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ANTI-THYMOCYTE GLOBULIN (ATG) TREATMENT FOR APLASTIC ANAEMIA (ADULTS) ATG is indicated for patients who are not eligible for sibling donor BMT. This includes: Patients with non-severe aplastic anaemia who are dependent on thesis and semiotics, red cell and/ or platelet transfusions. Patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) or very SAA who are 30-45 years of age. Patients with SAA or very SAA disease who lack an HLA-compatible sibling donor. Protocol may be used in selected patients with hypoplastic marrow conditions. Patients with severe AA who are 40 years old and have a HLA identical sibling donor, should be treated with allogenic bone marrow transplantation as soon as possible after diagnosis. Full blood count, reticulocyte count and moral thesis, blood film Bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy, including cytogenetics Peripheral blood cytogenetics to exclude Fanconi's anaemia if 35 years old LFTs, Hep A, Hep B, Hep C, EBV, CMV Vitamin B12 and and semiotics, folate Autoantibody screen Ham test or FACS for CD55 and CD59 to exclude paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) Urine haemosiderin if Ham test positive or CD55, CD59 deficiency Chest X-ray Hickman line prior to therapy. Drugs with rare association causing aplastic anaemia: A careful drug history should be obtained detailing all drug exposure for thesis usa, a period of 6 months and ending 1 month prior to presentation.
All suspected drugs should be discontinued and and semiotics, the patient should not be re-challenged with the drugs at a later stage. Report adverse drug reaction to Committee on Safety of Medicines. Assessment prior to starting ATG Exclude active infection Chest XRay ECG (for patients 60 years, consider ECHO) Assessment of platelet transfusional requirements TFTs It is important to ensure an adequate platelet increment after platelet transfusions, because ATG results in a fall in the platelet count and can precipitate. Essay? If refractory to random donor platelets, postpone ATG treatment until further investigated. If HLA antibodies, arrange adequate supply of HLA matched platelets to thesis, cover course of ATG. Irradiated platelet transfusions are not currently indicated for writing business essays, ATG treatment. We are not aware of any reported cases of and semiotics, transfusion-associated GVHD after ATG therapy for AA. Business? Key: Abx: Antibiotics/ antifungals, ATG preceded by (P) Platelets, (C) Chlorphenamine, and (M) Methylprednisolone. Thesis? Pred: Prednisolone, CSA: Ciclosporin A. Test dose Day 0 - 24 hours prior to actual start of treatment. Thymoglobuline - Rabbit ATG (Genzyme¨) 2.5 mg (1/10th of writing business essays, a vial) diluted in and semiotics 100 ml of N/Saline given intravenously over 1 hour. The test dose must be supervised by a doctor with Adrenaline, Chlorphenamine and Hydrocortisone Available and drawn up beforehand.
A severe reaction or anaphylaxis to the test dose is an absolute contraindication to example of psychology s thesis, proceeding with treatment. Treatment doses days 1 to 5 Each morning during ATG treatment proton-pump inhibitor and and semiotics, continue until Prednisolone discontinued. 1 hour before each daily dose of ATG Chlorphenamine 10 mg iv. 30 mins before each daily dose of example master s thesis, ATG Methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg/day iv as 30 min infusion. ATG 1.5 vials/10 kg body wt/day ≡ 3.75 mg/kg/day for rabbit ATG in 250-500 ml sodium chloride 0.9% and infuse over 18 hours. If tolerated, subsequent doses can be given over and semiotics, 12-18 hours.
ATG should be administered within 18 hours of being made up. Platelets (one random donor pack or one apheresis pack or one HLA matched pack) should be given to thesis usa, maintain count 30 x 10 9 /L, but should not be given concurrently with ATG administration because of the anti-platelet activity of ATG. Ciclosporin see APPENDIX from day 1. Thesis And Semiotics? If possible, avoid giving more than one unit of essay, blood each day of the thesis, 5 days of ATG, to (a) help reduce the risk of fluid overload, and (b) help ensure that the administration of ATG each day starts in the morning. Thesis Usa? General and Nursing points. And Semiotics? BCSH guidelines recommend that patients stay as inpatients for 2 weeks post-ATG. TVCN Leukaemia Group suggest discharge home is safe if prompt readmission possible. Concurrent therapy Ciprofloxacin 500 mg 12 hourly - start 24 - 48 hours before ATG treatment and of psychology master s thesis, continue throughout. Chlorhexidine mouthwash 10 ml 6 hourly. Thesis? Fluconazole 50 mg daily (anti-fungal prophylaxis).
Aciclovir 200 mg tds. Tranexamic acid 1g tds, if required. Norethisterone 5 mg tds to new invention technology, control menorrhagia. No indication for PCP prophylaxis - not aware of any reported case of pneumocystis after ATG treatment given for AA. Proton-pump inhibitor. And Semiotics? Prophylactic antibiotics and moral thesis, oral antifungals for all patients, prophylaxis should continue for a minimum of thesis and semiotics, 4 weeks, but consider continuing if the patient has severe aplastic anaemia (esp. if neutrophils 0.2 x 10 9 /L). Serious infection can occur in patients with severe aplastic anaemia soon after discharged from help essay hospital following ATG therapy, particularly in and semiotics the first few weeks after discharge. In Computer Technology In 2011? Immediate side effects (during administration of and semiotics, ATG): Lymphopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Fevers and rigors (tend to be worse on the first day and moral thesis, diminish with subsequent doses of ATG).
Rash, pruritis, urticaria. Fluid retention occurs commonly. Acute pulmonary oedema and cardiac failure can develop rapidly if left untreated. Fluid retention needs very close monitoring and early treatment with Furosemide. Hypotension or hypertension. Elevation of thesis, serum transaminases occur commonly. Cardiac arrhythmias may occur: bradycardia or tachycardias.
Chest pain, loin pain, back pain occasionally. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea may sometimes occur. Positive direct antiglobulin test and difficulty with cross matching blood due to the presence of anti-red cell antibodies in s thesis ATG. Thesis? Anaphylaxis. Other rare reported side effects are acute haemolysis, massive pulmonary haemorrhage and adult respiratory distress syndrome, acute renal failure and renal impairment. Moral Thesis? Late side effects after administration of ATG due to and semiotics, serum sickness: Onset is 7 to 14 days after starting ATG. If a second course is given, serum sickness can occur earlier. Fever, rash (maculopapular or urticarial starting on trunk or extremities). Serpiginous palmar-plantar distribution is classical.
Rash may become purpuric due to platelet consumption during the time of moral thesis, serum sickness. Arthralgia, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, proteinuria (usually mild), rarely splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Increased platelet transfusion requirements due to platelet consumption. Glycosuria and/or hyperglycaemia due to corticosteroids. Other late side effects of ATG: Rarely, worsening of autoimmune thyroid disorders and fibrosing alveolitis, and and semiotics, precipitation of Guillan Barre syndrome. Of Psychology? AA patients treated with ATG are at increased risk of later clonal disorders such as MDS, AML and PNH, and to a lesser degree, solid tumours. And Semiotics? Very rare side effects: Positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) +/- haemolysis, massive pulmonary haemorrhage and capillary leak. Treatment of immediate side effects.
Immediate allergic side effects usually respond to thesis usa, an extra dose of Hydrocortisone and Chlorphenamine. If persistent, give Pethidine 25 mg i.v. Pyrexia during ATG may also be due to infection, so broad spectrum i.v antibiotics (as per departmental protocol for neutropenic patients) must be commenced after obtaining blood cultures and appropriate peripheral swabs. Treat fluid retention promptly with intravenous Furosemide and thesis, review fluid balance later the same day. If the patient gains more than one kg in weight, or if the amount in is one litre more than the amount out in example of psychology 24 hours, then give a dose of Furosemide. However, assess clinically first, because if febrile, and increased insensible loss, Furosemide may not be appropriate.
If patient is hypertensive , treat associated fluid retention as above, and use appropriate anti-hypertensives. Anaphylaxis discontinue ATG immediately and thesis and semiotics, treat anaphylaxis appropriately. If bleeding occurs during ATG, stop the ATG infusion and give additional platelets. Resume ATG when bleeding resolved. Check coagulation screen if bleeding persists despite adequate platelet increment.
Prevention of serum sickness. Ciclosporin - commenced on the first day of ATG (see APPENDIX for full dose and monitoring information). G-CSF with ATG and Ciclosporin. The benefits of giving daily G-CSF for 4 months following a course of ATG remain uncertain. Clinical studies to date indicate no advantage using G-CSF in in computer terms of response or survival after ATG and CSA, although neutrophil counts recover more quickly and there is thesis and semiotics a reduction in the incidence of serious infections. There are some concerns that the use of G-CSF may be associated with an increased risk of MDS and AML. The EBMT is currently performing a second prospective randomized study of ATG and CSA with or without G-CSF for severe AA. It is new invention technology recommended that all new patients with severe AA, who do not have an HLA identical sibling, should be entered into this study. The routine use of G-CSF in this manner is not currently recommended outside this multi-centre EBMT study. Carefully monitor patient clinically for evidence of bleeding, blood pressure and daily fluid balance: weigh patient twice daily keep fluid balance chart daily 4 hourly temperature, pulse, BP and respirations daily urine test for glucose, FBC, UEs and and semiotics, LFTs Monitor for signs of infection - follow hospital guidelines for neutropenic sepsis.
Introduce IV amphotericin or voriconazole early if fevers persist. Contra-indications. Severe systemic reaction or anaphylaxis to test dose. ATG may exacerbate viral and parasitic infections, so do not give in the presence of example, active infection. There is a theoretical risk of thesis and semiotics, acute haemolysis in business patients with haemolytic paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) who are already haemolysing. However, ATG can be given cautiously to patients with a quiescent PNH clone. Time to and semiotics, response. Response to argumentative essay, ATG does not usually begin to occur before 3-4 months, so red cell and platelet transfusions will need to be continued as needed until the and semiotics, peripheral blood counts start to improve. Continue oral prophylactic antibiotics and antifungals while the patient is severely neutropenic.
Repeat courses of ATG. More than one course of the same ATG preparation can be given but the risks of side effects and anaphylaxis are increased, and the onset of serum sickness occurs earlier than after a first course. Thesis Usa? Always give a test dose before the second course of and semiotics, either preparation of ATG. Argumentative? A second course of ATG should be commenced if there is thesis and semiotics no response or relapse after the first course. Example Of Psychology Master S Thesis? This should not be given earlier than 3 months after the first course as it usually takes around 3 months before a response is seen. A third course of ATG may be considered if there has been no response to thesis, two courses and a BMT is not an option, or if the writing essay, patient has relapsed after previous courses. A test dose must be given prior to each repeat course of ATG. OXYMETHOLONE: available on a named patient basis and is a useful option for those patients who have failed several courses of thesis and semiotics, ATG and ciclosporin, or in certain patients where standard immunosuppressive treatment may not be possible. Vaccinations: Only use when absolutely necessary - there have been anecdotal reports of vaccination producing bone marrow failure or triggering relapse of in computer in 2011, AA. Live polio vaccine should be avoided following ATG treatment.
APPENDIX: The use of ciclosporin (CSA) in the treatment of aplastic anaemia. The current standard immunosuppressive regimen for the treatment of AA is the combination of ATG and ciclosporin (CSA), and this applies to very severe, severe and non-severe AA. Initial dose of and semiotics, oral ciclosporin (CSA) is writing business essays 2.5 mg/kg twice daily. Since CSA is lipid soluble, dose is and semiotics based on actual body weight. for elderly patients, start with lower dose, e.g. Moral Thesis? 1.25 mg/kg twice daily if 60 years old and adjust according to renal function, blood pressure and CSA levels. Trough level: 150 - 250 micrograms/L. Measure initial trough levels on day 3 to 7 after starting Ciclosporin.
If level is therapeutic and not toxic, monitor weekly thereafter for one month, and then monthly. And Semiotics? Monitor BP, serum electrolytes, renal liver function. Side effects Nephrotoxicity: Increases in serum creatinine are dose and plasma level related. Additive nephrotoxicity occurs particularly with aminoglycosides, vancomycin and writing business essays, amphotericin B (also with ACE inhibitors, NSAID, quinolones and trimethoprim). Hyperkaemia may occur with long term use of CSA. Increased risk with renal impairment or drugs such as ACE inhibitors and K+ sparing diuretics e.g. amiloride. Avoid high dietary potassium intake.
CSA can aggravate hypomagnesaemia in and semiotics the setting of BMT as in renal transplants. Hypertension Neurological Gastrointestinal tract Hepatotoxicity Anaphylaxis Hypertrichosis Assessment of new invention in computer technology, patient prior to commencing CSA. Check blood pressure (BP), serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine (UEs) liver function tests (LFTs). Review current medication patient is taking, and ask about herbal remedies. Aim to and semiotics, keep trough whole blood CSA level between 150 and business essays, 250 μg/L. Frequency of monitoring Weekly CSA levels until stable (consider twice weekly 1st and 2nd weeks).
Levels can then be checked every 2 - 3 weeks. If renal and and semiotics, hepatic function is abnormal, levels should be checked more frequently. Sample required 12 hour trough whole blood levels are measured i.e. before the morning dose of example, CSA. Send 3 ml blood in EDTA with special request form to the analytical unit. Always take sample from a peripheral vein. Thesis? Never take blood for CSA level from the help writing argumentative essay, CSA infusion line of the Hickman catheter, even after thorough flushing of the line, otherwise falsely high levels will be obtained. Renal function and other electrolytes The most frequent dose limiting toxicity is renal impairment. Monitor renal function daily and liver function 3 times weekly whilst patient is an in-patient.
Monitor serum Ca2 + and Mg2 + weekly. A slow rise in serum creatinine to 120-130 µmol/L is common in the first few weeks of therapy. And Semiotics? If the creatinine is 130 μmol/L, a dose adjustment should be made. If a rapid rise in of psychology master s thesis creatinine occurs, stop CSA for and semiotics, 1-2 doses, monitor renal function and master s thesis, CSA level, make appropriate dose adjustment. Blood pressure As CSA can cause hypertension, monitor BP regularly.
Antihypertensive therapy may be necessary. Duration of treatment. For the treatment of AA, CSA is given for a minimum of 6 months and usually much longer. If a response occurs, CSA is continued at full dose until the blood count has stopped rising and has plateaued. Thesis And Semiotics? CSA is tailed off very slowly often over essay, many months or even longer depending on the FBC. Too rapid dose reduction is and semiotics associated with a high incidence of relapse of thesis usa, aplastic anaemia.
Some patients, however, are CSA dependent and thesis and semiotics, will need a low dose for a long period of time. In these patients it may be impossible to stop the thesis usa, CSA completely.
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Semiotics - Wikipedia
literature proposal Sample Proposals for the Undergraduate Engineering Review. Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into thesis and semiotics the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the author must first submit a proposal that specifies the importance of the research, the scope and limitations of the research, and the methods for the research. In Computer. Submitters should read the journal's Request for and semiotics Proposals before submitting. A Proposal to Research the Storage Facility. for Spent Nuclear Fuel at thesis usa Yucca Mountain. There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at thesis Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the example of psychology master s thesis, proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at and semiotics Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and help argumentative essay, explode, similar to and semiotics, an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain.
Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon moral thesis, the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the rock to create a critical mass. A critical mass is an and semiotics amount of essays fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to thesis and semiotics, start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the rocks in help argumentative essay the ground would help keep the system compressed and and semiotics, speed up the thesis usa, chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of thesis and semiotics energy in a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of thesis usa this magnitude would emit large amounts of and semiotics radioactivity into the air and ground water. Another safety concern is the thesis usa, possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997].
There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the thesis and semiotics, proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to example master, these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment. (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and. (2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995]. Thesis. Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the example s thesis, site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. In my research I will consider both groups of people.
As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply. Also, because one of the thesis and semiotics, most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is how long the waste storage canisters will remain in business tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the and semiotics, waste canisters to corrode. The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. In Computer. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on and semiotics, the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995]. For that reason, much pressure exists to thesis usa, select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Other costs, though, have to thesis, be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to moral thesis, a single national site?
I will try to and semiotics, account for as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Thesis Usa. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. Thesis And Semiotics. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to moral thesis, how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion. In such cases, I will present both sides. And Semiotics. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site.
Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. The first goal of my research is to explain the eating essay, criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. For example, will the rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in the future [Clark, 1997]? What will happen if the waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the natural setting contain the thesis and semiotics, waste? To achieve this goal, I will rely on Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for in computer technology Yucca Mountain [Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain home page , and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989]. A second goal of my literature review is to thesis, evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards.
I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on the paper presented by Clark , and on eating essay, the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995]. Because engineering students are the primary audience for my proposed research topic and may not be familiar with the and semiotics, history of eyeballs essay nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. People in the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of the literature review.
The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5. Given that all my sources are available through the University of and semiotics Wisconsin library system, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of tuition spent on maintaining the university libraries. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report. Eating. I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20. I am a senior in thesis the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin at writing Madison, majoring in thesis and semiotics nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and environmental studies. I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the eating eyeballs essay, proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume. Kerr, R., New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks, Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp.
913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). Roush, W., Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe? Science, vol. 270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762. Taubes, G., Blowup at Yucca Mountain, Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp. 1836-1839.
A Proposal to Review How Geophysical Precursors. Can Help Predict Earthquakes. Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. And Semiotics. Some of these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. If the moral thesis, times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes. Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for completing the review, and my qualifications.
On the morning of April 18, 1906, the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to be thrown into waves that twisted railways and thesis and semiotics, broke the pavement into great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the argumentative, city. Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken. As a result, the and semiotics, fires quickly spread throughout the city and continued for three days. Eyeballs Essay. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at thesis the heart of the city [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993].
In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the moral thesis, buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. When the disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. In Tokyo, the damage from the earthquake was less, but the resulting fires were more devastating. The fires lasted three days and destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. And Semiotics. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and business, 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Kwanto earthquake were two of the most famous and devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and with disastrous results. If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur.
Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted. Thesis. One of the most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in China. Thesis Usa. In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake. These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in and semiotics 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued.
Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993]. The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. Thesis Usa. If the thesis, people hadn't been evacuated, the eating, death toll could have exceeded 100,000. Using geophysical precursors, the Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of thesis and semiotics earthquakes of magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to predict the earthquake that struck the help essay, city of Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988]. This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away.
Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the thesis, predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to be issued. For example, in 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an new invention in computer technology earthquake of and semiotics magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Moral Thesis. Two years later, an earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. Thesis And Semiotics. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. Thesis Usa. No earthquake occurred. I propose to review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of earthquakes. In this review, I will achieve the following three goals: explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and thesis, tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks; show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake; and. discuss how each of these precursors is used for short-term earthquake predictions.
Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. In addition to monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. For that reason, I will not consider it. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and writing argumentative essay, tilt, increases in and semiotics radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks. Earthquakes occur in five stages as there is a build up of elastic strain within faults in eating eyeballs essay the earth, followed by the development of cracks in the rocks, then the influx of water into those cracks. The fourth stage is the actual rupture of the fault and the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the thesis, sudden drop in stress in the fault.
In this stage, aftershocks occur. During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns. For instance, the ground uplift and tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of rock increases. In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to the five stages of an eyeballs earthquake and how well this relation can be used to and semiotics, predict the oncoming fault rupture. This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. Help Essay. Because of the thesis and semiotics, recent earthquakes in California and writing essays, Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. I have gathered five books and several articles on thesis, the subject. Writing Business Essays. In addition, there are dozens of books and articles available in the library. These books and articles should provide sufficient information for me to thesis and semiotics, write my review.
The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of writing business my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the future likelihood of a massive earthquake? The second goal of my research is to show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake. To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to and semiotics, earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964].
A third primary goal of the literature review is to cover the accuracy of monitoring each precursor. By accuracy, I mean how well does the method work in predicting the time, place, and size of earthquakes. This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to essay, validate these types of statistics. Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of thesis monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of experts and thesis usa, preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on two of thesis and semiotics my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Fitzpatrick, 1993] and eating, Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993]. Should I require additional sources other than the ones I have, I will search for them in thesis and semiotics the library system at the University of Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly.
Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating. They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to prepare for them and eating essay, lives would be saved. However, they may not know the thesis, different methods of predicting earthquakes. My intent is to moral thesis, inform these students of three methods of predicting earthquakes.
A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in thesis earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. Eating Eyeballs. My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in Earthquakes, Animals and Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and thesis and semiotics, what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes. This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for thesis usa performing the proposed research. The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the thesis and semiotics, schedule presented in of psychology master s thesis Figure 1. Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to the audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of literature review. The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the thesis, first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and eating eyeballs essay, the second being the formal report on December 6, 1996. Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the library, there is thesis and semiotics, no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only costs, which will be minor, are for copying articles, printing the writing business essays, review, and spiral binding the review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for under $10.
I am a senior in the Geological Engineering Department at thesis and semiotics the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Example Of Psychology Master. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the and semiotics, principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships. In addition, I have taken field courses on structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the proposed literature review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume (not attached on this web site) . Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1988).
Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). Deshpande, Prof. B. G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1987). Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Mileti, Dennis S., and Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993).
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5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech. Some will argue that Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech was not his most electric speech , or that it failed to deliver on unreasonably high expectations . Nonetheless, studying the speech provides five key speechwriting lessons that can help us all be better communicators. This article is the latest in a series of video speech critiques which help you analyze and learn from excellent speeches. Speech Video: Barack Obama delivers Inauguration Speech. I encourage you to: Watch the video below (or listen to the audio); Read the and semiotics analysis in moral thesis, this speech critique; Study the speech text in the complete transcript; and Share your thoughts on this presentation. Speech Analysis Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Address. Note that numbers in square brackets (e.g. Thesis And Semiotics! ) refer to paragraph numbers in the speech text at the end of this article.
Speechwriting Lesson #1: Start with a Strong, Simple Speech Outline. Speech analysis by media pundits often focuses exclusively on the soundbites #8212; a few phrases here and there hole-punched out of a 17-minute speech. It is easy to in computer in 2011 forget that other words were used to stitch together those soundbites into (hopefully) a cohesive whole. So, it is worthwhile to study and analyze the speech outline of Obama#8217;s inauguration speech, because all speechwriters can learn from the strong, simple structure which helped convey his message coherently. My own wishlist for his speech was that he would accomplish five tasks: Be frank and honest about the realities of the economy and wars Address the and semiotics sagging morale and thesis usa lack of confidence Appear strong Offer an olive branch to the world Make a call-to-action for personal contributions (along the lines of #8220;Ask not what your country can do#8230;#8221;) I think Obama achieved all of these aims in his inauguration speech using a simple six-part structure: Some will point to Obama#8217;s mention of Bush as mere formality, but it#8217;s more significant than that. Obama is preaching respect for the individual regardless of whether you agree with them. Thus, it is important he follows his own advice.
To do otherwise would damage his credibility. Thesis! Honestly acknowledge the economic crisis [paragraphs 3-7] Obama was blunt and direct, using phrases like #8220; the challenges #8230; are real. They are serious and they are many. #8221; He didn#8217;t promise solutions in this year or the next. He didn#8217;t sugarcoat it, and thesis usa I applaud him for that. As the and semiotics economic issue is #1 in the minds of Americans, he was wise to address this first in argumentative, his speech. Equally important, he showed great resolve and leadership with his powerful #8220; But know this, America #8212; they will be met. #8220; Americans have always faced crises and overcome them [paragraphs 8-17] In this section of the speech, Obama stays consistent with his message of hope that won him the election.
He is speaking directly to millions of Americans who feel the #8220; sapping of confidence across our land #8221; [paragraph 6]. And Semiotics! He cites scripture , refers to thesis usa the Declaration of and semiotics, Independence , and then reminds his audience of the struggles of the help argumentative essay past which were overcome [paragraphs 12-15]. He concludes this section by reminding everyone that the core American strength still persists [paragraph 16]. Address cynics [paragraphs 18-20] This brief interlude seems to be aimed at and semiotics Congress and other political forces. In an attempt to persuade those who are skeptical of his plans, the key phrase here is #8220;Their memories are short.#8221; Speak about and to the World [paragraphs 21-26] This section was very, very strong. His words are strong, yet friendly. He charts a new foreign policy which is anchored on moral thesis, common, human ideals. I expect that this part of the speech will be received quite favorably around the thesis and semiotics world.
The solution lies within the determination of the s thesis people [paragraphs 27-35] Obama transitions back to the American people with remarkable skill. Drawing a parallel between the thesis armed forces and normal citizens in terms of embodying a spirit of service was masterful. This is the master s thesis call-to-action which I was particularly looking for, and he delivered beyond expectations. The concluding story taken from the Revolutionary war was a great metaphor, and a fine way to conclude. Speechwriting Lesson #2: Craft Impactful Lines. The message and outline are more important, but the soundbites are important too. If there#8217;s one weakness in Obama#8217;s speech , it#8217;s that there#8217;s no clear , unmistakable phrase which people will be quoting years from now (although only time holds the definitive judgment). There was no #8220;Ask not what your country can do for you#8221;.
There was no #8220;I have a dream#8221;. There was no #8220;This was their finest hour.#8221; There was no #8220;Yes we can.#8221; But that#8217;s not to say that this speech was lacking in wonderfully crafted and impactful lines . As I listened, several of thesis, these resonated strongly with me and I found myself thinking #8220;Oh, what a line!#8221; #8220; #8230; begin again the work of of psychology master, remaking America. #8221; [paragraph 16] #8220; Their memories are short. #8221;  (I particularly loved the brevity of this line) #8220; The question we ask today is thesis and semiotics, not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works #8221;  (He busts open the debate by reframing the question.) #8220; [W]e reject as false the choice between our safety and thesis usa our ideals. #8221;  (A particularly sharp indictment of Bush#8217;s policies.) #8220; [W]e are ready to lead once more. #8221;  (Simply stated, but this is exactly what America#8217;s allies wanted to hear.) #8220; For the world has changed, and thesis we must change with it. #8221;  #8220; What is required now is a new era of responsibility #8221;  Finally, although it wasn#8217;t a single line, I loved everything about how paragraphs 27 and 28 were crafted (which included #8220; a moment that will define a generation #8220;, even though it is of psychology master, a somewhat cliche statement). Will any of these be quoted decades from now? It#8217;s impossible to tell, but my money is on #8220; the work of remaking America #8221; or #8220; a new era of responsibility .#8221; Speechwriting Lesson #3: Employ the Magical Rule of thesis, Three. Finding examples of the Rule of Three in speeches by great speakers is like finding smiling kids in a candy store. Examples abound!
But this does not lessen the importance of this speechwriting tactic. Quite the opposite! If all the example of psychology Presidential speechwriters wield the Rule of Three, why don#8217;t you do it more often ? Here are just some of the and semiotics examples in the inauguration speech of business essays, varying length: grateful for thesis and semiotics the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors. #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Homes have been lost; businesses shuttered. #8221;  #8220; Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and all deserve [#8230;] pursue [#8230;] happiness. Thesis Usa! #8221;  #8220; struggled and sacrificed and thesis and semiotics worked #8221;  #8220; birth or wealth or faction #8221;  #8220; we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America #8221;  #8220; to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and thesis usa do our business in the light of day #8221;  #8220; the and semiotics justness of argumentative essay, our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of humility and restraint. #8221;  Speechwriting Lesson #4: Amplify Words by Drawing Contrasts. As pointed out in the speech analysis of Martin Luther King#8217;s #8220;I Have a Dream#8221;, sometimes the best way to and semiotics highlight and sharpen concepts is to introduce contrast . Here are a few examples from Obama#8217;s Inauguration speech: #8220; rising tides of eating, prosperity and the still waters of and semiotics, peace #8221; versus #8220; gathering clouds and raging storms #8221; [paragraph 3] #8220; know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. #8221;  #8220; we will extend a hand if you are willing to of psychology master unclench your fist #8221;  #8220; a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to and semiotics take a most sacred oath. #8221;  Speechwriting Lesson #5: Thread Your Theme Throughout Your Speech. Of Psychology! If the thesis core message of your speech is the moral thesis plot of the story, then the theme of your speech is the setting and thesis mood . Stated another way, your message is the what you say #8212; your theme is the how you say it . Inauguration speeches are very naturally set with themes that emphasize the continuity and progress of a nation. Thesis Usa! Whatever the thesis and semiotics concerns of the era, they can be expressed relative to the past. The theme for Obama#8217;s inauguration speech could be expressed as #8220; drawing strength from our common past #8220;. Writing Argumentative! (This is consistent with Obama#8217;s intellect #8212; he is well versed in the nation#8217;s history through his studies of Lincoln and others.) This speech repeatedly drew examples from the past and thesis even urged the people to return to old values near the end of the speech: But those values upon which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old.
These things are true. They have been the business essays quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. Thesis And Semiotics! All in argumentative essay, all, there are numerous references to the past to set the theme for thesis and semiotics this speech: #8220; mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors #8221; [paragraph 2] #8220; Forty-four Americans have now taken the presidential oath #8221;  #8220; faithful to the ideals of our forebearers, and s thesis true to our founding documents #8221;  #8220; So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans. #8221;  #8220; passed on and semiotics, from generation to generation #8221;  #8220; Our journey has never been #8230; #8221;  #8220; Concord and Gettysburg ; Normandy and Khe Sahn #8221;  At seven words, this passage is wonderfully brief, yet manages to span four wars: Revolutionary War, Civil War, World War II, and Vietnam War, respectively. #8220; Their memories are short. #8221;  #8220; Our Founding Fathers [#8230;] expanded by technology, the blood of generations. #8221;  #8220; Recall that earlier generations#8230; #8221;  #8220; the fallen heroes who lie in Arlington #8221;  #8220; But those values upon which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old. These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. #8221;  #8220; In the year of America’s birth#8230; #8221;  Verbal snapshot: Barack Obama#8217;s Inauguation Speech (larger words used more often) Barack Obama Inauguration Speech Prepared Text.  My fellow citizens:  I stand here today humbled by the task before us, grateful for the trust you have bestowed, mindful of the sacrifices borne by our ancestors.
I thank President Bush for his service to our nation, as well as the generosity and thesis cooperation he has shown throughout this transition. Thesis Usa!  Forty-four Americans have now taken the and semiotics presidential oath. The words have been spoken during rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace. Thesis Usa! Yet, every so often the oath is and semiotics, taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storms. At these moments, America has carried on not simply because of the skill or vision of moral thesis, those in high office, but because We the People have remained faithful to the ideals of our forbearers, and true to our founding documents.  So it has been. So it must be with this generation of Americans.  That we are in the midst of and semiotics, crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred. Essay! Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and thesis and semiotics prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our health care is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet.  These are the indicators of crisis, subject to data and new invention in 2011 statistics.
Less measurable but no less profound is a sapping of confidence across our land a nagging fear that America#8217;s decline is inevitable, and that the next generation must lower its sights. And Semiotics!  Today I say to you that the challenges we face are real. They are serious and they are many. They will not be met easily or in a short span of time. But know this, America they will be met.  On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over thesis usa fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord. And Semiotics!  On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations and worn out dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics. Help Writing Essay!  We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things. The time has come to reaffirm our enduring spirit; to choose our better history; to carry forward that precious gift, that noble idea, passed on from generation to generation: the God-given promise that all are equal, all are free, and thesis all deserve a chance to pursue their full measure of happiness.  In reaffirming the greatness of our nation, we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for less. It has not been the path for the faint-hearted for those who prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of thesis usa, riches and fame. And Semiotics! Rather, it has been the of psychology master s thesis risk-takers, the thesis doers, the makers of things some celebrated but more often men and women obscure in their labor, who have carried us up the long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. Business!  For us, they packed up their few worldly possessions and traveled across oceans in search of a new life.  For us, they toiled in and semiotics, sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth. Thesis Usa!  For us, they fought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.
 Time and and semiotics again these men and women struggled and sacrificed and worked till their hands were raw so that we might live a better life. They saw America as bigger than the sum of our individual ambitions; greater than all the differences of birth or wealth or faction.  This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. In Computer In 2011! Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year. Thesis And Semiotics! Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of help writing, standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and thesis begin again the work of remaking America.  For everywhere we look, there is work to be done. The state of the economy calls for eyeballs action, bold and and semiotics swift, and help writing essay we will act not only to create new jobs, but to lay a new foundation for growth.
We will build the roads and bridges, the electric grids and digital lines that feed our commerce and bind us together. We will restore science to its rightful place, and wield technology#8217;s wonders to thesis and semiotics raise health care#8217;s quality and essay lower its cost. We will harness the thesis sun and the winds and the soil to fuel our cars and run our factories. Business Essays! And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the thesis and semiotics demands of a new age. All this we can do. Business! And all this we will do.  Now, there are some who question the scale of and semiotics, our ambitions who suggest that our system cannot tolerate too many big plans. Their memories are short.
For they have forgotten what this country has already done; what free men and women can achieve when imagination is joined to new invention common purpose, and necessity to courage.  What the cynics fail to understand is that the ground has shifted beneath them that the stale political arguments that have consumed us for thesis so long no longer apply. The question we ask today is not whether our government is too big or too small, but whether it works whether it helps families find jobs at a decent wage, care they can afford, a retirement that is dignified. Where the answer is yes, we intend to move forward. Where the answer is of psychology master s thesis, no, programs will end. And those of and semiotics, us who manage the eating essay public#8217;s dollars will be held to account to spend wisely, reform bad habits, and do our business in the light of day because only thesis and semiotics, then can we restore the vital trust between a people and moral thesis their government.  Nor is the question before us whether the market is a force for good or ill. Its power to generate wealth and expand freedom is unmatched, but this crisis has reminded us that without a watchful eye, the market can spin out of control and thesis that a nation cannot prosper long when it favors only the prosperous. The success of essay, our economy has always depended not just on the size of our Gross Domestic Product, but on thesis and semiotics, the reach of our prosperity; on our ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart not out of charity, but because it is the writing business surest route to our common good.  As for our common defense, we reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals. Our Founding Fathers, faced with perils we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to assure the rule of thesis, law and the rights of man, a charter expanded by the blood of generations.
Those ideals still light the world, and help we will not give them up for expedience#8217;s sake. Thesis And Semiotics! And so to all other peoples and governments who are watching today, from the grandest capitals to the small village where my father was born: know that America is a friend of each nation and every man, woman, and child who seeks a future of writing business essays, peace and dignity, and that we are ready to lead once more. And Semiotics!  Recall that earlier generations faced down fascism and communism not just with missiles and tanks, but with sturdy alliances and of psychology master s thesis enduring convictions. They understood that our power alone cannot protect us, nor does it entitle us to do as we please. Instead, they knew that our power grows through its prudent use; our security emanates from the justness of our cause, the force of our example, the tempering qualities of thesis and semiotics, humility and restraint. In Computer Technology In 2011!  We are the keepers of this legacy. Guided by these principles once more, we can meet those new threats that demand even greater effort even greater cooperation and understanding between nations. Thesis And Semiotics! We will begin to responsibly leave Iraq to its people, and forge a hard-earned peace in Afghanistan. With old friends and eating eyeballs former foes, we will work tirelessly to lessen the nuclear threat, and thesis roll back the specter of eating eyeballs, a warming planet.
We will not apologize for thesis our way of in computer technology in 2011, life, nor will we waver in its defense, and for those who seek to and semiotics advance their aims by inducing terror and slaughtering innocents, we say to thesis usa you now that our spirit is stronger and cannot be broken; you cannot outlast us, and we will defeat you.  For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus and non-believers. Thesis! We are shaped by every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of master s thesis, civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of thesis, peace.  To the Muslim world, we seek a new way forward, based on mutual interest and writing business essays mutual respect. To those leaders around the and semiotics globe who seek to sow conflict, or blame their society#8217;s ills on the West know that your people will judge you on what you can build, not what you destroy. To those who cling to power through corruption and deceit and the silencing of dissent, know that you are on the wrong side of history; but that we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist.  To the people of poor nations, we pledge to work alongside you to writing business essays make your farms flourish and let clean waters flow; to nourish starved bodies and feed hungry minds. And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world#8217;s resources without regard to effect. For the world has changed, and we must change with it.  As we consider the and semiotics road that unfolds before us, we remember with humble gratitude those brave Americans who, at this very hour, patrol far-off deserts and eyeballs distant mountains. They have something to thesis and semiotics tell us today, just as the new invention in computer in 2011 fallen heroes who lie in Arlington whisper through the ages. Thesis! We honor them not only because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service; a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves. And yet, at moral thesis this moment a moment that will define a generation it is and semiotics, precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all.  For as much as government can do and must do, it is ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies. In 2011! It is the kindness to take in a stranger when the levees break, the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours.
It is the firefighter#8217;s courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent#8217;s willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate.  Our challenges may be new. The instruments with which we meet them may be new. But those values upon which our success depends hard work and honesty, courage and thesis fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism these things are old. Moral Thesis! These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. What is thesis and semiotics, required of us now is help writing argumentative essay, a new era of responsibility a recognition, on thesis and semiotics, the part of every American, that we have duties to ourselves, our nation, and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to essay the spirit, so defining of our character, than giving our all to a difficult task.  This is the price and the promise of and semiotics, citizenship.  This is the source of our confidence the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny.  This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed why men and eating essay women and children of every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall, and why a man whose father less than sixty years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath. Thesis!  So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have traveled. In the thesis usa year of America#8217;s birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. And Semiotics! The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing.
The snow was stained with blood. Moral Thesis! At a moment when the and semiotics outcome of help argumentative essay, our revolution was most in thesis and semiotics, doubt, the father of moral thesis, our nation ordered these words be read to thesis and semiotics the people:  #8220;Let it be told to the future world#8230;that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive#8230;that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet [it].#8221;  America. In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of moral thesis, our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children#8217;s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God#8217;s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of and semiotics, freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.  Thank you. God bless you.  And God bless the United States of America. This article is one of a series of speech critiques of inspiring speakers featured on Six Minutes . Subscribe to new invention in computer Six Minutes for thesis free to eating essay receive future speech critiques. Thesis! This is a thoughtful and insightful analysis of Obama#8217;s speech.
The 5 lessons are well put and useful for any writer. While in my blog I said Obama#8217;s inaugural was #8216;very good#8217; not #8216;great#8217;, nonetheless, it was artfully constructed and this blog brilliantly shows how. the speech is good to thesis usa getting to the point and although its not as great and optimistic as people had expected; its truthful and thesis and semiotics realistic to the current state and difficulties in eating essay, which the nations stand. One other thing that he did really did was the thesis and semiotics use of anaphora in writing essays, paragraphs 12-14, each of these three paragraphs (again, power of thesis and semiotics, three!) beginning with #8220;For us#8221; Liked your comments, but would add lots more and indeed I think there are things to be remembered like the thesis usa one I liked best: we will extend a hand if you are willing to unclench your fist. And Semiotics! or your people will judge you#8230; thanks, I will subscribe right away to keep receiving comments and whatever. This is a suberb speech analysis, almost a complete speech writing course. For me, the word pictures are amazing: “rising tides of prosperity and the still waters of peace” “we will extend a hand if you are willing to technology in 2011 unclench your fist” Fantastic, easy to understand and the words apply to all of us. His speech gives us the thing that we all look for#8230; hope, the thing that we all need. The verbal snapshot is very clever, how is it done? I have never read such an impressive and meaningfull speech. I was given an aasignment by my instructor to analyze different speeches of popular people around the world and my choice was President Barak Obamas.
However, I couldn#8217;t find any shortcoming in and semiotics, the speech. Good bless him so many so many times. Student Melkamu Bersissa. Moral Thesis! From Africa, Ethiopia, Haramay University. I really like your article. But it would be great if you did?t just explain how to write a speech but how to analyse it. Thanks from Germany. Thesis And Semiotics! This article is very useful and wonderfully analysed. Thank you so much. There is so much skill and knowledge involved to be judgemental about one of the world#8217;s greatest figures in thesis usa, today#8217;s society! thank you !! i have always admired MR Barack Obama speeches.am interested in speech making and i love this article.
Excellent analysis! I like the rhythm created by the rule of three and use that all the time. I love reading your blog man, every tip is comes across as practical and readily applicable, easy to read and comfortable to follow, marvel to understand and a delight to thesis learn. Example Of Psychology S Thesis! Your blog is a gem. And Semiotics! Keep it coming, I#8217;m going to visit your blog everyday from now on. Keep up your good work, thoroughly appreciate you insight intellect.
Excellent analysis of an excellent speech! Very glad to have found this website- I was able to take a lot of writing business essays, key components of speech writing and delivery from this analysis. anyone who loves this country would love the speech. Thanks a million for an excellent blog from a high school teacher in Copenhagen, Denmark! I love this. As a teacher it makes my job very easy. I appreciate you offering this lesson! Blessings to you and your family. I usually use Obama#8217;s speeches in my classes of and semiotics, English. Sir, I would like to read more of of psychology, your analysis of speeches. Thanks. And Semiotics! Thanks for the beautiful edition#8230;#8230;.it gav me a better idea of making great speeches#8230;#8230;on the other hand it would be much great if it is more illustrated.in simple terms#8230;..thanks.
many thanks for the lessons you share. I not only like it as it is very academic, but I also make it the handout for my students. Eyeballs! Again, many thanks. This is good stuff. And Semiotics! Thanks! Obama is jewish. Dude Obama is the business worst president in American history.
As trump said. Then obama burned him. Thesis! Wow he got praanked. Now trump is pres. DUDE SO TRUE M8 GET PRANKED. Thesis Usa! OMG SHUT UP IM TRIGGED. 5 Speech writing Lessons from Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/E4yVNPMt via @6minutes. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#39;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/jfghBkSI via @6minutes. Here is another #speech critic about Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech.
Have a look http://t.co/IBj5WkM5jA #speechwriting #lessons #ruleofthree. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech http://t.co/nJ0nBIC2Ff via @6minutes. #TuesdayTips Excellent speechwriting lessons from President Obama’s Inaugural Speech by @6minutes https://t.co/pxoJkrZjMu. Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/YEB809ZvlB by @6minutes. And Semiotics! Speech Analysis: Barack Obama#8217;s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/MDgXhLUyJp by moral thesis, @6minutes. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/qzh1bcvcNy by @6minutes. 5 Speechwriting Lessons from Obama’s Inaugural Speech https://t.co/7KSSx67XMw by @6minutes.
Humor, audience interaction Dick Hardt (OSCON, 2005) Lessig Method of Presentation. Discusses the different types of stories that every speaker must be able to tell. And Semiotics! Weaves numerous stories through the book. Eating Eyeballs! Who Should Read It (1) Anyone who is not yet convinced how powerful storytelling can be. (2) Speakers looking to enhance their story repertoire. Book Review Read our book review.
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CHAPTER 3 - Semiotics, Linguistics, and Visual
can use etc essay How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to construct an thesis and semiotics effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?
W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the business essays, whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to thesis and semiotics, discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for the best writers.
But you're about to moral thesis, find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. Thesis. It's just not like that. In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is in computer technology a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it.
An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an and semiotics overview of your response to the essay question. This is new invention technology in 2011 a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in thesis and semiotics, a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is s thesis merely a series of thesis and semiotics PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for example of psychology master s thesis, what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to thesis, the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of eating essay writing that makes a strong and and semiotics well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of violence in eating eyeballs essay, Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and thesis and semiotics an analysis of moral thesis these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is thesis and semiotics sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'.
It's what the essay goes on technology, to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts. This point is crucial to take on board. Thesis And Semiotics. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for moral thesis, example, misinterpreting the thesis, text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in in computer technology, opinions, not facts . This is and semiotics why your teacher is looking to of psychology s thesis, read your views and and semiotics why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview?
This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the business, aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay.
This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on thesis and semiotics, the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to be focused on essay, the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to thesis, avoid waffle and moral thesis generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the and semiotics, bulk of the essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to writing essays, open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by thesis and semiotics opening each and every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the writing business essays, highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that?
Show me from the thesis, text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an moral thesis analysis of the quotation's literary and linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the thesis and semiotics, aspect of the text or the quotation 'works' within the help writing essay, context of the essay question and the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to and semiotics, make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the moral thesis, use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the thesis and semiotics, method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and business its themes (e.g. And Semiotics. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on example, the story the author wants to thesis and semiotics, gain the reader's attention in order to thesis usa, begin exploring the overall theme of thesis and semiotics injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is of psychology master s thesis absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle!
What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is thesis easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. thesis statement ) that could be used to create an thesis usa argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of thesis points with each point explained , developed and supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of eyeballs what is called the thesis, body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on moral thesis, the point that the theme of and semiotics ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for writing an effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into essays your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the and semiotics, text and business essays the essay question.
Here are some examples of thesis and semiotics how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and moral thesis Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in and semiotics, complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste':
Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is moral thesis a lack of understanding of the text on which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. Thesis And Semiotics. You won't succeed if you don't! I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus.
This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the text. You need to of psychology, be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at and semiotics, least one quotation - or reference to the text - per moral thesis paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in thesis and semiotics, effective ways in their writing . Aim only to new invention technology, choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to and semiotics, discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to example, build tension , mood , character , a sense of thesis place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the example master s thesis, writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and thesis and semiotics style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is example called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at and semiotics, different levels ; it is new invention in 2011 your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. Thesis And Semiotics. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of essay aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed.
Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for thesis and semiotics, the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the thesis usa, focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to and semiotics, answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to eating eyeballs essay, show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of and semiotics your essay you will also need to write an overview of the writing, text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of thesis course, this must be focused on the requirements of the writing essay, essay question.
Giving a succinct account of the thesis and semiotics, big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and eyeballs is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is thesis always impressive to eyeballs essay, incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of thesis and semiotics course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). Business. The majority of thesis and semiotics marks in moral thesis, an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and and semiotics literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to writing business, introduce the context.
TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and thesis and semiotics Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the example of psychology, opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in thesis, your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the technology in 2011, text for this. In the and semiotics, essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the argumentative essay, analysis system called P.E.E. And Semiotics. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the eating eyeballs, text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of thesis quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of moral thesis each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way?
How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the thesis and semiotics, text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the moral thesis, text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the thesis, POINT part of thesis usa P.E.E.); A useful tip is to thesis, open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by writing business referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to and semiotics, write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the in computer in 2011, story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an explanation of and thesis a discussion on aspects of the language the argumentative essay, author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the and semiotics, effect the language creates and thesis usa the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E).
You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the thesis and semiotics, text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by eating essay discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to an earlier point. This ignores the thesis and semiotics, work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and essay loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to thesis, an essay is important but causes problems for many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and help logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the and semiotics, main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument.
2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea). 3. End by thesis usa identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to thesis and semiotics, introduce no new material at thesis usa, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the thesis, play is new invention in computer technology in 2011 set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the and semiotics, violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in the coming scene. It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and eating eyeballs style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY.
FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And Semiotics. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about of psychology master, a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of thesis and semiotics it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the example of psychology, importance of thesis and semiotics form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and of psychology s thesis use CAPS LOCK. Thesis And Semiotics. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the example, look - the form - of your writing. Thesis And Semiotics. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in thesis usa, sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections.
Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . And Semiotics. This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at business, the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and thesis and semiotics appearance and by adding illustrations and thesis usa photographs , and thesis so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of help writing argumentative course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of thesis form. In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of master comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to thesis, the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is its basic dictionary meaning.
It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of of psychology s thesis darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and phrases can be used differently from their literal context and thesis given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). Thesis Usa. The most common way this is done is to use a word not for and semiotics, its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. Essays. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on words - is another way that meaning can be played with in thesis, an interesting way. Writing Business Essays. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous. Irony is a key way that writers use to thesis and semiotics, create layers of meaning.
Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is moral thesis intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to and semiotics, recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in help argumentative, unpicking the various levels of meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in thesis and semiotics, speech because the original sound of voice and moral thesis facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an ironic tone (or any tone, for that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. And Semiotics. It is a key reading skill to example, be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is thesis taking towards their subject matter.
An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Example. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to thesis, buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing argumentative writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is thesis and semiotics important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to one that is more emotional and persuasive!
Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to writing business, comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to thesis and semiotics, create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of of psychology a writer's language, you are commenting on thesis, the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and eating essay forget to compare and thesis and semiotics contrast the moral thesis, texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !).
This will mean being even more careful and thesis and semiotics sparing when you write an overview of example of psychology each text, in thesis, which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the first text fully before moving on to the writing argumentative essay, second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . And Semiotics. This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to moral thesis, support the thesis and semiotics, points are taken from writing essay, one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.
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Essays, Novels and the Question of ‘Experience’ It is easy to forget today that the essay and the novel were both forged in thesis the publishing crucible of the periodical, and that for much of the eighteenth century the two genres were very closely associated. As Gigante indicates in The Great Age of the thesis usa English Essay , both early novelists and and semiotics, essayists inhabited ‘a pseudo-fictional space somewhere between a public sphere marked by cultural change and a more private, self-enclosed world’ (xv). They filtered many of their philosophical ruminations and social commentary through the medium of a narrative character, such as Steele’s ‘Isaac Bickerstaff’, Addison’s ‘Mr Spectator’, James Boswell’s ‘Hypochondriack’, or Samuel Johnson’s ‘Idler’. Again, like the novel, the periodical essay blurred the boundaries between factual reporting and writing, make-believe (the preface of Daniel Defoe’s celebrated proto-novel, Robinson Crusoe (1719), for example, presents Crusoe’s tale as ‘a just History of Fact,’ without ‘any Appearance of Fiction in it’). It was only later, in the nineteenth century, as the novel became more overtly fictional and the critical essay more straightforwardly critical and reflective, that the thesis two genres begin to diverge.
One reason behind this early intimacy between the essay and the novel is an ambiguity within the eighteenth-century understanding of ‘experience,’ which remained broad enough to accommodate notions of activity as well as receptivity. Indeed, until the of psychology eighteenth century, the words ‘experience’ and ‘experiment’ are so closely connected that they are used more or less synonymously to mean the thesis act of practical, tentative trial. John Bender, in his essay, ‘Novel Knowledge: Judgement, Experience, Experiment’ notes that, while the essays English term ‘experience’ and the French ‘experience’ are distinct (in that only the latter is fully synonymous with ‘experiment’), experience and experiment ‘intertwine so richly, as in Hume’s discussions of judgement and probability in and semiotics his Treatise of Human Nature, that they become elements in writing one conceptual domain’. Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary further testifies to this continued intimacy, defining the noun ‘experience’ as ‘1. Practice; frequent trial’ and ‘2. Thesis? Knowledge gained by thesis usa, trial and practice.’ This practical and social conception of experience spurred essayists and novelists to experiment with ‘experience’, and thesis and semiotics, with the fictions of belief that made experience possible. As Locke’s philosophy of ideas developed throughout the eighteenth century, however, this picture gradually changes. As Bender notes, experimentalism was itself an extension of writing business essays one branch of Francis Bacon’s model of knowledge, according to thesis and semiotics, which knowledge was seen to occur ‘when general principles were determined through controlled analysis of thesis usa particulars as they emerged from the thesis planned and specialised form of experience called the thesis usa experiment.’ As the century progressed, experience as experiment became more methodical, more subject to scientific and logical procedures determined by thesis and semiotics, a Lockean, psychologised rendering of Bacon’s epistemology. This in turn triggered the emergence of an alternative field of experience, one that was more holistic, anti-procedural, and based in psychological elements such as pure sensation, feeling, and emotion–topics that would be explored in the sentimental fiction of the late eighteenth century, in novels such as Henry Mackenzie’s The Man of Feeling (1771). Efforts by essay, Romantic poets such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Percy Bysshe Shelley to reunite experience by combining scientific experimentalism and ‘feeling’ merely revealed the extent to which these two different conceptions had become polarized by the early nineteenth century.
As this division hardened, the paths of the novel (devoted to fictional recreation of experience) and the reflective essay (dedicated to and semiotics, the scientific understanding of experience) continued to diverge.  John Bender, ‘Novel Knowledge: Judgement, Experience, Experiment,’ Fictions of Knowledge: Fact, Evidence, Doubt , eds. Yota Batsaki, et al. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012) 135.  Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language , 4 th ed., vol 1 (London, 1777).  Bender, ‘Novel Knowledge’ 136. The Great Age of the English Essay. Recently, I’ve been rereading Denise Gigante’s wonderful anthology of eighteenth-century and Romantic-era periodical essays, The Great Age of the English Essay (Yale University Press, 2008). Eating? Gigante’s authoritative editorial introduction to the volume is scholarly and yet lively and readable, and I’d recommend it to anyone with an interest in the subject.
The period of 1700-1830 was undoubtedly a Golden Age for the essay in English literature. Thesis? As Gigante notes, periodicals such as Richard Steele’s The Tatler (1710-11) and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1712-15) broke away from the conventions of business essays their Restoration precursors, which had generally served as forums for bawdy gossip and scandal. Instead, the new periodical ‘set out to address a polite, mixed audience of middle-class readers’ (xxi). The fundamental aim of the essay in the age of thesis ‘Enlightenment’ was to instigate and foster intelligent conversation among a growing section of literate, urbane, middle-class readers who had little access to the levers of new invention in computer political power other than through the medium of literature and critical debate. Associated with this development is the emergence in the early eighteenth century of the concept of the ‘Republic of Letters,’ access to which depended more upon thesis and semiotics education and learning than upon class or even gender. It is this ‘Republic’ of writing polite letters that the philosopher and and semiotics, social theorist Jurgen Habermas (in his seminal The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere ) labelled as the thesis usa ‘Public Sphere.’ Focused largely in the clubs and coffee-houses of the capital, the thesis Public Sphere was an intellectual space in which merchants and writing essays, aristocrats met on thesis, relatively equal terms to engage in debate upon any topic of interest.
In the eyeballs essay first number of The Spectator , Mr Spectator describes himself as an eavesdropper on these very conversations: There is no place of and semiotics general resort, wherein I do not often make my appearance; sometimes I am seen thrusting my head into a round of argumentative essay politicians and Will’s, and listening with great attention to the narratives that are made in those little circular audiences. Sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child ‘s; and whilst I seem attentive to nothing but the thesis and semiotics Post-Man , over-hear the moral thesis conversation at every table in the room. I appear on Sunday nights at St. James ‘s Coffee-House, and sometimes join the little committee of politicians in the inner room, as one who comes there to hear and improve. My face is very well known at the Graecian , the Cocoa-Tree , and in the theatres both of and semiotics Drury-Lane and the Hay-Market . As Habermas points out, the birth of the writing argumentative modern periodical essay coincides with the advent of this modern notion of the ‘public’ as a sphere of open, critical debate. In fact, this is more than just a coincidence: the periodical essay becomes both the embodiment of, and a medium for, bourgeois ideology.
Early essays were instrumental in forging a identity for an emerging British middle-class, one defined around notions of tolerance, civic virtue, practical wisdom and (above all) free debate. Consequently, the newly formed ‘Public Sphere’ comes to be defined through the very activities detailed and celebrated by the essayists: debate, criticism, conversation, toleration. Habermas observes that in the Tatler , the Spectator , and the Guardian ‘the public held up a mirror to itself; it did not yet come to a self-understanding through the detour of a reflection on and semiotics, works of philosophy and literature, art and science, but through entering itself into “literature” as an object.’ Accordingly, ‘[t]he public that read and debated this sort of thing read and writing argumentative, debated about itself.’ (43) One of the great attractions of the ‘essay’ (a word that is etymologically linked to the words ‘trial’ and ‘attempt’) is the way in which it relieves writers of the thesis and semiotics wearisome business of having to justify their efforts or explain what they are broadly ‘about’. Thesis Usa? The essay bypasses the preludium and cuts straight to the main action. Rather than setting out thesis from the start of a topic, it plunges straight into the middle. One of the great English essayists, Charles Lamb, recognised this aspect of the essay’s character. Indeed, in one his best-known essays, ‘The Old Margate Hoy’ (1823), he introduces a figure who uncannily resembles the essayist himself. Recounting a sea trip upon the eponymous vessel during a miserable holiday to the south coast of England, Lamb describes one of his fellow passengers in moral thesis the following terms:
He was a dark, Spanish complexioned young man, remarkably handsome, with an officer-like assurance, and an insuppressible volubility of assertion. He was, in fact, the greatest liar I had met with then, or since. He was none of thesis and semiotics your hesitating, half story-tellers (a most painful description of mortals) who go on sounding your belief, and example of psychology s thesis, only giving you as much as they see you can swallow at thesis and semiotics a time–the nibbling pickpockets of your patience–but one who committed downright, daylight depredations upon his neighbour’s faith. He did not stand shivering upon the brink, but was a hearty thorough-paced liar, and plunged at once into the depths of your credulity. Charles Lamb, ‘The Old Margate Hoy,’ ( The Works of Charles and Mary Lamb , ed. E.V. Lucas, vol. 2 (London, Methuen Co., 1903) 178) Rather than causing offence or annoyance, the tall tales of the ‘Spanish complexioned young man’ (such as how he had served as Aid-de-camp to a Persian prince, seen a phoenix in Egypt and sailed through the legs of the Colossus at Rhodes) offer a welcome respite from the tedium of the moral thesis boat trip.
As Lamb puts it, ‘[h]is dreaming fancies had transported us beyond the “ignorant present.”‘ ( Works 179) Similarly, Lamb’s method as an essayist is to play a delicate game with the thesis and semiotics good faith of his reader. Instead of argumentative attempting to earn credit through argument and persuasion, he immediately adopts a posture of familiarity. Lamb wrote most of his essays for the London Magazine under the pen-name and the persona of ‘Elia.’ Like the liar which his very name evokes, ‘Elia’ dives straight into his reader’s confidence. It’s interesting to note that by thesis and semiotics, doing so, however, he does not forfeit our trust. In the essay genre, as on the deck of the old ‘Margate Hoy’, there is an implicit recognition that the normal rules of social intercourse are suspended. One might take this further, and argue that what the essay as a genre suggests is that the ‘leap of faith,’ or act of trust is fundamental to all human communication. It’s tempting to think of language is a medium for expressing what we have already thought. In reality, however, we never get to moral thesis, construct our thoughts in a kind of intellectual dry dock; instead, like the and semiotics essayist, we must first dive into conversation, and then build our vessel at sea.
The problem of how to begin is an unavoidable one for any writer. There are few things as daunting as the icy wastes of an empty page. At some point or other, one must launch oneself onto the great white wall of the new invention in 2011 blank screen (or, for those of us who still use them, the thesis sheet of moral thesis paper) and begin a slow, faltering descent in black script into what it is one has to say. And Semiotics? To begin anything from new invention in computer technology in 2011, such a position is to take a leap of faith. There is no way of knowing, at the beginning, whether such a leap will turn out to have been in and semiotics any way worthwhile. In fact, I’m already experiencing a number of thesis usa quite justifiable doubts about the one I’m taking here. The essay genre, the history and theory of which will (I hope) become the main focus of ‘Periodical’, offers a unique and radical solution to this perennial problem of thesis and semiotics beginning. Unlike many other genres, the essay does not observe the new invention in computer usual niceties of starting a conversation with its reader.
It does not salute you or introduce itself, it does not wipe its feet carefully on the doormat of your attention, shaking your hand and thesis, carefully preparing you for the thoughts that it is about to impart. Instead, the essay dispenses with introductions. It accosts the writing business reader with an entirely unwarranted but seductive air of intimacy. This template was set by the father of the modern essay, Michel de Montaigne. In his Essais (1580), Montaigne claimed to write for and semiotics nobody but himself. As he writes in his essay ‘Of Practice’ (1573-74): ‘What I write here is not my teaching, but my study; it is not a lesson for others, but for of psychology s thesis me’ ( The Complete Essays of thesis and semiotics Michel de Montaigne , ed. Donald M. Frame (Stanford University Press, 1958) 272). By claiming to eating eyeballs, write for himself alone, Montaigne granted himself a license to thesis, be more open, and consequently more intimate with his reader:
What I chiefly portray is example of psychology master s thesis, my cogitations, a shapeless subject that does not lend itself to expression in actions. […] I expose myself entire: my portrait is a cadaver on which the veins, the and semiotics muscles, and moral thesis, the tendons appear at a glance, each part in its place. ( Complete Essays 247) This attitude also enabled Montaigne to follow his thoughts wherever they tended and regardless of and semiotics their ‘shapeless’ content. The Essais are often confessional and consciously unmethodical. Their titles reflect topics (‘Parley Time is Dangerous,’ ‘Of Moderation,’ ‘Of the Parsimony of the essay Ancients’) that follow no obvious plan or programme but which reflect the contingent nature of Montaigne’s interests at any particular time. Indeed, in many ways they are the ancestors of the modern blog, the writer of which has inherited many of the qualities of Montaigne’s essayist.
The reader can rest assured that the author of and semiotics this blog will not be peeling back his skin, a la Montaigne, to expose the veins, muscles and tendons of his inner life. What I hope to do, however, is to start an unmethodical conversation about that most unmethodical and conversational of literary genres: the essay.