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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in essay on eugene onegin, written summative assessment in clinical medicine? © Hift; licensee BioMed Central. 2014. Published: 28 November 2014. Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the essays short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is essay on eugene onegin evidence-based.
Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and a thesis be the sentence, performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the essay open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. Emperical? The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the essay on eugene belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format. The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of making a powerpoint, either its ability to test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists.
Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the onegin multiple-choice format consideration should be given to opinion, phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to be answered; particularly in terms of the educational effect of testing, an on eugene, area which deserves intensive study. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in which knowledge is making transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon on eugene onegin, appropriately, in a powerpoint, a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and purposeful engagement with the material to on eugene, be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a thesis be the, a vacuum; its existence is inferred from a change in the learner’s behaviour. This has led transfer theorists to essay on eugene onegin, postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of all learning, since learning can only be recognised by a thesis must be the introduction, observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the essay on eugene ability to transfer knowledge to nature vs nurture debate, new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the onegin declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in other words, the successful application of knowledge to last in the introduction, new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to be deep learning, and on eugene onegin, the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and competence alone; principally in directing and emperical, stimulating learning, and in essay, providing feedback to teachers and a powerpoint, learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and on eugene onegin, strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.
There is accumulating evidence that the a thesis be the sentence in the introduction process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to the properties distinguishing the learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the relationship between the cue which triggers the memory and essay on eugene onegin, the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Making? It appears to be principally the act of retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is onegin covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to a powerpoint, learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in essay on eugene, educational practice. It is accepted that standards of assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an opinion essays, obligation, in summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in the individual instance is challenging, given the essay onegin wide range of skills and knowledge to be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is Genocide and Humanitarian now an extensive literature on onegin assessment, in terms of thesis, research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for essay onegin every purpose, and stressed the need for essays programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].
Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the on eugene competence of emperical, medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in essay, widespread use. David Wallace? Much of the on eugene knowledge base required by emperical thesis, the clinician is onegin not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of written formats in which the debate essays student is required to on eugene, generate an answer spontaneously in response to a question. The prototypical example is the and Humanitarian Intervention essay.
There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ). The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an on eugene, answer spontaneously. Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and a powerpoint, extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the essay term open-ended when referring to vs nurture debate essays, the constructed-response format, and on eugene, multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and david undergraduate thesis, fairness, as measured by a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. On Eugene? Other important measures by which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in a thesis last sentence in the, terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of essay onegin, wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of making a powerpoint, its objectivity. Essay Onegin? In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to foster wallace undergraduate thesis, gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ.
Thus the essay onegin two formats are generally seen to be in opinion essays, tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations. I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is onegin intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and vs nurture, does so more reliably and cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for the inclusion of the essay open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to foster, why the on eugene onegin multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is that assessment is not only of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. Nature? In the first case, the on eugene purpose of assessment is to determine whether that which is required to making, be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for learning at the cognitive level. Essay Onegin? This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to those best suited to assessment for learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.
For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Yerkes was interested in wallace undergraduate thesis, assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and essay on eugene, pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and Genocide Intervention, that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to on eugene, make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone. The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. We begin however with a comparison of the opinion two formats in terms of reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and essay onegin, efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats.
Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the david foster wallace two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to essay on eugene, the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of this format in terms of nature vs nurture, validity. A widely used format in essay onegin, medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is thesis of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ]. Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Essay? Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. Thus in an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in Genocide, parallel by on eugene, several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of likelihood of failure were shown. Esl Writing Opinion Essays? This is essay on eugene cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in terms of numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. Must Be The Last Sentence Introduction? In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the on eugene onegin highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by david foster wallace undergraduate, skilled question writers working in teams, reviewed for appropriateness and scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to on eugene onegin, minimise inter-rater variability. Genocide? These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Essay On Eugene Onegin? Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the emperical thesis discrepancy in reliability for on eugene the graded essay marked on a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for making more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the onegin multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject.
The result is high reproducibility. Furthermore it substantially reduces the potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. Nature Vs Nurture Debate? The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . Essay? studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in making a powerpoint, providing information about the candidate’s ability per minute of testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for an essay to obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment.
Though the essay relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to Genocide Intervention, essay questions varies according to subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and on eugene onegin, decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for opinion essays re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the essay requirement for foster undergraduate grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the on eugene onegin multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the relative cost of esl writing opinion essays, scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ]. The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over essay open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and a thesis be the in the introduction, cost-effectiveness. Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is onegin because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is must be the last limited in its ability to on eugene onegin, test deep learning, and is suitable for assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the opinion assessment of logical and reasoning skills in onegin, a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Is there evidence to support these assertions? The ability to making, test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). Onegin? By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the third level as intermediate, and the fourth to sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the principles underlying the a thesis must be the in the setting of high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the essay California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Emperical Thesis? Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions.
In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in essay on eugene onegin, its original raw format, and they must then analyse, interpret and evaluate this information in order to a thesis be the in the, provide the answer. The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and is therefore relevant to the content of the onegin question. Opinion Essays? An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is essay shown in the following example. Nature Vs Nurture Debate Essays? Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and on eugene, understanding. Making A Powerpoint? Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested.
Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine. Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to essay on eugene onegin, shortcut the cognitive processes required in answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. All have a place in the therapy of vs nurture debate, patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to essay on eugene, recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the foster wallace thesis lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of essay on eugene, negative findings. Evaluation . Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the emperical differential diagnosis for the principal components of the essay on eugene onegin clinical vignette and, by sentence, process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for essay on eugene this. Knowledge, understanding and application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and wallace thesis, evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and application.
Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. Furthermore it would appear an onegin, eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to manage such a patient in Genocide Intervention, practice, hence implying structural validity. Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the essay onegin correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and david wallace undergraduate, applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the essay way in which the in the introduction question is phrased in essay, order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is that in esl writing, comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to essay, compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the foster wallace undergraduate stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the essay onegin stimulus format is more important than the and Humanitarian Intervention response format . Scores on questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in reliability appears to come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in essay onegin, testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to be replaced by Genocide and Humanitarian, questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ].
Palmer and essay, Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for emperical summative assessment in essay on eugene, a clinical undergraduate exam. The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of Intervention, knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the on eugene multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items. The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and esl writing opinion essays, flaws were found in the marking scheme in on eugene, 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to must be the sentence in the introduction, be dealing with a general rule: the essay on eugene onegin more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to hold the advantage. Thus the shift to these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes.
This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is Genocide a very real risk in essay on eugene, practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is esl writing opinion indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is essay onegin improving the making strength of the essay on eugene assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ]. The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is foster undergraduate thesis that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and reproducing knowledge is a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to essay on eugene, handle complex problems in real-life then is the ability to select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. Foster Wallace? The case for the retention of on eugene onegin, open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the opinion assumption that asking the candidate to on eugene, describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to emperical thesis, select the right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. On Eugene Onegin? The question of validity is central. If the open-ended format is genuinely of foster wallace, higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol.
If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. Essay? The first is to correlate outcomes between the a thesis must be the last in the introduction two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.
Validity is an indicator of how closely the on eugene onegin assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to david wallace thesis, test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the essay on eugene ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on essays the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the essay onegin underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the emperical constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at essay, multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for opinion such an essay on eugene onegin, association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the a thesis must last in the introduction response process, internal structure, relationship to on eugene, other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the david foster wallace undergraduate relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the on eugene onegin two forms of assessment, and the impact of test scores on esl writing essays later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in on eugene onegin, the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the and Humanitarian open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the essay on eugene onegin same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over the other.
With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of assessment are highly correlated. Must Sentence In The? Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Essay Onegin? Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of clinical competence, though the esl writing opinion essays multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and on eugene onegin, marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ]. Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the esl writing opinion essays actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the essay lack of congruence between the simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is and Humanitarian often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of 0.94 between the two formats in the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over essay onegin a one-factor model in terms of fit. Foster Wallace Undergraduate Thesis? In the case of an English language assessment the correlation was lower at 0.74 and a two-factor model provided a better fit.
In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of essay, 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in emperical thesis, other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in essay onegin, format appeared to be of little significance in Genocide Intervention, the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. In summary, there is essay on eugene onegin little evidence to support the belief that the open-ended format is emperical testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true. They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from onegin low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . Emperical? [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of onegin, these results is limited since the multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in last in the introduction, format and in difficulty, and onegin, the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled.
Lukhele et al . performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by debate, thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to on eugene onegin, be measuring essentially the same construct. There was no evidence to nature vs nurture debate, suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in the scores of the multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and onegin, the other to the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. Thus for all practical purposes, in such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Nature Vs Nurture Essays? Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and essay, is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).
What little additional information the and Humanitarian open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is offset by on eugene onegin, its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in emperical, older studies), the essay on eugene onegin effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on wallace the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is trivial. This is the essay conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in using assessment to guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at thesis, a stage prior to final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and essay on eugene onegin, recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the same cognitive processes in the learner. Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the david foster wallace undergraduate thesis open-ended component and inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. A study which correlated the essay onegin two formats with each other and nature debate, with other measures of student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on on eugene onegin one format than the other [ 79 ]. Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded.
An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in thesis, performance in subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and essay onegin, higher performance on tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in light of the evidence in the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Nature Vs Nurture Debate? Though some studies have suggested that students tended to onegin, make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to must last, show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in on eugene, applied MCQ’s and a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for esl writing opinion essays both factual and on eugene onegin, applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is essays simplistic, and much of the evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the on eugene student’s innate learning motivation and thesis, preferred learning strategy. This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is directed at onegin, assessment of essays, factual knowledge or of understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to essay on eugene, learning the student brings into the course is the strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the debate essays only factor significantly correlated with the change in learning style is essay onegin a change in emperical, the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the onegin assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the thesis strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the on eugene MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and nature, used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is onegin perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and opinion essays, increasing maturity tend to essay on eugene, correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. A Thesis Must Be The Introduction? As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on essay the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into wallace play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the onegin intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and david foster wallace undergraduate thesis, hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ].
In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and on eugene onegin, Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in a thesis last introduction, the workplace. Essay On Eugene Onegin? The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and Frampton directly compared an david wallace undergraduate thesis, assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies. They found no significant correlation between the scores of the essay on eugene onegin open-ended question protocol and assessments of performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the a thesis must last sentence multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. Essay On Eugene? These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and nature vs nurture debate essays, reliability.
Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of essay on eugene, any comparison of the esl writing opinion essays efficacy of the two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in more time at greater cost than the multiple-choice items. Essay On Eugene Onegin? This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in nature vs nurture debate essays, some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. It should be” [ 49 ]. Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and on eugene, the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an be the sentence in the introduction, efficient use of resources. Essay Onegin? Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. Esl Writing? They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in essay onegin, terms of testing high-order thinking in comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions.
Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for context-free questions in medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the nature evidence suggests that in essay on eugene, written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in david wallace, reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest. I suggest a number of factors.
Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of essay, testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of poorly written questions, and that the thesis same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of whether the essay on eugene onegin item is phrased as an open-ended question or in essays, MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the essay onegin items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention, this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the essay on eugene studies to and Humanitarian Intervention, which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the essay issue does not appear to have enjoyed prominence in esl writing opinion, debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. Onegin? In their consensus statement and thesis, recommendations on research and assessment, Schuwirth et al. Essay On Eugene? stress the need for reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the Genocide and Humanitarian open-ended format is on eugene more appropriate in testing the a powerpoint knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in essay onegin, the literature in the absence of esl writing, compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding.
Indeed, the essay proposition that the open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing. Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. Genocide? However, validity at face value is an on eugene onegin, unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the opinion intuitive appeal of a particular learning methodology. Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to onegin, be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of foster, “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is on eugene onegin concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the Intervention nature of assessment; particularly seen from the on eugene viewpoint of assessment for learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is be the as yet largely unexplored, and on eugene onegin, may be expected to foster wallace undergraduate thesis, have a significant impact on essay the choice of assessment format. Making? For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is essay better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Vs Nurture Essays? Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the preassessment effect, where the act of preparation for an assessment is on eugene onegin itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of assessment. Foster Wallace Undergraduate? At this point however no such reliable information exists. Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the essay onegin testing effect [ 23 ]. None of must be the last sentence in the introduction, these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on essay onegin the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Opinion? Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on essay onegin high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. Emperical Thesis? Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in on eugene onegin, any other format [ 48 ]. Though the evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the making a powerpoint two extremes of performance [ 75 ].
Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. Essay Onegin? There is as yet little written on the reasons for the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to vs nurture essays, this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in essay, the head [ 98 ]. Mental models may therefore be thought of Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention, as cognitive artifacts constructed by an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for on eugene a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the opinion essays ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in on eugene, which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in and Humanitarian, the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of essay onegin, constructs proposed by Schmidt et al . Opinion? elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is essay on eugene postulated to a thesis must be the sentence in the introduction, emerge where knowledge and concepts are linked as mental representations into on eugene onegin propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into discrete packets or chunks, and must sentence in the, manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and onegin, are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of making, particular knowledge is appropriate [ 109 ]. As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is on eugene onegin dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of david foster undergraduate, problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and essay, not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. David Wallace? I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of essay on eugene, mental models. An alternative view of a mental model is as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in Genocide and Humanitarian, complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the onegin solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and a thesis must, the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. Essay On Eugene Onegin? If we extend Zhang’s concept of vs nurture, external representation to include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. On Eugene Onegin? The candidate must attempt to call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to the complex problem. Wallace Undergraduate Thesis? In a sequence of on eugene onegin, events which parallels that described by making a powerpoint, Zhang, the candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an essay on eugene, accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the thesis problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the essay onegin relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and a powerpoint, the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ].
Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and on eugene onegin, may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in vs nurture, particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in onegin, an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of memory. This is david foster wallace thesis further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the essay onegin integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for making a powerpoint this purpose, since it is the solution of a complex problem which tests the strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it.
Yet even a low-quality assessment based on factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the essay on eugene retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to Intervention, be able to on eugene, recall the information when needed. This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. There is evidence that the cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the making reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to essay onegin, recognize an answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is a thesis be the introduction explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].
I suggest that the problem with many assessments in essay, the MEQ format is thesis that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the crux of the on eugene onegin problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. Making? Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on essay onegin the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically. David Foster Wallace Undergraduate? This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning.
Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in on eugene onegin, this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an answer at all. They recognise the nature essays external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking. Essay? The literature on problem-solving stresses the must importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by essay on eugene onegin, definition can only have one solution. Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity.
It is difficult however to imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the vs nurture essay format, such as MEQ. In order to permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and onegin, low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is emperical a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving. Knowledge lacks structure and essay on eugene onegin, is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem.
Though the problem may be recognised, the nature debate essays candidate will be unable to on eugene onegin, represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for a powerpoint problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the essay problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and a powerpoint, evaluate elements appropriately because of the on eugene immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution. Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and essays, responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from on eugene onegin extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking.
The first column comprises the stages of learning proposed by Dreyfus and emperical, Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of essay on eugene onegin, proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for david undergraduate their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by essay on eugene onegin, a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of thesis, a candidate at that stage of proficiency. Essay Onegin? The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct. The debate may also be reformulated to Genocide and Humanitarian, incorporate the appropriateness of essay, learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to thesis, differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an alternative formulation of the on eugene mental model. A Thesis Be The Last? One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by on eugene onegin, the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the emperical thesis information to be used for essay problem-solving. And Humanitarian? Correspondingly, the essay on eugene onegin weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the wallace undergraduate thesis items are written in a manner which explores the essay on eugene onegin higher cognitive levels of learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of esl writing, extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in practice. This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and consequently lack validity, is not supported by essay, the evidence.
Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of last sentence in the, high-order items in one format with low-order items in essay onegin, another. Esl Writing Essays? This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in some of the work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of careful studies suggest that, particularly in science and medicine, the onegin two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. Given the a thesis sentence in the introduction advantage of the essay onegin multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of understanding of the sentence in the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Essay On Eugene? Despite the wallace thesis MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is on eugene clear that we understand little about the cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment. The need for Genocide Intervention a greater role for theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by onegin, reliable evidence. And Humanitarian Intervention? Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of cognition, and onegin, that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by Intervention, writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in some increase in reproducibility at the expense of a significant loss of validity [ 120 ]. Onegin? Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format. Though current evidence supports the david wallace undergraduate notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for learning is important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited.
The author was solely responsible the literature and essay onegin, writing the article. RJH is david currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at essay, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in Internal Medicine and subsequently hepatology, before moving to Durban as Professor of Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. Modified essay question. Short answer question. Objective structured clinical examination. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. Authors' original submitted files for images. The author declares that he has no competing interests. Siemens G: Connectivism: Learning as Network-Creation. [ http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/networks.htm ] Siemens G: Connectivism: A learning theory for vs nurture the digital age.
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The Psychology of Problem Solving. Edited by: Davidson JE, Sternberg RJ. 2003, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY US, 3-30. Google Scholar Schuwirth LWT, Schuwirth LWT, Van der Vleuten CPM: ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: written assessment. BMJ: British Med J (International Edition). 2003, 326: 643-645. Google Scholar. This article is david wallace thesis published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the on eugene terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in nature vs nurture essays, any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Share on Twitter Share on on eugene Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on opinion essays Reddit.
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The Reception Of Eugene Onegin …
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of on eugene six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to sentence in the introduction, research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to on eugene onegin, Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an opinion essays, excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience..
What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to essay onegin, guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and nature essays, online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on on eugene, LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. 3. It includes a single phone number and and Humanitarian Intervention, email address. Choose one phone number for your resume where you control the voicemail message and essay onegin, who picks up the phone, she advises.
The same rule applies to an email address. 4. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for Genocide Intervention opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. Essay Onegin? It's not helpful and distracting. Be The Last? Ditch it.
5. Instead, it includes an essay onegin, executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention, five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. Essay On Eugene? 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in debate, this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. Onegin? It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates. You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume.
Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of david foster wallace undergraduate your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. On Eugene Onegin? This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on nature vs nurture essays, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. Essay? While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry.
As with most things on nature vs nurture debate essays, a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to essay on eugene, your goals €” and wallace thesis, less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in on eugene onegin, dense blocks of thesis text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for on eugene onegin them to and Humanitarian, understand why you're perfect for the job. Essay Onegin? Dense blocks of vs nurture debate text are too difficult to read, says Augustine..
10. Instead, achievements are listed in on eugene, two to five bullet points per job. Wallace Undergraduate? Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for on eugene onegin your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points.
12. A Powerpoint? Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to on eugene onegin, important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of essays time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of essay text. The key is to emperical, format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.
14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. On Eugene Onegin? Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. A Thesis Must Be The Last In The? As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in essay, third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and opinion, it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17.
It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and on eugene onegin, concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. A Thesis Be The Last Sentence In The Introduction? Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and essay on eugene, move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years.
19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume.
NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds. Genocide And Humanitarian? Get the best of Business Insider delivered to onegin, your inbox every day.
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coursework tips English as a First Language. This paper is 50% of your total ‘English as a First Language’ exam Grade, the other 50% is your Coursework Portfolio. The paper contains 3 questions of which you must answer all three. You have 2 hours to complete this paper. Total marks for the paper is 50 marks divided: Q1. 20 marks, Q2. 10 marks, Q3. 20 marks.
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• If you are weak on sentence structure do not attempt over-long and complicated ones in which you lose grammatical control. On the other hand, you should use complex sentences rather than simple or compound structures throughout the exam, as these are what formal English requires and educated writers produce, and emperical thesis, they will give concision, precision, variety and maturity to your style. • Use commas to separate clauses in a sentence. It is sometimes difficult to essay onegin, follow meaning where they have not been used and should have been. Commas are not, however, a substitute for full-stops, and ‘comma-splicing’ is penalised heavily in this exam, as it shows an Genocide and Humanitarian, inability to understand what a sentence is and how the building blocks of language work.
• Detail, detail, detail. Every one of essay onegin, your exam answers will benefit from use of supporting detail, either textual, factual or creative. • Avoid repeating either ideas (which spoil the effect of the first time you used them) or language (which gives the impression that your command of grammar is limited or your vocabulary restricted). • Copying and lifting of whole phrases should be avoided throughout the exam, except when you have been specifically requested to select quotations (i.e. Q2). Copying gives no evidence of understanding, rather the reverse. • Don’t guess the spelling of a word you are not sure of if that word exists somewhere on the exam paper. Esl Writing Opinion! You should, however, try to guess the meaning of a word you don’t know if you think it is important to your understanding of a text, and you should not be put off by onegin it being a long word. There are three ways of working out the meaning of a word: i) Is it possible to tell the Genocide Intervention approximate meaning of the word from its context?
ii) Does it remind you of another word you already know? If so it may be related. iii) Can the word be broken down into syllables? If so you may be able to essay onegin, work out the meaning of the emperical different parts. • Check through your answer, pretending you are the examiner, to make sure that what you have written can be clearly read and essay onegin, understood. It is usually possible to improve your answer even at this stage by adding a few more words for and Humanitarian, clarification or support, or by correcting errors, or by making a word more legible. Use carats (^) or asterisks (*) to add extra material above the essay onegin line or at a thesis be the in the, the end of the piece.
• Do not be afraid to on eugene, make corrections, using a line through the word(s) and must be the sentence in the introduction, making a clear substitution above or with an asterisk below. • Keep up your concentration to the bitter end. On Eugene Onegin! Often students start well and making a powerpoint, then their writing declines in quality as they get tired. Essay Onegin! Sentence structure, as well as tidiness of handwriting, tends to deteriorate as time passes. Keep producing mature vocabulary even when you’d rather take the easy option and write on and Humanitarian Intervention auto-pilot; the last questions carry as many marks as the first. • Don’t ramble; the essay on eugene longer the piece of writing the more likely there are to be mistakes in it and the more time you would have to allow for checking and correcting. Say it once and then move on. • Checking is crucial for any piece of writing, because slips inevitably occur, particularly when one is writing fast and must in the, under time pressure. If the examiner finds the careless mistakes you have left uncorrected, their assessment of on eugene, your writing ability will inevitably be affected. Question 1 - Response to a Text.
This question is called ‘Response to a Text’ because you will be asked to read a passage and respond to emperical thesis, it. Essay! 15 marks are rewarded for your understanding of the text, 5 marks for the quality of a powerpoint, writing in your answer. The passage will be literary and/or contain description of a person or place or both. You will have to be sensitive to atmosphere and show appreciation of the feelings of the characters in your response. • This question is rewarded not only for identification of relevant material in essay on eugene the passage but also inference, development of the ideas and use of supporting detail. There are therefore four types of content required to show advanced comprehension for a top mark out of 15 for Reading.
• For full marks out of 5 for Writing you need to demonstrate structure, sequence, and ‘a wide range of original and appropriate language’. • It will help you enormously to highlight the material you are going to use in the text, and then write a quick plan in order to organise it into a logical structure before you start writing your response. This will enable you to avoid repetition and to make sure you are fully answering the question. • Use everything which is relevant, not just some of the material. On the other hand, there may be some parts which you should ignore because they are not covered by the question. • Do not drift away from the text; everything you write must be ‘tethered’ to and Humanitarian, the passage i.e. have a direct connection with it and be supported by references to it. • Before you start writing, decide how formal the task is and onegin, adopt an appropriate tone. No question in an exam assessing your ability to use educated English will expect you to use slang or jargon or non-sentences, so expect to have to write in a reasonably formal style whoever your audience is and whatever the emperical thesis task. Even a letter to a relative will be someone distant or older, such as an uncle whom you haven’t met recently, and essay, a report to esl writing opinion essays, your fellow students will be official or for on eugene, publication in essays the school magazine.
It is essay on eugene, essential to remember who your audience is and to address them directly as ‘you’. • Though you can use short quotations from the passage within your response, you should not copy big chunks of thesis, text and you should use your own words when not actually giving details. • If the essay question has several parts you can either integrate the two, e.g. advantages and disadvantages, or deal with them separately. You can decide on your own structure for your answer, but what matters is that there should be a structure of some kind, and one which the esl writing reader can discern. • It is on eugene, time-wasting and does not achieve anything to try to design your answer in the layout which you think might be appropriate in real life, e.g. Making A Powerpoint! dividing a newspaper report into columns and adding drawings and on eugene onegin, extraneous advertising material. This cannot be rewarded and can distract you from the real task of providing appropriate and accurate content for your response. • What is important is that your answer should be divided into paragraphs, as all continuous prose should be. • If you are given bullet points to emperical thesis, remind you what should be included, use them to check you have covered what is required, and they can also help you to essay on eugene, structure your answer. Genocide! The material from the passage should be put into the appropriate section and not repeated.
• Do not add extra sections, for instance where you are given which questions to ask in an interview, stick to those questions only. It makes the response too fragmented or less focused if you add more. Practise writing formal letters; it is essay on eugene, highly likely you will be asked to write a letter on. Letters to people in official positions and whom you don’t know typically adopt a formal style and polite tone, and they are structured in david foster wallace undergraduate three paragraphs: i) the topic of the letter/reason for writing it. ii) background information, arguments and factual details. iii) request or suggestions for essay, future action. Practice turning passages into reports; they have a particular style, and structure which is different from must sentence in the, any other kind of writing: i) style - short paragraphs; short sentences; dramatic vocabulary; statistical information; stacking of adjectives and descriptive phrases before the noun (e.g. ‘The Japanese-owned lightweight racing yacht Sunshine II. Onegin! ’, ‘Divorced former model and mother of two, Susan Smith. ’) ii) The expression should be impersonal (do not use ‘I’ or ‘We’ and do not give any opinions). iii) Use interview material and direct speech as well as reported speech. iv) structure - contrary to normal chronological sequence, news reports begin with the very recent past (usually yesterday); go on to fill in past background prior to the event; return to the immediate present and david foster undergraduate thesis, how things are developing; then finally speculate about the essay on eugene onegin future. Practice writing interviews between two people. Interviews typically adopt an empathetic tone.
i) Style – question/answer format. If you must skip a line between questions and david foster wallace thesis, answers, or, use names in the margin like a play script to distinguish between the interviewer and interviewee. ii) The interviewer should not speak that much allowing the interviewer to speak the most. It is essay on eugene, through the interviewee that you will show your understanding of the text as they will most likely be someone mentioned in esl writing the passage. iii) Write in first person perspective with personal language (do use ‘I’ and on eugene, ‘we’ and do give opinions. To show understanding of a viewpoint you may be asked to write a diary entry. Don’t worry , it’s easy.
i) Style – almost identical to an informal letter, but packed full of thoughts and opinions. ii) The audience must be yourself, not the diary. Never treat a diary like a person! iii) Always include some kind of hpe/plan/intention for the future. Examples of Q1 tasks over esl writing essays the last few years: Imagine you are Aunt Pegg. Essay Onegin! After one week of looking after the children, you write a letter to their parents in which you:……….. Imagine you are a schools inspector and you have recently visited the school described in wallace thesis Passage A. You are not pleased with what you have observed. Write your report in which you:…………
Imagine that you are Donovan Webster. You are being interviewed for a television programme about your visit to Diudiu in Mongolia. Write the essay onegin words of the interview . Imagine you are a reporter, writing from the area. Write the making a powerpoint newspaper report which would have appeared a week after the eruption of essay onegin, Vesuvius . Write a report to the committee that organises the group. Making! In your report give your reasons whether or not Dr. Zinc should be invited to speak at essay onegin, one of the debates. Write a newspaper report using the headlines printed below.
Base what you write closely on the reading material in Passage A . You have recently stayed at the Shamrock Hotel and, most surprisingly, you thoroughly enjoyed your stay. Write a letter to Mr and essays, Mrs Doyle explaining the reasons why you liked the essay hotel so much. You know that the esl writing Doyles will use your letter to advertise the onegin hotel in nature vs nurture essays future. Imagine you are the writer of Passage A. Write a diary entry in which you explore your thoughts and feelings about the trip so far. You will be sending your diary entry to your friends and family. Question 2 – Effect of essay on eugene, Language. This question aims to determine whether or not you understand the must sentence introduction importance of specific vocabulary. Why has the writer used the word ‘fat’ instead of ‘overweight’ and how did that word change the meaning of the on eugene text.
You will be asked to look at the language that describes two different things from the passage. The beauty of question 2 is that it is foster wallace undergraduate, always exactly the onegin same ! Re-read the descriptions of: Select words and phrases from these descriptions, and explain how the writer has created effects. by using this language. The second half of this question will be more demanding than the first. Opinion! You need to on eugene onegin, give equal attention to wallace, each part and provide at least half a page for each. • You should aim for 5 relevant quotations in each part of the essay on eugene onegin question. A Thesis Last Sentence Introduction! Give the quotation, in onegin quotation marks, explain its meaning, and then explain its effect on the passage.
You cannot get higher than 3 marks if you only identify quotations, or higher than 6 marks if you discuss only meanings. • For 10 out of 10 you should give a full range of explained effects and link them into an overview which shows understanding of sentence in the, what the writer was trying to achieve in essay on eugene the passage as a whole. • Do not select a quotation which you do not understand as you will not be able to explain either its meaning or its effect. • When explaining a quotation do not repeat the and Humanitarian words used in it. Do not repeat quotations; you cannot get credit more than once. • Generalised and on eugene onegin, ‘gushing’ comments such as ‘The writer makes me feel as though I am there’ and ‘The passage is cleverly written’ gain no marks and give the impression that you are failing to find things to say.
• There is no need to use technical terms, and nature debate essays, they are no substitute for explaining an onegin, effect in your own words; if you do use technical terms, such as onomatopoeia, make sure they are actually correctly used. • Select brief quotations only, of between one and four words. Do not lift whole chunks of text, or clump quotations together, or list them. Each one must be focused on specific use of language and explained separately. • Introduce your choices of language with phrases such as ‘gives the must be the introduction impression of’, ‘suggests that’, ‘makes me think that.’ Do not say over and over again ‘This has the essay onegin effect that. ’ • Once you have arrived at an overview, do not contradict yourself, e.g. do not say that one quotation makes a character seem physically old and another one makes her seem physically young. And Humanitarian! This is not likely therefore you need to look at the passage again. However, there are no ‘right answers’ to this (or any other) part of the exam and essay on eugene onegin, you can score highly by engaging with the text and thinking about the emperical thesis way language is being used, whether or not your comments are what the examiner is expecting. • Things to look for are: use of the five senses; use of essay on eugene, contrast; use of colour; use of noise; links between subject and environment; surprising, or unusual words; words which create sound effects; unusual or dramatic punctuation; imagery (similes and metaphors) Question 3 - Summary. Though this question is called ‘Summary’ it is not a summary in the sense of david foster wallace, being a general description of a situation but instead it is a focused list of the specific ideas or details contained in the passage, after anything irrelevant to the two questions has been removed. Summarising a passage is a specific and almost scientific skill which, once gained, makes it easily possible to get 15 out of 15.
To get an extra 5 marks, be conscious about on eugene you writing style and vs nurture, A* here you come. The beauty of on eugene, Q3 is that is nearly always exactly the same! Summarize the features of something in: (a) The features of something in passage A. (b) The features of something else in passage B. Here is 5-step process that will make this question a whole lot easier: i) read and underline relevant material; count that there are at least 15 points altogether, and making, preferably 20. ii) transfer the points into a plan, whilst changing them into your own words. iii) group the points logically (using arrows/brackets); put them in order (using numbers), and essay on eugene, decide which ones can be combined into Genocide one sentence. iv) write the summary in two paragraphs (one for Paper 1), using complex sentences. v) check the on eugene summary for accurate expression; adapt the length and improve if necessary by adding material overlooked or by removing repetition. summaries never include: examples, repetitions, direct speech, figurative language or minor details. • Find all the points you can for each part of the question; do not stop when you get to david wallace thesis, 15 as these may not be the same ones the examiner has on their list. The only way to on eugene, be sure of getting all 15 Reading marks is to thesis, use everything relevant.
• To get all 5 Writing marks you need to essay on eugene onegin, show evidence of clear and Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention, concise summary style throughout, precise focus and the use of your own words. • Do not attempt to synthesise the two passages as this is not required, is not rewarded; it makes your task more difficult to on eugene, attempt to a powerpoint, do so as they may not be directly comparable. Treat the passages separately and focus on essay onegin the exact wording of the a thesis must be the last in the introduction question. • Do not give your summary in the wrong form as this is penalised i.e. do not offer bullet points or a list, or write in the first person, or comment on the content of the passages, or present a narrative, or use quotation. • The lengths of the summaries of each passage should be roughly equal. • Though you must use your own words whenever possible, you do not have to find synonyms for technical objects e.g. solar heaters. • Both halves of the question are equally important and should be done in the same way and given the essay same length of about half a page.
• Summaries much longer than half a page are no longer summaries and will be penalised in the Writing mark. • To be concise enough for summary style and to get in all the points you should use complex sentences containing two or three points in each. • Do not repeat points, or express them vaguely; (these will be given an R (repetition) or PNM (point not made) respectively in the margin, and discounted. • There is no need to introduce or conclude a summary, and doing so wastes time and words. Start by using the wording of Genocide Intervention, part of the question e.g. ‘The features of the desert were. Essay On Eugene! ’ Useful websites and online resources for English Students. A word of warning: these sites and links were all functional at nature essays, the time of posting, but it cannot be guaranteed that web addresses will not change. Sites and essay on eugene, resources rarely disappear entirely; if a link does not work, try a Google search. - This is a gateway to thousands of newspapers around the world. - Sister site to Intervention, paperboy but allowing access to international magazines. - This is essay on eugene, The Guardian’s archive and opinion essays, contains a wealth of articles from 1899-1999.
Type in key dates (or the day after) for useful resources. - A speech archive plus ideas for teachers. - This British library site gives access to pictures, biographies, text and spoken records of historical events. - Try going online to the fruit machine on this site. - Aimed at UK GCSE students. - Hundreds of language- based ‘how to’ guides and quizzes based on essay higher level texts. - is the esl writing opinion British Council’s subject gateway for essay onegin, literature. - A collection of online texts.
- A collection of video extracts. - Collapser is a utility to foster wallace, turn any text into a sorted list at the click of the Go! button. Onegin! You can use any text, including material from a web page or a word processed document, to produce activities that give fascinating insights into vocabulary and grammar. - Hot Potatoes is a utility which enables you to author 6 different types of nature vs nurture debate essays, interactive activity: Quiz; Match; Mix; Cloze; Crossword; Sequence. - Inspiration is a concept mapping tool which enables you to onegin, set up frameworks such as brainstorms, storyboards, mind maps for students to complete (or they can create them from scratch themselves).
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Eugene Onegin Essay Questions | …
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