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resume miriam dalli on ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector’ Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. Rapporteur: Elisabeth Kostinger. Rapporteur of the opinion (*): Francesc Gambus, Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. (*) Associated committee - Rule 54 of the Rules of Procedure. on ‘ A new EU Forest Strategy: for dissertation francais sujets, forests and the forest-based sector ’ The European Parliament, – having regard to the Commission communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for great essays, forests and the forest-based sector’ (COM(2013)0659), – having regard to the Commission staff working documents (SWD(2013)0342) and (SWD(2013)0343), appended to that communication, – having regard to the conclusions of the Agriculture and Fisheries Council of dissertation francais, 19 May 2014 on great, the new EU Forest Strategy, – having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions of 30 January 2014 entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector’, – having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee of 10 July 2014 on the communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘A new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector’, – having regard to dissertation francais sujets, its resolution of 16 February 2006 on the implementation of a European Union forestry strategy (1) , – having regard to Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013 on a General Union Environmental Action Programme to 2020 - ?Living well, within the limits of our planet?, – having regard to the Europe 2020 strategy, including the Innovation Union and Resource Efficient Europe initiatives, – having regard to the communication from the research thesis experience approach Commission to dissertation, the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘An EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change’ (COM(2013)0216), – having regard to the communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and from oppositionality, the Committee of the Regions entitled ‘Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020’ (COM(2011)0244), – having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure, – having regard to the report of the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development and the opinions of the Committee on dissertation francais sujets, the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (A8-0126/2015), A. whereas the European Union has no competence to elaborate a common forestry policy but some of the Union’s policies may have implications for national forestry policies, while it is the Member States who decide the political approaches to great introductions to history, forestry and forests; B. whereas, although this is clearly an francais sujets, area of Member State responsibility, there are potential advantages for forest-based businesses in better and more active coordination and in essay the life, a higher profile for this important economic sector, which guarantees jobs at European level, particularly in rural areas, while protecting ecosystems and offering ecological advantages for francais sujets, all, without prejudicing the responsibility of the Member States; C. whereas timber is a renewable resource often under-exploited in Europe and the intelligent and sustainable use of this raw material needs to be ensured, including by the development and exchange of illiad essay, know-how; D. whereas forests are a source of unique flora, fauna and fungi;

E. whereas the size and sujets, features of forests differ greatly, with some Member States having more than half their territories covered by forests; whereas sustainably managed forests are enormously important in terms of adding value at local, regional, European and international level, guaranteeing jobs in rural areas and contributing to a bioeconomy- based society, representing a benefit for experience approach, human health, especially in structurally disadvantaged regions, while at the same time making a vital contribution to environmental and dissertation francais, climate protection as well as to biodiversity; F. whereas forest biomass is a very important source of renewable energy; whereas European forests currently absorb and store around 10 % of EU carbon emissions and thus contribute markedly to climate change mitigation efforts; G. whereas, owing to the urbanisation of our society, EU citizens feel less of a connection to the forest, and have little knowledge of forestry or of its impact on essay the life, prosperity, jobs , climate, environment, human health and the whole value chain together with the link with the wider ecosystems; H. whereas a growing number of EU policies are placing increasing demands on forests; whereas these demands need to be carefully balanced, and demand for new uses of wood in the bioeconomy and for bioenergy must be accompanied by resource efficiency, use of new technology and respect for the limits of sustainable supply; I. whereas European forestry is characterised by sustainable management and long-term planning, and whereas the dissertation sujets principle of sustainability should be even more strongly emphasised at all levels, from local to global, in order to create jobs, protect biodiversity, mitigate climate change and combat desertification; J. whereas it is activism art essay, necessary to dissertation, highlight the economic, social and environmental role of forests, also in activism from, the context of the protection and promotion of cultural and natural heritage and the promotion of sustainable (eco)tourism; K. whereas an increasing world population means a growing demand for energy, and therefore forests should play a more important role in the EU?s future energy mix; General – the importance of forests, forestry and forest-based sector for the economy and society.

1. Welcomes the Commission communication on francais, a new EU forest strategy and the accompanying working documents, and stresses that an EU forest strategy must focus on essay the life, the sustainable management of forests and their multifunctional role from the sujets economic, social and environmental viewpoints and must ensure better coordination and communication of Community policies directly or indirectly linked to forestry; points out, in this context, that an increasing number of European policy initiatives in areas such as economic and employment policy, energy policy and environmental and climate policy require a greater contribution from the forestry sector; 2. Essay The Life. Underlines the need to determine the value of dissertation sujets, forest ecosystem services more systematically and to take it into consideration in decision-making in categorical imperative, both public and private sectors; 3. Notes that only mountain forests that are healthy and stable are able to perform to a full extent their functions of protecting humans and nature by counteracting the flow of avalanches and mudslides and serving as a natural protection against floods; stresses that in this connection in particular, transnational communication is dissertation sujets, indispensable; 4. Stresses in this connection that any attempt to make forestry a matter of EU policy should be resisted and illiad essay, that the sector’s local and regional basis and the competence of the Member States in this area must be respected while seeking coherence between the respective competences of the EU and the Member States; 5. Emphasises that the EU’s forests are characterised by great diversity, including major differences in forest ownership, size, nature and challenges faced; 6. Stresses that the EU forest strategy must take into account the fact that forests cover more than half of the francais territory of some Member States and that sustainably managed forests are enormously important in moral relativism, adding value at local and regional level and in guaranteeing jobs in rural areas, while at the same time making a vital contribution to the environment;

7. Underlines the particularly valuable role of stable mixed forests including native species of trees suited to local conditions, as well as the essential role that mixed forests play in ecosystems and their contribution to biodiversity; 8. Calls on the Member States to support the dissertation sujets efforts of forest owners to preserve and research the language experience, also to create native mixed forests typical of the area; 9. Expresses its disappointment with the fact that the working conditions of forest workers are not included as a point of reference in dissertation francais, the proposed strategy, and requests the relativism essays Commission to take intelligent work organisation, high standards in technology and quality jobs into account; 10 . Notes that the forest sector currently employs over francais sujets 3 million European citizens, and s tresses that its long-term competitiveness will only be achieved with a skilled workforce; 11. Considers that the EU Forest Strategy should set the conditions to enable the activism art essay from oppositionality EU to have relevant training facilities and a workforce which is dissertation francais, fully aware of the current challenges and threats faced by the forest sector, but also of the safety rules inherent in great introductions to history, forest management; 12. Emphasises the need for a comprehensive and holistic joint strategy, and welcomes the recognition of the economic, environmental and social role and benefits of forests and the forest based-sector in dissertation francais, the EU; 13. Believes that this recognition provides a strong basis for supporting the EU forestry sector, inter alia in preventing and managing forest disasters, improving resource efficiency, increasing competitiveness, boosting employment, strengthening forest-based industries and preserving ecological functions;

14 . Stresses the significant role that the bioeconomy plays in terms of achieving the categorical Commission’s new priorities of growth, employment and investment; 15. Acknowledges that the EU has a role to play in supporting national policies to achieve active, multifunctional and sustainable forest management, including the management of different forest types, and in strengthening cooperation to tackle transboundary challenges such as forest fires, climate change and natural disasters, or invasive alien species; 16 . Takes the view that the strategy needs to dissertation, take greater account of the problem of tree diseases such as oak decline, which is ravaging cork-oak plantations in Portugal, France and Spain and is also affecting Special Protection Areas and introductions to history essays, biosphere reserves; 17 . Stresses that the predicted growth in demand for wood represents both an opportunity and a challenge for forests and all forest-based sectors, especially as drought, fires, storms and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more severely as a result of climate change; in this context , emphasises the need to protect forests from francais sujets, these growing threats and to reconcile their productive and protective functions; 18.

Welcomes action to increase forest cover, especially with native species, in essay the life, areas not suitable for food production and in particular in sujets, close proximity to urban areas, with a view to categorical imperative, mitigating adverse heat effects, reducing pollution and enhancing links between people and forests; 19. Gives its full support to the Commission’s efforts to promote forest-related employment and dissertation francais, the generation of prosperity in Europe in a sustainable manner; 20. Stresses the important role of the sustainable production and use of timber and other forest-based materials such as cork and wood derivatives including textile fibres for illiad essay, the development of sustainable economic models and the creation of green jobs; 21. Calls on the Commission to analyse the dissertation difficulties in the downstream supply chain related to increased demand from third countries, particularly for roundwoods, and to experience, support this sector; 22. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create incentives to encourage the dissertation sujets increasingly large group of female forest owners to approach, obtain special advice and support in relation to the active and sustainable management of francais sujets, their forests; 23. Stresses that around 60 % of the EU’s forests are private, with about 16 million private forest owners, and underlines in this context the importance of ownership and property rights and categorical essay, supports all measures enabling stakeholder groups to participate in a dialogue on reinforcing and implementing sustainable forest management and improve the exchange of information;

24. Notes that forest owners are key actors in dissertation sujets, rural areas, and welcomes in this connection the relativism recognition of the role of francais sujets, forestry and thesis the language, agro-forestry in the Rural Development Programme of the 2014-2020 CAP; 25. Considers that the sujets implementation of the EU Forest Strategy would be enhanced if supported by appropriate coordination with available EU funding, including from the EAFRD; 26. Stresses the opportunity for Member States and regions to make use of the available funding under their respective rural development programmes, to support sustainable forest management and boost agro-forestry and to deliver public environmental goods such as producing oxygen, sinking carbon and protecting crops against thesis the language experience, climate effects, as well as stimulating local economies and dissertation francais sujets, creating green jobs; 27. Activism Afterimage. Recognises the dissertation need for improved transportation and logistics for forest management and extraction of timber; calls on the Member States, therefore, to develop sustainable logistics and moral, logging systems having a reduced negative effect on climate, including the use of trucks and ships powered by sustainable biofuel as well as extended use of railways; encourages the use of EU Structural Funds and Rural Development Programmes for those purposes; 28. Recognises the role of dissertation francais, forests in society in relation to the physical and mental health of citizens and that public goods delivered by forests are of art essay, high environmental and recreational value and contribute to quality of life, in particular with regard to oxygen supply, carbon sequestration, air filtration, water storage and filtration, erosion control and avalanche protection, as well as providing a place for outdoor activities; 29.

Encourages public transport links between urban areas and dissertation francais, forests in order to facilitate access to forests and woodland; 30. Highlights the essay the life importance of other forest-related activities, e.g. the harvesting of non-wood forest products such as mushrooms or soft fruit, as well as grazing and beekeeping; 31. Francais Sujets. Calls on the Commission to promote economic activities which can serve as a source of relativism essays, raw materials for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries and be used as an alternative way of dealing with unemployment and rural depopulation, and also to promote the products of those activities as beneficial for human health; Resource efficiency – timber as a sustainable raw material (sustainable forest management) 32.

Stresses that both the use of timber and other harvested wood products as renewable and climate-friendly raw materials on francais sujets, the one hand, and sustainable forest management on the other, have an important role to play in the achievement of the EU’s socio-political goals such as the energy transition, climate mitigation and adaptation, and the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy targets and to history, biodiversity targets; notes that lack of active forest management would be inimical to these goals; 33. Stresses that managed forests have a higher CO 2 absorption capacity than unmanaged forests, and underlines the importance of sustainable forest management in maximising the carbon sequestration potential of dissertation sujets, EU forests; 34. Believes that forests should not be considered solely as carbon sinks; 35. Emphasises the need to make sure that forest resources and wood materials are used and reused efficiently, as a means of cutting the EU’s trade deficit, improving the essay the life self-sufficiency of the dissertation sujets EU in wood, boosting the competitiveness of its forest sector, helping reduce unsustainable forest management, protecting the environment, and reducing deforestation in countries outside the EU;

36. Expressly supports the resource-efficient use of timber as a renewable, versatile raw material with limited availability, and opposes legally binding rules for prioritising the uses of wood, as this not only research thesis the language, restricts the energy market and the development of new and innovative uses of biomass, but is also impossible to enforce in many remote and rural areas, if only for infrastructure reasons; 37. Sujets. Supports an open, market-oriented approach and freedom for all market participants by giving priority to locally sourced wood in order to minimise the carbon footprint created by overseas transport, and stimulate sustainable local production; 38. Considers it imperative, given that some of the Union’s biggest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that the essay the life strategy should also take full account of the specificities of those regions; 39. Recognises the value of francais sujets, wood for energy purposes, as a means of combating energy poverty, contributing to the renewable energy targets of the 2030 climate and energy framework, and opening up new business opportunities; 40. Considers that the moral essays new forest strategy must enable greater cooperation on the issue of the structuring of the timber industry and the regrouping of operators, with a view to ensuring better use of the forest resource; 41.

Takes the view that sustainable forest management must be based on generally acknowledged and accepted principles and tools, such as criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management which must always apply to the sector as a whole regardless of the dissertation francais sujets end use of wood; 42. Supports the Commission’s intention to develop, together with the Member States and stakeholders, an ambitious, objective and oppositionality, demonstrable set of dissertation francais, criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests, stressing that these criteria should be aligned with the requirements of categorical imperative essay, Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of dissertation, Forests in Europe) (2) , which form a pan-European basis for uniform reporting on introductions to history essays, sustainable forest management and a basis for sustainability certification, taking into account the diversity of forest types across Europe; 43. Acknowledges that the growing demand for forest-based materials, primarily as a result of the rise in sujets, the number of biomass-based renewable energies, calls for new ways of increasing the availability of timber to great essays, ensure the sustainable exploitation of forests; 44. Notes the significant progress made in the negotiations within Forest Europe towards a ‘European Forest Convention’ (3) as a binding framework for sustainable forest management and for improving the balance of interests in forest policy, and calls on the Member States and the Commission to make all necessary efforts to resume these negotiations and drive them forward to a successful conclusion; 45. Takes the view that forest management plans or equivalent instruments can be important strategic instruments for the implementation of concrete measures at the level of individual businesses, for long-term planning and for the implementation of sustainable forest management in European forests; emphasises, however, that the implementation of the concrete measures contained in these plans at the forest holding level must remain subject to national regulations; 46. Calls on the Member States, in francais sujets, line with the subsidiarity and activism art essay oppositionality, proportionality principles, to monitor and sujets, promote the implementation of the forest management plans without creating unnecessary administrative burdens;

47. Welcomes a clear separation between forest management plans and the management plans under Natura 2000; 48. Points out that forestry management plans are only a condition for receiving EU rural development funds for beneficiaries above a certain holding size, and that forests below the threshold size are exempt; furthermore notes that equivalent instruments can also be approved; 49. Calls on the Member States to make full use of this existing flexibility when implementing legislation, especially to benefit smaller operators;

50. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create incentives and support new business models, such as production cooperatives, that seek to encourage small private forest owners to manage their forests actively and sustainably; 51. Maintains that in essay the life, order to implement the strategy in dissertation, the proper way it is essential to have a specific long-term action plan emphasising the importance of mobilisation and illiad essay, sustainable use of forest timber, with the aim of creating added value and jobs, while providing means of strengthening private forestry businesses and supporting organised groupings of forest owners; 52. Underlines that efficient resource management should include support programmes for the afforestation of dissertation francais sujets, land areas that are not fit for categorical essay, agriculture, as well as for the creation of shelter belts; Research and development – education and training. 53. Considers that priority should be given to the practical application of research, since the whole sector can benefit from new ideas and the forest-based industries have great potential for dissertation, growth; also considers that further investments in innovation in the sector can create new production niches and more efficient processes that would ensure smarter use of available resources and could minimise negative impacts on forest resources;

54. Calls on the Commission to assess, from the point of view of forestry and wood working priorities, the European RD programmes (Horizon 2020) and the programme for the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises (COSME) and, where appropriate, to develop new instruments for the forest-based sector and promote targeted research into cost-effective solutions for new and innovative timber products to oppositionality, support the development of the sustainable wood-based bioeconomy; 55. Welcomes the benefits of sharing best practices and existing knowledge on forests between Member States, and calls on dissertation, the Member States and the Commission to support exchanges between industry, scientists and illiad essay, producers; 56. Stresses the importance of supporting EU framework programmes for research, development and innovation for achieving smart and sustainable growth, higher added-value products, cleaner technology and a high degree of technological advance, in particular in relation to refined biofuels and industrial building using wood, along with the automotive and textile sectors; 57 . Francais. Recalls that, according to the Commission, in 2009 the bioeconomy represented a market estimated to be worth over essay the life EUR 2 trillion, providing 20 million jobs and accounting for 9 % of total employment in the EU; 58. Notes that every euro invested in bioeconomy research and innovation under Horizon 2020 will generate about EUR 10 in added value; stresses that forests play a crucial role in the bioeconomy now and will continue to do so in the future ; 59 . C onsiders that the substitution of oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by timber and harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in research and technology, and that this can positively contribute to further gains in terms of climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 60 . S tresses the need to carry out a cost assessment of all EU legislation affecting the value chains of forest-based industries, with a view to cutting out francais all unnecessary and burdensome bureaucracy and creating an enabling framework in order to increase the industr ie s ’ long-term competitiveness in a sustainable manner, and also to support the principle that legislative proposals affecting the forestry sector and the value chains of forest-based industries should be thoroughly evaluated by means of an impact assessment;

61. Relativism Essays. Takes the view that extending the forest-related knowledge basis is of crucial importance to sujets, research and that reliable information is essential for essay, the implementation of the forest strategy; 62. Notes the availability of francais sujets, information and monitoring resources via the Copernicus programme and other space initiatives at European level, and thesis the language approach, recommends increasing the dissertation francais sujets use of moral relativism, these resources and tools; 63. Notes that national forest inventories represent a comprehensive monitoring tool for assessing forestry stocks and take regional considerations into account while also responding to demands for less red tape and francais sujets, lower costs; 64. Welcomes the Commission’s efforts to establish a European forest information system based on national data and initiatives to improve the comparability of new and illiad essay, existing data, and hopes in this regard to see a reinforcement of the analysis of data on the economy and employment in the forest and francais sujets, woodworking sectors; 65. Recommends, in particular, that there should be more long-term data sets to help the understanding of essay the life, trends in dissertation, forestry and its adaptation to climate change;

66. Takes the categorical imperative view that a skilled and well-trained workforce is essential for the successful implementation of sustainable forest management, and calls on francais sujets, the Commission and moral essays, the Member States to francais sujets, devise measures and, where possible, to great to history, use existing European instruments such as the European Agricultural Fund for dissertation, Rural Development (EAFRD), the to history European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the European Social Fund (ESF) and the European training programmes (ET2020) to francais, support generation renewal and compensate for the skilled workforce shortage in the forests; 67. Calls on the Commission to support the preparation of information campaigns for the sector aimed at raising awareness of the opportunities it offers for tackling unemployment and depopulation, as well as increasing its attractiveness to afterimage art essay oppositionality, young people; 68. Takes the francais sujets view that training programmes should be developed, particularly for new entrants and young foresters as well as for existing employees in the construction industry, in the language, order to dissertation francais, increase their awareness of the imperative opportunities created by the use of wood, so that the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable forest management and its downstream industries is dissertation francais, ensured;

69 . Recogni s es that sustainable management for the entire life-cycle of forest products can make a significant contribution towards achieving green economy objectives, in particular those linked to climate change mitigation policies and efficient use of resources; 70 . C onsiders that Member States should promote the sustainable use of forest products in the construction sector, including application to the construction of more affordable houses built from categorical imperative essay, sustainably sourced raw materials; 71. Sujets. Points out the importance of traditional high-value uses that still have huge growth potential, such as using wood in construction and packaging; 72. Notes that current technological developments enable construction of high-capacity housing developments made mostly of wood, thus significantly limiting CO 2 emissions in the building sector;

73 . Points out that rules on the use of wood for building purposes differ from one Member State to another; calls, therefore, for a commitment to adopt EU rules promoting the wider use of research thesis approach, wood in buildings; 74 . C alls on the Member States to dissertation sujets, develop initiatives to support knowledge and technology transfer and to fully utilise existing EU programmes supporting research and innovation in forestry and the forest-based sector; 75. Notes that there are significant gaps in scientific and technological research relating to the adaptation of forestry to climate change, including research into the impact of increasing pests and diseases which pose a serious threat to Europe’s forests and forest-based sectors; 76.

Encourages the Member States and the Commission to essay the life, act to raise awareness of the dissertation economic, environmental and social role of European forests and essay the life, forestry and the importance of the dissertation francais sustainable forest-based bioeconomy and of wood as one of the EU’s crucial renewable raw materials; 77. C onsiders it important to to history essays, encourage scientific research work oriented towards rational use of francais, biomass and the development of great to history essays, fast-growing energy crops, and to create a model providing an economic incentive for the use of biomass waste ; Global challenge s - environment and francais, climate change. 78. Stresses that sustainable forest management has a positive impact on biodiversity and climate change mitigation and moral relativism essays, can diminish the risks of forest fires, pest damage and disease; 79. Points out that other issues should be studied further, in particular the problem of overpopulation of dissertation, herbivores, forest health and facilitating sustainable timber production, Forest Genetic Resources (FGR), measures to illiad essay, prevent and fight forest fires and dissertation sujets, avoid soil erosion, and the recovery of vegetation cover; 80 . R ecognises that short rotation forestry could provide sustainable wooden biomass while providing the necessary territory maintenance, thus reducing the risks of soil erosion and landslides on set-aside or abandoned land; 81. C alls on imperative, the Commission and the Member States to take specific action with a view to achieving Aichi Target 5, under which the dissertation rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, should be at least halved by 2020 and where feasible brought close to zero, and activism art essay from oppositionality, degradation and fragmentation should be significantly reduced; 82.

Notes that the dissertation francais bioeconomy, as a core element of smart, green growth in Europe, is necessary for the realisation of the objectives of the flagship initiatives ‘Innovation Union’ and ’Resource Efficient Europe’ under the Europe 2020 strategy, and that timber as a raw material has a significant role to play in making progress towards a bio-based economy; 83. T akes the view that it is great to history essays, important to promote the implementation of the concept of the bioeconomy, while respecting the sustainability boundaries of raw material supply, in sujets, order to boost the economic viability of forest value chains through innovation and technology transfer ; 84 . Categorical. Calls for more support for diverse forest products, ensuring that the different demands on forest products are balanced and evaluated against the sustainable supply potential and the other ecosystem functions and services provided by forests; 85. Expresses serious concern at the pace of world deforestation, particularly in developing countries and often from illegal logging; 86. Supports mechanisms that promote the global development of forestry towards more sustainable use, and in this connection refers in particular to the EU Timber Directive (4) , which aims to combat illegal logging and dissertation, the placing of activism afterimage art essay from, illegal timber on the European market from third-country imports, as well as to the authorisation system for timber imports to the EU (FLEGT) (5) and to voluntary partnership agreements;

87. Calls on francais sujets, the Commission to publish the categorical essay awaited review of the functioning and effectiveness of the EU Timber Regulation, and stresses that a new regulation should be proportionate and should look at ways of reducing unnecessary costs and reporting requirements for Europe’s woodland owners and foresters without compromising the aim of the regulation; 88. Takes the view, given the dissertation francais sujets challenges posed by global warming and climate change, that ecosystems and populations of species must be healthy, biologically diverse and great introductions to history essays, robust in order to be resilient; 89. Highlights the opportunities provided by the Natura 2000 sites where, thanks to their extraordinary natural resources, it is possible to produce forest-based products and dissertation francais sujets, services of high environmental and cultural quality; 90. Underlines the importance of healthy forest ecosystems offering habitats for animals and plants, but stresses that well-meaning legislation such as the EU Habitats Directive affects land management decisions and thesis approach, must be implemented proportionately; 91. Recognises the role of dissertation sujets, forests in the development of related sectors, and insists in this respect on the importance of supporting melliferous tree growers, which in research the language approach, turn helps the pollination process;

92. Takes the view that certain issues affect the forestry industry at global level, particularly illegal felling, and therefore calls on the Commission to reinforce support for dissertation francais sujets, the forestry industry among the associated international bodies; 93. Notes that demand for biomass, particularly wood, is rising, and therefore welcomes the efforts of the Commission and Member States to great introductions, support developing countries in dissertation francais, their measures to improve forestry policy and forestry legislation, particularly by way of REDD+ (6) (Reducing Emissions from imperative, Deforestation and Forest Degradation); 94. Invites the Commission to develop an action plan on deforestation and forest degradation in dissertation sujets, order to address the objectives set out in its communication on deforestation, as called for essay the life, by the Seventh Environmental Action Programme; c onsiders it important to provide for not only the conservation and management of existing forests but also the reforestation of deforested areas; 95 . Sujets. C onsiders that separate reference must also be made to the need for widespread reforestation in areas that have been affected by recurring forest fires;

Implementation and reporting. 96. Stresses that the implementation of the EU’s forest strategy should be a multiannual coordinated process in which the views of Parliament should be taken into account and that the strategy should be implemented efficiently, coherently and with minimal red tape; 97. Categorical Essay. Regrets that the implementation process has partly begun before Parliament has adopted its position, and dissertation francais, considers that this is not in line with the aim of better coordination of forest-related policies as stated by the Commission in its Strategy text; 98. Takes the view that the new strategy should establish links between the strategies and relativism, funding plans of the dissertation francais sujets EU and of the Member States, and reinforce cohesion in terms of planning, funding and the implementation of cross-sector activities; 99. Calls for an inclusive, well-structured and balanced implementation of the strategy; 100.

Takes the view, therefore, that the mandate of the Standing Forestry Committee should be strengthened and better resourced to enable the Commission to fully use the expertise from the Member States whilst implementing the new EU Forest Strategy at EU level; calls on the Commission to research thesis the language experience, consult the Standing Forestry Committee with sufficient notice before submitting any initiative or draft text that will impact on the management of forests and the timber industry; 101. Emphasises the dissertation francais sujets important role of the Civil Dialogue Group on Forestry and Cork and other relevant stakeholders, and calls for their proper involvement in the strategy’s implementation; 102. Takes the activism art essay oppositionality view that the transverse nature of forestry issues requires internal cooperation among the various Commission departments when considering any measure which may impact on the specific nature of sustainable forest management and associated industries; therefore calls on DG Environment, DG Climate Action, DG Agri, DG Energy, DG Research and Innovation and other DGs concerned to work together strategically in order to ensure effective implementation of the strategy through enhanced coordination and communication; 103. Considers that, in view of the Commission’s list of priorities on growth, employment and investment, priority should also be given in implementing the new EU forest strategy to promoting the competitiveness and sustainability of the forest sector, supporting both rural and urban areas, expanding the knowledge basis, protecting forests and preserving their ecosystems, promoting coordination and francais sujets, communication, and increasing the moral essays sustainable use of wood and non-wood forest products;

104. Calls on dissertation sujets, the Commission to supplement the strategy with a robust action plan containing specific measures, and to report to Parliament annually on the progress made in the implementation of specific actions under the great to history strategy; 105. Sujets. Advocates the convening of an expanded AGRI-ENVI-ITRE committee to categorical, permit a balanced discussion on progress in the implementation of the new EU forest strategy; 106.

Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission. Texts adopted, P6_TA(2006)0068. Forest Europe - Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe, Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Legally Binding Agreement on Forests in Europe: http://www.foresteurope.org/ Regulation (EU) No 995/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 October 2010 laying down the obligations of operators who place timber and timber products on the market. Council Regulation (EC) No 2173/2005 of dissertation francais sujets, 20 December 2005 on the establishment of a FLEGT licensing scheme for categorical essay, imports of timber into the European Community (FLEGT = Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade). Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and dissertation sujets, Forest Degradation: http://unfccc.int/methods/redd/items/7377.php. Forests and forestry provide a number of additional benefits to the economy while at the same time ensuring a good quality of life, sustainability, jobs and added value. Essay The Life. The forestry sector employs over 3.5 million people throughout Europe and is thus the continent’s third largest employer, just behind the metal and food industries. Over 451 820 forest-based businesses contribute 7% to economic growth, while felling only 60% of annual new-grown timber in the process. Timber is an important resource of major economic significance for rural areas. The attentive care and management of European forests by forest-based businesses and over 16 million forest owners ensures that the dissertation forests can continue to perform their ecological, economic and social functions in a sustainable manner.

Over 50% of European forests are in private ownership. Sustainable forest management means guaranteeing the long-term safety of the forest for future generations. Indeed, this was the underlying principle of the UN Environmental Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and choose their own life style. Guided by these figures and principles, the rapporteur is the language approach, presenting a report which seeks to further strengthen forests and the forest-based sector in their social, economic and ecological roles and focus on timber as a sustainable raw material and an important resource for Europe. Given that many EU policy areas, such as energy, environmental and climate policy, have an impact on the management of the forests, the rapporteur considers it indispensable for the new EU forest strategy to sujets, focus on better coordination, so that forestry and the forests are given a higher profile among the individual European strategies and a coherent approach can be found. It is particularly alarming that the Commission’s has separate, divergent policies in this area. With a view to imperative, simplification and better lawmaking, therefore, the Commission’s own internal structures should be carefully examined. Strengthening the Standing Forestry Committee would go some way to counteracting these contradictions in the Commission. The rapporteur also takes the view that no new bureaucratic obstacles should be created for forest owners and managers. She expressly opposes mandatory forest management programmes and rejects passing on to forest owners the responsibility for dissertation francais sujets, drawing up Natura 2000 plans. She also takes the view that sustainability criteria are equivalent to a quality criterion and should always apply across the whole sector.

Accordingly, in great, view of the dissertation sujets heterogeneous nature of European forests, there should be no ‘one-size-fits-all’ catalogue of criteria. In this connection the to history rapporteur strongly supports efforts aimed at drawing up a ‘European Forest Convention’ in the context of Forest Europe. Furthermore, the rapporteur takes the view that in the interest of better coordination, particular priority should be given to research and development, because the whole forestry sector together with its downstream industries can benefit from dissertation francais sujets, new, efficient production opportunities and product ideas. In addition, the innovation potential and further development of the bio-economy and sustainable use of raw materials performs a crucial service for the environment and the climate. In addition to the undisputed importance of forestry for rural areas, the activism from rapporteur is keen to make clear that forestry also takes place in towns, and that downstream industries in particular create many jobs in urban areas. The urbanisation of society is leading to a gradual loss of knowledge about francais forests and forestry and the contribution they make to prosperity and jobs. In line with the principle of bringing classrooms into the forest and vice versa, encouragement should therefore be given to afterimage from oppositionality, initiatives that close the francais gap between town and forest. Finally, the rapporteur wishes to stress once again that she is interested in implementing the EU forest strategy in a way which involves as little red tape as possible, which strengthens the forestry sector and does not burden it with new requirements. for the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. on a new EU forest strategy: for illiad essay, forests and the forest-based sector. Rapporteur: Francesc Gambus.

The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety calls on the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into its motion for a resolution: 1. Welcomes the Commission communication on francais, a new European forest strategy and stresses the importance of making forest protection and management incentives a vital part of it; emphasises, bearing in mind the subsidiarity principle, the need for a comprehensive, holistic and consistent joint strategy to enhance the multifunctional role of forests and the forest sector in the EU in terms of the wide societal, economic and environmental benefits that they provide, as well as to prevent and manage forest disasters; 2. Acknowledges that Europe’s forests are of immense value in terms of biodiversity and the ecosystem services that they provide, including but not limited to water retention, flood protection and, importantly, climate change mitigation, by absorbing and storing 10 % of the EU’s carbon emissions; considers, therefore, that forests should benefit from a high level of protection and an improvement in the conservation status of forest species and moral, habitats, in line with the objectives of the dissertation EU Biodiversity Strategy up to essay the life, 2020 and the 7th EAP; highlights the opportunities provided in this respect by dissertation the Natura 2000 network, which includes a significant proportion of Europe’s forests; 3. Stresses that the Union has agreed that by 2020 the loss of biodiversity and the degradation of ecosystem services, including pollination, must be halted, ecosystems and their services must be maintained and at least 15 % of degraded ecosystems should have been restored; adds that the Union has further agreed that forest management must be sustainable, forests, their biodiversity and the services they provide must be protected and, as far as feasible, enhanced, and the resilience of forests to climate change, fires, storms, pests and diseases must be improved; emphasises, in addition, the need therefore to develop and implement a renewed Union Forest Strategy that addresses the multiple demands on, and benefits of, forests and contributes to a more strategic approach to protecting and enhancing forests, including through sustainable forest management (1) ; 4. Maintains that, in order to implement the strategy in the proper way, it is great introductions to history essays, essential to have a specific long-term action plan emphasising the importance of mobilisation and sujets, sustainable use of forest timber, with the aim of creating added value and jobs, while providing means of strengthening private forestry businesses and supporting organised groupings of forest owners; 5. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to consider introducing EU-wide targets for forest cover with a view to increasing current levels, curbing deforestation and improving the quality of existing forests and woodland; recommends increasing forest cover, especially in areas not suitable for food production and in particular in essay, close proximity to urban areas in order to mitigate adverse heat effects, reduce pollution and enhance links between people and francais sujets, forests; stresses the need for careful planning in this regard; believes that forests should not be considered solely as carbon sinks to offset the rise of emissions in other sectors of the economy; 6. Research Thesis The Language Approach. Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take specific action with a view to achieving Aichi Target 5, whereby the rate of dissertation sujets, loss of moral relativism, all natural habitats, including forests, should be at francais sujets, least halved by 2020 and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation significantly reduced (2) ; 7. Considers that priority should be given to research because the whole sector can benefit from new ideas;

8. Encourages tree-planting in cities as a way of tackling environmental challenges associated with urban pollution and man-made landscapes, for example by providing shade in the summer and moderating air temperatures during heatwaves; 9. Welcomes the study assessing the impact of essay the life, EU consumption on deforestation published by the Commission in July 2013; regrets that despite the request made by Parliament in its resolution of 23 April 2009 (3) , the study does not deal with forest degradation; calls on the Commission to bring forward proposals to reduce the impacts identified in the study and dissertation, contribute to EU and international environmental goals and commitments to sustainable development; calls on illiad essay, the Commission to francais sujets, publish an EU action plan on deforestation and forest degradation to this end, as called for by the 7th Environmental Action Programme (4) ; 10. Calls on the Member States to consider including ecosystem services payments as forest management incentives, bearing in mind the importance of essays, wood as a renewable and climate-friendly raw material and the role of forest-based value chains; points out that sustainable forest management has a positive impact on biodiversity, on dissertation sujets, climate, and on forests’ protection from and resilience to fires, storms, pests and diseases, and is crucial for economic development, especially in rural areas and illiad essay, remote regions; 11. Calls for greater attention to be paid to the expansion of forest coverage and to dissertation francais sujets, conserving and creating sustainable forest ecosystems by applying additional nature-friendly forestry methods; believes that rational use of forest resources should be ensured by supervising felling more effectively, optimising business operations, and employing all other effective means;

12. Stresses that according to scientific research, managed forests have a higher CO 2 absorption capacity than unmanaged forests; recognises, therefore, the relativism important role of managed forests in climate change mitigation efforts and in generating employment in rural areas; underlines the importance of sustainable forest management in maximising the carbon sequestration potential of EU forests (5) ; 13. Emphasises, recalling that to date there is no specific forest policy on the prevention of forest fires, that, particularly in the Mediterranean region, forest fires occur on dissertation, a regular basis, and are both a cause and a consequence of climate change; points out that storms and forest fires and pests can be mitigated using improved and active forest management and forestry techniques through, for research thesis experience, example, grazing and agro-forestry practices under the common agricultural policy; 14. Considers it important to provide for not only the dissertation sujets conservation and management of existing forests but also the reforestation of deforested areas; considers that separate reference must also be made to the need for widespread reforestation in areas that have been affected by recurring forest fires; 15. Is concerned at the growing trend to consider forests from activism, a predominantly economic perspective and to limit their value to the wood which they produce, disregarding the very significant environmental and social benefits which they also provide; underlines the need to determine the value of forest ecosystem services more systematically and to dissertation sujets, take it into consideration in public and private sector decision-making; 16.

Highlights the need to strengthen and make full use of EU mechanisms aimed at tackling the transboundary pressures on forests arising from the spread of invasive alien species, pests and diseases; 17. Stresses, given that forests vary greatly in their size and features, with some Member States having more than half their territories covered by activism art essay oppositionality forests, that sustainably managed forests are enormously important in adding value at local and regional level and guaranteeing jobs in rural areas, while at the same time making a vital contribution to dissertation francais, the environment; 18. Welcomes the reference in thesis the language, the new strategy to the problem of forest pests; takes the view, however, taking into account new legislation on invasive alien species and dissertation sujets, the potential impact they can have on forests, that the activism afterimage art essay Commission should propose additional new financial instruments to help the affected areas combat particularly persistent invasive species or new invasive alien species; 19. Considers it imperative, given that some of the Union’s largest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that the strategy also takes full account of the specificities of those more sparsely populated and remote regions; 20. Sujets. Takes the view that the strategy needs to take greater account of the problem of tree diseases such as oak decline, which is ravaging cork-oak plantations in Portugal, France and Spain, as well as affecting Special Protection Areas and biosphere reserves; considers that the Commission should have included effective measures and specific resources in imperative, the strategy, beyond those applying to rural development, with a view to combating tree diseases; 21. Stresses that the predicted growth in demand for dissertation sujets, wood is both an opportunity and a challenge to the forests and all forest-based sectors, especially as droughts, fires, storms, and pests are expected to damage forests more frequently and more severely as a result of climate change; recalls in this context the need to protect forests from these growing threats and to reconcile their productive and protective functions;

22. Stresses the afterimage art essay from oppositionality need to clarify, as a matter of francais, urgency, the greenhouse impacts of the various uses of forest biomass for research thesis experience approach, energy and to identify the uses that can achieve the dissertation francais sujets greatest mitigation benefits within policy-relevant timeframes; 23. Welcomes, with regard to fire prevention, the thesis approach steps taken in some Member States to bring in temporary bans on building on land affected by fire so as to prevent arson being committed with a view to the subsequent development of the francais land; 24. Takes the view that it is important to promote the implementation of the concept of the bioeconomy, while respecting the sustainability boundaries of raw material supply, to boost the economic viability of forest value chains through innovation and technology transfer, and, to this end, to provide more support for diverse forest products, ensuring that the different demands on forest products are balanced and evaluated against the sustainable supply potential and the other ecosystem functions and services provided by forests; emphasises the illiad essay significant role the bioeconomy plays in terms of achieving the Commission’s new priorities of growth, employment and investment; 25. Considers that the substitution of oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by timber and harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in research and francais sujets, technology, which can positively contribute to further gains in terms of climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 26. Stresses the important role of the illiad essay sustainable production of timber and other materials, such as cork, green chemicals and textile fibres, for the development of sustainable economic models and the creation of green jobs;

27. Francais. Emphasises that in order to essay, achieve the EU’s climate objectives it is vital that wood is used in a resource-efficient way, in sujets, line with the cascading use principle; calls on thesis experience, the Commission to ensure efficient use of wood resources in EU climate and energy polices; 28. Reiterates its call on the Commission to propose sustainability criteria for solid and sujets, gaseous biomass, taking into account lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the inefficient use of biomass resources; calls for activism afterimage from oppositionality, the revision and dissertation francais sujets, restriction of the carbon neutrality assumption as regards biomass combustion under EU climate policy instruments; 29. Illiad Essay. Emphasises the need to make sure that forest resources and wood materials are used and reused efficiently, as a way of cutting the EU’s trade deficit, improving the self-sufficiency of the EU in wood and the competitiveness of its forest sector, helping to reduce unsustainable forest management, protecting the environment, and reducing deforestation in countries outside the EU; 30. Believes that the EU should prioritise the sujets use of locally-sourced timber, harvested wood products or forest biomass, as opposed to wood imported from outside the EU, in order to minimise the carbon footprint caused by thesis the language overseas transport and stimulate sustainable local production; 31.

Expressly supports the resource-efficient use of wood, and opposes legally binding rules for dissertation, prioritising the uses of wood, as this not only restricts the energy market and the development of new and innovative uses of biomass, but is afterimage art essay, also impossible to dissertation sujets, enforce in many remote and rural areas; in this connection, supports an open, market-oriented approach enabling different actors to develop the potential of advanced wood-based materials and chemicals, which are foreseen to moral essays, play a major role in the EU bio-economy; 32. Expresses serious concerns over the pace of dissertation, world deforestation, particularly in developing countries and often due to illegal logging; calls on the Commission and the Member States to comprehensively revise the EU Timber Directive as well as the FLEGT scheme for timber imports, with a view to curbing the illegal trade in timber which endangers forest ecosystems and negatively influences the competitiveness of European timber traders; suggests deploying or adjusting relevant public procurement rules which could encourage purchases of properly certified timber and harvested wood products; 33. Recalls that, by 2020 and in line with Sustainable Forest Management, forest management plans or equivalent instruments should be in place for all forests that are publicly owned and for forest holdings above a certain size that receive funding under the EU Rural Development Policy; calls on the Member States to monitor and promote the implementation of the forest management plans without creating unnecessary administrative burdens and taking into account the proportionality, subsidiarity and ‘think small first’ principles; 34. Stresses the relativism essays need to address global challenges in global multilateral forums; urges the Commission to dissertation sujets, take a leading role in advancing globally sustainable forest policy in order to reduce unsustainable management practices and illegal trade , protect the environment and reduce global deforestation; calls to this end on the Commission to publish an EU action plan on relativism essays, deforestation and dissertation sujets, forest degradation, as called for great introductions to history, by the 7th Environmental Action Programme ; (6) 35.

Points out that rules on sujets, the use of wood for building purposes differ from one Member State to another; calls, therefore, for a commitment to adopt EU rules promoting the wider use of wood in buildings; 36. Activism Afterimage Art Essay Oppositionality. Welcomes the Commission’s emphasis on protecting and increasing the genetic diversity of forests, and underlines the capacity, as shown by recent research, of genetically diverse tree populations to adapt to climate change; 37. Recognises the positive effects of trees and forests on human physical and mental health, and encourages municipal authorities to maintain or improve public transport links between urban areas and forests in order to facilitate access to forests and woodland; 38. Dissertation Francais Sujets. Calls on illiad essay, the Member States to dissertation francais, include special biodiversity measures, notably specific measures for the conservation of protected species and natural habitats, in order to improve their status both within and beyond Natura 2000 areas when adopting and implementing their forest management plans; 39. Supports the Commission’s intention to develop, together with the Member States and stakeholders, an ambitious, objective and demonstrable set of criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests, bearing in mind the work done in the framework of Forest Europe (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in art essay, Europe) and taking into account the diversity of forest types across Europe; calls on the Commission to publish the awaited review of the functioning and effectiveness of the EU Timber Regulation; 40. Considers it important to encourage scientific research work oriented towards rational use of francais sujets, biomass and the development of fast-growing energy crops, and to introductions essays, create a model providing an economic incentive for the use of biomass waste;

41. Underlines the high recreational value of forests, as proven in public opinion surveys; recalls that this is dissertation francais, one of the primary advantages of forests and woodlands for European citizens; 42. Recognises that short rotation forestry could provide sustainable wooden biomass while providing the necessary territory maintenance, thus reducing the risks of soil erosion and essay the life, landslides on set-aside or abandoned land; 43. Notes with concern that rising demand for dissertation francais, biomass, particularly wood, may spark widespread deforestation in developing countries, where greenhouse gas emissions are not accounted for under the Kyoto Protocol; points out that while this can impact on soil quality, water cycles and biodiversity, it increases strain on global agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD); 44.

Recognises that sustainable management for the entire life-cycle of forest products can make a significant contribution towards achieving green economy objectives, in particular those linked to climate change mitigation policies and efficient use of resources; considers that, to this end, Member States should promote the sustainable use of forest products in the construction sector; 45. Urges the Member States to categorical essay, design their forestry policies in such a way as to take full account of the importance of dissertation, forests in terms of protecting biodiversity, preventing soil erosion, ensuring carbon sequestration and air purification and maintaining the water cycle; 46. Calls for the strengthening of the harmonised monitoring of research thesis experience approach, European forest resources, including all wood and non-wood forest products and services, as a basis for sound policymaking and decision-making serving sustainable forest management; considers that there is therefore a need for an instrument based on existing bodies and organisations and aimed at ensuring resilient future forests in dissertation sujets, Europe by reducing the impact of the language experience approach, disturbances through absorbing forest risk into forest and dissertation, land management. RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE. Result of final vote. Members present for the final vote. Margrete Auken, Pilar Ayuso, Zoltan Balczo, Catherine Bearder, Ivo Belet, Biljana Borzan, Lynn Boylan, Cristian-Silviu Bu?oi, Nessa Childers, Birgit Collin-Langen, Mireille D’Ornano, Miriam Dalli, Seb Dance, Angelique Delahaye, Jorn Dohrmann, Ian Duncan, Stefan Eck, Bas Eickhout, Eleonora Evi, Jose Inacio Faria, Francesc Gambus, Elisabetta Gardini, Enrico Gasbarra, Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, Jens Gieseke, Sylvie Goddyn, Matthias Groote, Francoise Grossetete, Andrzej Grzyb, Jytte Guteland, Gyorgy Holvenyi, Anneli Jaatteenmaki, Jean-Francois Jalkh, Karin Kadenbach, Katerina Konecna, Giovanni La Via, Peter Liese, Norbert Lins, Susanne Melior, Miroslav Mikolasik, Massimo Paolucci, Piernicola Pedicini, Boleslaw G. Piecha, Marcus Pretzell, Frederique Ries, Michele Rivasi, Daciana Octavia Sarbu, Annie Schreijer-Pierik, Davor Skrlec, Renate Sommer, Tibor Szanyi, Claudiu Ciprian Tanasescu, Glenis Willmott, Jadwiga Wisniewska. Substitutes present for the final vote.

Paul Brannen, Nicola Caputo, Mark Demesmaeker, Esther Herranz Garcia, Merja Kyllonen, Jo Leinen, Younous Omarjee, Marit Paulsen, Alojz Peterle, Sirpa Pietikainen, Julia Reid, Bart Staes. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote. Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and great introductions essays, of the Council of 20 November 2013 on francais, a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020 - ‘Living well, within the limits of our planet’ European Parliament resolution of 20 April 2012 on ‘Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to 2020’ – Texts adopted, P7_TA(2012)0146. European Parliament resolution of 23 April 2009 on addressing the challenges of deforestation and forest degradation to tackle climate change and biodiversity loss (OJ C 184E, 8.7.2010, p. 4). Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the categorical essay European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2013.

See the European Parliament resolution of 5 February 2014 on a 2030 framework for climate and francais sujets, energy policies (Texts adopted, P7_TA(2014)0094): ‘Stresses that active forestry, which increases growth and hence the absorption of carbon dioxide, is an important and cost-effective way of helping to attain the climate targets; notes that each extra cubic metre of forest produced by means of afterimage art essay from, active cultivation absorbs approximately 1.3 tonnes of carbon dioxide; calls on the Commission and the Member States to devise incentives for dissertation francais sujets, owners of woods to contribute actively to increased climate benefits, for example by focusing on regional measures which increase lasting forest production and absorption of carbon dioxide’. Decision No 1386/2013/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on a General Union Environment Action Programme to 2020. for the relativism essays Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development. on a new EU Forest Strategy: for forests and the forest-based sector. Rapporteur: Marek Jozef Grobarczyk.

The Committee on Industry, Research and Energy calls on the Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development, as the committee responsible, to incorporate the following suggestions into francais its motion for a resolution: 1. Stresses that the responsibility for thesis the language experience approach, forestry rests solely with the Member States, that the principle of subsidiarity must be upheld, that the differences in regional conditions, ownership models and priorities across the dissertation francais sujets Member States must be respected, and that the EU should refrain from imposing any new market restrictions for forests and wood-based products in order to ensure the ownership principles and market freedom for research, the participants in the forest value chain; 2. Welcomes the adoption of the new Commission Communication on a new EU Forest Strategy (COM(2013)0659), as it provides a framework for coordinated action from Member States in promoting sustainable management of forests and in fulfilling their multifunctional role from an economic, social and environmental point of view; 3. Considers, given that forests are different in nature and dissertation francais, size, that the research thesis the language experience strategy should take into account that forests cover more than half of the territory of some Member States; 4. Stresses, given that some of the Union’s largest biomass resources are found in its most sparsely populated and remote regions, that it is imperative that the strategy also takes full account of the specificities of these more sparsely populated regions; 5. Acknowledges that the EU has a role to play in supporting national policies to achieve active, multifunctional and sustainable forest management, including the management of different forest types, and in strengthening cooperation in the face of increased cross-border threats such as forest fires, illegal logging, illegal timber import and pests; stresses the need to ensure coherence on forest-related issues across EU policies, in particular those relating to agriculture, climate, biodiversity, renewable energy, water, soil, industry and competitiveness, research and innovation, and resource efficiency; in this respect, stresses the importance of Natura 2000 sites where, thanks to their extraordinary natural resources, products and services of high environmental and cultural quality can be produced on a continuous basis;

6. Considers that the francais implementation of the new forestry strategy should compensate for the absence of specific provisions on forest policy in art essay from, the EU Treaty, while respecting Member States’ competences in this field, and should ensure coordinated positions between EU and Member State policies on the issues related to the forestry sector at international level; 7. Stresses the important role of the dissertation sujets Commission in ensuring early and continuous dialogue between EU and Member State experts, as well as the inclusion of all relevant stakeholders, in order to facilitate coherence in policy formulation with regard to forests; 8. Supports Member States’ commitment to implementing sustainable forest management in line with the Forest Europe criteria and indicators as one of the key elements of the current policy framework for essay, forests in Europe; 9. Welcomes the prioritisation of the three pillars of sustainability (economic, social and environmental) as a strong basis from which to support the sujets fundamental role of categorical imperative essay, forests and resource efficiency, increase competitiveness, boost employment and strengthen the role of forestry and francais sujets, forest-based industries and illiad essay, the preservation of ecological cycles in dissertation francais sujets, the green economy; recognises its role in society in relation to the health of citizens; 10. Recalls that, according to the Commission, in from oppositionality, 2009 the bioeconomy represented a market estimated to be worth over EUR 2 trillion, providing 20 million jobs and accounting for 9 % of total employment in the EU; notes that every euro invested in bioeconomy research and innovation under Horizon 2020 will generate about EUR 10 in added value; stresses that forests play a crucial role in the bioeconomy now and francais sujets, will continue to do so in the future; 11. Considers that the objective included in the EU Forest Strategy of enhancing the contribution of essay the life, forests and dissertation francais sujets, the forest sector to rural development, biodiversity, sustainable growth and job creation must take full account of the economic, social, cultural and environmental goods and services provided by forests, including recreation and tourism services, and in particular the important role that well-managed forests and introductions to history essays, wood-based material play in reducing CO 2 emissions, storing carbon and francais, moving towards a bioeconomy, which are important elements of EU climate policy; 12.

Recalls that forest biomass is a very important source of renewable energy and notes that European forests currently absorb and store around 10 % of EU carbon emissions and thus contribute markedly to climate change mitigation; 13. Considers that the substitution of art essay oppositionality, oil-based or heat-intensive raw materials by timber and harvested wood products should be encouraged, in line with progress in dissertation, research and moral relativism essays, technology, which can positively contribute to further gains in terms of climate change mitigation as well as job creation; 14. Stresses the need to carry out a cost assessment of all EU legislation affecting the value chains of dissertation, forest-based industries, with a view to cutting out art essay oppositionality all unnecessary and burdensome bureaucracy and creating an enabling framework to increase industry’s long-term competitiveness in a sustainable manner, and equally to support the principle that legislative proposals affecting the forestry sector and the value chains of forest-based industries should be thoroughly assessed by an impact assessment;

15. Considers that the dissertation EU Forest Strategy will be better implemented if supported by appropriate coordination with available or future EU funding, including the EAFRD; 16. Observes the availability of information and monitoring resources via the Copernicus programme and other space initiatives at European level, and recommends increasing the use of these resources and tools; 17. Is of the opinion that promotion of more diverse uses of wood should go hand in hand with investment in illiad essay, education systems for young people, and training for existing employees in the construction industry in dissertation francais sujets, order to increase their awareness of the illiad essay opportunities created by the use of wood as well as to dissertation francais, provide them with necessary skills; 18.

Welcomes the setting up of a Forest Information System for Europe to support the sharing of data, best practices and existing knowledge on forests between the essays Member States; recognises that collecting data and information on the multifunctional role of forests and dissertation, forest resources from the activism afterimage art essay oppositionality national databases will be of benefit to the sector and calls on the Commission to francais sujets, support its integration into a European data platform; w elcomes the benefits of sharing best practices and existing knowledge on forests between the activism art essay from Member States, but stresses that such activity should not result in increased demand on budgetary resources; 19. Stresses that the long-term competitiveness of the forest sector will be achieved only with a skilled workforce; notes that the sector currently employs over 3 million European citizens; considers that the EU Forest Strategy should then set the conditions to enable the EU to have relevant training facilities and a workforce which is fully aware of the current challenges and threats of the forest sector, but also of the safety rules inherent in forest management; 20. Stresses the support that the EU framework programmes for research, development and dissertation francais sujets, innovation can provide in achieving smart and sustainable growth, higher added-value products, cleaner technology and a high degree of technology, in particular in refined biofuels and industrial building in wood, but also the automotive and textile industries, while not forgetting those traditional high-value usages that still have huge growth potential, such as using wood in construction and packaging. RESULT OF FINAL VOTE IN COMMITTEE. Result of to history essays, final vote. Members present for the final vote. Zigmantas Balcytis, Nicolas Bay, Reinhard Butikofer, Jerzy Buzek, Soledad Cabezon Ruiz, Philippe De Backer, Pilar del Castillo Vera, Pablo Echenique, Christian Ehler, Peter Eriksson, Fredrick Federley, Ashley Fox, Adam Gierek, Theresa Griffin, Marek Jozef Grobarczyk, Andras Gyurk, Kaja Kallas, Barbara Kappel, Krisjanis Karins, Sean Kelly, Jeppe Kofod, Miapetra Kumpula-Natri, Janusz Lewandowski, Paloma Lopez Bermejo, Ernest Maragall, Edouard Martin, Angelika Mlinar, Csaba Molnar, Nadine Morano, Dan Nica, Angelika Niebler, Morten Helveg Petersen, Miroslav Poche, Herbert Reul, Paul Rubig, Algirdas Saudargas, Jean-Luc Schaffhauser, Neoklis Sylikiotis, Antonio Tajani, Dario Tamburrano, Patrizia Toia, Evzen Tosenovsky, Claude Turmes, Vladimir Urutchev, Adina-Ioana Valean, Henna Virkkunen, Anna Zaborska, Flavio Zanonato, Carlos Zorrinho.

Substitutes present for the final vote. Cornelia Ernst, Francoise Grossetete, Benedek Javor, Constanze Krehl, Vladimir Manka, Marian-Jean Marinescu, Morten Messerschmidt, Clare Moody, Paul Tang, Pavel Telicka. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote. Result of dissertation sujets, final vote. Members present for the final vote.

John Stuart Agnew, Clara Eugenia Aguilera Garcia, Eric Andrieu, Richard Ashworth, Jose Bove, Paul Brannen, Daniel Buda, Nicola Caputo, Matt Carthy, Viorica Dancila, Michel Dantin, Paolo De Castro, Albert De?, Herbert Dorfmann, Norbert Erdos, Luke Ming Flanagan, Martin Hausling, Anja Hazekamp, Esther Herranz Garcia, Jan Huitema, Peter Jahr, Jaroslaw Kalinowski, Elisabeth Kostinger, Zbigniew Kuzmiuk, Philippe Loiseau, Mairead McGuinness, Nuno Melo, Giulia Moi, Ulrike Muller, James Nicholson, Maria Noichl, Marit Paulsen, Marijana Petir, Lauren?iu Rebega, Jens Rohde, Bronis Rope, Jordi Sebastia, Lidia Senra Rodriguez, Czeslaw Adam Siekierski, Marc Tarabella. Substitutes present for the final vote. Substitutes under Rule 200(2) present for the final vote.

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Perfect Competition Examples Essay. Market structure is sujets, best defined as the imperative essay, organizational and other characteristics of a market. We focus on those characteristics which affect the nature of competition and pricing.Traditionally, the most important features of dissertation sujets, market structure are: 1. Number of Buyers and Sellers: Number of essay the life, buyers and sellers of a commodity in the market indicates the dissertation francais sujets, influence exercised by them on the price of the commodity. In case of large number of buyers and sellers, an individual buyer or seller is essays, not in the position to influence the price of the commodity. However, if there is a single seller of francais sujets, a commodity, then such a seller exercises great control over moral relativism essays, the price. 2. Nature of the Commodity: If the commodity is of homogeneous nature, i.e. identical in all respects, then it is sold at a uniform price.

However, if the commodity is of differentiated nature (like different brands of toothpaste), then it may be sold at different prices. Again, if the commodity has no close substitutes (like Railways), then the seller can charge higher price from the buyers. 3. Freedom of Movement of Firms: If there is sujets, freedom of essays, entry and exit of firms, then price will be stable in the market. However, if there are restrictions on entry of new firms and exit of old firms, then a firm can influence the price as it has no fear of competition from other or new firms. 4. Knowledge of Market Conditions: 4. Knowledge of Market Conditions: If buyers and francais sujets sellers have perfect knowledge about the market conditions, then a uniform price prevails in activism afterimage from, the market.

However, in case of imperfect knowledge, sellers are in a position to charge different prices. 5. Mobility of Goods and Factors of Production: 5. Mobility of dissertation francais, Goods and Factors of Production: When the factors of production can move freely from one place to another, then a uniform price prevails in the market. However, in case of relativism essays, immobility of goods and factors, different prices may prevail in the market. Here are the dissertation sujets, four basic market structures:Perfect competition: Perfect competition happens when numerous small firms compete against each other. Firms in a competitive industry produce the socially optimal output level at the minimum possible cost per unit. Monopoly: A monopoly is a firm that has no competitors in moral relativism essays, its industry. It reduces output to drive up prices and increase profits. By doing so, it produces less than the socially optimal output level and francais sujets produces at higher costs than competitive firms.

Oligopoly: An oligopoly is an the language approach industry with only a few firms. If they collude, they reduce output and drive up profits the way a monopoly does. Perfect competition: Perfect competition happens when numerous small firms compete against each other. Firms in a competitive industry produce the socially optimal output level at the minimum possible cost per unit. Dissertation Sujets. Monopoly: A monopoly is a firm that has no competitors in its industry. It reduces output to thesis the language approach drive up prices and increase profits.

By doing so, it produces less than the socially optimal output level and produces at higher costs than competitive firms. Oligopoly: An oligopoly is an industry with only a few firms. If they collude, they reduce output and drive up profits the way a monopoly does. However, because of strong incentives to cheat on collusive agreements, oligopoly firms often end up competing against dissertation francais, each other. Monopolistic competition: In monopolistic competition, an industry contains many competing firms, each of which has a similar but at least slightly different product. Restaurants, for moral relativism essays, example, all serve food but of sujets, different types and in categorical essay, different locations. Production costs are above what could be achieved if all the dissertation sujets, firms sold identical products, but consumers benefit from the variety. Other than the above mentioned four, Duopoly(a special case of an great essays oligopoly with two firms) Monopsony, (when there is only one buyer in a market) and Oligopsony (a market where many sellers can be present but meet only a few buyers are also among different market structures. As mentioned earlier, the identifying characteristics for each type of market structure include the francais, Degree of Price Control.

Nature of Demand Curve. Influence on essays, Activities of other Firms. (I) Degree of Price Control: A firm under Perfect competition is a Price-taker, i.e. an dissertation francais individual firm has no control over moral, the price and has to accept the price as determined by francais the market forces of demand and supply. Essay The Life. Monopoly: A monopolist is a Price-Maker, i.e., a firm has complete control over the price and fixes its own price. Monopolistic Competition:

A firm under monopolistic competition has partial control over the price, i.e. each firm is neither a price-taker nor a price-maker. An individual firm is able to influence the price by creating a differentiated image of its product through heavy selling costs. Oligopoly: A firm under oligopoly follows the policy of price rigidity. Although, the firm can influence the prices, but it prefers to francais stick to its prices so as to avoid a price war. (II) Nature of Demand Curve: i. Perfect Competition: The demand curve for a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic as it has to accept the price fixed by the market forces of demand and supply. ii. Monopoly: The monopoly firm faces a downward sloping demand curve as more quantity can be sold only at categorical imperative essay, a lower price. iii. Monopolistic Competition:

The firm under monopolistic competition also faces a downward sloping demand curve as more quantity can be sold only at a lower price. However, the demand curve is more elastic in comparison to francais demand curve under monopoly because of illiad essay, presence of close substitutes. iv. Oligopoly: The demand curve for an oligopoly firm is indeterminate, i.e. it cannot be drawn accurately as exact behavior pattern of a producer cannot be ascertained with certainty. (III) Influence on Activities of francais sujets, other Firms: i. Perfect Competition: Each firm is so small that its behavior has no influence on illiad essay, the decisions of other firms operating in dissertation sujets, the market. ii. Monopoly: There is only one firm in the industry. Therefore, the question of reaction from other firms does not arise, i.e. monopolist has full control over the industry. iii. Monopolistic Competition:

There are large numbers of firms and behaviour of each firm has less impact on activities of illiad essay, other firms. iv. Oligopoly: There are few firms and behaviour of each firm has significant impact on activities of other firms. (IV) Overall Comparison: What we analyze in all market structures and why the perfect competition is the most efficient? AR,MR. The point where MR=MC (Profit maximum) Q* (equilibrium quantity) P* (equilibrium price)

Perfect Competition – Economics of Competitive Markets. Pure or perfect competition is rare in the real world, but the model is important because it helps competition analyze industries with characteristics similar to pure competition. Examples of perfect competition are stock market and dissertation agricultural industries. The individual firm will view its demand as perfectly elastic. A perfectly elastic demand curve is a horizontal line at the price. The demand curve for the industry is great to history essays, not perfectly elastic, it only appears that way to the individual firms, since they must take the market price no matter what quantity they produce.

Therefore, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the market price. Marginal revenue (MR) is the increase in total revenue resulting from a one-unit increase in output. Since the price is constant in the perfect competition. The increase in total revenue from producing 1 extra unit will equal to the price. Therefore, P= MR in dissertation sujets, perfect. In the short run, the interaction between demand and supply determines the “market-clearing” price. Essays. A price P1 is francais sujets, established and output Q1 is categorical essay, produced. This price is taken by sujets each firm.

The average revenue curve is illiad essay, their individual demand curve. Since the market price is constant for dissertation, each unit sold, the AR curve also becomes the marginal revenue curve (MR) for a firm in perfect competition. For the firm, the profit maximising output is at Q2 where MC=MR. This output generates a total revenue (P1 x Q2). Since total revenue exceeds total cost, the firm in our example is making abnormal (economic) profits. This is not necessarily the case for all firms in the industry since it depends on the position of their short run cost curves. Some firms may be experiencing sub-normal profits if average costs exceed the price – and total costs will be greater than total revenue. The adjustment to the long-run equilibrium in perfect competition If most firms are making abnormal profits in the short run, this encourages the entry of new firms into the industry This will cause an outward shift in market supply forcing down the price The increase in supply will eventually reduce the price until price = long run average cost.

At this point, each firm in illiad essay, the industry is making normal profit. Other things remaining the same, there is no further incentive for movement of firms in and out of the industry and a long-run equilibrium has been established. This is shown in the next diagram. Assuming in the diagram above that there has been no shift in dissertation francais sujets, market demand. The effect of increased supply is to force down the price and causes an expansion along the market demand curve. But for each supplier, the price they “take” is introductions to history, now lower and it is this that drives down the level of profit made towards normal profit equilibrium. Characteristics of competitive markets. The common characteristics of markets that are considered to be “competitive” are: Lower prices because of many competing firms. The cross-price elasticity of demand for one product will be high suggesting that consumers are prepared to dissertation francais sujets switch their demand to the most competitively priced products in the marketplace. Low barriers to entry – the thesis experience approach, entry of new firms provides competition and ensures prices are kept low in the long run.

Lower total profits and profit margins than in dissertation francais sujets, markets which dominated by a few firms. Greater entrepreneurial activity – the Austrian school of economics argues that competition is great introductions, a process. For competition to dissertation be improved and activism afterimage oppositionality sustained there needs to be a genuine desire on behalf of entrepreneurs to innovate and to invent to dissertation sujets drive markets forward and create what Joseph Schumpeter called the “gales of creative destruction”. Economic efficiency – competition will ensure that firms move towards productive efficiency. The threat of research thesis experience approach, competition should lead to a faster rate of technological diffusion, as firms have to be responsive to the changing needs of consumers.

This is dissertation francais, known as dynamic efficiency. The importance of non-price competition. In competitive markets, non-price competition can be crucial in winning sales and protecting or enhancing market share. Perfect competition and efficiency Perfect competition can be used as a yardstick to compare with other market structures because it displays high levels of economic efficiency. 1. Allocative efficiency: In both the activism art essay from, short and long run we find that price is equal to marginal cost (P=MC) and thus allocative efficiency is achieved. At the ruling price, consumer and producer surplus are maximised. No one can be made better off without making some other agent at least as worse off – i.e. we achieve a Pareto optimum allocation of resources. 2. Productive efficiency: Productive efficiency occurs when the equilibrium output is supplied at minimum average cost. This is dissertation, attained in the long run for a competitive market. Firms with high unit costs may not be able to justify remaining in the industry as the forces of competition drive down the market price.

3. Dynamic efficiency: Since perfectly competitive market produces homogeneous products – in other words, there is little scope for innovation designed purely to make products differentiated from each other and allow a supplier to develop and then exploit a competitive advantage in essay the life, the market to establish some monopoly power. Some economists claim that perfect competition is not a good market structure for high levels of dissertation sujets, research and development spending and the resulting product and imperative essay process innovations. Indeed it may be the case that monopolistic or oligopolistic markets are more effective long term in creating the environment for research and innovation to flourish. A cost-reducing innovation from one producer will, under the assumption of perfect information, be immediately and without cost transferred to all of the other suppliers. That said a contestable market provides the discipline on firms to keep their costs under control, to seek to minimise wastage of scarce resources and to refrain from dissertation sujets, exploiting the consumer by setting high prices and enjoying high profit margins. In this sense, competition can stimulate improvements in both static and dynamic efficiency over time. Essays. The long run of perfect competition, therefore, exhibits optimal levels of dissertation sujets, economic efficiency. But for this to be achieved all of the conditions of perfect competition must hold – including in related markets. When the assumptions are dropped, we move into a world of imperfect competition with all of the potential that exists for various forms of market failure. Inefficiency in imperative, Monopolistic Competition. Monopoly is the other market structure, which is most different from perfect competition.

Compared to dissertation sujets a perfectly competitive market monopoly is less efficient . Monopolistic firms’ profit maximizing production levels occur when their marginal revenues equals their marginal costs. This quantity is less than what would be produced in a perfectly competitive market. It also means that producers will supply goods below their manufacturing capacity. Monopoly creates deadweight loss and inefficiency, as represented by the yellow triangle. The quantity is produced when marginal revenue equals marginal cost, or where the green and blue lines intersect. The price is determined based on where the quantity falls on the demand curve, or the great to history, red line.

Conclusion: The importance of market structure in an economy cannot be over emphasized as the effect of market structure on an economy, it’s development or degradation is recently been realized. Thus we as the dissertation francais, part of the afterimage art essay, economy need to understand the sujets, value of this concept while dealing with others (buyers/sellers) in any market place to yield the optimum benefit and to create win-win situation for all of us. University/College: University of essays, Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 16 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Perfect Competition Examples. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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23 Things You Should Include To Make A Killer Resume. Devi Clark runs the Outsiders#x27; Network, a safe space for people who feel different from social norms. Francais? Full Bio. Put yourself in a recruiter’s shoes. Categorical Imperative Essay? If you were faced with a stack of resumes what would you want? The ability to download all the dissertation sujets, info into your brain, the way that Neo from Th e Matrix gets plugged in and learns Kung Fu in activism afterimage art essay, about ten seconds? Unfortunately it doesn’t really work like that. Dissertation Francais? In fact, research shows that recruiters take only six seconds to make their initial judgement on a resume.

If your resume is screened by a computer first, it may not even get that far. Experience? So, your job, when creating a killer resume, is to make it really easy for the recruiter to spot the most important benefits you offer the employer. Dissertation Francais Sujets? Do the work, so they don’t have to. Research The Language? Here’s how: 1. Make sure your resume is tailored to the job you are applying for. Generic resumes may be quick to francais submit, but far less effective.

Better one excellent job application than three shoddy ones. Researching the cultural norms of the organization is worthwhile. For example, within one industry some will value experience but not care much about activism oppositionality, education, while others care about your qualifications. 2. Only apply if you meet the job criteria. Don’t waste your time or the recruiter’s applying for francais, jobs if you don’t meet their criteria. If you still want that job, go and illiad essay expand your skill set before trying again in future. Even if you get through the first screening, lying about or exaggerating your accomplishments is likely to come back to bite you. Recovering from the loss of dissertation francais sujets trust is hard. After writing the resume, check it for keywords from the job description.

Keywords are gifts to you from the imperative, employer. Add them into the existing text so they flow naturally. This will help your resume get past screening software, and recruiters who are accustomed to searching quickly for these keywords. 5. Structure your resume carefully. It is easiest for the recruiter if your key skills and background are summarised at the top. Make sure your current and most recent previous role are on dissertation francais, the first page. Essay The Life? Your education and qualifications are generally less important than your professional experience, so put these later. 6. Show how your most recent two jobs are relevant. Recruiters will spend 80% of their time on your name, the company, job title, start and end dates for your current and previous companies, and finally your education. Dissertation? If you are changing direction in your career, you will need to work even harder to draw out the great to history essays, skills and networks you are bringing from francais sujets, these last two jobs.

Remember the illiad essay, recruiter will scan your resume in seconds. Including your school paper round or even lengthy details of dissertation your first job out of college is not something a recruiter will thank you for (unless, of course, you are applying for your second job out of college). Show the recruiter that your career makes sense. Tell a story which shows promotions and additional responsibilities as you delivered value to imperative essay your employer. CAR stands for Context, Action, Results. Use them as a mental checklist. Keep the context short: just long enough for the recruiter to know what your job was. Spend longest what you actually achieved as a result of the actions that you took. Qualify your results wherever possible. Beating your targets, raising finance, cutting costs, making great sales all provide convincing and easily digested data which demonstrate your achievements.

Social proof such as promotions and sujets customer feedback are also worthwhile. Essay The Life? Include personal projects, sports or voluntary work that you participate in, but be aware if they are activities which might stereotype you or turn an employer off. 12. Include links to other sites and social media. Keep your resume short while demonstrating your talents by dissertation francais sujets, providing links to articles, photos, or websites you’ve designed, or a portfolio. Also, provide the url for your LinkedIn profile and Twitter feed it those reflect your professional abilities. Clearly, you want to great introductions avoid a Facebook page with photos of your drunken exploits.

Better still, don’t post these on social media in the first place. 13. Give a good reason for leaving an employer. Recruiters will especially be looking at the reasons you want to leave your current employer and how long you were with them. If you’ve had a series of short-lived positions you’ll need a convincing explanation of why a recruiter should take a risk on you. 14. Explain gaps in your employment history.

Leaving a gap on your resume leaves the francais sujets, recruiter wondering. Research The Language Experience Approach? If you’ve taken time out for parenting or starting your own business, tell them. If you’ve been traveling, show how it has enriched you as a candidate. 15. Exclude irrelevant information. Don’t reveal your age, race, gender, marital status, or whether you have kids. Research shows that even the most self-aware recruiters have unconscious biases. Sujets? Make it easy for relativism essays, a recruiter to be confident that you are eligible to work without having to francais apply for work permits. 17. Make it easy for the recruiter to contact you. Include contact details with your email and one phone number (don’t make the recruiter have to guess which number to use).

Don’t bother with your home address. Essay The Life? Make sure your formatting goes hand in hand with the dissertation, resume structure to ensure recruiters can spot the key information easily. Create clear sections with easy-to-read, consistent headlines. Use an attractive font, which is also easy to read. Don’t use Word templates. If your design skills are truly terrible get someone else to do the formatting for you. In this case, boring is good. Thesis? Unless you are specifically applying for a graphic design or creative role and want to francais demonstrate your talent, avoid unusual formats.

Remember, the recruiter doesn’t want to be distracted as they scan the page. Cut anything that seems clever but reduces clarity, including pictures. If you do use something different, make sure it is effective and great essays suits the employer’s own style before you submit it. 20. Francais? Submit your resume in pdf format. Unless you are asked otherwise, send your resume as a pdf.

This will ensure your formatting remains consistent on any device. Obvious, perhaps, but surprisingly often spelling and essay the life grammar mistakes are what leads to dissertation a resume being put in imperative essay, the reject pile. Use the past tense and third person, not first person consistently throughout your resume. Don’t rely on your computer’s spelling and grammar checkers. Dissertation Francais Sujets? They are often wrong. Edit it yourself and then get another person to read your resume with fresh eyes.

22. Check before you include a cover letter. Illiad Essay? Most cover letters are a waste of dissertation sujets time. Either don’t bother, or, if the recruiter specifically requests one, make sure it says something meaningful. Cover letters can be used as headlines, picking out the illiad essay, most relevant parts of a resume. They can deal with issues the recruiter may be concerned about, such as a change of francais sujets career direction.

They can remind a recruiter about an occasion that gave them cause to trust or care about you. Unless you are applying to a tiny company, or you know the CEO personally, it is not the essay the life, CEO who will be doing the initial screening. Don’t waste their time. But unlike money, you can#x27;t make more. You can, however, maximize each and every second you spend.

Lifehack#x27;s mission is to francais help you make enormous gains with the limited time you have. Great Introductions To History Essays? With the dissertation francais sujets, insights we provide, your seconds can be worth hours, and days can be worth years in value.

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child curfews essay To a teenager a curfew law is just another reason for police to pull you over at night. Whether anyone wants to dissertation francais, admit it or not, it is also another way for the city to make money. Research Experience! Considering that each issued curfew ticket is $122, they eventually add up to a nice sum of money. I know how much they cost because I've received one in the past. I was coming back from Walmart one Friday night when I was seventeen years old. It was 3:00 a.m. and I was driving a black Eagle Talon sports car. Dissertation Sujets! The windows.

Essay on categorical Curfew Is Beneficial to Teenagers. I myself had a temporary curfew until I was seventeen, and I seen a great increase in my GPA and I was focused more during school. This is an important skill that will serve teenagers well as adults when they must keep appointments. Curfews also could encourage teens to dissertation, get enough sleep every night, which is also an essay the life, important part of time managing. A typical teenager is supposed to get at least eight hours of sujets sleep every night in order to function properly the next day. Essays! This is much more difficult. Essay on Should Youth Curfew Laws Be Implemented and Used? Another issue with the sujets, youth time curfew laws is that they create a criminal record on thesis the language experience approach adolescents that otherwise would not have any sort of criminal history. A youth that has no past encounters with law enforcement, but is in violation with the law, will be cited and charged with a crime simply for dissertation francais sujets being out of the home after the hours stated by the ordinances, however these ordinances are unfair, the ‘crimes’ are not major [in many opinions], and are not effective. “Curfews sound like tough crime-fighting. (Love, Dennis 2).

Before the curfew starts however, the curfew is not going to stop teens from mobbing and running the streets at night because they are not going to go home as soon as the illiad essay, excitement commences. (Hall, Maggie 2). Curfew restrictions and tenacious measures are a response to youth crime. Towns and cities took the action of having school uniforms and dissertation francais sujets laws that hold parents responsible for their children. For teens that repeat their offenses and research the language experience crimes parents are sent to dissertation sujets, jail. (Love. Curfews help young adults get use to imperative essay, following a normal routine schedule by being home before a certain time each night. One of the advantage of curfew is to help make sure that teens aren't out dissertation, all night getting into trouble with other young adults. It will also help them get enough sleep at night since they have to be home by a certain time. They will be able to function better at school also with work cause of getting more sleep at night instead of at parties all night. And having a set sleeping. Essay on Do Curfews Keep Teens Out of experience approach Trouble?

young adults above the curfew age also decline slightly.” Another study from 1999 was displayed in the Western Criminology Review. The Analysis of Curfew Enforcement and Juvenile Crime in dissertation francais sujets California came to the conclusion of, “Based on categorical essay the current evidence, a crime reduction strategy founded solely on law enforcement intervention has little effect, suggesting that solutions are more complex and multifaceted.” However, mayors surveyed as part of the study argued that the curfews did reduce crime in dissertation sujets their. Are Curfews a Good Idea for Teens? Essay. Secondly, when teens start to drive most of the time they do not have limits on illiad essay where they can go. They will go anywhere and everywhere they want to go. The risk of a teen being killed doubles during the late teen years; with the drinking and driving and teens using drugs and driving. Francais Sujets! Underage drinking is one of the leading causes of death in teens who drive. Driving under the activism art essay, influence of francais drugs is another leading cause of death in teens. If they are hooked on drugs, which by this time most.

Family Curfews: Can Not Keep Teens Out of great introductions essays Trouble Essay. teens to escape to the online world to compensate their frustration in francais reality and essay the life behave violently to which they learn from violent video games, and curfews give some teens excuses for staying at home and doing these geek things. There was a news report from dissertation Nan Fang Daily, and Li (2003) said that a 15 year-old boy, whose parents gave him a curfew, was led to a serious addiction of computer games. When the parents finally found out, they tried many ways to solve this problem, but the boy was. aclu.org Curfews in American cities are increasing daily.

Curfews are another example of how the government contradicts themselves. A curfew on the youth of America is ineffective and unconstitutional. Curfew laws are a terrible way to prevent crime and moral essays is draining on francais police resources. In defense of the government, Officer Tom Dwyer a sergeant in the Sacramento police department says, It is an essay the life, effective crime prevention tool. Dissertation Francais Sujets! But if in categorical essay fact curfews are effective crime. Secondly, curfews does not help teenagers to manage time effectively because they don’t use their time wisely but instead they use their free time to text, talk to on the phone or even be on social networks all night. Thirdly curfew does not help teenagers to sleep at decent times because even when teenagers are at home, they find some activity to do such as watching tv, playing game or being on dissertation sujets the phone all night where they leave no time to study, do homework’s or even interact more with their. Alternative to Incarceration Essay. is to ensure that the great to history essays, offender stays confined at home. There are three different levels of home confinement, each with a different degree of restricted freedom.

The first is curfew which requires offenders to be in dissertation sujets their residence during limited, specific hours, generally at night. Thesis The Language! The offender's movements outside of the sujets, curfew hours are unregulated. The second is home detention that requires offenders to remain at home at all times except for essay the life employment, education, treatment, or other pre-approved. The Accounts of a Young German Girl (June 1935- August 1935) Essay. solemn and sad. Dissertation Francais Sujets! They had no joy like the days we rode our bikes down our block. She said they were residing with five other families in a small apartment. Most of their belongings were confiscated, along with any currency and valuables.

They had a curfew and soldiers would come by great to history, once or twice a week and take people away. They didn’t know where either; rumors were to work for cheap labor in francais factories and others said to be sent somewhere more horrific and unknown. Categorical! I couldn’t believe my ears, and to. Treatment of Jews in the 16th Century Essay. of persecution strictly, yet some individuals did suffer. They did not have the dissertation francais sujets, same rights as Christian citizens and essay the life although they were allowed to dissertation francais, build property, only blank walls were allowed to great introductions, face the rest of the city, and nightly curfews were imposed on them. The Jews had a huge reputation already set out for them. Ordinary Christians believed the Jews to be responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus, and legend read that Jews used the blood of Christian babies to.

Her father believed in strict discipline requiring her to follow rules, such as a midnight curfew. He required that she read a book and sujets write a report about it each week. Even though Oprah's father was very strict, it was his way of instilling values he felt would make her successful in life. Imperative Essay! He would not accept anything less than Oprah doing her best. A lesson that Oprah learned and adopted as her own. This was best expressed by Oprah in the December 2003 edition of O Magazine, I believe the. William Shakespeare#x27;s Shylock: Villain or Victim Essay. persecution strictly, yet numerous individuals did suffer. They did not have the same rights as Christian society and although they were authorized to erect property, only bare walls were sanctioned to face the rest of the city, and nightly curfews were forced upon them.

The Jews had a colossal reputation by now, previously set out for them by. Elegy. Five candidate churchyards for Gray's setting include Stoke Poges(unlikely), Upton (near Slough), Grantchester and Madingley (near Cambridge), and Thanington (near Canterbury), but the features might as readily be non-specific. curfew: originally rung at eight o'clock as a. Boston Massacre vs. Kent State Shootings Essay. of banks, loan companies, and utility companies among others. When the sujets, police and the Mayor Leroy Satrom eventually ended the riot, a total of from five thousand dollars worth of windows were broken while many were arrested. Francais Sujets! The next day a dusk to dawn curfew was set up in Kent and not to essay, the Kent State officials's knowledge, the sujets, Ohio National Guard was called to attention by essay the life, the mayor at dissertation francais, five p.m. Thesis The Language Experience Approach! Some time after eight p.m. some two thousand. Lowering The United States Drinking Age To 18 Essay. the problem of alcohol abuse on college campuses and dissertation across the nation would begin to change itself.

The idea is that an 18 year old is not mature enough to be trusted with alcohol but can vote, pay taxes, serve on relativism essays a jury, stay out dissertation sujets, later than curfew laws, leave home, drive, smoke (in some states), buy weapons, engage in financial contracts, get married, give birth, serve and die for our country in battle, and be tried as an adult in the court of introductions law. Eighteen-year-olds have the same responsibility. indeed. As the write of habeas corpus was suspended, the military picked up and incarcerated many innocent civilians on dissertation francais trumped up charges of sedition. More often than not, these people were convicted without trial, and denied the due process of law. Curfew was imposed leaving many stranded in their offices, unable to return to the refuge of their homes.

The right to assembly was also withheld, prompting many student and research thesis the language experience approach labor organizations to disband amidst threats of arrest. The government controlled. welfare only cause people to believe that they can’t survive on dissertation francais their own. This is essay the life, especially true if they haven’t worked for many years and have no education or skills. The libertarians want regulations on drugs prostitution, cigarette smoking, youth curfews, pornography, and gun removed. On issues involving individual behavior and. Shades of Evil in Cheshunt - the Gathering Essay.

people with perceived authority, like police and parents, and how they begin to control everything, taking away freedom, being cruel and dissertation sujets becoming oppressive. An example of this in moral essays The Gathering is shown by dissertation francais sujets, an action of Mr. Karle. He introduced the curfew to Cheshunt. This is an act of research experience approach evil because it is taking away the freedom of both adults and children. “But the outside world refuses to understand. They are constantly bleating about human rights and dissertation sujets freedom of choice while chaos reigns. And so we. Child Rearing Practice Among Filipino Family by Zaira de Leon. and must learn the household chores as a preparation to be well developed ladies, as my grandparents will say. The boys must abide the rules of essays my grandfather in making it to francais sujets, college and get a degree with a decent job to support their future family. Curfew is observed as well with the siblings and categorical it is necessary to eat our meals together.

Typical Filipino family may have these traits with much more or less depends on the factors it may adhere. Francais! I grew up with my Mother playing both roles as parents. Ministry of Fear- Seamus Heaney Analysis Essay. ‘Casualty’ explores one main theme; the affinities between himself as a poet and a fisherman killed “accidentally” for defying a curfew imposed by the IRA in Derry after Bloody Sunday. Heaney through this poem tells the story of Louis O’Neill, a provincial man who drank at his father in laws bar. Much like Ministry of fear he is looking back on the events, with a different perspective, almost analytically. It begins with a celebration of the man, Heaney affords him much respect and clearly remembers. Living with Friends and Living with Family Essay. place(Leon Festinger, 1954). Art Essay Oppositionality! Continuing by sujets, I want to say that living with parents makes people much disciplined(Daniel J. Siegel, Tina Payne Bryson, 2011).

Let's imagine, when you live with your parents you are always under the control and there is essay the life, a curfew(James Lehman, MSW, 2007). You can't walk outside whole night and till the morning because you know that parents will be angry with you. Francais! But when you live with your friends you can go wherever you want and research thesis the language approach whenever you want. They don't have any rights. How to Save Our Environment Essay.

with the herd of impatient drivers that start to honk incessantly. We all know that loud music is justified when the dissertation francais sujets, weekend comes around. Try being a little sympathetic when it comes to research thesis the language experience approach, your neighbors, and even to people across the street. Go by the curfew time, or make sure to turn it down at least when it's way past 11 p.m. Dissertation Francais Sujets! Not everyone will be a fan of your music or noise that late, so try to be a little empathetic.

Don't Waste/Pollute Water Sources When it comes to how to save the environment. the only people sent to them. Thousands of Italian-Americans, German-Americans, and Americans of European descent were also sent to internment camps. Though their punishments were not as harsh, many were subjected increased restrictions – such as curfews – as well as being classified as “enemy aliens” by the government. Up until 2004, the essay the life, United States government had not made a formal apology or any sort of reparation to the people who were affected other than Japanese-Americans. Unfortunately. Essay Handling Conflict in My Family. and response loop. They weren't acknowledging my input on the subject so I wouldn't observe their instructions.

This scenario repeated itself over a number of issues. These conflicts were rarely solely based on the merits of a T.V. embargo or a curfew. Dissertation Sujets! They were simply the vehicles for what amounted to a power play. I wanted my input to be taken into consideration and they didn't. Personal Experience: My Views and Feelings About My Family Essay. Since my mother worked, I was responsible for my younger siblings – one sister and one brother. This meant I had to be sure homework was done, dinner was served, chores were done and curfew was enforced. I took this responsibility on very young in life. Introductions Essays! Because of this, I was very mature for my age. Sujets! So much so, that my mother nicknamed me “Old Lady”. Research Thesis Experience! The younger siblings dared not disrespect their elders and we truly believed that it took a village to sujets, raise a child.

Our family, both immediate and. closed? 34. Approach! Should abortions be legal? 35. Should children who commit violent crimes be tried as adults? 36. Should talking on a cell phone without a hands-free device while driving be illegal? 37. Should everyone under the age of francais sujets 17 have a 9:00 PM curfew?

38. Should students who fail their classes be retained and activism oppositionality have to repeat the dissertation, grade? 39. Should openly gay parents e allowed to adopt children? 40 Should corporations be allowed to advertise in schools? 41.

Should students be allowed to eat. would praise the ones that did well, and I would sanction the ones that acted up during the week. Based on categorical essay my information I gave the judge, she would decide what reward and sanction she would give them. If a child is doing well she might push the curfew back so the child might have more time out with friends. If the child was to dissertation sujets, be punished, the illiad essay, judge had many alternatives that she can take. The usual punishment that I saw the dissertation, judge give was detention in our intake center during the weekend. The. to become a millionaire 1. Importance of communication 1. Bottles versus cans 1. Real or fake Christmas trees 1. peer to peer technology 1. Thesis The Language Experience Approach! Motorcycle helmets 1. the assasination of a dictator can/cannot be justified 1. Curfews 1. Alien abductions 1. The worst/best book you ever read 1. All time favorite movie 1. Your first memory 1. The best things in life are free 1. Clothes make the.

parental morals attempting to keep their children out of harm’s way at all costs, only for those beliefs to be the very weapons that initiate their demise. Lux Lisbon causes a lockdown of the entire Lisbon home after coming home hours later then her curfew after her high school home coming dance. Mrs. Lisbon, so frightened by this, pulls. continued for hours. Some kids ran around smashing car windows and vandalizing buildings. Francais Sujets! Police cracked more heads and fired more tear-gas grenades again the next night. They attacked about 3,000 people in essay the life Lincoln Park shortly after the 11 P. M. Dissertation Francais Sujets! curfew. Testifying later about that night, Robert Pierson, an undercover officer working as Hoffman's bodyguard, said that the Yippie leader announced, We're going to hold the park. Shortly after midnight, Tom Hayden became the first of the alleged conspirators. Essay on Paul Bernardo: a True Dangerous Offender?

cause of death was listed as choking to death on her own vomit but later the truth came out that Homolka and imperative Bernardo were responsible for her death. On June 14 1991, Lesley Mahaffy decided to dissertation francais sujets, walk home and categorical face the fact that she was out past curfew. Bernardo was on Mahaffy’s street to steal license plates. He saw Mahaffy alone and kidnapped her and took her to the home he shared with Homolka. After 24 hours of rape and abuse by both Bernardo and Homolka, Mahaffy was murdered. According. of Health and Human services sites in a report that children that live with both their parents have a lower rate of crime, drug use, and high school drop out rate than those of kids who live with one or no parents. There is a reason parents create curfews and rules.

Nothing good happens after two in the morning. If more. actual Jews. To me that says that the killing was mostly by religious differences or quick accusations. Dissertation Sujets! That also shows me that the Holocaust was jus plain out evil works.

What also interested me the to history essays, most about the holocaust is that Jews were given a curfew in Germany. Francais Sujets! Also Jews were required to wear yellow stars on their clothing, so they could be identified. One thing I was shocked to see is that in 1933 Nazi’s passed a law that allowed for “decontamination” of those who had genetic defects , following. Bullying and Carrie Essay examples. overcome the fear of being lost and to ignore her mother protesting, “ its not to late, you can stay here with me”. Even when she makes a move to essay the life, be independent from her mother she still feels the need to obey her when Tommy asks her about francais sujets Carrie’s early curfew stating “ I promised”. From that dialog, she still feels obligated to follow her mother and remain to be somewhat trapped in categorical essay that house with her.

Throughout the story, Carrie has a sense of loneliness and dissertation francais sujets a hunger for change from being the categorical, outcast. The Growth and dissertation sujets Formation of introductions to history Individual Ethics Essay. running him or her off the road to protect other families. Most influencers are far more subtle than the dissertation francais sujets, extreme example I outlined. Here are a few more examples of more common influences. A parent grounds his or her child for staying out after curfew. The child then learns disobedience has a consequence. Another would be a child receiving a reward for achieving good grades in school.

The child then learns the value hard work and dedication in life. This one act of encouragement may not establish. Chinese wanted to keep it that way. “The Guomindang generals left in thesis the language experience approach charge of Shanghai declared that they would defend the sujets, city to the death. Their army dug itself into trenches before the city. Introductions To History! Inside the dissertation francais sujets, city, police and army patrols kept order and a curfew was imposed from dark to early dawn.” (Dragon16) The people were fighting the moral relativism, new ideas, because they didn’t want to be controlled under this communist party they boasted was so great. They wanted to be free men and women who weren’t controlled by. from hearing. Dissertation! A public transcript restricts the subordinate group from acting or expressing how they feel.

Subordinates have a public transcript for a variety of reasons: to avoid conflict, to gain a good grade or job from the dominant, to get a curfew extended, etc. Although the public transcript may seem like the subordinates will gain some freedom out of following the rules, in many ways it actually restricts and diminishes personal freedom. If subordinates can not express how they truly feel. Corrections: Rehabilitation Is More Effective Than Retribution vs. leave the confinement area for work or school or they may be under the restriction of a curfew. This is in my opinion the illiad essay, lightest of dissertation francais sujets confinement sentences one can receive.

Offender’s sentenced to essay the life, a period of probation are considered likely candidates for rehabilitation; they may be required by the terms of dissertation francais sujets their probation to attend school, maintain employment, enroll in a treatment program, abide by a curfew, perform community service, submit to moral relativism essays, drug tests, refrain from alcohol consumption, have. The kids with less rules, were the kids that lived by a higher set of francais principles. They didn't need a curfew of relativism midnight, because the kids knew to call their parents to francais sujets, let them know where they are or whatnot. Essay The Life! They did that in order to not lose the trust from the parents. the minute they lose the trust, here come more rules. Principles are what needs to be taught. The author basically stated the same thing, principles trump rules. By teaching and learning principles, this will enable the interpretation. There are cases, however, in dissertation francais which the offender is non-violent, committing a misdemeanor, or even just a status offense, but the officer reacts aggressively. In the case of fifteen year old Shelwanda Riley, the girl was out after curfew with a bag of clothing.

Upon meeting up with the girl Officer Dan Gilroy, responding to a call about art essay from a suspicious couple walking late with bags, stopped and eventually detained the girl. Sujets! During the arrest, the girl, according.

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