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A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. Front. Are you about starting a distillery business? If YES, here is a complete sample micro distillery business plan template feasibility study you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a distillery business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample craft distillery marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for distillery businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

What Doe It Take to Start a Distillery Business Successfully? Just like the liquor business, the distillery trade has continued to gce coursework gain more grounds within a twinkling of an eye. This is one of the reasons why the competition has gotten stiffer. In starting a distillery business, care has to be taken so that all facets of the trade is learnt. This is because of the point that failure to do all these might spell doom for master front, the business. Essay. One of the s thesis front cover, ways to be sure that you are on course in a trade is by writing a business plan. What the business plan does is to make sure that you follow a detailed and well thought of strategy for your business.

So, this means that you have a write a plan. However, more and more people shy from the huge amount of money the business consultants of this world charge. Plural. Here is a sample distillery business plan that you check out and master s thesis then use to write yours. One of the things that you may want to take note of is the well thought out line of through, as well as the figures that need to be got. A Sample Micro Distillery Business Plan Template. The distilleries industry produces a variety of distilled drinks (spirits and whiskeys). Spirits in this classification are made from cereal grains such as barley, rye or corn mash. Bibliography. The Federal Government of the United States of America is responsible for regulating distilleries to a high degree and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF) and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) are responsible for enforcing Federal statutes as they apply to all manufacturers of beverage alcohol. They do not distinguish its treatment of distilleries in terms of cover, size (i.e. micro – distilleries from mega – distilleries). Of course this is what is responsible for preventing micro – distilleries from and euthanasia gcse coursework, growing as fast as its counterpart micro breweries which enjoys somewhat more relaxed government control.

In the United States of America, states such as California, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Utah and Washington, have all passed legislation aimed at reducing the stringent regulations for small distilleries (micro – distilleries) so as to facilitate their growth and master front cover survival. Players in the distillery industry are encouraged to join The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS). Do Annotated Research Paper. The body is a national trade association representing both producers and marketers of distilled spirits sold in front the United States. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) was formed in 1973 by the merger of three organizations namely; the Bourbon Institute, the Distilled Spirits Institute, and the Licensed Beverage Industries, Inc. that had been in existence for many decades. The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS) has members of that represent approximately 70 percent of all distilled spirits brands sold in essay university education is important society the United States of America. Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company, PernodRicard USA, Remy Cointreau USA, Sidney Frank Importing Company, and Suntory USA are all members of DISCUS. Statistics has it that in master s thesis the United States of America alone, there are about 150 registered and essay university is important society licensed distillery plants responsible for employing about 1,947 and the industry rakes in a whooping sum of $3bn annually with a growth projection of master s thesis front, about 5.3 percent. No doubt the compare, Distilleries industry#8217;s growth over cover, the last five years can largely be attributed to the creativity and innovations in the industry. Distilleries are expected to continue to on rap experience steady growth over master s thesis front, the next five years to 2019. Of course the growth will be supported to a large extent by continued preferences among consumers for premium spirits and whiskey-based cocktails et al.

The increase in sales will translate into much higher profit margins for the distillery industry. Over and above, the distillery industry is a profitable industry and it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on a small scale (micro – distillery) or you can chose to start on a large scale (mega – distillery). Distillery Business Plan Executive Summary. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a standard distillery plant that will be located in essay education society an industrial area in master s thesis cover Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. We have been able to secure a long term lease for a facility in a strategic location with an option of a long term renewal on an agreed terms and conditions that is favorable to us. The facility has government approval for the kind of business we want to run and it is easily accessible and plural we are deliberate about that to facilitate easy movement of s thesis front, raw materials and finished products. We are in the distillery business to essay university education is important in today's society produce top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks such as Whisky, Spirit coolers, Single Malt, Vodka, Gin, Rum, Fruit Liqueurs, Eaux de Vie, Cocktail Bitters, Wild Blueberry and basic ethyl alcohol that can compete with any other distillery depot in master front cover the United States of America and in any part of the world. We are also in thesis business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people and businesses who patronize our distilled alcoholic drinks the opportunity to be part of the success story of Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. We are aware that there are several standard and master s thesis cover micro – distilleries scattered all around the United States and essay Canada whose products can be found in every nooks and s thesis crannies of The United States and Canada, which is education is important in today's why we spent time and resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to enable us locate the business in an area that will support the growth of the s thesis cover, business and gce coursework also for us to be able offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We ensured that our facility is easy to locate and we have mapped out plans to develop a wide distribution network for master s thesis front cover, wholesalers all around the United States of America and Canada. And Contrast Essay And Rock. Much more than producing top taste and finely distilled alcoholic drinks, our customer care is going to be second to none.

We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they visit purchase any of our distilled alcoholic drinks and s thesis cover also to compare and rock become our loyal customers and s thesis front cover ambassadors. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our Depot / Plant. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customer base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that will directly or indirectly affect them. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is family business that will be owned by Mark Harrison Clay and Family. Mark Harrison who is the demonstration, Chief Executive Officer of the Company is Graduate of Micro Biology (B.Sc.) and he holds a Master’s Degree in Business Management (MBA). Front Cover. He has well over 15 years of demonstration essay, experience working in related industry as a senior manager prior to starting Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. He will be working with a team of professionals to build the business and grow it to s thesis front enviably height. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is abortion gcse coursework going to operate a standard and master front licensed distillery whose products will not only be sold in dictionary thesis the United States and Canada but also in other parts of the world.

We are in the distillery business to make profits and also to give our customers value for master front, their money. Gce Coursework. These are some of the products that we will retail in our liquor store; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. Our vision is to establish standard distillery plant whose products will be not only be sold in the United States of America and Canada, but also in other parts of the world. Our mission is to establish a standard distillery plant that will produce a wide range of spirits and cover whiskey for both low income earners and for luxury consumption. We want to build a distillery business that will be listed amongst the top 10 distilleries in the United States of America and Canada. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a business that is established with the aim of competing favorably with other leading distilleries and brands in the industry. This is why we will ensure that we put the gce coursework, right structure in place that will support the kind of cover, growth that we have in mind while setting up the business.

We will ensure that we only hire people that are qualified, honest, hardworking, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of five years or more depending how fast we meet our set target. In view of that, we have decided to demonstration hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Plant Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Warehouse Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners. Cover. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Owner):

Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for education in today's, fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for s thesis front cover, providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and dictionary thesis plural overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the s thesis front, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of the distillery plant Part of the team that determines the quantity of drinks that are to be produced Map out strategy that will lead to efficiency amongst workers in the plant Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of plant workers Ensures that the steady flow of both raw materials to the plant and easy flow of finished products through wholesale distributors to the market Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs.

Ensures that the plant meets the gce coursework, expected safety and master s thesis front cover health standard at all times. Thesis Plural. Human Resources and Admin Manager. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and master s thesis administrative tasks for gce coursework, the organization Updates job knowledge by master s thesis participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and demonstration organization reputation by front accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to add value to job accomplishments. Defining job positions for recruitment and gce coursework managing interviewing process Carrying out front staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and gce coursework assessment of employees Oversee the smooth running of the daily office and factory activities. Master S Thesis. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the warehouse Ensure that the dictionary thesis, warehouse facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Interfaces with third – party providers (vendors) Control the supply floor inventory Ensure that goods and products are properly arranged Supervise the entire warehouse Any other duty as assigned by the CEO. Master Front Cover. Manage vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Help to ensure consistent quality of distilled drinks Responsible for the purchase of raw materials and packaging materials (bottles and cans et al) Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and pricing orders to gce coursework vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget.

Sales and Marketing Manager. Manage external research and master cover coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the essay education, volumes of transactional data generated by front cover customer purchases Identify, prioritize, and reach out to new partners, and demonstration business opportunities et al Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and master s thesis communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for expanding increase sales Document all customer contact and information Represent the company in essay education in today's strategic meetings Help increase sales and growth for the company. Manage the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manage the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and master s thesis front financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and demonstration essay business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for s thesis cover, developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for abortion and euthanasia gcse coursework, administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for master cover, the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with customer (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on demonstration essay, the phone, uses every opportunity to build client’s interest in master s thesis front cover the company’s products and dictionary plural services Manages administrative duties assigned by the store manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of master s thesis front, any new information on Pappy J Sons Liquor Store products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is supplied to demonstration essay students when they make enquiries. Master S Thesis Front Cover. Responsible for cleaning the store facility at all times Ensure that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by demonstration essay the restaurant manager. Distillery Business Plan SWOT Analysis.

We are quite aware that there are several distilleries both standard and micro – distilleries in the United States of master s thesis front, America and Canada which is why we are following the bibliography paper, due process of establishing a business so as to compete favorable with them. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and master front be welled equipped to confront our threats. Bibliography. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in start – up business to master s thesis front help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Part of what is going to count as positives for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and understands how to grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. So also the wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business. Abortion Gcse Coursework. A major weakness that may count against s thesis front, us is the fact that we are a new distillery plant and we don’t have the financial capacity to engage in the kind of publicity that we intend giving the business especially when big names like Bacardi USA, Beam Inc., Brown-Forman Corporation, Campari America, Constellation Brands, Diageo, Florida Caribbean Distillers, Luxco, Moet Hennessy USA, Patron Spirits Company are already determining the direction of the market. The opportunities for mega distilleries with a wide range of distilled products are enormous. This due to the fact that the do annotated research, average Americans and front Canadians consume distilled products. As a result of that, we were able to conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies so as to position our business to demonstration essay take advantage of the existing market for distilled products and also to create our own new market.

We know that it is s thesis front cover going to requires hard work, and we are determined to achieve it. We are quite aware that just like any other business, one of the and euthanasia gcse, major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn and unfavorable government policies. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new distillery plant in same location where ours is master front cover located. Distillery Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

Closely observing the gce coursework, distillery industry shows that one of the most recent trend is that mega distillers now prefer to create their own micro-distillery within their current operation so as to boost sales and take their business closer to locals in the their target communities. So also in the bid to outsmart other distilleries, most distilleries ensure that they keep trying out different flavors and distillery techniques. Some of them make use of a rotavap i.e. Master Front. glassware as against copper pot on a small scale to produce distilled spirits which they retail to thesis plural their walk in customers. Some distilleries use vacuum equipment to conduct distillation at much reduced temperatures, resulting in less cooked aromatics. In recent time, flavored distilled alcoholic drinks (Spirit and Whiskey et al) have become increasingly popular, especially among upwardly mobile and trendy young people. This is the major reason why many distillers have each launched their own innovative twists on their classic brands. For instance, Campari recently introduced an American Honey offshoot of master s thesis, its Wild Turkey brand. So also Jack Daniel#8217;s produced a new seasonal blend of apple cider liqueur, spices and Jack Daniel#8217;s Old No. 7 Tennessee Whiskey. Another trend in the distillery industry is do annotated paper that most distillers now produce expensive distilled drinks for master s thesis, the high end clients and also normal distilled drinks for everyday people. Statistics has it that consumers have experienced appreciable increasing disposable income since 2009, and as a result, many have sought out on rap and rock expensive distilled alcoholic brands that are perceived to front cover be classy and of higher quality.

When it comes to selling distilled alcoholic drinks, there is indeed a wide range of available customers. In essence, our target market can’t be restricted to just a group of people, but all those who drink alcohol and those who would want to try out spirits and whiskey et al. One thing is certain; our distilled alcoholic drinks will not be sold to people who are under aged. In view of gce coursework, that, we have conducted our market research and cover we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in demonstration essay business to engage in master s thesis front cover wholesale distribution and to gcse retail a wide range of distilled alcoholic drinks to the following groups of people; Corporate Executives Government Officials Business People Celebrities Military Men and Women Sports Men and Women (with the exemption of master, under – age) Students (with the exemption of under – age) Tourists Every adult in the neighborhood where our distilled alcoholic drinks will be sold. Our Competitive Advantage. Although we are set out to establish a standard distillery plan in research Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts whose products will be sold throughout the United States of s thesis, America and Canada, but that those not stop us from setting up smaller (micro – distilleries) across major cities so as to bring our brands closer to locals. This is part of the gce coursework, competitive advantage that we are bringing into the market.

Another competitive advantage that we have is the vast experience of our management team, we have people on board who are highly experienced and understands how to grow business from the scratch to becoming a national phenomenon. So also the wide varieties of spirits and whiskeys et al that we produce, our large national distribution network and of course our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for the business. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we produce a wide range of distilled drinks with different flavors so as to master give our customers various options. Gce Coursework. Distillery Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the distillery industry in s thesis cover both the United States of America and Canada and compare essay we are going to go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to master front cover sell a wide range of distilled alcoholic products to a wide range of customers. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will generate income by gce coursework selling the s thesis front, following distilled alcoholic products; Whisky Spirit coolers Single Malt Vodka Absinthe Gin Rum Fruit Liqueurs Eaux de Vie Apple Brandy Cocktail Bitters Wild Blueberry Basic ethyl alcohol Cranberry Liqueur. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and abortion also some of the master front, assumptions readily available on gcse coursework, the field. Below are the sales projections that we were able to s thesis come up with for the first three years of gce coursework, operations; N.B : This projection is done based on master s thesis front, what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and the arrival of and euthanasia coursework, a competitor in same location as ours within the period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.

Distillery Business Plan Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. S Thesis. Before choosing a location for dictionary plural, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC and master s thesis also the kind of distilled drinks to produce, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for compare on rap and rock, us to front be able to be able to penetrate the available market of those who consume distilled drinks. We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per time and essay also for our products to favorable compete with other leading brands in the United States of America and master cover Canada. We hired experts who have good understanding of the distillery industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in demonstration essay the United States of America and Canada. In other to continue to be in master s thesis business and essay education in today's grow, we must continue to master s thesis sell our products to do annotated bibliography research paper the available market which is why we will go all out to master s thesis empower or sales and gce coursework marketing team to deliver our corporate sales goals. In summary, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to sell our distilled alcoholic drinks; Introduce our distilled alcoholic drinks brand by sending introductory letters to residence, alcohol merchants and other stakeholders both in the United States of America and Canada Open our distillery plant with a party so as to master s thesis cover capture the attention of residence who are our first targets Engage in road show in targeted communities from time to compare and contrast on rap and rock time to sell our products Advertise our products in community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business and products on master front, yellow pages ads (local directories) Leverage on the internet to promote our distilled alcoholic brands Engage in direct marketing and abortion sales Encourage the use of Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Distillery Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our distillery plant is a standard one with a wide range of products that can favorably compete with other leading brands, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for all our products and brand.

We are going to explore all available means to promote Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC has a long term plan of master s thesis cover, opening micro distilleries in various locations all around the research, United States of America and Canada which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts before venturing out. As a matter of front, fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is and contrast essay not solely for selling our products but to also effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and master front cover magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on thesis plural, strategic locations all around major cities in the United States of America and Canada Engage in road show from time to master time in gce coursework targeted communities Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where we intend getting customers to start patronizing our products. Ensure that all our staff members wear our customized clothes, and all our official cars and distribution vans are customized and well branded. Our Pricing Strategy. When it comes to pricing for products such as whiskies and spirits, there are two sides to the coin. We are aware of the pricing trend in master s thesis the distillery industry which is why we have decided to gce coursework produce products for both high – end customers and regular consumers of distilled spirits / whiskies et al. Master S Thesis. In view of that, our prices will conform to what is obtainable in the industry but will ensure that within the first 6 to 12 months our products are sold a little bit below the average prices of various distilled alcoholic brands in demonstration the United States of America.

We have put in cover place business strategies that will help us run on low profits for a period of 6 months; it is a way of encouraging people to buy into our brands. At Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. Gce Coursework. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Distillery Business Plan Start – Up Expenditure (Budget) Starting a standard distillery is indeed a capital intensive business.

This is so because the amount required to set – up a distillery is not a piecemeal. The bulk of the start – up capital will be sent on leasing or acquiring a facility and also in purchasing the distillery equipment. S Thesis Front. Aside from that, you are not expected to spend much except for paying of your employees and demonstration utility bills. This is the master s thesis cover, key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Massachusetts $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and demonstration essay permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300.

Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of front cover, Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Business Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at essay is important in today's society, a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at master s thesis front cover, $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for construction of gce coursework, a standard distillery $100,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (raw materials and s thesis cover packaging materials et al) $80,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for distillery equipment $100,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase of distribution vans $100,000 The cost for thesis, the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000.

The cost of master s thesis front, Launching a Website $600 The cost for our opening party $10,000 Miscellaneous $10,000. We would need an estimate of $1.2M to education successfully set up our distillery plant in Bay – Orleans, Massachusetts. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for the first 3 month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC is a family business that is owned and financed by Mark Harrison Clay and Family.

They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is master front cover why he has decided to restrict the abortion gcse, sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings and s thesis front cover sell of stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank. And Contrast On Rap And Rock. N.B: We have been able to s thesis cover generate about $500,000 (Personal savings $400,000 and demonstration soft loan from family members $100,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $700,000 from our bank. All the papers and s thesis cover document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from gce coursework, now our account will be credited with the amount.

Distillery Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of master, loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. Do Annotated Paper. If any of these factors is missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the business close shop. Happy Life® Distillery (Plant), LLC will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis, we will continue to improvise with our products and also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on master front cover, their performance for a period of five years or more.

We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is paper well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at master s thesis cover, the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for thesis, business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and construction of distillery plant: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of master s thesis, employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – wholesale suppliers / merchants: In Progress.

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SaaS Valuations: How to Value a SaaS Business in 2017. This article is part of master, our Valuation by Business Model series, in dictionary, which we provide you with information on what makes your particular business model unique when it comes to valuation. S Thesis? For more in-depth reading on valuation, see our post How to Value a Website or Internet Business . Software as a Service (SaaS) is a unique and growing industry, and one that requires special considerations when it comes time to essay selling. As the master s thesis market-leading advisor for SaaS business sales, the plural team at FE International answers questions every day about the best practices of selling a SaaS business and which SaaS metrics should be measured. In this post, we leverage our experience and s thesis cover insights from more than 50 of our SaaS sales to take a deep dive into SaaS valuation and salability, providing the definitive resource on essay university education selling a SaaS business. Are you interested in selling your SaaS business?

Fill out this short form and s thesis get a confidential valuation. How to value a SaaS business is university is important society perhaps one of the master front cover hottest and most ambiguous debates among small business entrepreneurs, investors and dictionary advisors at the moment. Master Front? The debate ultimately distils down to whether a multiple of revenue or earnings should be applied to on rap the business and, correspondingly, what that multiple should actually be. Stories of wildly high revenue multiples for unicorn SaaS businesses can seem at odds with the modest earnings multiples for smaller SaaS businesses, which serves to confuse the information in the marketplace. So which one is right? The answer is both, but they are entirely different investment propositions. The difference between the two situations comes down to master s thesis front cover the size and growth of the thesis businesses in question, as we explore in depth below. Most small businesses valued at under $5M are valued using a multiple of seller discretionary earnings ( SDE or sometimes also called seller discretionary cash flow). SDE is the profit left to master s thesis the business owner once all costs of goods sold and critical (i.e. non-discretionary) operating expenses have been deducted from gross income. Demonstration Essay? Crucially, any owner salary can be added back to the profit number too. More easily it is front cover described as:

SDE is used for small business valuation to do annotated bibliography paper demonstrate the s thesis cover true underlying earnings power of the business. Most small businesses are owner-operated and somewhat owner-reliant and therefore have an associated owner salary and expenses. The owner is likely to essay pay themselves a salary for the work and pay a number of personal items through the business for tax efficiency. These are acceptable addbacks to reflect the true earnings power of the business. The situation changes though as businesses grow larger. In bigger companies, there are more employees and more management personnel. Similarly, the ownership structure tends to master s thesis cover fragment with several shareholders who typically play a less active role in the business, often hiring a general manager to gce coursework oversee operations. In this situation, any owner compensation or discretionary expenses should be reflected back into the business to master front show its true earnings power. In this case, a new benchmark of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and compare on rap amortization (EBITDA) is employed. In acquisitions companies with over $5M in value, EBITDA multiples are almost exclusively used throughout the industry.

For most businesses, the valuation benchmark debate stops there. Either SDE or EBITDA is considered the master s thesis front best proxy for the business’ future cash flow, and is therefore the basis of its valuation. For SaaS companies, however, the dictionary EBITDA being generated today – which could be zero – is not always a good proxy for future potential earnings. This is because growing SaaS businesses make significant up-front and sunk investments in growth, which are all expensed in current EBITDA. Owing to their recurring revenue model, assuming customers stay with the business, the profit in the future will expand significantly as the business matures and spends less on these items. Measuring revenue makes sense for growing SaaS valuation, buts it’s very important to note that this valuation philosophy is entirely based on g rowth. Front? If the bibliography research SaaS business doesn’t grow then the revenue isn’t there to support the forecast profit in the future, which is what the valuation is actually based on. So what does this all mean for your SaaS business? The test for SDE vs EBITDA vs Revenue is therefore:

Is the business reliant upon me? Are revenues growing less than 50%+ YoY? Does the business generate $2M revenue per year? If you answered yes to any or all of the above, your SaaS business is one for a valuation using SDE. Investors will appraise your business based on this benchmark alone and apply a multiple to arrive at the final business valuation. If you answer no , EBITDA or revenue might be more appropriate. This leads to the next question, how to front cover decide the multiple? The multiple is one of the most important pieces of the university education in today's society equation and is affected by dozens of factors related to the business. Cover? Those factors span a wide variety of financial, traffic and operational aspects, but ultimately boil down to the transferability, sustainability and scalability of the business. Any operational or market factor that directly or indirectly impacts these core drivers will influence the multiple. At FE International, we use a proprietary internal valuation scorecard to derive the value of an internet business.

We’ve discussed this in depth in our post on how to value an online business. Essay University Education? Here’s a sample of the types of questions to consider: The above is short summary of the master front questions and factors involved in a full SaaS business valuation. On Rap And Rock? At FE International for example, we typically look at s thesis cover about 80-100 issue areas before arriving at a firm valuation. Ok… But How Much Is My SaaS Business Worth? SaaS businesses typically fall within the 2.5x – 4.0x annual profit (SDE) range. This is quite a large range. If your business is making $100K in profit per year, that’s a valuation difference of $250K vs. $400K, which is no small sum of money. Dictionary Thesis Plural? How do you know where your business is in that range? As we saw above, the multiple can be determined by a large number of SaaS metrics.

In the initial assessment it is useful to filter these variables into a few that have the most influence : Age of the business: A SaaS business with a longer track record demonstrates to front cover a buyer that it has proven sustainability and is also easier to predict in terms of future profit. And Contrast On Rap And Rock? Businesses that are 2 years old are the preferred entry point, and at 3+ years they start to receive more of a multiple premium. Younger businesses are still sellable, albeit to a slightly smaller buyer audience who have a higher risk tolerance. Owner involvement: Part of the appeal of running an internet business is the potentially passive nature of the master cover income it brings. Businesses that require relatively little time (e.g.

5-10 hours per week) and have a team in place are more attractive than those that require a lot of owner work. Outsourcing can help here (see more on that below). The other dimension to this is the do annotated technical involvement of the owner. Master Cover? If the buyer must replace an owner that is performing a highly skilled role, this will either increase the replacement cost or put off non-technical buyers, which reduces overall demand for the business. Education Is Important In Today's Society? Trends: Few people hope to buy a SaaS business that is declining, and correspondingly few owners want to sell a SaaS business that is growing rapidly. The key is to sell a business that is trending consistently and, ideally, modestly upward . Naturally, the faster the business is growing, the more the front multiple will stretch toward the premium end. Churn: It’s well documented that customer metrics are of vital importance for abortion and euthanasia, SaaS business owners and consequently they are of great interest to business buyers. Churn, lifetime value (LTV) and customer acquisition cost (CAC) are keenly eyed by investors when appraising the customer base and by virtue the master s thesis quality of the business’ revenue. Demonstration? We will explore all of these different SaaS valuation metrics in greater detail later on. The diagram below should give you a good feel of where your business could be:

While the cover general valuation drivers above are a key consideration , it’s important to note that every business is unique and each SaaS business has its own merits and draw backs. As the valuation process goes deeper, more business model-specific factors come into play when determining the final multiple. Investors looking to buy a SaaS business are looking for points of strength and differentiation. To determine the points of strength and differentiation investors will often look at a few key metrics. Below we explore the most commonly evaluated metrics in SaaS valuation. Churn is a significant driver of valuation because it touches upon all the abortion coursework key factors that impact the perceived future cash flows of a SaaS business.

Its importance of this SaaS metric should not be underestimated when you consider the long-term impact on s thesis cover the business. University Is Important In Today's? Taking the below example of two companies with 5% and 20% annual churn, the corresponding revenue after 10 years is master front cover markedly different. Provided there is a consistent flow of new customers at an acceptable cost of acquisition rate, low churn will allow recurring revenues to grow, improving the growth rate and reducing the risk of value loss over the long term. A high churn rate has all the inverse effects and can also say to abortion and euthanasia gcse buyers that the product does not adequately fit the customer’s needs, sits in a market with limited demand or there are stronger competing products. This would imply that the product requires further development at their expense. The importance of churn is widely accepted. However, it is less easy to find consensus on the acceptable rate of monthly revenue churn for small SaaS businesses. Here the line again blurs between the smaller, SDE-valued SaaS and the larger revenue-valued, VC-funded SaaS. Master? Bessemer Venture Partners, an investor in VC-funded SaaS businesses, says an research paper, acceptable churn rate for these is in the 5 – 7% range annually (0.42 – 0.58% monthly). This is also supported by Pacific Crest’s Private SaaS Company Survey that shows roughly 70% of surveyed large SaaS companies had annual churn in master s thesis cover, the 10% range, with 75% of those at 5% or under.

Contrast this with GrooveHQ’s SaaS Small Business Survey, which profiled 712 smaller SaaS businesses with an average MRR of essay university is important, $10.5K and found the average monthly churn rate was 3.2% (annualized that is a 32.2% churn rate). Master Front Cover? Similarly, Open Startups sampled 12 companies with an average $18.9K MRR and found a median monthly customer churn rate of bibliography research, 5.4% (46% annually) and monthly revenue churn of s thesis cover, 11.2% (75% annually). So why the substantial difference? It comes down in large part to which customer segment the business is targeting. To begin with, most SaaS businesses focus on servicing the needs of small to mid-size businesses (SMB). Small businesses have lower demands and gce coursework less sophisticated needs, so this is an easier point of master front cover, entry than enterprise-grade software. The challenge though is that smaller customers tend to have higher churn rates. Generally speaking, SMB customers tend to alternate SaaS products more regularly because switching costs are low and are more likely to essay education go out of business.

Tomasz Tunguz from VC firm Redpoint sums it up well: “In practice, churn rates vary by customer segment. Startups serving SMBs tend to front operate with higher monthly churn, somewhere between 2.5% and 5%+, because SMBs go out of demonstration essay, business with greater frequency and tend to master s thesis front cover be acquired and managed through less retentive channels, e.g. self-service. In the mid-market, which I’d define by average customer revenue of between $10k and $250k loosely speaking, the do annotated research churn rates I’ve seen are between 1% and 2% per month. Enterprise companies, those with customers paying more than $250k per year are typically closer to 1%. Cover? As the spend per customer grows, startups can afford to invest significantly more in retaining the customer, hence the improving rates.” This latter point is also vital to the difference in abortion, churn between cash-rich and cash-poor SaaS businesses. The cash on hand that enterprise-level and VC-backed SaaS companies have to spend on master s thesis front sales and client retention personnel versus what is available to smaller, owner-operated SME-facing SaaS businesses is not comparable at all. So what is an acceptable churn rate for smaller SaaS businesses? We took data from and euthanasia gcse a sample of the last 25 SaaS sales at FE International ranging from $50,000 to $2,000,000 in sale value across a variety of niches in both B2B and s thesis cover B2C. We found a monthly customer churn range of 1.0% to 11.0%, with an average of 4.7% (annualized 44.1%). Interestingly, the higher churn businesses tended to be those in essay, very competitive niches and those aimed at shorter term or seasonal usage (e.g. Master S Thesis? recruitment).

Our findings map similarly to Tunguz’s observations of customer churn, which he thinks to be 3-7% for SME-focused SaaS while lower for mid-market and enterprise grade: So where to end up? Higher churn is almost a fact of life for smaller SaaS businesses. The focus for thesis plural, investors should in part be on master s thesis front cover improving the churn rate where they can (more on that below) but more fully placed on customer acquisition to replace those lost clients. 2) Customer Aquisition Cost (CAC) and Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV) The Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC) is the total marketing and sales cost to thesis plural acquire one additional customer. Obviously, the lower this number is the better because that would mean you are spending less to acquire customers. However, there is no “golden” number when it comes to s thesis CAC because each SaaS business is going to be different. Do Annotated? To make an apples to s thesis cover apples comparison you will need to incorporate an additional metric – Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV). The Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV) is the education average amount of revenue that you earn from a customer throughout the s thesis front time they are paying for your service. The higher your CLTV is the more valuable each new customer is to your business.

Just like with CAC, there is no standard CLTV number. Gce Coursework? Once again, the s thesis number will vary depending on compare essay and rock your business model, market, competition and a multitude of s thesis, other factors. In order to truly get the most use out of these two metrics you’ll need to compare them to each other. In doing so, you will get a ratio that will quickly tell you if you are making more revenue per customer than you are spending to acquire that customer. Gce Coursework? This allows you to measure the return on investment of master s thesis, your marketing efforts and gce coursework determine if your growth strategy is working. The general rule of thumb is that a CLTV/CAC ratio of 3 is ideal for most SaaS businesses. This will allow for enough cushion to account for a dip in the CLTV or an increase in the CAC and master cover still be able to generate a healthy profit margin. In small, self-funded SaaS businesses, the temptation is to sell reduced annual plans to increase top-line revenue and improve cash flow to essay on rap reinvest into growth.

While in many situations this is master necessary, from a valuation perspective it will hold the bibliography paper business back. The same goes for master cover, selling lifetime plans – these are a big no-no when it comes to demonstration essay increasing the value of master s thesis, a SaaS business. SaaS metrics of revenue, in order of value to a buyer: This is often the opposite of what an owner of a business will look to do, especially when looking for growth capital. Even if it slows growth, focusing on dictionary plural selling monthly plans is key to achieving high valuations. We would usually value MRR around two times higher than equivalent revenue from lifetime plans, so this can often outweigh the master front benefits of the short-term cash flow boost. The average SaaS business we sold in 2015 had a 4:1 ratio of MRR to gce coursework ARR – this is an master cover, ideal mix to aim for to maximize valuation.

Generally, these products will have annual plans priced 10-20% less than monthly plans and years of ARR churn data. SaaS products with a higher ratio of annual plans would see a lower valuation as the and euthanasia coursework revenues are less predictable. Other Factors to Consider When Valuing a SaaS Business. Aside from the SaaS metrics that we just touched on, there are various other important factors that need to be considered in the valuation process. We took data from the last 50 SaaS businesses sold at FE International , ranging from $20,000 to $2,000,000, and pulled out some of the common threads of premium SaaS valuations. Acknowledging the master s thesis front cover higher rate of churn that smaller, SME-facing SaaS businesses experience, customer acquisition is understandably a focal point for evaluating the longevity of these businesses. If the business is losing 30-50% of its customers per year, the only option is to gce coursework add a significant number of new customers each month to s thesis front cover counteract the dictionary plural loss (at least in the short to medium term). The customer acquisition channels of a SaaS business are thus of great importance to investors.

Buyers tend to evaluate these in terms of concentration , competition and conversion . ? Concentration . In our experience at FE International, a premium SaaS business will acquire customers from a multitude of acquisition channels, be it organic search, affiliate, paid or otherwise. Having a diversity of channels not only reduces the dependency on one channel but also proves its monetization in multiple ways. Master Front? SaaS businesses that have successful paid and organic channels benefit from this premium with buyers. Naturally, many smaller SaaS businesses build their customer acquisition from content marketing before exploring paid and affiliate channels. It can be a worthwhile experiment to do annotated bibliography trial these 3-6 months ahead of a sale to see whether they yield positive ROI. Not only master front cover, will this improve the value of the business’ earnings (and thus the SDE for demonstration essay, valuation) but it will demonstrate to buyers that the business can be monetized in cover, multiple channels. ? Competition . Demonstration? The defensiveness of master s thesis front cover, each acquisition channel is of interest to gce coursework investors when evaluating their strength. If the front business has a strong backlink profile and ranks well for a high number of relevant keywords this is considered a strong, defendable platform for demonstration essay, organic customer acquisition.

Two good examples of this include Sifter and Restaurant Engine, both of which have used content marketing and SEO to s thesis front cover build relevant search terms for abortion and euthanasia gcse, their products. On the cover flip side, if the business is engaged in price-wars in dictionary, paid search with competitors, this is understandably considered a weaker acquisition channel. Search “project management software,” for example, to s thesis front cover see ads for several different well-funded companies competing for the term. A smaller SaaS business trying to outbid in that niche will suffer a short-lived PPC strategy. ? Conversion . The ultimate appraisal of customer acquisition channels are the associated cost and conversion attached to research each. Here the conversion to trial ratio and conversion to paid ratio are carefully eyed by master s thesis, investors, as well as the university society associated customer acquisition costs. To summarize, a premium SaaS business is one that has multiple customer acquisition channels with high defensiveness and solid conversion metrics for each. Eventually all software needs development to keep up with customer requirements or to master s thesis cover grow the business further.

A product’s development roadmap can be dictated by a number of things, including customers, competition or even the gce coursework owner’s ambition. While every SaaS business is unique in its development requirements, when the business comes to market, it’s generally best practice to have the product in a high point of its development life-cycle, in s thesis front, other words, not requiring a major update any time soon. This gives the new owner some runway ahead of any major development and provides some comfort that the seller hasn’t simply given up on the business and is passing over ownership at gce coursework a time when the product needs care and attention. In the diagram above, it’s the equivalent of selling at point A, where the software is maturing, and point B where the master front software has aged too much and is in need of development to promote further sales. Essay Education In Today's? Carefully planning your exit time is key to eliciting a premium multiple from buyers. As mentioned briefly ( see: general factors ), the amount of owner involvement in the business and particularly the nature of the work can be a sensitive valuation factor for SaaS businesses. At first this might seem counter-intuitive to a SaaS entrepreneur. More technical input from the owner (i.e. development) suggests a sophisticated product, which implies unique IP and a high-quality product. All of the above could be true, but a new owner still needs to either be able to do the same work themselves or pay for someone else (at high cost).

Factoring this into the SDE will ultimately lower the valuation. One might be tempted to instead pursue buyers that can readily resume the master cover same responsibilities themselves (i.e. purely seasoned SaaS business owners) but this can reduce the pool of available buyers significantly. To put it into context, of the last 25 SaaS sales at FE International, 65% of them sold to abortion and euthanasia gcse coursework new owners that would describe themselves as non-technical . SaaS businesses that therefore have the burden of development work on reliably outsourced contractors will benefit from a perceived easier transfer of ownership and a greater pool of buyers as a result . When I sold BromBone, buyers would highlight that its development and customer support were already outsourced. The only role they needed to replace was my marketing outreach, which meant it was an easier business to master take on. Eventually we sold to a non-technical buyer for a great valuation. Plural? – Chad DeShon, Founder of BromBone. Competition in the niche is of great interest to master front cover buyers when evaluating a SaaS business. Clearly the level of competition is important to understand for any business purchase, whether an AdSense blog, an ecommerce business or lead generation website. In SaaS though it becomes of acute interest because of the generally higher number of VC-funded players in the industry and the high development costs associated with the business model. A smaller SaaS business in a highly competitive niche will tend to find itself under-funded and unable to compare and contrast essay compete with the development efforts and master s thesis front cover features of better-funded, VC-backed SaaS companies. A good example of this is 5pm, a small SaaS operating competing against huge players like Basecamp and Asana. What Can You Do to Increase the Value of Your SaaS Business Before a Sale?

An exit strategy for abortion and euthanasia gcse, any business is crucial before a sale. You can add hundreds of thousands of dollars of value to cover a business by taking the right steps before a sale. Naturally not all the valuation factors are addressable (e.g. competition in the niche) but there are a number of strategic moves you can make to increase the value of your SaaS business before a sale. Below we discuss six key topics to think about in the run up to the sale. With churn such an important aspect of SaaS valuation, it’s a key element to try to reduce ahead of coming to market. There are many ways to reduce churn and a full exploration of these is thesis well beyond the scope of this article, but below we’ve highlighted some of the best writing on the topic: Pigford discusses a suite of tactics that helped reduce churn at front cover Baremetrics, including, controversially, blocking the ability for gce coursework, users to front cover self-cancel. Dictionary Thesis Plural? A highly interesting read. Turnbull discusses an interesting, analytics-based approach to reducing churn by analytically detecting when a customer is about to cancel their account and pro-actively step in and try to prevent it. A number of larger SaaS companies talk about the importance of master s thesis front, on-boarding, and Price’s authoritative post discussed in detail the refinements that SaaS owners can make to customer on-boarding, including feature education and upselling.

2) Outsource Development and Support. As touched upon in the valuation drivers above, there is both a ‘passivity premium’ and a non-technical premium that can be attached to SaaS businesses that have effectively and reliably outsourced development and customer support. Based on FE International’s transaction experience, outsourcing these two components can lead to a multiple premium of anywhere between 0.5x – 0.75x . It can also reduce the buyer’s assumed owner replacement cost which lifts the business’ earnings for multiplication and thus the valuation even higher. This double-win means that effective outsourcing is demonstration essay one of the greatest levers of exit value for SaaS business owners. [Tweet “Effective outsourcing is one of the greatest levers of exit value for SaaS business owners.”] The focus here should be on s thesis effective and proven outsourcing. A haphazard attempt to move customer support to gce coursework an unproven call center in the Philippines will not be regarded favorably. We will cover some best practices on outsourcing later on in this article. 3) Secure Intellectual Property (IP)

It might seem obvious, but a surprising number of front, business owners fail to properly secure their intellectual property ahead of a sale, which can have detrimental effects on the transaction later on. Securing IP is very important for SaaS businesses, particularly for transactions of $500K where the cash check being written starts to become significant. Ideally this should have been pursued in the early stages of the business’ development but there is no harm in retroactively applying for a trademark ahead of a business sale. You can do this through the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Trademarks tend to be easier, shorter and less expensive to apply for than patents. Securing IP doesn’t just stop at gce coursework trademark filing. Any individual that was involved in writing code or developing the master front product should be asked to sign an IP assignment for their work. This is particularly relevant to contractors hired from freelancer marketplaces as well as any other third-party company used. This is a standard due diligence request for larger ($500K+) larger SaaS sales but is worth securing right from the outset on any sized business. A well-documented, annotated and research paper tested source code is a distinguishing factor of master s thesis front, premium-valued SaaS businesses.

Particularly on the upper end ($500K+), well-documented code is almost a must-have for plural, investors that are looking to s thesis cover scale the business into 7-figures and beyond. It can be a deal-killing issue and is one that is readily avoidable through adequate preparation ahead of coming to market. Most developers are very competent at code documentation, but there are some useful practices here and here. As we looked at above in the product lifecycle analysis, where the education is important in today's product is at in its development cycle when it comes to market is important to investors and master s thesis front influential on the exit multiple. Business owners plotting a sale should think about planning their next major upgrade 3-6 months ahead of going to market . This has a number of short and medium-term benefits. First, it brings some immediate additional earnings to the current owner, assuming a positive uptake and increase in do annotated bibliography research paper, trials for master, new customers. Thesis? Second, it lifts the earnings figure (the SDE) which forms the front basis of the sale valuation. Third, assuming a positive take up, it will creative positive customer feedback and potentially PR as well. Essay University Education In Today's? Lastly, it means the new owner doesn’t immediately have to rush to commit $50K into the next round of development, which means they will pay a greater sum upfront upon closing.

Tempting as it can be for some business owners, launching an unprecedented sale of annual plans to book a large amount of revenue ahead of a sale is not a wise strategy. Sellers have been known to master front do this to inflate the valuation ahead of a sale and to generate additional cash. Unfortunately, all buyers see through this strategy and either discount the relevant months or steer clear of the sale entirely. Demonstration? Unserved portions of packages sold on annual plans are often rebated to cover a new owner, so this is a pointless exercise. The key to a successful exit is to continue to is important in today's society run the master business in a similar fashion in the months before and during the and rock sale. If a sale is cover seasonal (e.g. Black Friday), that is an acceptable event to run a discount. If it’s outside of normal proceedings, its best to avoid discounting altogether. Salability: How Attractive is do annotated paper Your SaaS Business? Ahead of going to market, you’ll need to look at the salability of your SaaS business, or rather, how attractive it looks to buyers AND how attractive it is to own . Master? This is broader than just the fundamentals discussed thus far, it comes down in large part to the operational setup . Here are some tips to help you improve operations efficiently and effectively: You’ll need to coursework have detailed financials for master s thesis front, your business in order to and contrast essay and rock prepare for a sale.

Accounting applications, such as QuickBooks, can be a big help, but make sure your accounting is up to date – and keep it that way as you enter the sale process. Details are key, and so is organization. Serious buyers are unlikely to sift through months of master s thesis front, financial records and tax returns to determine whether the investment is worth it. Luckily, a good broker can assist you in this process. You should also be prepared to give prospective buyers any analytics you have for past and current ad campaigns, email data and website traffic. Your business doesn’t operate itself, even if you have a relatively passive business model. Prospective buyers will need to know the responsibilities involved in your operation, so document all of your daily, weekly and gce coursework monthly processes and procedures. This will make the transition faster and easier for both of you. Moreover, buyers may be more inclined to pay a premium for businesses with well-documented operations, so this step could easily translate to a higher profit for you. Cover? There are some useful software applications for writing standard operating procedures (SOPs) quickly like SweetProcess and some useful guidance online about writing best in bibliography research paper, class documentation.

Removing myself from the business and getting it to a point where it could run on “autopilot” was a goal from the start. S Thesis? So I focused a lot on writing detailed procedures, and refining those over gce coursework time with the s thesis front help of my talented team. We also used software—both our own and other software tools—to streamline much of the processes in the service. – Brian Casel, Founder of Restaurant Engine. As covered in the valuation discussion above, when it comes to SaaS, metrics are vital to convincing buyers of the strength of the business. Seasoned investors in bibliography, the space will review MRR, churn, LTV, CAC, retention and your cash burn rate closely.

Not sure what those first three are? We put together a handy cheat sheet to help you understand: The good news is you don’t need to calculate these yourself. The SaaS analytics industry has a number of great solutions for business owners including Baremetrics (for Stripe), ChartMogul (for Stripe, BrainTree, Recurly and front cover PayPal) and FirstOfficer (for Stripe) to name a few. Make sure to and contrast on rap integrate these with your merchant processor well in advance of a sale, to capture the relevant historical data before going to market. Note: ChartMogul has a useful tool for master front cover, loading past data too! The prospective buyer for your business is not necessarily looking for a job, so if you’re able to essay reliably outsource tasks to agencies, contractors or virtual assistants, do it. Online businesses that are more passive in nature tend to sell at a higher price than those that involve more work on the owner’s part.

Remember the ‘power of passivity’: it’s a potentially huge value driver for the sale of your business. Owners who can successfully remove themselves from the day-to-day of their business often find that they benefit from a higher valuation once they’re ready to master front sell. Virtual assistants can be very useful in this regard and we’ve discussed effective hiring and plural delegation here. If you’ve done the legwork developing a new feature and creating a marketing strategy around it, it can be worthwhile holding off on releasing before a sale. The addition of front cover, a brand new product or revenues will need 3-6 months of and euthanasia, history to s thesis front move a valuation higher (this is demonstration not unique to s thesis front cover SaaS businesses).

A smarter strategy is often to and euthanasia use this as leverage to gain stronger offers off the existing valuation and get a higher cash consideration upfront. This can often offset the perceived lost profit from master front cover delaying the demonstration essay release of the new product or upgrade. With the business primed for sale and a solid valuation in mind, it’s now time to turn to your exit options. SaaS business owners who to wish sell, generally speaking, have four avenues available to master s thesis cover them: Marketplace – Through networks like BizBuySell or BizQuest, owners can list their business for sale, similar to classified ads or Craigslist. Demonstration? Auction – See which buyer will bid the s thesis cover highest through this platform. Broker – Hire experts to handle the details and get the highest price on your behalf. Direct – Take the bibliography research cold approach and master front handle the details yourself. Each approach has its pros and cons. Let us break them down for you:

Selling your SaaS business on a marketplace means preparing information on your business and posting a listing in demonstration, order to generate interest from buyers that peruse the listings. A popular marketplace is BizBuySell. Low cost – You can typically add a listing to a marketplace for just a few hundred dollars. Distribution – You’ll get a lot of eyes on your posting if you list on a large network with a good reputation. Low demand – Marketplaces serve a high volume of listings daily and master front cover standing out from the crowd is often a problem. Most buyers perusing the listings look for listings with brokers (who use them as well) as they know the listings are likely pre-vetted. At FE International, our average listing gets only 18 enquiries from essay university is important in today's third party platforms, from our own network it’s 300+. Process – Be prepared to put in work if you’re listing your business on a marketplace. You’ll need to s thesis front vet qualified buyers, send non-disclosure agreements, negotiate offers, run due diligence, prepare contracts, facilitate transfer of funds/assets, and answer any questions prospects may have about your operation. In other words, there’s a lot of university education in today's, room for error if you don’t have experience selling businesses.

Time – The average marketplace sale takes six to nine months to complete. S Thesis Front Cover? Moreover, the university education is important sale process can be time consuming and distract from your day-to-day operations. Security – A marketplace approach means potentially revealing sensitive information about your business into the public domain and/or to unqualified buyers which may use it against your business. Selling your SaaS business in a marketplace can be a good idea if you have prior experience in the sale process, expertise in SaaS metrics and the time to carry it through. If you don’t, this option is time and work intensive. This option solves some of the problems you’d encounter in the marketplace, but not all. An auction allows you to distribute your listing to a wide network within a fixed time period. It’s common to sell domains and businesses valued at less than $5,000 via an auction platform. Large distribution – You could potentially get thousands of views on your listing if you sell through a large network. Fixed timeframe – You can choose how long buyers get to bid on master s thesis front cover your business, whether a week or a month, which gives some certainty over timing assuming a successful sale. Inexperienced buyers – Many people looking to essay university education acquire a business for the first time do so through auctions.

Be prepared to do some hand-holding during the s thesis front cover sale process, particularly when it comes to due diligence and closing. Value – Many auction buyers are looking for businesses valued at less than $5,000. The typical multiple for sales via auction is 0.5-1.5x, so you could end up with a selling price for dictionary, your SaaS that’s substantially lower than what your business is actually worth. Process – As above, you are responsible for running the process end-to-end. This is master cover likely going to take up quite a lot of your time. Fees – Platforms charge a fixed listing and success fee of around 10% once the deal has closed. This is abortion gcse more than a marketplace fee and about the same as a broker, only you’ll get little support. Security – A marketplace approach means potentially revealing sensitive information about your business into the public domain and/or to unqualified buyers which may use it against your business. If you’re trying to quickly sell a small business and have some experience in the arena, an auction could be a suitable option as long as you’re satisfied with a lower valuation and master cover less secure (more public) process. Using a broker to sell your business is the best bet if your SaaS business is plural worth more than $20,000 or if you need expert help managing the details of a sale and master s thesis front getting the best value.

A good broker will facilitate the gce coursework whole sale process, including developing marketing materials, contacting prospective buyers, negotiating offers, completing due diligence, drafting the contract and coordinating the transfer of assets or funds through escrow. Additionally, a broker can help you obtain an accurate valuation of your business and advise on front the best terms for your specific case. Large distribution – You’ll benefit from gce coursework a broker’s network of s thesis front, qualified buyers who have experience in business sales. This means you’ll more efficiently find a vetted buyer, and demonstration essay the process itself will take less time. Full service – There are a lot of front cover, steps in the sale process, and compare on rap and rock a broker can see you through from front start to finish. Bibliography Research? Once you provide the initial business information, your broker can carry out negotiation, due diligence, contract drafting, and closing duties. This will save you a lot of master cover, time as a business owner. In Today's? Maximum value – Brokers have the experience to accurately value your business using market insight, previous deals and thorough evaluation of your SaaS metrics. They can help you weigh your offers and negotiate to s thesis front find your best deal. Security – reputable brokers will vet all buyers so that you only talk to those that have passed a qualifying process and have a serious interest in essay university, your business.

Brokers will have tried and s thesis cover tested processes and will use secure data rooms to ensure your IP, data and other key items are securely stored throughout. Upfront research – Working with buyers who know what they’re doing means that you’ll need to do some homework. Having organized, updated information on your business is essential to gce coursework a sale. Fees – Upon successful closing, a broker will charge between 10% and 15% of the final sale value – usually on a sliding scale as the price of the master s thesis front cover business increases. This fee will likely be offset by compare on rap, a higher valuation gained by selling through an expert and the time saved. In most cases, net proceeds – meaning the sale value minus broker fees – are higher than those obtained in master s thesis front cover, a marketplace, auction or direct sale. Here’s a good example of bibliography research paper, Tim Seidler who sold his business with FE International for s thesis, $100K more than he thought his business was worth. Using a broker is recommended if you don’t have experience selling or don’t have the time to invest in do annotated bibliography, the process. Moreover, this option will usually result in the maximum proceeds from your sale. Depending on the size of your business, a brokered sale takes between 4 and 8 weeks to complete.

You can read more about how the process works here. Three or four years ago there was no established secondary market for SaaS businesses. If you wanted to sell your software app you had to go through an auction site like Flippa and sell for 6 – 12 months earnings. These days you can sell through a broker for 3+ year’s earnings and have the process professionally managed.- Rob Walling, Co-Founder of master s thesis front, Drip. The final option is to handle the sale on your own. This means using your network and making cold calls or emails – usually to other business owners in your industry – to find potential buyers. No fees – A direct sale can cost you less than the other options if you’re able to find a buyer and close the sale. However, you’ll likely end up paying fees for legal advice. Cold outreach – Not many people enjoy conducting this approach to lead generation and for abortion gcse coursework, good reason.

Cold calling can take a lot of s thesis cover, time, has a low success rate and you also run the gce coursework risk of exposing sensitive information to the competition. Process – As with using a marketplace or auction, you’ll need to handle the s thesis front sale process from coursework start to finish. Master S Thesis Front? Speed – Direct sales can take anywhere from 3 to 24 months, with you doing all of the legwork. You may need to hire an accountant or assistant to do this on your behalf while you continue to run the business (in case the sale does not complete). Lower offers – many acquisitions by ‘strategic’ counter parties (e.g. competitors) are either at a low overall valuation or with an demonstration essay, underwhelming mix of s thesis front cover, cash versus equity. The cost of replication is often lower to a strategic than a non-strategic. Demonstration? Strategics often seem acquisitions to maximize opportunity costs, but that does not mean they will pay the market rate or offer a high cash consideration (be wary of s thesis, acqui-hires!) If you’re experienced or if you’ve already been approached by potential buyers, a direct sale might be a good option. However, you should still consider using a broker to run a competitive marketing process once you’ve secured a good lead as this can lead to greater execution certainty from that lead and a higher sale price.

Here’s a chart for easy reference of the pros and cons of each methods of gce coursework, sale. How Do I Determine What My SaaS Business is Worth? Now you know all about valuation, exit strategy and sale options for s thesis front, your SaaS business, the best way to gce coursework get a good sense on how much your business is worth is to speak a broker. They will be able to calculate your profit (SDE) accurately and advise on the multiple applicable based on their assessment of the business and previous transactions. A good broker will give you the best advice on exit strategy and timing, irrespective of whether this is in their short-term interest. Master S Thesis? The best advice might not be to sell right now, instead to do three things to lift the valuation and come back in 3-6 months with a more valuable business for sale. That’s a win for everybody. Are you interested in selling your SaaS business?

Fill out this short form and get a confidential valuation. Latest posts by Thomas Smale (see all) Walmart vs. Amazon: A Comparison of Affiliate #038; Fulfillment Programs - August 24, 2017 Amazon’s FBA Locks Out New Users Over The Holiday Season - October 14, 2016 Our 6th Birthday Giveaway! - August 12, 2016. Great article, Thomas. Very detailed use of real data here. Downloaded the cheat sheet as well, saves me searching for definitions every time! Thomas Smale says.

Thanks! Hope you find it helpful – if enough people like it we’ll look into adding/improving on it. Interesting to learn more about when SDE multiples are used. Do Annotated Bibliography Paper? I always heard about revenue multiples but it totally makes sense when it comes to a smaller business. Many Saas founds have unrealistic expectations of making billions from there 5k mrr app. Thomas Smale says. Thanks Shawn. Yes, there is master s thesis a lot of misinformation out there! Good information! Clearly well researched, and do annotated paper I always love an front, in-depth, well-researched article.

Great work! While not mentioned, Chargify also integrates with ChartMogul #128578; This was a very insightful post to a question that many of us founders wonder the answer to. Really good post – impressed by the quality of the listings your firm gets and the manner in which you handle them – congrats! Thomas Smale says. Thanks Dave – glad you found it useful and thanks for the kind words! Sandipp Vijj says. Comprehensive article.

Thank you ! Very nice article, good frameworks to structure the discussion. One thing potential sellers and do annotated bibliography buyers should know about front, SDE: “owner compensation” includes not only salary, bonus and retained profit, but also personal expenses run through the business — quite common for abortion and euthanasia, small business owners. Thomas Smale says. Hi Mark, yes this is true. We will always put together SDE numbers from what a seller provides to us as a raw P#038;L, so generally no need to do that yourself as usually just causes confusion. Many business owners (especially small businesses) never realise their business is master s thesis cover valuable as profits will often be close to zero when taking into account discretionary costs/owner compensation.

Guides, whitepapers, podcasts, articles, and downloadables on abortion gcse buying and selling online businesses.

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Air Pollution in Mexico City Essay Sample. General information about the problem: As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution. Some of them reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. Introduction of the problem: One of master them is Mexico City. Essay University Education Is Important In Today's Society. According to Forbes, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world. Industrial growth of the s thesis front cover city, population boom, which grew from 3 million in 1950 to 20 million today, and the proliferation of vehicles in the city contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality.

Narrowing down the problem: However, with the transportation proliferation contributing to about half of the essay city#8217;s total emissions, several solutions have to master, be considered in order to reduce the air pollution in gcse coursework, the city. Thesis statement: The government should practice legal regulations and favor the evolvement of environmentally friendly technology and fuel in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. II. Background. A. Identify the problem/ show that the problem exists: People suffer from various diseases and the environment is being damaged (research). B. What caused the problem: Air pollution is mainly caused by front cover vehicles. C. The effects of the problem: Air pollution can have serious consequences for the human health as well as severely damage the ecosystem. III.

Solution 1. Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to continue to enforce legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The air pollution has been noticeably decreased due to legal regulations and governmental programs like PIICA, PROAIRE and PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis. • As taxis are diminished, less harmful gas emissions are produced Disadvantages: • Taxis are convenient. • Taxi driver as a job. Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on telecommuting. • Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; • Is relatively inexpensive to implement; • Expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by do annotated offering them more flexibility in work and lifestyle. Disadvantages: • May incite legal issues between organization and employers • Lack of interaction with co-workers. • Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. Topic sentence: The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The research indicates that usage of hydrogen fuel will definitely decrease the front cover air pollution level. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasoline.

Advantages: • Reduction in air pollution due to zero emissions. • Hydrogen is abundant (renewable source) • Hydrogen is thesis plural expensive to produce. • Hydrogen refueling stations construction require big amounts of money VI. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in the world. Cover. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and and euthanasia gcse, global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to master s thesis, be taken in order to gce coursework, reduce the s thesis cover air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Air pollution in Mexico City.

As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from thesis, air pollution (Walsh, 1999). The level of air pollution in any city is a global concern. The reason is that air can travel freely from place to place; consequently, the polluted air from one city can travel to another. The polluted air has numerous negative consequences for human health and also severely damages the ecosystem. Some of the cities reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world.

One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, the cover Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world (Luck, 2008). The government and people have take measures in dictionary plural, order to reduce the air pollution in master s thesis, Mexico City before it is university in today's society too late. The government should practice legal regulations and favor the s thesis usage of gcse coursework hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. Mexico City is one of the world’s largest metropolitan areas, containing more than 20 million inhabitants, 3.5 million vehicles, and master s thesis cover, 35,000 industries (McKinley et al., 2005). More than 20% of Mexico’s entire population lives in its capital and in today's, more than 30 % of the country’s industrial output is master s thesis cover produced here (Edgerton et al., n. Abortion Gcse. d.). Although Mexico City is considered one of the world’s largest cities, it is still growing at a rate exceeding 3% annually. Master. Moreover, the number of essay vehicles daily traveling on its streets makes up more than three million (Edgerton, et al., n. d).

All the master s thesis cover factors listed above contribute to Mexico City’s poor air quality. Mexico City is a perfect example of one of the burgeoning cities that experience severe air pollution. The ozone concentration in gcse coursework, Mexico City is one of the highest in the world, being more than four times higher than the master front accepted norms. Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other harmful gases also exceed the and euthanasia gcse coursework Mexican health advisory level (Walsh, 1999). Nevertheless, comprehensive air quality management programs since 1990 have contributed to major reductions in the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide (Molina Molina, n. d.). Sulfur in s thesis, diesel fuel has been reduced from 0.5% to 0.05%. Many old buses and trucks of Mexico City were replaced by newer ones powered by compare and contrast more modern and cleaner engines. In addition, unleaded fuel was introduced at that time to make the vehicle emissions relatively cleaner (Edgerton et al, n. d.). Although the above measures contributed to a slight positive change in Mexico City’s air quality, serious air pollution problems still persist. The poor quality of front air is the result of several factors: emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, energy production, high dust levels due to dictionary plural, local constructions, population growth (Molina Molina, n. d.). Those human demands on the ecosystem are changing the landscape with important atmospheric consequences as well as causing threat to human health.

People suffer from various diseases starting from insignificant ones like headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions to more serious ones like chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and master front cover, even damage to dictionary plural, the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys (“How can air pollution hurt my health?”, n. d.). Although it is not possible to determine the total impact of Mexico City’s poor air quality on public health, McKinley et al. (2005) calculated that only a 10% reduction of particulate matter in the air would save 3,000 lives and 10,000 new cases of s thesis front cover chronic bronchitis each year, and that reduction of ozone would save 300 lives. As approximately 80% of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide, 45% of volatile organic compounds, and 30% of sulfur dioxide come from mobile sources, their emissions’ level should be reduced (McKinley et al., 2005). One of the possible solutions to reduce air pollution from vehicles is to continue enforcing legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. As mentioned above, Mexico City’s government has taken several measures and attempted various programs in order to decrease the demonstration level of air pollution in the city. Master Front. The first plan Programa Integral para el Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica (PICCA) was started in gce coursework, 1990 and had major attainments, including the introduction of two-way catalytic converters, the master front cover phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the establishment of vehicle emissions standards (McKinley et al., 2005). Abortion. The second program, PROAIRE 1995-2000 (Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico Program to Improve Air Quality in the Valley of Mexico) had other major accomplishments, such as the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in master s thesis front cover, gasoline to improve combustion efficiency, and carried out essay, restrictions on the aromatic content of fuels and on front cover, the sulfur content in industrial fuel (McKinley et al., 2005). These programs have had significant impact on reduction of air pollution in university is important, the city. That is why more of s thesis front these kinds of programs should be implemented in Mexico City, so the city can finally reduce the essay and rock levels of air pollution to acceptable norms.

For instance, the government should implement policies concerning taxis. According to Connolly (1999), taxis and individual cars that replaced traditional buses are the most polluting of all forms of master front cover transport. Approximately 110,000 taxis “circulate the streets of Mexico City” (McKinley et al., 2005, p.1955). Because of the large number of kilometers traveled each day by taxis, their emissions are quite high. Even though taxis account for only 3.4% of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet, the their emissions make 3.6% of particulate matter, 11.5% of sulfur dioxide, 10.7% of carbon monoxide, 10.2% of nitrogen oxide and abortion and euthanasia coursework, 14% of volatile organic compounds of all transportation related emissions (McKinley et al., 2005). Thus, all the taxis around the city have to be diminished.

Instead of taxis, the government should provide the residents with more buses and minibuses. The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis traveling in the city, less harmful gases would be emitted. Moreover, the analysis made by McKinley et al. (2005) suggests that a turnover of the taxi fleet due to its size and age would benefit from over $70 million US in reduced health impacts from front, air pollution, and would also benefit from fuel savings, whose costs summed up together, is greater than this measure’s investment cost. Do Annotated. However, there are several drawbacks to this solution. Firstly, taxis are very convenient for people who do not have their own car to travel around more efficiently or to travel to master s thesis, places, which locations are not known to you.

For instance, taxis are very beneficial for the tourists who do not know the city. Moreover, most people earn money by working as a taxi driver and total ban of taxis would deprive them of their way of essay university education is important in today's society earning money. Therefore, most people might disagree with this policy and solution generally. Another possible solution is to pass the law on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework basically means working from a place rather than traditional office environment, usually from s thesis front cover, home. The distance traveled by abortion and euthanasia gcse a person is a significant factor in air pollution because less distance traveled, less undesirable gases are emitted. As telecommuters work from home, they tend to travel less often.

The research indicates that on the telecommuting days, the distance traveled by vehicles is decreased by 76%. Consequently, there are fewer gas emissions; to be more precise, there is a reduction by 64% of total organic gases, 63% of carbon monoxide and master front, 73% of oxides of nitrogen (Sampath, Saxena Mokhtarian, 1991). Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; it is relatively inexpensive to implement; it expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in work and lifestyle (Sampath et al., 1991). However, some employers and thesis plural, employees would disagree with this solution because there are some disadvantages. Firstly, telecommuting may incite legal issues between organization and employers. Some of the issues they may face are workplace safety and master s thesis, compensation issues (Mills, Wong-Ellison, Werner Clay, 2001). The organization cannot guarantee employee’s safety because employee works out of the and contrast and rock office. And if any accident happened to master, the employee, the organization would not want to compensate employee’s medical expenses because the employee cannot prove that the accident occurred in the scope of employment. Secondly, lack of interaction with co-workers and and contrast essay and rock, isolation from society due to telecommuting, can have negative affects on individuals’ behavior and master front, attitudes as well as can lead to negative consequences, like anxiety, depression, and even physical ailments (Gainey, Kelley Hill, 1999).

Moreover, not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting and some employers dislike supervising employees they cannot see (Mills, et al., 2001). Nevertheless, telecommuting should be considered as one of the possible solution, because it is a perfect way to reduce vehicle traveling during the day, consequently reducing air pollution levels. The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. The transportation sector is currently consuming gasoline and diesel at high rates. Abortion Gcse. More than half of the globally used oil is used for master s thesis, transportation (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). The harmful emissions to the environment are due to its usage. Therefore, alternative fuels should be used more.

Some types of alternative fuels are bioalcahol (methanol, ethanol), biodiesel and hydrogen. Kouroussis and gce coursework, Karimi (2006) compared the fuels listed above and came to conclusion that the front cover use of hydrogen as a fuel would be the most beneficial one. A transition from fossil fuels to hydrogen would decrease the air pollution level because almost zero emissions occur, with water being the only by-product. In addition, hydrogen is the most abundant element on the Earth, so there should not be concerns about running out of its stocks. Moreover, car industries should produce more automobiles with a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine. Currently, BMW is the only one. BMW also made the do annotated research automobile to be powered either by hydrogen or gasoline, as the availability of hydrogen refueling stations is low (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). However, there are several disadvantages to s thesis cover, this solution. Firstly, hydrogen made from electrolysis of water is and euthanasia coursework very expensive. At 25 °C, 65 watt-hours are needed to electrolyze one mole of water, which is 4.8kWh of electricity to generate one cubic meter of master hydrogen.

This electricity comes from the essay university education in today's society alternator which of course is powered by the engine, which uses energy (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). So, fuel economy is decreased by the same means you are trying to improve fuel economy. But there is an alternative way to produce hydrogen, which is to split the water molecules through the use of wind or solar energy, what is less expensive (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). Another disadvantage is that the cover number of hydrogen refueling stations is very low. Demonstration Essay. So, if individual runs out of the gas, it will be difficult to find a station to refuel the front automobile immediately. To construct new hydrogen gas stations will require the government to allocate huge amounts of money. Weinert (2006) estimated a hydrogen station construction to cost from do annotated, $500,000 to over $5 million, depending on station size (30 kg/day 1,000 kg/day). This amount includes the capital costs, installation costs, feedstock costs and fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages, producing and using hydrogen instead of master front gasoline holds the promise of gce coursework pollution reduction in Mexico City.

Mexico City is often said to master, be the most polluted city in and euthanasia gcse coursework, the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for the environment.

Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and master front cover, stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Connolly, P. (1999). Mexico City: our common future? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 53-78. Edgerton, S.A., Arriaga, J.L., Archuleta, J., Bian, X., Bossert, J.E., Chow, J.C.,… Zhong, S. (n.d.). And Euthanasia Gcse. Particulate air pollution in Mexico City. A Collaborative Research Project.

Retrieved from http://www.narsto.org/sites/narsto.org/files/MexAWMA.pdf Gainey, T. W., Kelley, D. E. and Hill, J. A. (1999). Telecommuting#8217;s impact on corporate culture and individual workers: Examining the effect of employee isolation. Society for master s thesis, the Advancement of Management, 64(4). How can air pollution hurt my health? (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f.html Kouroussis, D. and Karimi, S. (2006). Alternative fuels in essay, transportation.

Bulletin of Science, Technology Society, 26(4), 346-355. Luck, T. M. (2008). The world#8217;s dirtiest cities. Retrieved from master s thesis front, http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/26/pollution-baku-oil-biz-logistics-cx_tl_0226dirtycities.html McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Hojer, M., Avalos, M., Gonzalez, I., Iniestra, R., … Martinez, J. (2005). Quantification of gce coursework local and master s thesis front cover, global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environmental Science and technology, 39(7), 1954-1961. Mills, J. E., Wong-Ellison, C., Werner, W. and Clay, J. M. (2001). Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Compare And Contrast On Rap And Rock. Cornel Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42, 48-59.

Molina, M. S Thesis Front Cover. J. and abortion, Molina, L.T. (n.d.). Improving air quality In megacities: Mexico City case study. Massachusetts Institute of cover Technology, US. Retrieved from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and thesis, order Air Pollution in master cover, Mexico City. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and dictionary thesis, quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Air Pollution in Mexico City. The majority of today’s pollution is cover caused by cars and trucks which are the largest single source of dictionary air pollution.

With the great number of vehicles on master s thesis front cover, the road we#8230; History of gcse Mexico City 1910. Porfirio Diaz was president in 1877 and ruled as dictator in Mexico for over 30 years. He had brought the country’s economic development in master, the usual Latin American way. Through#8230; Big city problems. Problems of living in a big city Most of the people like to live in demonstration essay, a big city. Big cities are a good place to live in.

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Chinese media, advertising, and master front cover, urban life. Tie Ning became president of the dictionary Chinese Writers' Association as the seventh congress of the organization met in Beijing earlier this week. The buzz in s thesis, most papers was that this election is a promising step toward improving and compare and rock, revitalizing China's literary sector. Can installing a new president in front cover, the CWA actually accomplish that goal? What is it that the Association does, exactly? CWA, which was formally established in 1953 out university education in today's, of an earlier writers' association formed in s thesis, 1947, publishes the journal Writers' Digest , and several years ago it took over publishing authority for several journals (mostly in literary fields, but it also puts out Global Entrepreneur ). It also runs a press (Writers' Publishing House), operates several institutes (including the National Museum of Modern Chinese Literature and the Lu Xun Literature Institute), and awards a few major literary prizes. The association is tasked with bringing up new writers and do annotated paper, cultivating the master front cover development of the literary sector. It represents writers in international exchanges, and it works to protect their rights.

However, as a government organization, the dictionary thesis plural first duty of the CWA as listed in master front cover, its own introduction is to organize writers to study Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, and to study the and contrast essay and rock guiding policies of the party. The position of the CWA as a ministerial-level agency sits uneasily with some people. A Southern Metropolis Daily editorial reflected on front, the Association's situation and the possible effect Tie Ning's election could have. David Bandurski at the China Media Project translated the piece and provided commentary; here's an excerpt: The column points out that since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the China Writer's Association has been unique worldwide in do annotated bibliography research paper, being a nominal association of master front writers in fact operated by a national government. In typical Southern Metropolis Daily style, the editorial argues that the China Writer's Association should move in the direction of a civic organization, representing the interests of freely creating writers over and against demonstration party ideology. [Excerpts]: No matter when, where or under whatever system, true writers must represent the spirit of human freedom Ђ” independent thought and free imagination form the foundation of their act of creation. Therefore, the first task of the China Writer's Association must be to do as much as possible to protect writers' freedom of creation, and not to limit that freedom through the hardening forces of s thesis power and ideology as an official organization.

Parochial ideology and wrangling over dictionary thesis, benefits [to the party] all have the potential to stifle free creation. Writers, who are dispersed, often do not have the strength to s thesis front resist [these trends] . It is incumbent on the China Writer's Association, as for any professional association, to gather that strength and clear away these obstacles in the cultural arena so that literature can be resplendent . we place great expectations on the youthful Tie Ning Ђ” not only that she might continue to write good works after her appointment, but more that she might, through the peculiar organization of the China Writer's Association [IE: an essay university in today's society officially-controlled professional association] beat her drum for the creative conscience of master s thesis cover China's writers. This was just one of a flood of articles that expressed hope that the gce coursework young, beautiful female writer Tie Ning Ђ” at 49, the youngest incoming president in CWA history, and not yet half the age of the previous president Ђ” would bring a breath of fresh air to a stodgy organization. Master S Thesis Cover. One could claim, however, that the presidency is largely a figurehead Ђ” it has been vacant since Ba Jin passed away last fall, and for the last few years of his tenure he was completely incapacitated. The author of the SMD opinion piece responded to this objection the next day in a follow-up column in the Xiaoxiang Morning Post : Some friends said to dictionary me, in an organization like the master front cover CWA power rests in the hands of the secretary; the presidency is only a name. This involves the division of power between the party and the government, as well as rules governing the effective use of power, and I won't discuss it here. From the organizational chart of the CWA, one can see that the presidency is essay in today's, a position with real power. And when Tie Ning was vice-president of the Hebei Writers' Association, she once said, I'd rather be an official (to assist young writers) Ђ” it's apparent that this is front, not an idle position.

What I'd like to say is that utilizing administrative power to do good is undoubtedly not a bad thing, but the strength of the and euthanasia gcse CWA and the CWA president comes out of the abilities of the professional association as well as the integrity and prestige of master cover its leadership. Things like the CWA and writers' associations actually exist all over the world; it's just that most of them are not supported by gce coursework, the government, and s thesis, they have no administrative power. Gce Coursework. For example, Sai Jinhua* served as president of the front American Authors Guild, B¶ll served as president of the German center of International PEN, and Rushdie served as president of the American center of International PEN. And just from searching the news, their effectiveness is not necessarily less than that of the China Writers' Association. There certainly was a political and ideological emphasis to this year's congress. The first small-group discussion session focused on compare and contrast on rap, Hu Jintao's important speech, in which harmony was mentioned no fewer than 24 times. Reactions from a number of famous writers were reproduced in the media; here is a sampling of some of the front cover more harmonious: · Jia Pingwa, author of Turbulence and Ruined City : I was rocked and touched listening to the general secretary's report. I felt the creative environment and creative space was quite relaxed. On the question of literary heritage and innovation, general secretary Hu's perspective was novel, deep, and even more respectful of artistic norms; you could say that this indicates that a time of high-volume, high-quality literature is dictionary plural, now upon us. In addition, the report had quite the literary grace - not a character could be deleted. · Zhou Meisen, vice-president of Jiangsu Writers' Association:

Harmonious culture is not friendly feelings. Exposing problems, on master s thesis front, one level of meaning, is a way to drive the and contrast construction of a harmonious society. · Cheng Xianzhang, director of the s thesis front cover Guangdong Literature Institute: What is harmony? Is harmony, I'm OK, you're OK, we're all OK? I believe it is thesis, not. Master S Thesis. Harmony should contain two sides: one is the subjective side, that is, you need to gce coursework have harmony with yourself, you need a sense of satisfaction. The other is objective, you need to front cover have harmony with society, there needs to be comprehension, understanding, and essay, respect.

· Peng Mingyan, vice-president of Guangdong Writers' Association: The responsibility of an author is to use the master s thesis cover conscience and reflection of a literary artist to find disharmony within harmony, and after finding the essay reason for front cover this disharmony and university education in today's society, the means to eliminate the disharmonious elements, to push society to a more harmonious development. · Cao Wenxuan, vice-president of Beijing Writers' Association, PKU professor, children's author: In President Hu Jintao's important speech there was a high-frequency word, harmony. I really like this word. Harmony is an master issue in compare and contrast essay, traditional Chinese philosophy and aesthetics. Looking dialectically, the emphasis now is on widening harmony; that is, there still exists a bit of cover disharmony. The literary ranks are currently harmonious, but artistic works are currently not very harmonious. If any of dictionary thesis plural you casually pick up a magazine or a literary work and flip through it, you will get the sensation that base, vulgar, volatile artistic works are really no longer rare. I often say to my friends that in today's fast-paced, busy, utilitarian times, reading this kind of low, fast-food stuff will stop you up and make you uncomfortable. Last year I went with a friend to Sweden for the award ceremony for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

I really did not want to master s thesis front go in; I stood there in the hall thinking: such a bright hall, such an elegant scene Ђ” how could they give the bibliography research paper Nobel Prize in Literature to Jelinek, an author who depicted such abnormality and master, illicit sex? Can't literature have a bit more harmonious beauty? Not long ago, I reread Tolstoy's War and Peace , and as before, my eyes brimmed with tears, because the novel shone with the brightness of gce coursework humanity. Master. Much of the readership likes to essay university is important in today's society watch Korean soaps these days, perhaps because they contain so much traditional, harmonious culture. So then, why does some of our literature today incline toward the poisonous, the cover ruthless, the dead? In our literature there should be more of the harmonious beauty of traditional Chinese culture. Jia Pingwa and dictionary thesis, Cao Wenxuan in particular were raked over the coals for their views, which were seen by some bloggers and forum posters as toadying Ђ” was Hu's speech really that perfectly crafted? Other reactions were more sanguine Ђ” what else could they say Ђ” and pointed to s thesis Jia's history of writing controversial books that were not exactly harmonious themselves. This is not the first time that this issue has been brought up Ђ” the CWA has been attacked for irrelevance on university education in today's, one end and its contribution to an environment that's actually hostile to good literature on the other. Some commenters brought up Sha Yexin's question, How can you ask a writer like Louis Cha to write wuxia novels according to master front the spirit of the 'Three Represents'?

Others referred to Wang Lixiong's widely-circulated statement announcing his withdrawal from the CWA in 2001. Wang, author of the popular apocalyptic thriller Yellow Peril and compare and contrast, more recently known for his writing on Tibetan culture, tossed out his membership in disgust over the association's emphasis on master front, ideology and essay university is important in today's, political work. There doesn't seem to be an English version of his statement online, so here is a rough translation: # To the Chinese Writers' Association: After reading the speeches, resolutions, and master s thesis, summations in the first issue of plural Writers Bulletin (2001) that I just received, I have decided to withdraw from the s thesis front cover Chinese Writers' Association. To explain why I would make such a decision, I performed some calculations on the first piece in the bulletin, Abstract of Comrade Jin Binghua's address to the closing ceremony of the sixth session of the fifth congress of the Chinese Writers' Association; the demonstration following is a list of the frequency certain words are found in the text: Party: 24; Jiang Zemin: 8; general secretary: 3; Deng Xiaoping: 6; Ding Guangen: 2; Central Propaganda Department: 2; Central: 5; Propaganda chief: 6; Three Represents: 6; Marxism-Leninism: 2; Mao Zedong Thought: 2; Advanced culture: 6; Important thought: 5; Directing thought: 2; Great banner: 2; banner: 3; Strategically advantageous position: 4; Leaders: 4; Direct: 7; Advocate: 2; Aim: 1; Guide: 2; Direction: 10; Orientation: 2; Guiding principle: 4; Policy: 3; Carry out: 4; Politics: 6; Overall situation: 12; Stable: 3; Propaganda: 2; Socialism: 10; Main melody: 5; Task: 4; Offering: 2; Double Hundred: 2; Two Do's: 2; Seize: 2; Firmly grasp: 1; Grasp: 2; Lift high: 3; Struggle: 6; Put into effect: 6; Study: 9; Lecture: 9; Earnest: 8; Strengthen: 4; Persevere: 12; Responsibility: 3; Consciousness: 7; Thought: 15; State of affairs: 8; Organization: 2; Position: 1; Core: 1. The entire document totaled 4468 characters; the words above totaled 666 characters, accounting for 14.9% of the text. These words alone are able to depict what the content is; here are a few short excerpts:

We request writers to understand clearly the overall situation, to consciously listen to and serve the overall work situation of the party and s thesis, the country. on demonstration essay, major issues related to political direction, social stability, welfare of the people, national unity, and national solidarity, consciously listen to and serve the overall stable situation of reform and development. The larger group of writers and workers in the literary field must consciously uphold the guiding position of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, and s thesis front cover, oppose pluralism in compare and contrast essay and rock, guiding thought. Writers should have consciousness of front politics, consciousness of the overall situation, and consciousness of their responsibilities. Hold fast to the key mission of making an offering to gce coursework the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Party; hold tight to the key note of walking with the party with a single heart and pursuing development as a united nation. Master S Thesis Front. During the creative process, keep a practical hold on gce coursework, the relevant policies, and never forget that literature must serve the overall stable situation of reform and development. Literary works whose contents concern major historical events or individuals of the party must strictly respect the spirit of the CPC's Resolution concerning some historical issues of the Party, Resolution concerning some historical issues of the s thesis front Party since the nation's founding, and relevant central government documents. Society. Content that reflects the leadership of the party or the country must be handled in strict accordance with the relevant regulations of the central government. Writing realistic subject matter should emphasize positive descriptions. Front Cover. Literary works whose content reflects ethnic groups and religion, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macao, or international affairs must apply for views from government departments in accordance with procedure.

You might say that the above words are merely what a newly-installed official said, so here is the entire text of the Resolution of the sixth session of the fifth congress of the China Writers' Association: Resolution of the sixth session of the fifth congress of the China Writers' Association, held 14-16 January, 2001, in Beijing. Under the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Comrade Jiang Zemin's Three Represents, the session conscientiously studied the important speech given by paper, general secretary Jiang Zemin at the discussion with comrades from the master s thesis central propaganda department, as well as the important speech presented by Ding Guangen at the propaganda department session; it studied the demonstration essay speech comrade Li Peng gave representing the Central Propaganda Department, and engaged in earnest, enthusiastic discussion on master front cover, both the literary world and the practical work of the Association. Essay University. The session believes that comrade Jiang Zemin's important speech is farsighted and front cover, deep, a guiding plan of dictionary thesis plural action for master front cover creating a new makeup for socialist literary work. Coursework. The literary world must study hard, profoundly comprehend, resolutely carry out, and s thesis, use it as guidance for future work. The session deliberated and passed CWA 2000 Work Summary and CWA 2001 Key Work Points. The session resolved to do annotated bibliography paper add comrades Jin Binghua and Luo Guanfu as committee members for the fifth national congress of the s thesis cover CWA. Comrade Jin Binghua was elected as vice-president of the fifth national congress of the CWA. The session urged all writers and literary workers to closely unite in the surroundings of the party and central government with comrade Jiang Zemin at the core; and guided by and euthanasia, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of general secretary Jiang's three represents, persevere in s thesis, the direction of the two do's, carry out the guideline of the double 100s, and resound with the main melody of The Communist Party is demonstration, good, Socialism is good, and front, reform and opening up is good.

Promote more works with deep thought and exquisite artistry to present on the 80th anniversary of the founding of the gce coursework party. With a spirit of the lofty responsibility of front socialist literary work, earnestly work on all planning projects for the sixth congress of the China Writers' Association. Enterprising and revived, compose new works for education society the new century of literature for master s thesis front socialism with Chinese characteristics. This resolution passed by the entire assembly of the CWA totals 543 characters; 413 of them talk politics. Similar writing appears in the same issue of Writers Bulletin , eight pieces in total. Looking at this stuff, I thought of a story: A man from the northeast trained a parrot. If you pulled his left leg, he would say Hello; if you pulled his right leg, he would say, goodbye. One day, the northeasterner suddenly wondered, if you pulled both legs of the parrot at the same time, what would he say? So, he gave it a try, and the parrot said to him, Son of a bitch!

You trying to kill me? Ђ”Ђ” This story demonstrates that even a parrot, who's just imitating, can sometimes come up with something new to essay say. What is strange is that the Chinese Writers' Association, which brings together nearly all of the master s thesis country's best wordsmiths, knows only how to speak this dead language. I can't help but think Ђ” is it that China's writers are naturally all corpses, or is it that the China Writers' Association wants to, and is in the process of, turning China's writers into corpses? In the 80s, Chen Huangmei, my elder, and university education, Shi Tiesheng, my friend, brought me into the Association. Although I never looked to the association to gain any sort of benefit, I at least thought that becoming a member was a kind of master cover honor. Demonstration Essay. Typically, my personality is neither impetuous nor demanding; I can understand the impotence of individuals and organizations in China's special environment. However, in front cover, view of the words above, there is no longer any honor to speak of, only a writer's shame. For this reason, I hereby declare that as of today, I have withdrawn from the do annotated bibliography China Writers' Association.

2 May 2001, Beijing. Has there been progress? Tie Ning's address at the closing ceremony of this year's congress uses harmony 12 times, and starts off with the following passage: During the congress, the cover representatives conscientiously listened and paper, enthusiastically discussed general secretary Hu Jintao's important speech at the opening ceremony. Everyone unanimously agreed that comrade Hu Jintao's important speech opened up a new direction for master s thesis front cover a new phase of Chinese literature in the midst of our construction of a socialist harmonious society, and has major guiding significance for gce coursework the prosperous development of socialist literary work. Everyone also heard the master cover report on the domestic situation presented by State Council Premier Wen Jiabao, and gcse coursework, the report on the international situation presented by State Councilor Tang Jiaxuan. Everyone gained a new understanding of the master s thesis Central Committee's great strategic deployment for the construction of thesis a socialist harmonious society, and gained a new appreciation for the mission and responsibility of literary workers. However, as Wang Lixiong alludes to master s thesis in his statement, this is probably just standard boilerplate for the first speech of a newly-installed official. And despite all the references to current political buzzwords, Tie Ning's address says nothing explicit about literature serving the and contrast and rock party or government Ђ” it leaves out completely that section of cover Jin Binghua's address that dealt with review and and euthanasia gcse, censorship of sensitive topics.

So that's a start, at least. Whether having a functioning president for the first time this century will start any major changes in the way CWA operates is something that, given the master s thesis front speed of and euthanasia gcse bureaucracy, will probably take quite a while to make itself felt. In the meantime, we can at least be grateful that writers are no longer being urged to write in service of the three represents. Note : Sai Jinhua (µ›‡‘Љ±) was a famous courtesan in the late Qing, who later accompanied her diplomat husband to s thesis front cover Europe. She was the image of an independent woman, but I found no information regarding any presidency of the Authors Guild, which doesn't list its past presidents anywhere. Essay. It's possible some American author's name is rendered phonetically into Chinese as µ›‡‘Љ±. Front Cover. Addendum : It's probably an error on the part of a clueless editor; Pearl S. Compare On Rap. Buck apparently presided over the Authors Guild in the 1960s, and her name in Chinese is µ›ЏЌЏ . China Media Project: Writer Tie Ning becomes first female chairman of China Writer's Association Xiaoxiang Morning Post (Chinese): How will the beautiful young female author Tie Ning guide the CWA? People Online (Chinese): Writer representatives divide into master front cover, groups to discuss President Hu Jintao's important speech Southern Daily via Netease (Chinese): Famous writers collectively study Hu Jintao's speech Pro State in Flames (Chinese): Jia Pingwa: About to climax Rolia.net (Chinese): Wang Lixiong: Statement of Withdrawal from the China Writers' Association China Federation of Literary and Arts Circles (Chinese): More documents and commentary on the congress China Writers' Association (Chinese): homepage Wang Lixiong image from Tibet.org. Tags for this entry: Comments on The Chinese Writers' Association: what good is and euthanasia coursework, it?

As it happens, IЂ™m about master cover, halfway through reading Wang LixiongЂ™s brilliant book about Tibet. Every page brims with honesty and university education, sincerity. And at master cover the same time, he is one of the few writers of prose that IЂ™ve read in Chinese (granted, not a lot) who has combined a novelists eye for description and vivid use of un-stale language, combined with a good historianЂ™s sense of objectivity and gce coursework, brevity. I wonder if that sort of writing is s thesis front cover, only possible under a more free system. What prizes does the CWA give out? I wonder, to what degree do the books that receive those prizes reflect the current political goals? The big prizes the gce coursework association runs are the the Mao Dun prize (novels), the Lu Xun prize (short fiction, poetry, essays, translation, and criticism), and the Children's Literature prize. The Lu Xun prize is a decade old, the others were started in the early 80s. They're all supposed to reflect these political goals, at least according to the charters (see descriptions here), but it's probably easier to criticize a work for obviously not living up to Marxist-Leninist goals than it is to actually identify those goals in a work, at least these days. The Mao Dun prize has been criticized its last two rounds (it's awarded every four years) for being out of touch, but the accuracy of that claim is debatable - people complain about awards all the s thesis time if their favorite doesn't win. Interestingly, SF author Wu Yan reports that out of the 953 delegates (selected from 7690 association members), just 48 were children's authors, compared to 367 fiction authors and 125 theorists and critics.

Of course, that's far better representation than the SF writers - just six of them were at the congress. Interesting. I can't say that I recognize that many of the Mao Dun winners, and I haven't read any. My wife really liked ЂЉ©†–Їћ—љ„‘¬¤јЂ‹, and do annotated research paper, ЂЉ№і‡Ўљ„ё–•ЊЂ‹seems popular. What books enter the canon of literature in China, and how that happens seems to be a fascinating process. I wonder how much power do these people have in that process?

I always thought enhancing the role of sci-fi was a good way to master s thesis front popularize scientific knowlegde (™®ЏЉ§‘­¦џҐЇ†). Pearl Buck's Chinese name is rendered as µ›ЏЌЏ јЊthat's probably the Xiaoxiang Morning Post piece mistaken it as µ›‡‘Љ± the courtesan. Gce Coursework. But this really leads to funny effect, I enjoy it;-) You're probably right, William. I couldn't find any mention of an AG presidency for Buck when I searched earlier, but I just ran across this JFK letter to her thanking her for his AG membership card, however, so that's probably what it is. I've added an update to the post.

This article is front, really great, even from the viewpoint of and contrast and rock a Chinese reader, as me. I just wonder how a foreign editor could know China so well (esp. S Thesis. China's cultural arena as in this article) if he was not that smart.

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Essay, Research Paper: Jupiter Moons. system. Named after the Roman god Jove, the master s thesis front cover, ruler of Olympus; Jupiter is. the fifth planet from the sun and is also the largest planet in the Earth's. solar system. It is 318 times moremassive than Earth and is two thirds of the.

planetary mass in the solar system. Gce Coursework. Jupiter's surface, unlike earth, is gaseous. and not a solid. It is s thesis about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium with traces of methane, ammonia, water and rock. Jupiter's interior is very similar to the Sun's. interior but with a far lower temperature.(Columbia) However, it is gce coursework still. unknown for certain, but Jupiter is believed to have a core of liquid metallic. hydrogen. This exotic element can only be achieved at master s thesis, a pressure greater than 4.

million bars. Jupiter radiates more energy in space than it receives from and contrast essay and rock the. sun. Jupiter's orbit lies beyond the asteroid belt at a mean distance of. c.483 million mi (773 million km) from the sun; its period of revolution is.

11.86 years. S Thesis Cover. (Seeds) In order from the sun it is the first of the Jovian. planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and thesis Neptune), very large, massive planets of. relatively low density, having rapid rotation and a thick, opaque atmosphere. Jupiter has a diameter of 88,679 mi (142,800 km), more than 11 times that. of the earth. Master Cover. Its mass is 318 times that of the earth and about 2 1/2 times the. mass of allother planets combined. Thesis. (Columbia) A measurement of the.

diameter of master cover Jupiter determined the planet's polar flattening. The flattening of. Jupiter was revealed by Pioneer to be slightly greater than that derived from. the best Earth-based measurements. The diameter of the planet was measured. at a pressure of 800 mbar near the cloud tops (a bar is roughly equal to the. pressure of 1 atm of dictionary Earth). Its polar diameter is 133,540 km (82,980 miles) and. its equatorial diameter is142, 796 kilometers (88,732 miles). (Seeds)

These values were established by the timing of the occultation of the spacecraft. by Jupiter. Thus, Jupiter is nearly 20 times more fattened than Earth, principally because of its non-solid state and its higher rate of rotation. The. average density of Jupiter, calculated from its mass and volume, was confirmed. as 1.33 gm/cm^3 (the density of water is 1). The atmosphere of Jupiter is.

composed mainly of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia. It appears the. atmosphere is divided into a number of master s thesis light and dark bands parallel to gce coursework, its. equator and shows a range of complex features, including an ongoing storm called. the Great Red Spot, located in its southern hemisphere and measuring 16,150 mi. long by master front cover 8,700 mi wide (26,000 by gce coursework 14,000 km). (Columbia) This Great Red.

Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. Master Front Cover. It is. now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low- pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a. counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a.

high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of gce coursework about. 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a. diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and. one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. S Thesis Cover. (Fimmel) The Great Red Spot was. first detected by Robert Hooke in 1664. Jupiter has no solid rock surface. One. theory pictures a gradual transition from the outer ammonia clouds to a thick.

layer of frozen gases and finally to dictionary thesis plural, a liquid or solid hydrogen mantle. The Spot and other markings of the atmosphere also provide evidence for. Jupiter's rapid rotation, which has a period of about 9 hr 55 min. This rotation. causes a polar flattening of over cover 6%. Gce Coursework. (Columbia) The temperature of.

Jupiter ranges from about -190° F (-124°C) for the visible surface of master s thesis cover the. atmosphere, to 9° F (-13° C) at lower cloud levels; localized regions reach as. high as 40° F (4° C) at still lower cloud levels near the equator. Jupiter. radiates about university education in today's, four times as much heat energy as it receives from the master cover, sun, suggesting an internal heat source. Essay. This energy is s thesis cover thought to be due in part to.

a slow contraction of the planet. Jupiter is is important also characterized by master s thesis intense. non-thermal radio emission; in the 15-m range it is the strongest radio source. in the sky. Jupiter has a simple ring system that is composed of an abortion gcse inner halo, a main ring and a Gossamer ring. To the Voyager spacecraft, the Gossamer ring. appeared to be a single ring, but Galileo imagery provided the cover, unexpected. discovery that Gossamer is really two rings. One ring is embedded within the.

other. Abortion Coursework. The rings are very tenuous and are composed of dust particles kicked up. as interplanetary meteoroids smash into Jupiter's four small inner moons Metis, Adrastea, Thebe, and Amalthea. Many of the particles are microscopic in size. The innermost halo ring is toroidal in shape and extends radially from. about 92,000 kilometers (57,000 miles) to master, about 122,500 kilometers (76,000. miles) from Jupiter's center. It is formed as fine particles of dust from the. main ring's inner boundary 'bloom' outward as they fall toward the planet. (A.U.R.A.) The main and brightest ring extends from the halo boundary out to.

about 128,940 kilometers (80,000 miles) or just inside the orbit of Adrastea. Close to the orbit of Metis, the main ring's brightness decreases. The two. faint Gossamer rings are fairly uniform in nature. The innermost Amalthea. Gossamer ring extends from the orbit of Adrastea out to the orbit of Amalthea at. 181,000 kilometers (112,000 miles) from Jupiter's center. (Hamilton) The.

fainter Thebe Gossamer ring extends from and contrast on rap and rock Amalthea's orbit out to front cover, about Thebe's. orbit at 221,000 kilometers (136,000 miles). Jupiter's rings and moons exist. within an intense radiation belt of demonstration electrons and ions trapped in the planet's. magnetic field. These particles and fields comprise the Jovian. magnetosphere or magnetic environment, which extends 3 to 7 million kilometers. (1.9 to 4.3 million miles) toward the Sun, and stretches in a windsock shape at.

least as far as Saturn's orbit - a distance of 750 million kilometers (466. million miles). (Seeds) Jupiter has a huge magnetic field, much stronger. than Earth's called the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere is not a true sense a. perfect sphere. It is highly flattened due to the rapid rotation of Jupiter. This magnetic field causes phenomenon such as strong lightening and even an.

aurora similar to earth's aurora borealis. Plasma flows in master the dayside. outer magnetosphere; the plasma rotates with the planet every 10 hours. (Hamilton) Jupiter, unlike earth, has three distinct weather-producing zones or. a troposphere. They are believed to contain Ammonia ice, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water and ice. Gce Coursework. In the apparent or uppermost atmosphere, ammonia ice. crystals thrive in a temperature of about 150 degrees Kelvin. S Thesis Front Cover. (A.U.R.A.)

Most astronomers theorize that the essay education in today's, next level of the s thesis cover, atmosphere is primarily. made up of Ammonium hydrosulfide crystals in a temperature of 200 degrees. Kelvin. It is also theorized that the third and final level before the compare and contrast essay on rap, liquid. metallic hydrogen is a layer of liquid ammonia and water droplets. Jupiter's. atmosphere is also plagued by master high velocity winds that move in wide bands. These. winds blow in opposite directions along the latitude of the planet.

Because of. chemical reactions and differences, they can be seen wrapping around Jupiter in. colorful bands. The light colored bands are called zones and the dark colored. bands are called belts. Abortion And Euthanasia Gcse. It is not known whether the belts and s thesis cover zones are. permanent; they have not changed in eighty years of observance.

One theory. is that the jet stream at the belt-zone boundaries are linked to circulation. patterns deep in the liquid interior (Seeds). At least sixteen natural. satellites are known to orbit Jupiter. Twelve of thesis plural Jupiter's moons are relatively. small and seem to have been more likely captured than to have been formed in. orbit around Jupiter. They are conveniently divided into three groups.

The four. largest- -Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto--were discovered by Galileo in. 1610, shortly after he invented the telescope, and is known as the Galilean. satellites. These large moons are believed to have accreted as part of the. process by which Jupiter itself formed. (Fimmel) Accretion is the. accumulation of dust and gas into master larger bodies. Thesis Plural. (Astronomy) Ganymede is. the largest satellite in the solar system; with a diameter of master s thesis front cover 3,268 mi (5,262. km), it is do annotated research larger than the planet Mercury. Master. In 1979 Io was observed by Voyager I. and II and was found to have several active volcanoes actually in eruption.

during the spacecraft flyby. Io is the innermost of the Galilean satellites. Io's size and density is very similar to our own Moon, and it the most dense of. the Galilean satellites. When the Galileo spacecraft flew by Io in. December 1995; it discovered that Io has an iron inner core. A high-altitude. ionosphere was also revealed by compare and contrast the Galileo flyby. In 1979, the Voyager. spacecraft flew through the Jovian system, and one of the most exciting. discoveries made by master front the Voyager spacecraft was the presence of active erupting.

volcanoes on Io. (Helicon). It was discovered that Io was the most. volcanically active planet in the solar system, even more active than the Earth. The volcanism on Io is due to the internal heat generated by the tidal. tug-of-war between Jupiter, Europa and Ganymede.(Helicon). The largest.

volcano on Io is named Pele. Pele was the first volcano discovered on Io and it. was actively erupting with a plume an astonishing 300 km high at the time of its. discovery. The Voyager spacecraft observed eleven active volcanoes during their. flyby. Hundreds of volcanic calderas have also been observed. (Fimmel). There are no impact craters on Io.

Therefore, the surface of gce coursework Io is believed to. be younger than a millions years old, and is continually being resurfaced by. volcanic activity. Also, the surface is very colorful, covered with red, yellow, white and orange black markings. S Thesis Front Cover. The surface composition on Io consists largely.

of sulfur with deposits of frozen sulfur dioxide. The surface on Io is mostly. flat plains rising no more than 1km. Mountain ranges up to 9 km high have also. been observed. A torus of do annotated bibliography research sodium gas along with sulfur ions is spread out. over Io's orbit.

This torus is so large that it has been observed from. Earth. (Io;Helicon) Europa is a strange looking moon of Jupiter with a. large number of intersecting features. Master Cover. It is unlike Callisto and Ganymede with. their heavily cratered crusts. Abortion And Euthanasia. Europa has almost a complete absence of. craters as well as almost no vertical relief. (Europa;Helicon).

As one. scientist put it, the features might have been painted on with a felt. marker (Seeds). There is a possibility that Europa may be internally. active due to tidal heating at a level one-tenth or less that of Io. Models of.

Europa's interior show that beneath a thin 5 km (3 miles) crust of water ice, Europa may have oceans as deep as 50 km (30 miles) or more. The visible. markings on Europa could be a result of global expansion where the crust could. have fractured, filled with water and froze. (Europa;Helicon). Ganymede is.

the largest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the largest moon in front cover the Solar. System, 5,260 km/3,270 mi in diameter which is bibliography research paper larger than the planet Mercury. It orbits Jupiter every 7.2 days at a distance of 1.1 million km/700,000 mi. Its surface is a mixture of cratered and grooved terrain. Molecular. oxygen was identified on Ganymede's surface in 1994 (Ganymede;Helicon). The space probe Galileo detected a magnetic field around Ganymede in 1996; this suggests it may have a molten core. S Thesis Front Cover. (Hamilton). Galileo photographed.

Ganymede at a distance of abortion and euthanasia coursework 7,448 km/4,628 mi. The resulting images were 17 times. clearer than those taken by Voyager 2 in 1979, and show the surface to be. extensively cratered and master s thesis cover ridged, probably as a result of forces similar to those. that create mountains on Earth. Galileo also detected molecules containing. both carbon and nitrogen on the surface March 1997.

Their presence may indicate. that Ganymede harbored life at plural, some time (Hamilton). Callisto is the. eighth of Jupiter's known satellites and master s thesis front cover the second largest. Abortion Coursework. It is the outermost.

of the Galilean moons and was discovered by Galileo and Marius in master 1610. Unlike. Ganymede, Callisto seems to have little internal structure; However, there are. signs from recent Galileo data that the interior materials have settled. partially, with the percentage of essay university is important in today's society rock increasing toward the center. S Thesis Front. Callisto. is about 40% ice and 60% rock/iron (Callisto;Helicon).

Callisto's surface. is covered entirely with craters. Dictionary Thesis Plural. The surface is very old, like the highlands of. the Moon and s thesis front cover Mars. Callisto has the oldest, most cratered surface of any. body yet observed in the solar system; having undergone little change other than. the occasional impact for 4 billion years (Callisto;Helicon).

The. largest craters are surrounded by a series of concentric rings that look like. huge cracks but which have been smoothed out by eons of slow movement of the. ice. Gce Coursework. The largest of these has been named Valhalla (right). Front Cover. 4000 km in diameter, Valhalla is a dramatic example of a multi-ring basin, the result of and euthanasia a massive. impact (Callisto;Helicon). In terms of the mass of Earth's Moon, the masses of the s thesis cover, Galilean satellites in order of university education in today's distance from s thesis front Jupiter were. found to be: Io, 1.21; Europa, 0.65; Ganymede, 2.02; and education society Callisto, 1.46.

The. mass of Io was 23% greater than that estimated before the Pioneer odyssey. The. density of the satellites decreases with increasing distance from Jupiter and. was refined as a result of Pioneer's observations. Io's density is 3.52; Europa's, 3.28; Ganymede's, 1.95; and Callisto's, 1.63 gm/cm^3. The outer. satellites, because of their low density, could consist largely of water and. ice. All four satellites were found to master cover, have average daylight surface.

temperatures of about-140 C (-220 F) (Columbia). A second group is. comprised of the education in today's society, four innermost satellites--Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe. Discovered by E. E. Barnard in 1892, Amalthea has an oblong shape and is 168 mi. (270 km) long. Metis and Adrastea orbit close to Jupiter's thin ring system; material ejected from these moons helps maintain the ring.

The final group. consists of the eight remaining satellites, none larger than c.110 mi (180 km) in diameter. Four of the outer eight satellites located from 14 million to. 16 million mi from Jupiter (22 million-26 million km), have retrograde motion, i.e., motion opposite to that of the planet's rotation. Master S Thesis Cover. The other four have. direct orbits. It is speculated that all eight might be captured asteroids (Seeds). Gce Coursework. When it is in the nighttime sky, Jupiter is often the brightest.

star in the sky (it is second only to Venus, which is seldom visible. in a dark sky). The four Galilean moons are easily visible with binoculars; a. few bands and the Great Red Spot can be seen with a small astronomical. telescope. Jupiter is master front cover very gradually slowing down due to the tidal drag produced. by the Galilean satellites. How will this effect it and its moons?

We currently. know that the compare essay on rap, same tidal forces that are slowing Jupiter down are changing the. orbits of the s thesis cover, moons, very slowly forcing them farther from Jupiter. As. additional data is gathered and technology enables a new fronitier, only then. will we know the essay, fate of Jupiter. Until then we can merely speculate it's final. life as a Jovian planet. Bibliography The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition. Copyright 1993,

Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout Hauspie Speech Products. USA, Inc. Pioneer: First to Jupiter, Saturn, and Beyond: Chapter 6A Results At. The New Frontier; Fimmel, Richard O.; Van Allen, James; Burgess, Eric;

09-01-1990 Ganymede; ( The Hutchinson Dictionary of Science ) ; 01-01-1998, Helicon Publishing Ltd. 1998. Io ; ( The Hutchinson Dictionary of Science ) ; 01-01-1998, Helicon Publishing Ltd. 1998. Callisto; ( The Hutchinson Dictionary. of Science ) ; 01-01-1998, Helicon Publishing Ltd. 1998. Europa; ( The. Hutchinson Dictionary of Science ) ; 01-01-1998, Helicon Publishing Ltd.

1998. Seeds, Michael A., Foundations of Astronomy; copyright 1994, Wadsworth Inc. Copyright 1997-1999 by s thesis cover Calvin J. Hamilton. Thesis. Copyright 1998 The Association. of Universities for master s thesis front, Research in Astronomy, Inc. Author not available, Astronomy: Common Terms in Astronomy. , The New York Public Library Science Desk Reference, Help other users to find the good and worthy free term papers and trash the bad ones. Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project.

If you need a custom essay on Astronomy: , we can write you a high quality authentic essay. Dictionary Thesis Plural. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written papers will pass any plagiarism test, guaranteed. Master Front. Our writing service will save you time and grade.