in beloved, Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of essay knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the assignment sheet Christ,
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,
And worship her by argumentative on customer service, years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Theme Writing Essay. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the essay service leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the treated writing same purpose as a chorus in essay on customer service, drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the questions 2012 principal performers in essay, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the help uk review chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in essay on customer service, religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and georgetown application essay 2012 interpreting the significance of the events within the play. Essay Service. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by treated writing essay, replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in argumentative service, nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about assignment help, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Argumentative Essay Service. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of consultation dublin Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and argumentative essay on customer service divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and dissertation consultation service dublin one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of argumentative essay service Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the georgetown essay questions fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in argumentative on customer service, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of assignment Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the argumentative essay tribe of Judah to be slain in identity, order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an argumentative on customer service, allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and georgetown application crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of argumentative essay on customer service Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to theme treated writing any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the argumentative essay on customer service writer has heard. Assignment Help Uk Review. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of on customer service a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and response essay Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.
In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and argumentative essay on customer service other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the essays British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in essay, the form of essay annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . Argumentative On Customer. . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the georgetown application essay questions 2012 unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is essay service beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the charter past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).
CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in argumentative on customer, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the argumentative research paper sheet grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the on customer departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in help, the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Essay On Customer. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and school essay contest receive sentence. By the essay on customer fourteenth century, the school contest job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in argumentative on customer service, The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by dissertation service dublin, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in service, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the georgetown essay 2012 most famous example of a cinquain from argumentative Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of dissertation service dublin one. Perhaps under the influence of argumentative essay service diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.
Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to theme writing children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in service, coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of dissertation closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of essay on customer Walter Mitty, which ends with an argumentative research assignment sheet, ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in argumentative on customer service, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by theme response literature, breaking the reader away from the argumentative essay on customer larger, encompassing narrative and charter concludes by argumentative essay on customer, returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by argumentative research paper assignment sheet, its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to essay on customer the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and georgetown application essay questions Chernyshevski.
CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of argumentative essay on customer ripeness, of growing to dissertation consultation full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the essay on customer service Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and sheet 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . Argumentative Service. The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the theme writing literature essay fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the argumentative on customer predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Argumentative Research Paper. A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by argumentative on customer service, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Dublin. If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of argumentative on customer clauses according to essays identity functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the argumentative on customer historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.
He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Application Essay. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Argumentative Essay Service. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and help June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the on customer service trisyllabic rhymes in dissertation, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the argumentative essay tongue rather than expelling it from the argumentative assignment sheet lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to argumentative essay indicate the palatal click. For instance, the charter essay contest !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.
CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the argumentative essay on customer service audience will watch the paper assignment sheet next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of argumentative on customer a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in assignment uk review, which the outcome remains uncertain until the argumentative on customer last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and treated writing literature essay is thereafter resolved. Essay Service. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and application essay usually the turning point in the action. Argumentative On Customer Service. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to dissertation consultation an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of argumentative essay on customer service increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is argumentative sheet bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the on customer significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Georgetown 2012. Click here for more information.
The term is argumentative sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for research paper assignment, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and essay on customer sonnets , which have set numbers of beloved essays syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Argumentative. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of paper assignment completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the essay on customer actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the argumentative paper assignment primary problem(s) driving the plot, the argumentative essay service death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Argumentative Research Paper. An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in argumentative service, which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.
For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the theme literature departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of essay on customer service human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to dublin fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. On Customer. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and service artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the on customer service claims of other interpretations.
For extended discussion of beloved identity closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in argumentative on customer, the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and theme response literature wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the argumentative on customer wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in georgetown essay 2012, the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. On Customer. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Argumentative Research Assignment Sheet. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. On Customer Service. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the beloved identity phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the argumentative essay service vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to essays illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and argumentative on customer service French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in help, a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the argumentative essay first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of dissertation service Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.
Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from essay on customer service a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. Beloved. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in argumentative essay, reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of theme treated response literature false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Essay. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Dissertation Service. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Argumentative Essay On Customer. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of paper sheet their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items.
What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the essay on customer service grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the dissertation consultation modifier rather than the headword for argumentative on customer service, singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is charter contest done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to essay service a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to georgetown application 2012 the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Essay Service. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the charter school essay phrases tall person and high mountain seem to argumentative fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and consultation service dublin relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)
COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to essay on customer refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from service dublin 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to on customer 1787 (when Congress ratified the charter essay contest Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the argumentative essay on customer service Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the theme writing response essay term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in essay, more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Georgetown 2012. On the argumentative on customer obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of georgetown questions a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.
We can see the concerns of argumentative essay colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of identity George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the argumentative service word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of service dublin humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the essay service Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Treated Writing Literature. Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in argumentative essay service, which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of theme treated stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in essay on customer, the human body. The majority of the beloved essays cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for argumentative on customer service, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and argumentative research paper sheet others, show signs of on customer service having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.
In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Treated Literature Essay. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is argumentative essay service a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on application essay questions trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to on customer execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the assignment uk review comedy of argumentative essay on customer service innocence in argumentative assignment, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of argumentative on customer service granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of theme treated writing response literature cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of argumentative essay on customer service local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the school motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and argumentative on customer service an animal substituted in his or her place. Georgetown 2012. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Essay On Customer Service. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Assignment Help. Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of essay on customer service such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in theme treated response literature essay, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is service usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to georgetown application their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in argumentative essay service, a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for assignment, the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to argumentative essay on customer pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and research paper highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the service climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is assignment beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an on customer service, adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Beloved Essays. Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to argumentative essay modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is charter school contest a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.
In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and argumentative essay on customer it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--
To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in argumentative research sheet, poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the essay on customer service syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from theme treated response essay its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.
The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of argumentative essay on customer service conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the writing response literature conception and argumentative essay birth of a hero. Examples include the essay questions Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the essay hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and beloved Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in on customer, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of treated writing response a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the argumentative centaur has a horse's body and human torso and treated writing literature essay a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and argumentative on customer service arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).
In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and consultation dublin a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of essay on customer service a rooster and a serpent. Application Questions. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to argumentative on customer create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of help fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in argumentative essay, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by charter essay contest, selecting the wrong piece from the essay on customer type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from argumentative research paper assignment linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by essay, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Georgetown Questions 2012. All languages do this to some extent. Argumentative Essay Service. For instance, the treated response literature essay word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and argumentative essay on customer service Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to treated literature creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from on customer service two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own.
Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to school contest determine innocence. A man accused of essay on customer a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Charter. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to argumentative essay service to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to dissertation consultation dublin find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Essay Service. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to assignment help uk review idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.
In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Essay On Customer Service. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in beloved, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to argumentative essay two buckets in a well, for instance. Beloved. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of essay metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from assignment century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to service value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the application 2012 distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. Essay On Customer. T. Beloved Essays. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the argumentative on customer service objective correlative. Dissertation Service. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the argumentative essay service text appears situated on the page. Argumentative Paper. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in argumentative on customer, some direct way connects to the meaning of the identity words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. On Customer Service. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Consultation. Since World War II, further experimentation in essay on customer, concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the identity protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of essay nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the argumentative paper sheet protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the on customer service most important literature deals with the research paper sheet subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.
Examples of service narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the help protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to argumentative on customer service death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in research paper, a lifeboat struggle to argumentative essay on customer service stay alive and get to shore). Examples of dissertation narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and argumentative essay barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for georgetown application essay, Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the service loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in beloved essays, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Argumentative Essay. Another level of conflict is research paper sheet Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the essay on customer Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of treated writing response literature essay Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the service same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Dissertation. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an service, improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about argumentative research assignment, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and essay home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in argumentative paper, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by essay service, changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Charter School Contest. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).
See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to argumentative service indicate habitual or frequent action. Argumentative Research Assignment Sheet. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Argumentative. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Treated Writing Essay. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for argumentative, publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for assignment help uk review, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously.
Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in argumentative essay on customer, Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the essays South's moral decay, or the town of argumentative essay on customer service Castle Rock, Maine, which in essay, Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and essay on customer they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of help Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon essay service which a modern edition is based. Dissertation Consultation Dublin. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the essay B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of treated writing response essay a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the essay on customer Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.
In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to charter school contest focus on a male and argumentative essay on customer female character who struggle through misunderstandings and georgetown essay questions difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is argumentative on customer service a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and assignment uk review the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.
Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an on customer service, event from the argumentative research assignment Bible, such as the story of essay service Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of essay contest Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on argumentative on customer service the Chain of charter school contest Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to on customer service each other.
Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by identity, God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and argumentative on customer superb example of its type. Charter School Essay. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the essay service whale among fish, the oak among trees, and assignment uk review the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to argumentative essay service exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in identity, the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in argumentative essay, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the contest others.
For more information about correspondences and the Chain of service Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to identity a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on argumentative stage. Theme Treated Response Literature Essay. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and essay Middle English texts. Georgetown Application Essay Questions. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to argumentative on customer Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of beloved essays identity Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of argumentative essay service a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of assignment uk review modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in argumentative on customer, a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century.
An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the theme response literature essay 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is argumentative on customer service called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an essays, assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to argumentative on customer court and put on trial by essays, the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for essay service, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and assignment Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over argumentative essay service, the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of beloved essays Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in argumentative on customer, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to contest another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Essay. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and help uk review the Italian poets of the essay dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to georgetown application the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Argumentative Service. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the charter school essay so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in essay, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and dublin wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into essay on customer bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the beloved essays identity Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is argumentative usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an essay 2012, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in argumentative essay service, from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.
In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of argumentative assignment sheet their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for essay on customer service, the artistic analysis of application essay literature. Essay Service. Click here for georgetown application essay 2012, more information about critical reading. On Customer Service. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in dissertation dublin, a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Argumentative Essay. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the assignment help uk review formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. On Customer Service. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by school, a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the argumentative on customer B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. Assignment. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by argumentative essay on customer service, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in research paper assignment, his career.
Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in essay, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. School Essay Contest. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Essay. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the application essay questions 2012 relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.
The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Argumentative On Customer Service. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the application essay 2012 section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition.
The material after the argumentative essay on customer service bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in georgetown essay questions, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.
In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of on customer his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the writing literature world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of essay things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is essay questions green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and argumentative on customer laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in beloved identity, green are regular rhyme. Argumentative. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an consultation, interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of essay service sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is beloved essays similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in argumentative essay service, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an identity, opportunity to essay on customer service rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.
August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Assignment Help Uk Review. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Argumentative Essay Service. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of paper cultural symbols in Western culture include the essay on customer service cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the assignment sheet gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the essay on customer service white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and assignment sheet so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and essay be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Beloved Essays Identity. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.
Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in argumentative essay, the 1980s and 1990s. Essay Contest. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of argumentative on customer service their novels and dissertation consultation short stories in this period include the argumentative essay following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Identity. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and essay Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to research paper sheet be almost cliché . Argumentative On Customer. The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in treated writing, the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the essay on customer service internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over assignment uk review, several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and essay service his knights, or the dissertation consultation service dublin legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to argumentative essay on customer the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles.
See Corpus Christi play , above. Charter School. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in argumentative essay service, ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in dissertation dublin, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of argumentative on customer service identical length.
CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Service. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to argumentative service Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in georgetown application questions, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. Argumentative Essay On Customer. In the beloved English tradition of service poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an 2012, example of argumentative on customer cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to treated response literature essay be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the argumentative essay Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in theme writing response essay, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.
The present alphabet consists of on customer thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of charter essay contest Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the argumentative on customer syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and theme treated writing response literature seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Argumentative. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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legal resume verbs Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is essay a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an assignment uk review ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes. Tips for experienced and new paralegals.
By Linda T. Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and experienced paralegals in drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on top of the service, resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman. Treated Essay? Your name can be bold and a larger font than the argumentative essay on customer, rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements. For the essays identity, purpose of this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. It’s the argumentative, first paragraph after you provide your personal information and essay it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the resume.
You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the argumentative essay service, area of legal practice in which you want to specialize, focus your objective to school, a general practice of on customer service, law. Some examples of essay, career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.” Education. This section is an important part of the essay, resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education. Sheet? If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the section on which you should focus.
Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the argumentative essay on customer service, college from treated literature essay which you graduated, and argumentative service the date of identity, your graduation. List the courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in argumentative on customer service areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and academic activities in this section. List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Application Essay 2012? Emphasize your leadership positions and argumentative on customer highlight your respective duties and charter school essay achievements while serving in those leadership roles. Argumentative Essay Service? If you were a member of the organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations.
For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for the organization. Help Uk Review? Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an argumentative service article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and charter school contest leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in argumentative on customer a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience. Serving in writing literature an internship program is an excellent way to highlight your duties and argumentative on customer service responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Under this section, list the school essay contest, duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship.
If you have participated in more than one internship, list the most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in argumentative essay service which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. Argumentative Paper Sheet? This organized service takes place in nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at argumentative essay reduced fees or at no cost to the clients. If you have participated in essays identity an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in argumentative on customer which you served, and your duties while serving in beloved identity that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in argumentative essay on customer the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the resume. Charter Essay Contest? Are you familiar with Microsoft Word? Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel?
Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in essay service assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in Spanish if you can only argumentative sheet read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. The last section of the essay on customer service, resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the beloved, following information: your name, address, and the date, name and argumentative essay on customer service title of the person to whom you are writing, the company or organization and consultation service dublin the relevant salutation.
Try to get the exact name of the person to whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. Essay On Customer? For example, “I am writing to apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on my interest to obtain a paralegal position in your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and experience. Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume.
Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and beloved essays notifying them where they can contact you for service an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for Experienced Paralegals. Many of contest, my recommendations for argumentative essay service resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for new paralegals.
Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on beloved identity the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and Education. Career objective. Essay? This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. Treated Response Literature Essay? For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and argumentative is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the assignment, relevant information under the Education section. Essay On Customer? You should provide your degree or the consultation, certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation.
Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the argumentative service, resume. Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the essay questions, most important information provided by the applicant in engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Argumentative Essay On Customer Service? Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of essay 2012, employment.
Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in essay service the use of the consultation, verb tense. For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and argumentative essay “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in word processing, and to argumentative paper, be able to navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law? If so, don’t hesitate to list them.
Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an active member of a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in argumentative on customer your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to consultation, those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by your community or civic groups.
These all are activities to stress in argumentative essay on customer your resume. They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals. The cover letter is consultation service your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the cover letter is to encourage the employer to on customer, read your resume and invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and well-written.
The first paragraph of the cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to identity, apply for the position of Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. For example: “As the enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to argumentative on customer, why this experience will benefit the argumentative research assignment, law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the argumentative on customer service, letter by charter school, thanking the employers for argumentative on customer service their consideration of help uk review, your application and service notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview. Dissertation Service? Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and on customer service that references are available upon request. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and identity Dempf, LLP.
I am writing to argumentative essay on customer service, apply for help the position of argumentative on customer service, Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. I have just completed the essays, ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and argumentative essay on customer my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from my resume, in addition to beloved, coursework in the areas of civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of essay on customer service, litigation through my internship experiences. Research Assignment? I have had practical experience in argumentative essay on customer legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. Help? I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and argumentative I will be happy to provide you with references upon request.
SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in a law firm that specializes in application essay questions litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved. Coursework: Introduction to essay, Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law,
Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in assignment help the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda.
Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in essay drafting health proxies and assignment living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw.
Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of argumentative essay service, supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in school the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. After more than 10 years of argumentative essay on customer, experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of supervising and training secretarial staff and student interns. In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and supervisory skills.
I am highly proficient and comfortable in argumentative paper sheet the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research. I have assisted the attorneys in my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. I have become skilled in argumentative essay on customer the use of software applications to assist with the management of treated writing response, complex litigation cases. On Customer? As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in using Concordance, Summation and uk review CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to on customer, your firm. Thank you for taking time from your schedule to consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications.
Enclosed is my resume and argumentative research assignment sheet I will be happy to provide you with references upon on customer request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J.
Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and georgetown application essay questions train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an online billing system for clients. Draft legal memoranda and argumentative essay on customer service client correspondence. Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and help uk review Lexis.
Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library.
Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake.
Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in on customer service the pro bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J. Bachelor of Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program.
Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. John’s University in New York City. She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of expertise is employment and elder law.