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Concluding discussion essay

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A Roadmap for Making Business Strategy Actionable. Businesses need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. Discussion! A #8220;roadmap#8221; enables everyone in the business to makes essay, clearly understand each action and what decisions need to concluding essay, be made, who needs to make them and when. European businesses are often faced with the ap euro, challenge of deploying centrally developed business strategies in essay a uniform manner, while at the same time accommodating local customer, market and regulatory differences. It is risky to assume that interpretations and adjustments across diverse European business geographies will simply happen. Likewise, it is unwise to believe that a well-defined business strategy will implement itself.

No matter how well conceived by senior management, business strategy becomes virtually worthless when others in research the organization misinterpret it, block it or simply do not know how to act on it. Business leaders and practitioners need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. Such a roadmap enables business leaders and members to clearly understand each element for rolling out essay a strategy. It details what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. This approach is translated into a project plan, specifying the nature of work in each of the associated phases of construction.

As shown in Figure 1, the five phases of the roadmap are: illustrate, translate, indicate, dedicate and operate. This approach to making strategy actionable assumes that a business is pursuing a strategy that is appropriate and timely. Methods used to develop a business strategy are broad, complex and well beyond the scope of this article. But regardless of the business#8217;s level of nordstrom papers maturity or the approach with which it executes its strategy, the roadmap is designed to illustrate the elements which a business needs to consider when making strategy actionable. It is not necessarily designed to be prescriptive in terms of the precise sequence in which these elements are addressed. It does, however, acknowledge the inter-dependencies of the elements and can serve as a framework for developing a plan for essay executing strategy. As the business evolves in the necessary capabilities and systems, the roadmap can be more thoroughly integrated into the existing planning cycles. Papers! How is value really delivered to customers? In almost any business, products and services for customers are produced not by departments, but by discussion essay processes which tend to cross functional lines.

These are referred to as value delivery or core processes. Core processes have all the elements of the business processes (suppliers, inputs, boundaries, outputs and customers), but are far more significant in scope. They tend to be the nordstrom, way the customers identify with the company. Their effectiveness is directly tied to the extent they can satisfy customer needs and achieve the objectives of the business. Concluding Essay! Process capabilities and competencies are the key leverage points for achieving business strategies. It also is important to remember that core business processes allow the various elements of an organization to link its activities to the delivery of value to the market. Then, if businesses define themselves in corporate the market based on their core processes, where is it that the rest of the organization can make a difference?

The answer lies in support, or enabling processes. These are the critical business activities that are required for discussion an organization to corporate essays, operate, sustain and continually improve. Concluding Discussion Essay! Enabling processes provide their service to core processes, or internal customers. In this way, they provide the inputs, information and resources that #8220;enable#8221; the core processes to corporate responsibility, deliver value to external customers. If poorly performed, enabling processes can #8220;disable#8221; the core processes from being successful. Examples of enabling processes include recruiting, skills development, marketing, performance management and compensation, information technology, and administrative support services. Just as external customers have demands of essay products and services, enabling processes are expected to meet internal customer critical-to-quality factors (CTQs). They must have measurement systems to essays, evaluate and continuously improve their ability to meet core process requirements. Defining and agreeing on concluding essay, the strategy of a business is the responsibility of senior leadership.

It is research papers about making choices regarding what processes will be developed to deliver what products and services to what customers. Equally important, the top tiers of leadership must translate strategic objectives into operational terms. They must communicate the strategy in concluding a manner that is meaningful to every member of the organization, for these are the dissertation style, people who must execute the strategy. This requires a business to consider its operations in discussion essay the context of a whole processes that are designed and linked to one another. Going well beyond a continuous improvement plan to eliminate inefficiencies, this deals with the very identity of the makes you happy college essay, business. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to define the financial impact of each element of the concluding discussion, strategy. In other words, if a business is to attempt a sustained 10 percent increase in revenue during the next three years, what is important is papers that the 10 percent annual growth in sales be translated into a net income figure.

The #8220;how#8221; of the increase is what the strategy is all about. The #8220;by#8221; what means is what the strategy translation is concluding essay all about. It is critical that leadership define the strategy to this level of detail prior to responsibility essays, attempting to communicate it to the business. The message must be crafted and communicated in a manner that each stakeholder perceives it to be relevant to him or her. If this cannot be done, it is a good indication that the strategy has not been sufficiently defined or thought out. Discussion! It can be beneficial to gre ets, include trusted members from different areas of the business to help in the translation process. This insures a cogent message delivered in a consistent way.

Also key to concluding, translating strategy is to identify and develop the areas of current operations that have the most significant impact on the business#8217;s ability to ap euro rubric, achieve its strategic objectives. Randomly chosen operational improvement efforts may result in increased efficiencies and elimination of cost and non-value-adding activities, but they may have little or no strategic impact. True strategy is the action of differentiating a business through what it does as much as how it does it. Differentiation is achieved by performing value delivery processes in a unique and complementary fashion. Competitive advantage is sustained by maintaining operational excellence across all value delivery processes. Discussion Essay! Once operations are prioritized according to strategy, a business can assess the why did the reconstruction essay, current levels of performance relative to the levels desired. This enables companies to identify the concluding, critical cause-and-effect relationships between process actions and desired results. Only then can improvement opportunities be selected based on their ability to leverage competitive advantage. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to fail, define the essay, financial impact of each element of the strategy.

In order for the strategy to essays, be made actionable, measurement systems and data must be developed to show the concluding, link between process performance and the business and responsibility customer objectives. Concluding Discussion Essay! The first exercise is to understand the quantification of the strategy. If the strategy is achieved, what will the business processes be able to deliver? How will they perform relative to what they now deliver, relative to competitors and relative to the desired process goals? Most strategic goals are stated in terms of lagging indicators revenue, operating costs as a percentage of revenue, market share, new sales, even share price. But there are an infinite number of ap euro essay rubric ways to discussion, effect those measures some that may be in direct conflict with the desired direction of the business. These lagging indicators are used to define, establish and communicate the strategy of the business. The challenge, however, is to direct and coordinate every member of the business into activities that have a cause-and-effect relationship with the desired outcomes of the business.

Before anything can be made actionable, one must make sure that it can be measured and quantified. Describing how each particular element of the strategy will be manifest is an what makes you happy essay, effective way to force more clarity into the strategic planning process. If the concluding, leadership of the business cannot describe what a particular aspect of the strategy will look like when it is achieved, how could that translation be expected of the business? Understanding how the business improves on the delivery of value to its customers is only the dissertation of writing, first step of integrating improvement with strategy. Management must have real-time information on how well the processes are performing relative to the process performance levels required by the strategy. Concluding Discussion Essay! This can help a company identify what to measure, thus enabling process decisions and adjustments to be based on leading performance indicators. Awareness of the strategy is not sufficient to ensure its achievement. Individual accountability must be established at all levels to ensure sufficient focus, motivation and reward. This includes operational and essay organization development performance indicators as well as more traditional financial and customer satisfaction measures. Discussion Essay! This step in the roadmap is designed to create an organizational culture which fosters alignment with every organization department and member. Leaders themselves demonstrate the process and data-based decision-making behaviors that serve as models for the rest of the business.

Activities in why did fail essay this phase include: Engage and make accountable the personnel necessary to achieve, sustain and continuously improve process performance Allocate the right process indicators and measures to the appropriate personnel Design appropriate process performance reporting disciplines and procedures Develop and implement visual management systems Train and engage personnel and process management teams Link process performance to individual performance management systems. Executive leaders must first recognize that they are not just responsible for the output and costs of their respective functional areas. Each executive must both share accountability for concluding discussion the performance of the rubric, value delivery processes and ensure proper integration and coordination of the concluding, processes across the business. Process performance defines the extent that a business will win or lose in the marketplace. In the final phase of the roadmap, process management systems are integrated as a decision-making tool and discipline to continually adjust and research papers direct the improvement efforts of the business. Not only does the approach compel organization-wide improvement that is linked to achieving strategic business priorities, but it fosters a high-involvement, high performance culture that can become self-sustaining without reliance on external consultants. Process management systems can vary greatly in concluding discussion terms of complexity and organizational scope.

While the effort and what makes essay resources required to develop variously sized systems can be significant, there are some fundamental aspects that are common to all process management system deployments. It is these fundamental components that can best be addressed using a standardized approach, or roadmap, to assure that the right people are involved in answering the right questions at the right time. It also serves as a framework for the project plan that will effectively manage the many contributions by organization leadership and discussion members. Some of the activities associated with the operate phase of the roadmap include: Conduct process and process-based performance management systems per design Evaluate process performance and prioritize improvement opportunities Determine appropriate methodologies for addressing improvement opportunities Train, engage and essay dedicate appropriate personnel in process improvement efforts Assess changes in discussion essay business environmental conditions (e.g. market, technological, regulatory) and reflect in process management system. Conclusion: Answers for the Right Questions. By having a framework for mobilizing an organization around its strategy, European business leadership can better direct resources to answer the right questions about essay how a strategy can be deployed in discussion a consistent but flexible fashion across diverse market and cultural geographies. Corporate Essays! About the Author: Victor Cascella is a Director with Grant Thornton#8217;s Global Public Sector, and is responsible for developing excellence in mission performance for the firm#8217;s Federal Government clients. As an expert in strategy and operations consulting, he works with executive-level leadership teams to translate business strategies into operational goals, and helps them develop measurement systems to concluding discussion, improve strategic clarity and accountability for performance. Cascella has worked in a wide range of industries, including government, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, services and financial. He is based in Washington, D.C., and of writing can be contacted at victor.cascella@us.gt.com.

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History of Political Economy: Physiocracy. Source: Chapter two of Keizaigaku shi (History of Political Economy), Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1954; Translated : for marxists.org by Michael Schauerte; CopyLeft : Creative Commons (Attribute ShareAlike) marxists.org 2007. The following is the second chapter from Kuruma’s book Keizaigaku shi (History of Political Economy) first published in 1948 by Kawade Shob#333; and reissued in discussion, an expanded edition in 1954 by argument gre ets, Iwanami Shoten. My translation is based on this latter edition. Discussion Essay! Kuruma’s history consists of three chapters: Chapter one which provides a short overview of the why did essay history of political economy as a science; Chapter two on Quesnay and the Physiocrats; and Chapter three on the thought of Smith and Ricardo, particularly as it concerns the labor theory of value. Chapter three has been published separately in discussion, the 2007 issue of Research in Political Economy as an article entitled: “A Critique of Classical Political Economy.” Physiocracy is what you happy college a school of concluding discussion thought founded by François Quesnay (1694-1774), a court physician to King Louis the 15th.

At one point in time Physiocracy constituted a sort of religious movement that attracted a number of outstanding and extremely fervent believers, and exerted no small influence on dissertation, real politics. The history of the Physiocratic movement is thought to have begun in concluding, 1757, when Quesnay met Mirabeau the elder (1715-89), and come to an end in 1776, with the fall of Turgot (1727-81). The actual members of the Physiocratic school referred to themselves not as Physiocrats but as économistes . The term “physiocracy” apparently came into general use after having first appeared in 1767, with the appearance of responsibility essays a collection of Quesnay’s works published by Pierre du Pont under the title Physiocratie, ou Constitution Naturelle du Gouvernement le Plus Avantageux au Genre Humain . The term is of course a combination of “physio” (nature) and “cracy” (rule), thus meaning the “rule of nature.” This expresses the school’s fundamental idea that there is a natural order, as opposed to artificial systems, and that the discussion essay mission of scholarship and politics being to understand this natural order and bring it into existence, thereby bringing about this rule of nature. [1] Quesnay’s Tableau Economique , which is the fail essay essence of his system of essay political economy, is a diagram that depicts the process of social reproduction under the “natural order.” It was printed at Versailles in 1758, with a print run of just four copies. Nordstrom Research! Initially Quesnay had intended to present it along with Extraits des Economies royals de M. de Sully but gave up this idea on the advice of Madame de Pompadour. But the manuscript containing it, written in Quesnay’s own hand, was discovered among the papers of Mirabeau in 1890 in the Archives Nationales by Professor Stephan Bauer. At that time Bauer also discovered the second edition of the concluding discussion essay Tableau Economique , which had been published in the spring of 1759, with a print run of three copies.

At the end of that year a third edition of three copies was published, which was later discovered by Gustave Schelle. In addition to these editions, there is the Tableau Economique avec ses Explications included in Mirabeau’s L’Ami des Hommes (1760), as well as the table in Mirabeau’s Philosophie Rurale (1763) and ap euro essay, L’Elements de la Philosophie Rurale (1767), and the tables that appear in other works. The figures in the various tables are somewhat different, but the basic structure is the same. There is one table created by Quesnay himself that was quite different from the others, namely the concluding discussion “Formula of the Tableau Economique ” published in his Analyse du Tableau Economique . To distinguish this table from the others, it is referred to as the Tableau Abrégé (abridged table). Quesnay set out in Analyse du Tableau Economique to clarify the true significance of his economic table, in a manner accessible to the general public, and the table was revised accordingly. He made a step forward in terms of responsibility content compared to the earlier tables. Most importantly, whereas previous tables had depicted the circulation between the three main classes as circulation between individuals belonging to each of those classes, the Tableau Abrégé depicts this from the outset as circulation between classes as a whole. And whereas the other tables depict a continually repeating process, the abridged table generally indicates all of the circulation during a year of production in accordance with the particular functions in the national economy. Concluding Discussion Essay! Furthermore, the relations of reproduction for each type of “advance” (capital) are clarified to a much greater extent. Thus, although the Tableau Abrégé , as its name indicates, is fail much more simplified, Quesnay’s simplification eliminated the extraneous and held on to the concluding necessary.

For these reasons, my explanation here will focus exclusively on this abridged table. Quesnay’s Tableau Abrégé in Analyse du Tableau Economique is displayed above (Diagram I), and below it is the argument essay revised version of Prof. Bauer (Diagram II). [2] . In the Tableau Economique , the country is broadly divided into concluding essay three classes: the productive class ( classe productive ), the class of proprietors ( class des propriétares ), and the sterile (or unproductive) class ( classe sterile ). The productive class comprises those involved in agriculture. We should note, however, that the term refers to capitalist entrepreneurs who rent land and hire workers, so it is premised here that agriculture is conducted under capitalistic methods. This class is ap euro essay said to be “productive” because it alone is thought to produce the produit net (net product), which is the surplus over and above what is consumed in production.

The class of proprietors includes proprietors in a particular sense, i.e. landowners, as well as the discussion lords and nordstrom papers, the tithe-owners who earn a ten percent tax ( décimateur ). This class lives by obtaining profit created by the productive class, rather than engaging in productive endeavors themselves. Finally, the sterile class includes those engaged in affairs outside of agriculture. This class is concluding called “sterile”—or unproductive—because they were thought to only add to the value of the raw materials—which are supplied by the productive class—the value of the why did fail essay materials of concluding discussion essay livelihood that they also received from the productive class. Quesnay’s economic table seeks to elucidate the manner in the reconstruction essay, which simple reproduction is carried out in a closed-off nation that comprises these three classes. He supposes certain numerical figures as an indispensable means of precise reasoning. These figures were apparently based on the results of a survey of capitalist-run agriculture in one region of France, with Quesnay supposing that the same production methods are carried out discussion essay nationwide. The important thing for us today, however, is simply the relations between these figures. According to Quesnay’s assumptions, the productive class first of all engages in agriculture, with ten billion [or milliards in Diagram I] in fixed capital, which he calls “original advances” ( avances primitives ), and two billion in circulating capital, or “annual advances” ( avances annuelles ). Of course, the ten billion in fixed capital is style of writing not used up every year, and concluding discussion essay, the annual cost of maintaining this fixed capital is estimated to be one-tenth of its total value, or one billion (which Quesnay calls les intérets des avances primitives ). Argument Essay Gre Ets! The productive class, therefore, expends a total of three billion on discussion, production every year. By expending this three billion, the productive class creates products with an aggregate value of five billion, so every year there is a two billion surplus in value in the form of agricultural products.

This surplus of research two billion, or rather the surplus agricultural products valued at two billion, is what Physiocrats call the “net product” ( produit net ). Concluding Essay! This net product is subsequently paid to the class of ap euro proprietors in the form of rent, the 10-percent tax, etc. It is assumed, however, that this is concluding discussion essay a monetary, not an in-kind, payment. So it is also supposed that at the end of the year of production, the productive class will have, in corporate responsibility, addition to an agricultural product with a value of five billion, two billion in money that can be used to pay rent. The explanation above basically covers the value-relation in Quesnay’s economic table. Turning to its material content, the three billion in money the productive class spends during a year of production is made up of two billion in agricultural goods and one billion in concluding discussion, manufactured goods, which by the end of the production process has been transformed into five billion in agricultural goods. Thus, comparing the responsibility beginning and the end of discussion essay annual production, we see first of all that the two billion in agricultural goods has been reproduced in that same form, as agricultural goods, and the one billion in essay, manufactured goods has been replaced by one billion in agricultural goods, while there are two billion in newly created agricultural goods as well. Incidentally, for the total product of five billion, the first, two billion component does not enter circulation and is used instead to replenish one part of the discussion capital of the productive class. This does not enter circulation because the economic table only deals with the three main classes, completely setting aside the circulation that takes place within a class.

In contrast, the next, one billion component of the total product cannot, in its form as agricultural goods, again be used by the productive class as productive capital. In order to return this capital of the productive class to a form that is useful in production, it needs to be exchanged for one billion in manufactured goods. Finally, the remaining two billion component of the argument gre ets product, which represents the surplus, covers the two billion in value that must be paid as rent. Therefore, the nature of this two billion in money used to pay rent is such that after it has flowed back to the productive class it is exchanged with that other class. Concluding Discussion! Thus, of the five billion in agricultural goods, two billion rests in the possession of the productive class, while the remaining three billion is destined to circulate to other classes.

Next, it is supposed that the class of proprietors receives two billion in income every year. This yearly income, as noted already, represents the dissertation style net product (surplus in value) created through agriculture in concluding discussion, a year, and dissertation of writing, is payment for the use of essay land. However, this is not merely land in what makes you happy essay, its natural state, but rather land that is improved through capital investment. Therefore, this two billion in revenue also includes the value to replace the capital invested in the land (which Quesnay calls les avance forcièrs —i.e. the concluding discussion essay capital invested for the initial reclamation of the plot of land, the construction of buildings needed for cultivation, and the creation of corporate irrigation canals, drainage, and roads). It is assumed that this revenue is paid in money, not in-kind.

Finally, it is assumed that the sterile class invests one billion of capital on raw materials and consumes one billion in materials of livelihood during the course of the year of production, thereby creating two billion in manufactured goods. Furthermore, because it is also assumed that these raw materials and materials of livelihood are composed of agricultural products, it is necessary for the total product of this class to enter circulation and be exchanged for concluding the one billion in raw materials and one billion in materials of livelihood. The circulation depicted in the economic table, under the conditions outlined above, begins with two billion in rent being paid by the productive class to dissertation, the class of proprietors. This rent comes from the two billion surplus in value created in a year by the productive class, and is paid in money as is suitable to capitalistic production. The class of proprietors uses one billion livres, half of the two billion in money it now possesses, to purchase agricultural products from the productive class which are needed to sustain over the course of a year, including food items and the like. Concluding! One billion of money is thus returned to the productive class, which has now disposed of one-fifth of its total product (in Bauer’s diagram the essays downward I arrow represents the flow of money, while the commodity the money is exchanged for flows in the opposite direction).

With its remaining one billion livres, the class of proprietors purchases manufactured goods from the sterile class, such as furniture, clothing, etc. So the sterile class converts half of its product into money. This money is then used by the sterile class to purchase needed agricultural goods, such as food, which results in a further one billion in money returning to concluding essay, the productive class, which has thus disposed of the second fifth of its total product (II 1 and II 2 ). The productive class then spends the one billion in money received to purchase manufactured goods from the sterile class, such as agricultural implements to replace those worn out in the course of production [3] . As a result, one billion in money flows to the sterile class, which thus discards the remaining one billion of its total product that was worth two billion. The sterile class then uses the one billion in money to purchase from the productive class the food items needed over the course of a year.

This means that one billion in money again flows to the productive class, which has unloaded the third fifth of argument gre ets its total product (III 1 and III 2 ). If we examine the concluding outcome of this circulation, the entirety of the argument gre ets two billion product of the concluding sterile class and three-fifths of the five-billion product of the productive class have been successfully sold, reaching the hands of the intended consumers. What remains is two-fifths of the productive class’s product, worth two billion. As already noted, however, this remaining product is made up of the grain and foodstuffs the productive class itself requires. Instead of entering the circulation between the three main classes, this is used as is straight away in order for the capital of the productive class to again assume a productive form. This means that the entire product of society has been disposed of, with the products flowing to where they needed to essay, go. That is not all, however.

At the same time, two billion in money has returned to the hands of the productive class, and the two billion in concluding, yearly advances and the one billion that is the worn-out part of the original advances are covered and replenished. Turning to the sterile class, one billion in raw materials and one billion in materials of livelihood have been replenished. Finally, the class of dissertation style of writing proprietors possesses the one billion in agricultural goods and one billion in concluding discussion, manufactured goods that make up its yearly materials of livelihood. You Happy College Essay! This means that the conditions for a year of life are fully in place, for each of the classes of society, thus ensuring their continued existence, while at the same time putting in place the necessary conditions for production to be carried out on concluding, the same scale as initially premised. In other words, the continuation of essay simple reproduction, which is the repetition of production on the same scale as before, has been guaranteed. Here we have presented the gist of Quesnay’s economic table.

It is simply astounding how well suited it is to the grandeur of the ideas, and how simple and to the point it is. Mirabeau may miss the mark in various ways when he says that “there have been, since the world begancthree great inventions” with the first being the “invention of writing” the second the “invention of money” and the third the “ Oeconomical Table ,” [4] but it is an discussion, undeniable fact that Quesnay’s table is one of the ap euro essay rubric most revolutionary achievements within the history of political economy, representing the moment when this field of study finally reaches the point of constituting a scientific system. Not only was the Tableau Economique the first system of political economy, it is also remarkable in the sense that it was the only attempt, prior to Marx, to concluding, depict the reproduction of the total social capital. [5] Marx appropriately noted that: [Quesnay’s Tableau Economique ] was an attempt to portray the whole production process of capital as a process of reproduction, with circulation merely as the form of this reproduction process; and the circulation of money only as a phase in the circulation of capital; at the same time to include in this reproduction process the origin of revenue, the exchange between capital and argument, revenue, the relation between reproductive consumption and final consumption; and to include in the circulation of capital the circulation between consumers and producers (in fact between capital and revenue); and finally to present the circulation between the two great divisions of productive labor—raw material production and manufacture—as phases of this reproduction process; and all this depicted in one Tableau which in fact consists of no more than five lines which link together six points of departure or returncthis was an extremely brilliant conception, incontestably the most brilliant [6] for essay which political economy had up to then been responsible. [7] In Quesnay’s economic table, instead of each type of why did fail economic relation being abstractly observed in isolation, they are observed synthetically. I have just mentioned that Quesnay and Marx were the only ones in the history of political economy to seek to comprehensively consider this issue, but I should note that the former was the creator of political economy as a system whereas the latter brings political economy to its culmination. Is this a mere coincidence or is essay there some fundamental, underlying social factor? It seems to me that the need to comprehensively consider the argument economic movement of society is first keenly felt when the economic structure of discussion essay society as a totality first comes to be an what makes you happy college, issue.

For this reason, it seems natural that within the history of modern political economy—which begins in the midst of the deadlock of the feudal system with the desire to establish capitalism, and comes to an end with a comprehensive critique of essay capitalism that coincides with the broad unfolding of its contradictions—the desire to consider the process of reproduction would appear at the beginning and then at the end. I think it could be said this desire gradually recedes from the time of Quesnay to that of Smith, and even further from the time of Smith to Ricardo, as a reflection of the nordstrom steady establishment of capitalist production and the situation where the inner contradictions of the concluding discussion essay capitalist system had yet to be broadly exposed. Contradictions of Physiocracy and why did the reconstruction essay, the Emergence of the Classical school. The previous section introduced the main content of Quesnay’s economic table, indicating that it was a most remarkable system in terms of considering the concluding discussion reproduction process of social capital; an effort not pursued subsequently until the arrival of Marx. We also speculated as to why this attempt was made by the founder of political economy (Quesnay) and the person who brought it to its culmination (Marx). In other words, we focused primarily on the magnificent way the problem is grasped in Quesnay’s economic table, emphasizing the makes you happy essay points in common between Quesnay and discussion, Marx. However, if we compare the content of the two men’s theories, the tremendous distance separating them becomes apparent. Just as the trajectory from the sudden rise of capitalism to its period of decline was propelled forward by the real developmental process of capitalistic relations of what makes production, the progress from the starting point of political economy to its culmination was made possible by the theoretical development of the English Classical school, based first and foremost on the analysis of essay exchange-value. If we are to understand the great significance of the theoretical development of the Classical school within the history of political economy, particularly the analysis of essay rubric exchange-value as the fundamental element, we need to concluding discussion essay, go back to the Physiocratic system, examine its content, and responsibility essays, clarify its contradictions.

The contradiction particular to concluding discussion, this school of thought, which eventually led to its collapse, can be found in its over-emphasis on agriculture. We have seen that Quesnay’s economic table divides production into a “productive” department and essays, a “sterile” one—with the former including productive endeavors centered on agriculture, whereas everything else is said to be sterile (unproductive). The Physiocrats viewed agriculture alone as productive because a “net product” over essay and above what is consumed for production is generated, whereas this is not said to be the case in other spheres of production. Argument Essay! Their argument contains two assertions: (1) a net product must be produced to merit the description “productive” and (2) only agriculture generates this net product. Concluding Discussion! Here I would like to deal with each of the two assertions. The Physiocrats argue that a sphere of production must generate a net product to be productive, but we need to consider their understanding of the ap euro term “net product.” In the concluding discussion essay economic table, the what makes productive class expends three billion livres every year and ends up creating an agricultural product with a value of five billion livres. In other words, the net product is the concluding surplus agricultural product of two billion livres created during the year. Therefore, even though the net product, to gre ets, some extent, is understood as arising from the bounty of nature, and is thus grasped in essay, terms of use-value, it is not mere use-value but rather use-value as the bearer of two billion livres, signifying this value component within a total agricultural product worth five billion livres.

It is dissertation of writing precisely because of their value that the products are sold to discussion, become two billion in nordstrom papers, money. This money in turn is handed over as rent to the class that enjoys exclusive ownership of the land, which is the fundamental labor requirement for agriculture, and the money makes up the revenue of that class of proprietors. Thus, the net product, which the Physiocrats posited at the center of discussion essay their doctrine as the sole source of a nation’s net revenue, is grasped as use-value and dissertation style of writing, as a surplus product, but in the relation above it is understood in the sense of value or surplus-value instead. In other words, their “net product” can be described as value grasped in the form of a material thing, and at the same time as surplus-value cognized in the form of a surplus agricultural product. Surplus-value is of course the pivot of the capitalist economy, the ultimate objective and fundamental impetus of capitalist production. From a capitalist perspective, production is above all the production of surplus-value. Thus, Quesnay gets to concluding discussion, the heart of modern production when he places net product at the center of ap euro essay rubric his system, making a distinction between productive and unproductive labor on the basis of whether a net product is generated or not.

This basic idea is not particular to Quesnay and his school of thought alone, but rather is a keynote of modern political economy in its various forms. The doctrine of Mercantilism, first of all, which belongs to the prehistory of political economy, advocated the policy of promoting greater exports than imports paid for in gold and silver in order to use the funds generated to subsidize the protection of export-oriented commerce and industry. This position is an expression of the discussion essay aforementioned view, in its crudest form. The balance of gre ets trade, in the form of an increase of discussion essay gold and silver, is the most visible form of a national surplus in value, and what brings it about, directly speaking, is export-related commerce and argument, industry. The fact that Mercantilists held fast to this highly visible form, overlooking the ultimate source, reveals their theoretical crudity and that they were unable to shake free of the realm of concluding discussion essay practical affairs. As Quesnay correctly argued, commerce is the exchange of things whose own values are already determined, so that value exists even before the transaction. In the case of nordstrom papers commerce, as long as equivalents are exchanged, no surplus of profit can be generated, while in the case where non-equivalents are exchanged, the gain on one side is a loss on discussion, the other.

Exchange is merely the nordstrom papers realization of already existing value in the form of discussion money, or the transfer of value that is in the hands of another individual or nation. From an overall perspective, the process of circulation certainly cannot account for the original generation of surplus-value. Herein lies the fundamental defect of Mercantilism as a theoretical system. In order for political economy to constitute itself as a science, it was necessary to move from a partial, to an overall perspective, advancing from the subjective standpoint of merchants and politicians to an objective and theoretical standpoint, tracing our way back from matters concerning the mere realization and distribution of value, to arrive at its original creation. The focus of attention shifted from the corporate responsibility essays process of discussion essay circulation to the process of production. And here we have the groundbreaking significance of the Physiocrats’ distinction between productive and unproductive labor.

As Marx notes, “The Physiocrats transferred the inquiry into the origin of surplus-value from the sphere of circulation into the sphere of direct production, and thereby laid the foundation for the analysis of nordstrom research capitalist production.” [8] The Physiocrats managed to raise this issue, but at the same time they failed to clarify what constitutes value. So they inevitably fell into concluding discussion essay remarkable confusion regarding value and corporate, use-value. Discussion Essay! On the one hand, they grasped relations pertaining to value in the form of use-value, while on the other hand they confused problems inherent to use-value with problems that pertain to value. As a result, numerous contradictions and a great deal of confusion arose within their doctrine, as is manifested most clearly in their view on the productive character of agriculture. First of all, when Physiocrats insist on the productive character of agriculture, this character refers to the production of surplus-value; at the same time, however, as long as it is responsibility not made clear what value stems from, it is impossible for them to discussion, clarify the general law of the production of surplus-value. Why Did The Reconstruction Fail Essay! And within agriculture a peculiar situation exists, where agriculture is the department that produces materials of livelihood, so that what the agricultural laborer consumes in production is again reproduced, in the same in-kind form, within the product that they themselves produce.

They consume agricultural products to create agricultural products. Moreover, they create more agricultural products than the given amount they consume. Therefore, the difference between the two amounts, without being mediated by the concept of value, can be recognized as a surplus product. [9] This is not the case in the realm of industry, where the things workers consume and what they create are of a completely different nature. Therefore, the concluding surplus-value created by industrial workers cannot be recognized in its given form of use-value. Just as ten kilograms of wheat cannot be deducted from one carpet, the materials of of writing livelihood of discussion industrial workers are only first replenished through the what you happy essay exchange of their products. The difference between what the industrial workers consume and what they produce is something abstract and hard to pin down, which can only first be understood through the value-analysis of simple labor. It is this circumstance that is the primary factor underlying the belief of the Physiocrats that only agriculture is concluding discussion essay productive. Because the essays Physiocrats did not clarify the essay character of value, they only what you happy essay grasped the production of surplus-value in the form of the production of surplus use-values. As a result, they were unable to recognize the productive character of areas of concluding essay production other than agriculture. Meanwhile, they directly confused matters inherently related to use-value with those related to value, thus generating even more confusion regarding the distinction between the concepts of productive and unproductive.

They believed that agriculture occupies a special place within a society’s economy, as the sphere that produces the foodstuffs that are the key requirement for essays human life. Accordingly to this view, without agriculture, and therefore without the production of foodstuffs, people would be incapable of maintaining their existence. This means that agriculture is the most fundamental of all the spheres of production, and the reason that some can live without engaging in agriculture is the result of the fact that those engaged in concluding discussion essay, agriculture have created a surplus product in excess of their own consumption. In other words, the surplus agricultural product (“net product”) is the foundation for the lives of all the corporate essays other classes, with the independent existence of commerce, industry, and other endeavors merely being flowers that bloom thanks to those agricultural roots. This view underlies the Physiocrats’ idea that only agriculture is productive, along with their other motives and essay, reasons. Corporate Essays! Quesnay also says that the productive class is discussion essay always independent through the outcome of their own labor, whereas the other classes are isolated because they are unable to obtain the materials of livelihood through their unproductive labor. He sees manufacture as a mere offshoot of agriculture, saying that the expansion of the “sterile class” that occurs along with the increase in population and national wealth is made possible by the productive class and the wealth it creates.” Granted, such views in and of themselves are not mistaken. Indeed, they reflect an research papers, extremely interesting viewpoint, both theoretically and historically (although the Physiocrats did not developed them in a sufficiently conscious or accurate form). Concluding Discussion Essay! Still, these are problems that clearly pertain directly to use-value , and cannot be the direct criteria for a distinction between the concepts of productive and unproductive in terms of value . It is inappropriate and conceptually confusing to introduce such a view into the discussion of the what you happy college distinction between productive and unproductive.

The confusion stems from the fact that the Physiocrats had become hopelessly perplexed about the intrinsic distinction between productive and unproductive labor. But at concluding discussion, the same time there is particular significance underlying their view. From the perspective of the historical process of style capitalist development, there is great significance in the line Quesnay drew between agriculture (as the production sphere of the fundamental materials of livelihood) and the other spheres of production, and in his emphasis on the development of the former being the necessary premise for the development of the latter. This historical significance needs to be underscored, in light of the commonly held view that the essay agriculture-centered position of the Physiocrats was nothing more than a valuing of agriculture for its own sake, attributed as a mere reaction against Mercantilism. In fact, however, the journey of history is corporate responsibility essays not a sort of meaningless repetition of essay action and style, reaction, but rather a developmental journey that unfolds by means of action and reaction. Likewise, the history of schools of discussion essay thought cannot be understood if this relation of development is of writing overlooked. The agriculture-centered view of the concluding discussion essay Physiocrats cannot be understood as esteeming agriculture for its own sake or as a reaction against nordstrom research papers mercantilism.

The true historical significance of Physiocracy can first be grasped in line with the necessity of capitalistic production as a developmental process. We need to consider the exact significance of concluding discussion this agriculture-centered characteristic of the Physiocrats, which may at first glance seems anti-capitalistic, from the perspective of the development of capitalistic production. Since the sphere of corporate responsibility essays production particular to the development of capitalism is industry, not agriculture, what possible relationship could there be between the discussion essay Physiocrats’ emphasis on agricultural development and the development of capitalistic production? Certainly capitalism did first spring forth within industry, and ultimately achieved its own particular development within industry. But in order for the capitalistic production that sprang forth within industry to dissertation of writing, achieve its own development therein, it had to make use of agriculture and was able to achieve the capitalistic transformation of agriculture to some extent. Still, the discussion premise and indispensable precondition for the large-scale development of capitalistic production in the industrial sector is the existence of the reconstruction fail large numbers of property-less laborers and concluding, the materials of livelihood that their wages are converted into. These human and material elements only dissertation style come into concluding discussion existence as the result of the capitalistic transformation of agriculture. This transformation means an increase in the productive power of agricultural labor and at the same time a curbing of the consumption of the agricultural laborers themselves. This in turn reduces the number of laborers needed while increasing the surplus product. Moreover, this surplus population and surplus product in turn brings into existence property-less wageworkers emancipated from the land, as well as materials of livelihood that are unshackled from a subsistence economy to take the form of commodities. Thus, the wage-laborers and materials of livelihood that emerging industry requires are “separated” from why did the reconstruction fail essay, agriculture.

We can seen, then, that the Physiocrats’ emphasis on agriculture, which was the exterior trait of their doctrine, does not signify a mere penchant for agriculture for its own sake as many supporters of this doctrine themselves thought and later historians mistakenly imagined. Rather, quite contrary to its feudalistic appearance, the Physiocratic position was a manifestation of the need for the capitalistic transformation of agriculture, as a necessary stage in the development of capitalistic production. Indeed, the primary concern of Quesnay was not the particular interests of landed property in the sector of agriculture, nor the concluding essay interests of the feudal landowning class, but the accumulation of essays capital within agriculture and the interests of capitalist agricultural entrepreneurs. Moreover, capital was not to be limited essentially to the domain of concluding discussion agriculture. The accumulation of capital within agriculture merely signified the prelude to the coming general development of capitalistic production. The capitalistic essence of the Physiocratic school is also manifested in the two main policies it advocated: (1) A single tax on rent ( impêt unique ) and (2) and a laissez-faire economic approach. It hardly merits further mention that both of makes you happy college these polices were clear expressions of the pressing demands of capital at the time. [10] In the discussion discussion thus far, we have analyzed the Physiocrats’ view that only agriculture is productive, which ultimate led to the collapse of this school of thought. We saw that they considered the character of being productive in terms of dissertation style producing surplus-value, and that they were quite correct as far as grasping the gist of surplus-value.

Raising this issue of the creation of surplus-value was clearly a pioneering advance over the Mercantilists. At the same time, though, their understanding was inevitably limited due to the defects in their analysis of value, and their inability to recognize the production of essay surplus-value in non-agricultural spheres was the natural outcome of not reducing value to fail essay, general labor. We have also seen that this same defect led them to confuse problems pertaining to use-values with problems pertaining to concluding essay, value, thus introducing, within the fundamental distinction between productive and unproductive, another distinction based upon a separate perspective. The confusion between value and use-value not only muddied the distinction between what is productive and of writing, unproductive, but also meant that the discussion essay particular significance of that separate perspective could not be appropriately developed. Finally, we looked at the historical significance of the Physiocrats’ viewpoint for their own era, which was the dawn of capitalistic production. Through our analysis I think we were able to clarify a number of points. Namely, it despite external appearances, there are important elements of truth within the Physiocratic doctrine on the productive character of agriculture. However, these elements became entangled—due to confusion between problems pertaining to value and those pertaining to use-value—with a bias towards agriculture that at first glance seems nonsensical. Makes You Happy College! By disentangling them, from our present-day perspective, we can uncover the following tasks. The first task is the investigation of the production process as the source of surplus-value, while the second task concerns the capitalistic transformation of agriculture as a necessary stage for capitalistic development.

The latter, practical task, was subsequently forcefully achieved on a global scale though the development of discussion history itself, but the first task is inherent to gre ets, political economy, and therefore its satisfaction remained necessary for the further development of political economy. How was this second task achieved? We have already clarified that the root cause of the Physiocrats’ failure to concluding, solve this problem was the defect in their analysis of value. Thus, the essay higher development required to solve this problem must of course begin with the analysis of value. It was the Classical school, developed in England, that analyzed value to discussion essay, reduce it to “labor” and clarified that surplus-value could be generated in any sphere of style production. 1. This fundamental view of Quesnay is expressed in the following passages: “Positive legislation consists, then, in discussion essay, the enunciation of the natural laws constituting the order which is nordstrom research papers self-evidently the concluding essay most advantageous possible to men joined together in societycIt is only the understanding of these supreme laws which can ensure the continuing peace and prosperity of an empire; and the more a nation applies itself to this science, the greater will be the sway of the natural order in it, and the more correct will its positive order be. In such a nation an unwise law would not be put forward, for the government and the people would immediately perceive its absurdity. “The foundation of society is the subsistence of men and the wealth necessary to provide the authority required to defend them.

Thus it could only be ignorance which would, for example, approve of the introduction of positive laws which militated against the order of the reproduction and the regular annual circulation of the wealth of a kingdom’s territory. If the torch of reason illuminates the style government, all positive laws harmful to society and to the sovereign will disappear.” (from Meek, R.L., The Economics of Physiocracy , Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 54-5) “It is very much in the interests of the proprietors, the concluding essay sovereign, and the nation as a whole that all taxes should be directly laid on the revenue of the papers land; for any other form of imposition would be contrary to the natural order, since it would be detrimental to reproduction and to taxation, and the taxes would fall on the taxes themselves. Everything in this world is subject to the laws of nature: men are endowed with the intelligence required to concluding discussion, understand and observe them; but the makes you happy college essay great number of factors involved demands that they should be grouped together in comprehensive patterns, which form the foundation of concluding discussion a very far-reaching and self-evident science, whose study is the reconstruction indispensable if we are to concluding, avoid mistakes in ap euro essay, policy.” (Ibid., p 154) 2. Stephan Bauer’s table appears in his essay “Quesnay’s Tableau Economique” (Economic Journal vol. V. p. 17) 3. In Bauer’s table, for this purchase the one billion in money that flows directly back from the class of proprietors is used (money that returns via I) but this does not necessarily have to be the case. The money that returns from the class of proprietors via the sterile class (via II) could likewise be used; it might also be supposed that the other one billion in money the class of proprietors is holding is used; or it could be supposed that the sterile class, rather than the productive class, is holding one billion in money which is used at the outset to buy products from the productive class (Although in this case instead of III 2 following after lines III 1 it would be II 2 following after II 1 . Concluding Essay! In any of the ap euro above cases, however, money flows back into the hands of the class that initially released it into essay circulation by traveling back and forth between both classes.) It would also be fine to suppose that each of the two classes separately holds one billion in money that is then simultaneously used to purchase one billion in goods from the other side. (But in this case, instead of college essay money traveling back and forth to flow back to its starting point, it would be transferred to each side.) In Quesnay’s own table, this last situation can be said to have been supposed. 4. Quoted in Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Book I-III, Penguin Books, Middlesex, p. 200. 5. Because the economic table at first glance seems to have not six, but rather five points of departure and arrival, some may have doubts about what Marx has written, but these doubts should dissolve immediately upon considering that the line expressing the money for the advance of rent is omitted. 6. Such praise, needless to say, does not mean that Quesnay’s economic table is perfect as a diagram of the reproduction process of social capital.

Indeed, it has numerous defects, not only in the technique of presentation but also those reflecting an insufficient economic understanding. The most glaring defects include: (1) Even though it is supposed that the productive class has material advances (constant capital) five times greater than annual advances (circulating capital), this is concluding not said to gre ets, be the case for the sterile (unproductive) class; (2) Despite the sterile class having annual advances of 2 billion livres, composed of 1 billion in materials of livelihood and 1 billion in raw materials, in the right column under advances only discussion essay 1 billion is written; (3) Although the argument gre ets total sum of reproduction is 1 billion from the 5 billion of the productive class and concluding essay, 2 billion from the sterile class, in the table this total is listed as 5 billion. All three of these cases are clear contradictions from the perspective of the table’s premises. But the more fundamental defects are the following: (1) Quesnay does not elucidate what value is, and is thus unable to understand how surplus-value is produced, with the outcome being that in the economic table the non-agricultural production sphere involving the “sterile” (unproductive) class is said to nordstrom, not produce any surplus-value at all; (2) Related to this lack of concluding essay understanding, by only concentrating on makes you happy essay, the distinction, based on the turnover mode of capital, between “original advances” (fixed capital) and “annual advances” (circulating capital), Quesnay overlooks the more fundamental distinction between constant capital (capital invested in discussion, means or production) and variable capital (capital invested to purchase labor-power), and therefore is unable to understand the value of the product of capital in the form of constant capital + variable capital + surplus-value (usually indicated as c+v+s). Furthermore, this distinction between constant and variable capital is gre ets a distinction based first of all on the valorization function of capital (i.e. the production of surplus-value), but this also has separate importance when considering the reproduction process of social capital. That is, in concluding discussion essay, order for production to be continued on research papers, the same scale, the value component of the product of capital that reappears in the value of the constant capital needs to be transformed again into concluding the form of means of production via the circulation process, and therefore represents the what college demand for the means of production; while the component that reappears in the value of the variable capital needs to concluding discussion, be retransformed into labor-power after being realized in the money-form, and through ultimately being exchanged with the working class this forms, along with surplus-value, the demand for the materials of livelihood. This has extremely important significance when analyzing the reproduction process of social capital. But this is not something unconditional. For this, the production spheres that appear in the supply need to be distinguished, in line with the two major categories of demand just mentioned, into: (a) the production department of corporate means of production and (b) the production department of the materials of consumption. (3) In the economic table, however, as already noted, instead of this making distinction, Quesnay distinguishes between the productive class and the unproductive (“sterile”) class. Concluding Essay! This distinction is based on his lack of understanding of the production of surplus-value, but even if we look solely at the content of the distinction between the sphere of agriculture and the sphere of industry, this way of dividing the production departments—in a manner unrelated to nordstrom research, the distinction of the elements of capital for production and unrelated to the distinction of the value components of the commodity capital provided—is, needless to say, inappropriate to discussion essay, the aim of analyzing the process of reproduction. This point can be further clarified by comparing Quesnay’s economic table with Marx’s schema of reproduction.

Marx discusses the reproduction and circulation of the total social capital in Part three of the dissertation style of writing second volume of concluding discussion essay Capital, where his schema of reproduction appears. In addition to the mode of simple reproduction, he discusses expanded reproduction, but here I think it is sufficient to only introduce the dissertation former, which is as follows: I 4,000c+1,000v+1,000s = 6,000 (means of production) II 2,000c+500v+500s = 3,000 (means of consumption) In the case above, I. represents the department for concluding the production of the means of production, while II. Essay! is the department for the production of the concluding essay materials of consumption, and c, v, and s signify the constant capital, variable capital, and surplus-value, respectively.

The rate of constant capital to variable capital (c/v) is referred to why did the reconstruction, as the “organic composition of capital,” which differs depending on concluding, the level of research productive power—although here we will assume that it is 4:1 in both departments. The rate of surplus-value is s/v, and its determination is discussed elsewhere, and here it is supposed here that the rate is 100 percent. The money unit could be 10,000 yen, pounds, dollars, etc., and the 4,000 for constant capital in I. is also merely an arbitrary figure chosen for concluding the convenience of calculation. However, once the figure of 4,000 has been chosen, based on nordstrom research papers, the assumptions above, variable capital in I. Essay! must be 1,000 so that surplus-value in I. will also be 1,000. The same is true for II.

That is, as long as c/v and s/v are fixed, once c has been posited, v and s are decided in turn. Ap Euro Rubric! Thus the essay issue ultimately revolves around the nature of the relation between the two departments. And this is makes college essay what forms the crux of Marx’s schema, with this relation reducible to: I. (v+s) = II. c. However, since the 4,000c in concluding, I. is produced in the form of means of ap euro essay production, it is possible without exchange with the other department to use this to renew the worn-out means of production in this department solely through internal exchange; meanwhile, the v+s in II. is produced in the form of materials of consumption so this can likewise be used for the consumption of workers and capitalists within the department via exchange within the department. Concluding Essay! Therefore, the needed exchange between the two departments is limited to the exchange between the v+s in I (value component that needs to makes essay, be expended on the materials of consumption for input but still exists in the form of the means of discussion essay production) and the c in II (value component that needs to be expended to replenish the means of what makes you happy college production but still exists in essay, the form of the means of consumption). So a condition of equilibrium between the two departments in simple reproduction would be: I (v + m) = IIc. The schema of reproduction can be explained in the following manner. Style! Suppose that the value of the product of the total capital of concluding discussion society is 9,000, with the c/v and s/v as assumed above, and that the total product comprising 6,000c+1,500v+1,500s. Papers! In the case of simple reproduction, the concluding 6,000c forms the demand for means of production to replenish those that have been worn out; the total of 3,000 from the 1,500v and 1,500s forms the demand for means of consumption.

Therefore, in order for supply to meet demand, of responsibility essays 9,000 value of the total product, 6,000 must be the product of department I and 3,000 the product of department II, so that—if the essay organic composition of ap euro rubric capital and the rate of surplus-value are as assumed above—the schema would have the same figures we began with. I 4,000c+1,000v 1,000s = 6,000 (means of discussion production) II 2,000c+500v+500s = 3,000 (means of consumption) In this case, the equilibrium condition premised is: I. 4,000c+II. 2,000c = I. (4,000c+1,000v+1,000s); I. (1,000v+1,000s) + II. (500v+500s) = II. (2,000c+500v+500s). But if we offset the factors that both sides have in common, we arrive, as noted earlier, at the equation I. (1,000v + 1,000s) = II 2,000c. The significance of Marx’s schema of reproduction is not limited the responsibility essays explanation above, and it was a means of concluding essay elucidating fundamental problems that political economy had been unable to essay gre ets, solve since the time of Smith. But even setting this aside to just consider the essay elucidation of the relation of equilibrium just explained, we can see what an enormous, essential advance this was over Quesnay’s economic table, and therefore what serious defects that table has. Still, it must be considered remarkable that at the outset of the history of political economy Quesnay was able to raise the issue of the reproduction process of the total capital and that he was able to grasp and express this to some extent. 7. Karl Marx, Marx Engels Collected Works , vol.

31, pp. 239-40. 8. Karl Marx, Marx Engels Collected Works , vol. 30, p. 354. 9. Argument Essay! The Physiocrats, who grasped the concluding discussion essay production of surplus-value solely in such a form, naturally also came to see the “net product” as the bounty of nature. They believed that in agriculture nature cooperated with man to generate a net product. Needless to say, however, the possibility for surplus-value to be produced in agriculture (as in all spheres of production for that matter) is above all premised on productivity beyond a certain level for the agricultural laborers who are involved in the production of the corporate essays foodstuffs that comprise the discussion key materials of livelihood, and a high level of productive power of agricultural labor depends in large part on nature. If nature is nordstrom papers poor so that even after a day’s labor a person can only concluding essay produce enough material things to barely maintain his own life, there is corporate responsibility essays no question from the beginning of producing surplus-value. But, at the same time, even if nature is abundant, so that a person can produce more things than are needed to maintain his own life, if that person enjoys all of the product for himself, this will merely raise his own living conditions and the existence of a “net product” would be impossible.

And it is also clear that a “net product” could not exist if this person only worked enough to produce the discussion things needed to maintain his own existence, not laboring beyond this point. In other words, the existence of a “new product” is premised, on the one hand, on the worker’s own consumption being restricted to a certain level, and on the other hand to the worker laboring beyond the labor needed to produce his own materials of livelihood. The Physiocrats, when explaining the production of a new product in agriculture, have clearly premised a minimum wage in essay, the theory of wages as the basis of their explanation, and at the same time they have in fact, implicitly, premised a certain working day. Yet they did not conclude that the net product is brought about by essay, a surplus of labor that is the labor that exceeds the labor-time needed for the reproduction of essay labor-power. Nor, much less, did they conclude that this surplus labor is coerced through the condition where land, which is the fundamental condition within agriculture, cannot be used unless the cultivator pays rent to the certain class that exclusively owns the discussion essay land. Instead of concluding this, the Physiocrats say that the use-values consumed by the workers within production are less than the essay rubric use-values they create, so that there is a surplus of use-values. Instead of focusing attention on the fact that if workers only produced what was necessary for their own lives nothing above this would remain, they only assert that thanks to the productivity of the land a surplus is possible.

The Physiocrats view nature as the concluding discussion essay sole basis for the production of a surplus, without looking at the social relations. 10. Essay! For example, in 15th of his “General Maxims for the Economic Government of an Agricultural Kingdom,” Quesnay writes: “ That the land employed in the cultivation of corn should be brought together, as far as possible, into large farms worked by rich husbandmen ; for in large agricultural enterprises there is less expenditure required for the upkeep and repair of buildings, and proportionally much less cost and much more net product, than in small ones. Concluding Discussion Essay! A multiplicity of small farmers is nordstrom research detrimental to the population. The population whose position is most assured, and which is most readily available for discussion essay the different occupations and different kinds of work which divide men into different classes, is that maintained by the net product. All economies profitably made use of in work which can be done with the aid of style of writing animals, machines, rivers, etc., bring benefit to the population and concluding essay, the state, because a greater net product procures men a greater reward for other services or other kinds of work.” ( The Economics of Physiocracy , 1963, p. 235) And in his explanation of the 26th maxim, he writes the following: “Nations always believe that they do not have enough men: it is not perceived that there are not enough wages to maintain a larger population, and that men without means are of benefit to a country only to the extent that they receive assured gains there which enable them to live by their work. In the absence of gains or wages, it is true, a section of people in the countryside may generate for their subsistence certain very low-priced products which do not demand large expenses or protracted labor, and which one does not have to wait a long time before gathering in. But these men, these products, and the land on which they are grown, are worth nothing to the state. In order that the dissertation of writing land should yield a revenue, work in the countryside must render a net product over and above the wages paid to the workmen, for it is this net product which enables the other classes of men who are necessary in a state to subsist.

This should not be expected from poor men who work the land with their hands, or with other insufficient resources; for they can procure subsistence for concluding discussion essay themselves alone only by giving up the cultivation of corn, which demands too much time, too much labor, and why did the reconstruction essay, too much expense to be carried on by men who are destitute of concluding means and reduced to obtaining their food from the land simply by the work of their hands. “Thus it is not to style of writing, these poor peasants that you should entrust the cultivation of your land. It is animals which should plough and fertilize your fields; it is consumption, sales, and free and unobstructed internal and external trade which ensure the market value which constitutes your revenue. Thus it is wealthy men whom you should put in charge of the enterprises of discussion essay agriculture and rural trade, in order to enrich yourselves, to enrich the state, and to enable inexhaustible wealth to makes you happy college, be generated. “The more wealth a nation possesses for the purpose of enabling wealth to concluding essay, be annually regenerated, the ap euro essay less men does this annual reproduction employ, the more net product it yields, and the more men the government has at concluding discussion essay, its disposal for services and public works; and the more wages there are to enable them to essay rubric, subsist, the more useful are these men to the state by virtue of their occupations, and by virtue of their expenditure, which causes their pay to be brought back into circulation.” ( The Economics of Physiocracy , 1963, pp. Essay! 260-1)

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Unfortunately, with the freedom of modern computers and fancy software, comes huge opportunities for concluding essay abuse. When it comes to resumes, both non-designers and professional designers commit some almost unforgivable sins. Here are the style 7 deadly sins of resume design and concluding discussion essay how to repent: Take a tour of any office supply store and you’ll see shelves of dissertation style extravagant “resume” papers featuring special “linen” and “parchment” finishes. Avoid these like dog poop on a New York summer sidewalk. They’re too expensive and don’t make you look extra special. To repent: Save your money and get paper with a plain smooth finish. It can be slightly heavier than regular copy paper, but not stiff as a board. Discussion? An ever so slight hint of cream is fine. It’ll make your resume easier on research, the eyes than the super-ultra-pure-snow-driven white paper many designers are fond of. I prefer Neenah Classic Crest in Natural White with a Super Smooth finish.

Never ever use pink paper with strawberry scent. The default typeface in Microsoft Word is concluding discussion Times New Roman, and thus it’s the ap euro default for concluding discussion essay most resumes. It’s a tragedy, because Times’s letterspacing and wordspacing is wretched in Word. The result is an unharmonious mess. To repent: Choose a different typeface. I won’t go into explaining x-heights or the difference between Humanist Sans and Geometric Sans. If you’ve got money to spare, pick any of the typefaces in FontShop’s professional collection, and you’ll be a step above Times New Roman.

If you’re cheap, use Matthew Carter’s Georgia. It’s free and why did fail essay already installed on your computer. If you send your resume electronically as a PDF, it also looks quite good on-screen. If you need more guidance, check out Before After’s tutorial on discussion, picking typefaces. Designers fresh out of school love teeny tiny type. The belief is that it looks elegant, refined, and allows for more white space on essay rubric, the resume. It’s a shame. Concluding Discussion? For all that elegance, no one can read it, because most people in hiring positions won’t have fresh baby eyes with 20/20 vision. To repent: Set your resume no smaller than 9 points for sans-serifed type and 10 points for serifed type. Anything smaller, and your resume is at risk of being shredded.

Designers also love grey type. On an dissertation of writing inkjet printer, grey text looks better because it reduces the appearance of noise. If you go too light, though, it becomes illegible and unfaxable. But wait, should you really be using inkjet to print your resume? To repent: Use a laser printer and print in discussion essay 100% black for ultimate clarity. If you do go grey, don’t go lighter than 75% black. You may be tempted to add decoration like floral borders, rainbow colors, and hearts. Corporate? Perhaps, you want to discussion use an illustration of a swan, tiger or unicorn to represent you.

This is the reconstruction great if you want to look like a box of crayons melted on your resume. Otherwise, don’t try to be cute. To repent: Add some character by setting your name slightly larger, or in a different weight as the concluding discussion same typeface as the rest of what you happy college essay your resume. Use color, but very sparingly, if at all. Concluding? No more than one color in argument essay gre ets addition to black.

If you live in concluding discussion essay the United States, the standard paper size is 8.5 x 11in. In Europe, it’s 210 x 297mm. Anything else will fit awkwardly in a binder or file. When it doesn’t fit, it gets thrown out. To repent: Keep to the standard paper size of your geographic location.

It’s easier to print and package. In an attempt to stand out, some designers format their resumes in a landscape format. Essay? This is more annoying than innovative. To repent: Keep to a portrait format. The first person who sees your resume is usually a Human Resources person who sees hundreds of resumes daily. Too much variation from the norm makes it harder for them to make a quick assessment of you. If you want to concluding discussion essay stand out, write a good cover letter instead. So what does a good looking resume look like? Check out my follow-up post, Give your resume a face lift. Great info but I think the resume format should match the job/industry you are applying to. Style Of Writing? It also comes down to the personal opinion of the person doing the hiring.

I had a resume designed and essay two people were interviewing me. One person really liked it and the other didn’t…But most importantly it got noticed and created conversation. I would say have common sense and keep it simple and not over responsibility essays, done. You will never please everybody so create a resume that reflects your personality and concluding essay talent. Good Luck Cheers. All the comments are great. However, I have to say I have always had interviewers ask me for a hard copy of my resume at essay the beginning of the interview. Frankly, I have come to view that as a test of your organizational skills.

I think if you suggested that they print it out themselves you would be ushered out the door very, very quickly. hello just asking, what should be the essay best paper size for resume/cv in argument gre ets philippines. is concluding discussion essay it short or long bond paper. waiting for reply..thanks^^ To a beginner this sounds intringuing, since simple groups are very natural objects to define, whereas vertex algebras seem more convoluted. , A very useful Design Refresher – Think I need to change some of my fonts around now !! More work … Don’t forget spraying it with perfume (unless your applying to be an escort)! HR people basically don’t give a damn what your resume looks like, as long as they can read it. And most of them just scan it to make sure you fit the ap euro essay job requirements. So forget the nitpicky advice about fonts.

Most HR people wouldn’t know a font if it jumped out concluding essay, of the essay PC and bit them. Concluding Discussion? … You’re probably going to why did the reconstruction fail essay be submitting your resume as a PDF anyway, in which case you ought to make sure the file will transmit OK and be clear enough to copy. Many companies just ask you to paste a text version of your resume into an online application, which is a dead give-away that they couldn’t care less how pretty it looks. Just make sure you leave out the silly dingbats. I have found in my 10 years in the professional design world that HR are the non educated gate keepers of the employment world. Discussion Essay? Go get real employees opinions on said workers within HR…most cringe at the notion of going through HR. Really, what do people in HR do all day? There are some rules that can be broken and and broken well but not unless you’re an artist or graphic designer should you attempt them. Number one advice is just get your resume to the person that will be hiring and avoid HR like the plague.

Wow, tough crowd. This is a perfect list of rules for design “begginers”. Of course designers and talented creative types may be able to make an nordstrom research impact by cleverly breaking some of concluding discussion these rules – but you’re probably going to corporate essays have to use some software other than Word to pull that off. If you’re using Word this is your bible with one addition – NEVER USE WORDART. Nice work Chanpory.

@James, I was thinking the exact same thing. Tough crowd indeed! @Chanpory, great advice! I’m in essay a similar role as the owner of a small agency and the resumes I have seen, whether for designers, developers, or even bookkeepers, are unbelieveable. Makes Essay? My alltime favorite was one in concluding discussion essay Comic Sans (no joke!!). I think the argument key point is that design must always help achieve the goal. Concluding Discussion? The goal for a resume is to get an interview. To that end, a resume’s design must help communicate the message/content of the ap euro rubric resume effectively. Creatviity can have a place in your resume, but you ought to discussion be conservative with it in my opinion: what’s clever, creative, and “the best resume I’ve seen” to one person might just be tacky and overdone to another.

OK…. Corporate Responsibility? this entire “7 deadly sins” is bullcrap. Any designer worth their salt knows that if you KNOW the rules, you can break the rules. There is concluding discussion nothing I like more than receiving a fantastically creative resume. Ap Euro? After all, they are coming to discussion essay us to be creative. Ap Euro Rubric? It lets me see how well they understand how to sell themselves. I hate to concluding discussion say it, but your resume ideas only makes them look like the fail essay cream of the crap… not the concluding essay cream of the nordstrom research crop. I think its just a matte of time until the resume gets replaced. Sort of old fashion. I think you are all missing a very important piece—who is the audience? All of these concerns are dependent on the type of discussion essay job you are applying to (i.e. your audience).

No matter what you are designing, this is the #1 variable to consider. What is important when applying to ap euro rubric a creative job, is concluding very different than what is important in the financial world, for expample. Thanks for responsibility the tip on Georgia font – I had Garamond originally, and discussion it looked terrible when converted to PDF. Dissertation Of Writing? Just tried out concluding essay, Georgia and loved it! When we go to interviews, it’s nice to bring a copy of our resume along. That’s why it matters how it looks when printed. Just because HR has received it doesn’t mean the interviewer will necessarily have it on hand. In addition, someone or someone’s just may pop in on the interview out of interest. I was once take directly from the interview with HR straight to the manager to interview with her immediately because HR thought I’d be a good fit. The Reconstruction Fail Essay? I’m glad I had another copy of my resume on hand. It’s just good form to discussion essay bring extra copies of a resume.

PS Speaking of bad font; what’s up with the font on this page?! Its super bold and nordstrom research papers narrow… and hard to read! Maybe try Georgia instead ;) I’m personally a huge fan of Palatino Linotype. (or its cousin Book Antiqua) It’s a nice serif font that’s easy to read and scan down through, it’s nicely formed and discussion essay spaced and it’s ubiquitous but not always commonly used. And even if you don’t have it you can download it free. Somebody up there also made the corporate point of trying to mimic the style and branding of the company you are submitting to. If possible you should always do that. One idea is to send the cv/resume in concluding discussion essay a nice folder the same colour as the company’s branding, to argument use similar coloured paper or to use the same fonts. If you’re sending off internationally always look up the discussion proper resume and cover letter format for the country you are sending to.

For example many countries in mainland Europe also expect you to embed a small, passport-sized photograph at the top of the page. Be sure to use the you happy correct spelling also. True it’s best not to concluding entrust your spelling and grammar to a machine, but, if you’re applying from one English-speaking country to another, be sure that you spellcheck it in the appropriate language – e.g. British English v US English. I’ve found, actually, that many computers, for dissertation of writing example Dell computers, were always pre-installed with US English as the default language regardless of where they were being sold to. So be sure and check that your computer and word processor are set to the right language for your country before you send your resume to anybody!

This is so good to know and follow… I totally agree with kathy, but when you haven’t met the contact person the discussion question would be: what should you present a graphically enhanced CV (Branding), a formal black white CV or a flash animated CV? Unless you are a branding fanatic,to the point that you go on and brand yourself and make your resume/letter stand out among others, there are definitely several ways to gain a remarkable first impression. It also dependent on you happy, the culture of the concluding essay company you’re entering and the position you’re applying for… and how old are you and your experience… your CV is your spirit and vision, at the end.. and if you get your CV to a company where they don’t like it, don’t worry… your CV has probably landed in the wrong place… and your spirit and vision doesn’t suite the company you’re applying for. I truly think design is essential, in order to stand out… but design alone doesn’t make the CV standout… it’s the content and experience and makes college essay the way you brand yourself. Wow. According to discussion essay your article, I’ve committed 3 sins: “gray text,” “weird paper size” and “horizontal format.” You probably should also add an 8th sin for kicks that I’ve also committed: “folding.” Now, taken that I’ve broken lots of your rules in resume design — why is it that I’ve been working for my company for 3 years and 10 months thanks to why did the reconstruction my “poorly designed resume”?

There has to concluding discussion essay be something wrong. A graphic designer’s resume should reflect his or her craft. It should have hints of their style and argument essay gre ets should totally have an experience to go along with it. Designing out of the box is concluding always favored and is always put on top of the pile if executed properly. You should never confine yourself to nordstrom papers designing freely. Your resume is discussion another piece of your portfolio — one which your future employer will keep. I don’t believe filenames have been mentioned here. When sending a resume electronically, the filename resume.doc is the kiss of death. Be sure to change the filename to reflect your own name. In addition, use either PDF or DOC, never any other format – otherwise, you risk incompatibility.

Many H/R departments also use autoscan programs, and both multi-column and fancy fonts/paper will be puked out rather than scanned in. When sending electronically, the plainer, the corporate responsibility better! Finally, whether or not sent electronically, be brief. Discussion? These days, virtually no one is research papers worth a two-pager. The point is to get IN the door for concluding discussion an interview… you can elaborate later, during the interview. Hi, you guys would be surprised to what makes essay know that most Turkish companies require your resume to have your photo!! (It mostly (read:always) works in my favour :P ) yeah, so my resume looks pretty messed up when I try to fit in my photo. It looks like a very detailed I-card! I think a photo within the resume screams prejudice. Im not Turkish(I worked and will work in Turkey again soon) but even when Turkish people apply to Turkish companies they add a photo. Concluding Discussion Essay? By the way, I know for dissertation a fact that some American companies ask for photos within a resume too (reference : my Turkish friends who’ve applied to American companies). I wish I could get some points on how to add your photo in your resume and not feel like a complete jackass. :P.

As an engineer and industrial designer who needs to walk a fine line between ‘logical’ and ‘artzy-fartzy’, I have found a san-serif font works far better than all the essay suggestions above. I have been using Tahoma for years and have gotten a call-back on every position I have applied for the last dozen years…I am 5 for research 5. Tahoma kerns nice and tight and 10pt leave plenty of white space. If you know how, typesetting your documents in TeX can really improve the font appearance through proper use of ligatures and a line-break algorithm that evaluates the appearance of the entire paragraph rather than that of the individual line. It can produce PostScript or PDF files for concluding discussion electronic usage.

Failing that, it may be possible to use the Computer Modern fonts for why did the reconstruction which the program is configured in other programs like Word, and concluding discussion essay I expect these would still be a cut above Microsoft’s pet fonts. I think everyone should come out of the dark ages. Research? We now have the concluding discussion facility of computers and graphics……why not use them within reason. / Surely an employer with any intelligence would be absorbing the ease of reading and the content…….not crossing a prospect off because of the what you happy essay font used. Lets move into the 21st century people. As a recent “job seeker” I found this very useful. Discussion Essay? though of course we call them CVs in the Uk, the tips are all good. Papers? Better equipped to avoid the pitfalls now, although I don’t agree 100% with all the points it is none the essay less a useful read. Why Did The Reconstruction Essay? Thanks again. Pat. I think it would be best to concluding essay send a virus to HR because all in all they never call anyone back. Most of papers HR have no clue about anything tech, nor do they have any creative brain at all.

I would rather just meet someone who works at the company itself than deal with a braindead HR zombie.

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Is the Criminal-Justice System Racist? T he race industry and its elite enablers take it as self-evident that high black incarceration rates result from discussion, discrimination. At a presidential primary debate this Martin Luther King Day, for instance, Senator Barack Obama charged that blacks and the reconstruction fail, whites “are arrested at very different rates, are convicted at very different rates, [and] receive very different sentences . . . for the same crime.” Not to be outdone, Senator Hillary Clinton promptly denounced the “disgrace of a criminal-justice system that incarcerates so many more African-Americans proportionately than whites.” If a listener didn’t know anything about discussion essay, crime, such charges of disparate treatment might seem plausible. After all, in 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of all state and federal prisoners, though they’re under 13 percent of the national population. About one in 33 black men was in prison in why did the reconstruction fail essay, 2006, compared with one in 205 white men and one in 79 Hispanic men. Eleven percent of all black males between the ages of 20 and 34 are in prison or jail. Concluding Discussion Essay! The dramatic rise in the prison and the reconstruction fail essay, jail population over the last three decades—to 2.3 million people at the end of 2007 (see box)—has only amplified the racial accusations against the criminal-justice system. The favorite culprits for discussion high black prison rates include a biased legal system, draconian drug enforcement, and even prison itself. None of these explanations stands up to fail essay, scrutiny. The black incarceration rate is overwhelmingly a function of black crime.

Insisting otherwise only worsens black alienation and further defers a real solution to concluding discussion essay, the black crime problem. R acial activists usually remain assiduously silent about that problem. Why Did The Reconstruction Fail! But in 2005, the concluding discussion black homicide rate was over argument essay, seven times higher than that of whites and Hispanics combined, according to the federal Bureau of Justice Statistics. From 1976 to discussion essay, 2005, blacks committed over 52 percent of all murders in America. In 2006, the essay rubric black arrest rate for most crimes was two to nearly three times blacks’ representation in concluding, the population. Blacks constituted 39.3 percent of all violent-crime arrests, including 56.3 percent of all robbery and 34.5 percent of all aggravated-assault arrests, and 29.4 percent of all property-crime arrests. The advocates acknowledge such crime data only indirectly: by charging bias on fail, the part of the system’s decision makers. As Obama suggested in the Martin Luther King debate, police, prosecutors, and judges treat blacks and whites differently “for the same crime.”

Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. Essay! As long ago as 1978, a study of robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in victim identifications and in makes college essay, arrests—a finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes. No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to why crime victims would be biased in their reports. Moving up the enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and discussion, judges oversentence blacks. Obama describes this alleged postarrest treatment as “Scooter Libby justice for argument some and Jena justice for others.” Jena, Louisiana, of course, was where a D.A. initially lodged attempted second-degree murder charges against black students who, in December 2006, slammed a white student’s head against discussion essay, a concrete beam, knocking him unconscious, and then stomped and kicked him in the head while he was down. As Charlotte Allen has brilliantly chronicled in The Weekly Standard , a local civil rights activist crafted a narrative linking the attack to an unrelated incident months earlier, in which three white students hung two nooses from a schoolyard tree—a display that may or may not have been intended as a racial provocation. Nordstrom Research Papers! This entrepreneur then embellished the concluding essay tale with other alleged instances of redneck racism—above all, the initial attempted-murder charges. An enthusiastic national press responded to the bait exactly as intended, transforming the “Jena Six” into victims rather than perpetrators. In the seven months of research, ensuing headlines and protests, Jena became a symbol of concluding discussion essay, systemic racial unfairness in America’s court system. If blacks were disproportionately in what makes you happy, prison, the refrain went, it was because they faced biased prosecutors—like the one in Jena—as well as biased juries and judges.

Backing up this bias claim has been the holy grail of concluding essay, criminology for decades—and the prize remains as elusive as ever. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on charging and sentencing. They concluded that “large racial differences in criminal offending,” not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for dissertation longer terms. A 1987 analysis of Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did and that they were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, however—an outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records. Another criminologist—easily as liberal as Sampson—reached the same conclusion in 1995: “Racial differences in patterns of discussion, offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and imprisoned,” Michael Tonry wrote in Malign Neglect . You Happy Essay! (Tonry did go on to impute malign racial motives to drug enforcement, however.) The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for homicide compared with their presence in arrest. This consensus hasn’t made the slightest dent in the ongoing search for systemic racism. An entire industry in the law schools now dedicates itself to flushing out prosecutorial and judicial bias, using ever more complicated statistical artillery.

The net result? A few new studies show tiny, unexplained racial disparities in sentencing, while other analyses continue to find none. Any differences that do show up are trivially small compared with the exponentially greater rates of criminal offending among blacks. No criminologist would claim, moreover, to have controlled for discussion essay every legal factor that affects criminal-justice outcomes, says Patrick Langan, former senior statistician for the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Prosecutors and judges observe the heinousness of a defendant’s conduct, for corporate responsibility example, but a number-crunching researcher has no easy way to concluding discussion essay, discover and quantify that variable. Some criminologists replace statistics with High Theory in rubric, their search for racism. The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. But the concluding essay problem is dissertation, how society defines crime and discussion essay, criminals. Crime is a social construction designed to dissertation, marginalize minorities, these theorists argue.

A liberal use of scare quotes is virtually mandatory in concluding discussion, such discussions, to signal one’s distance from primitive notions like “law-abiding” and the reconstruction essay, “dangerous.” Arguably, vice crimes are partly definitional (though even there, the law enforcement system focuses on them to the extent that they harm communities). But the social constructivists are talking about all crime, and it’s hard to see how one could “socially reconstruct” assault or robbery so as to convince victims that they haven’t been injured. U nfair drug policies are an equally popular explanation for black incarceration rates. Legions of concluding discussion essay, pundits, activists, and academics charge that the war on drugs is a war on minorities—a de facto war at best, an intentional one at worst. Playing a starring role in dissertation style, this conceit are federal crack penalties, the source of the greatest amount of misinformation in discussion, the race and incarceration debate. Crack is research papers, a smokeable and highly addictive cocaine concentrate, created by cooking powder cocaine until it hardens into pellets called “rocks.” Crack produces a faster—and more potent—high than powder cocaine, and it’s easier to use, since smoking avoids the unpleasantness of needles and is more efficient than snorting. Discussion Essay! Under the 1986 federal Anti-Drug Abuse Act, getting caught with five grams of dissertation of writing, crack carries a mandatory minimum five-year sentence in federal court; to trigger the same five-year minimum, powder-cocaine traffickers would have to concluding, get caught with 500 grams. Style! On average, federal crack sentences are three to six times longer than powder sentences for equivalent amounts.

The media love to target the federal crack penalties because crack defendants are likely to be black. In 2006, 81 percent of federal crack defendants were black, while only 27 percent of concluding discussion essay, federal powder-cocaine defendants were. Since federal crack rules are more severe than those for powder, and crack offenders are disproportionately black, those rules must explain why so many blacks are in dissertation, prison, the conventional wisdom holds. But consider the actual number of crack sellers sentenced in federal court each year. Concluding Essay! In 2006, 5,619 were tried federally, 4,495 of them black. From 1996 to 2000, the federal courts sentenced more powder traffickers (23,743) than crack traffickers (23,121). It’s going to take a lot more than 5,000 or so crack defendants a year to account for argument essay the 562,000 black prisoners in state and federal facilities at the end of 2006—or the 858,000 black prisoners in custody overall, if one includes the population of county and city jails.

Nor do crack/powder disparities at the state level explain black incarceration rates: only essay, 13 states distinguish between crack and powder sentences, and they employ much smaller sentence differentials. The press almost never mentions the federal methamphetamine-trafficking penalties, which are identical to argument, those for crack: five grams of meth net you a mandatory minimum five-year sentence. In 2006, the 5,391 sentenced federal meth defendants (nearly as many as the crack defendants) were 54 percent white, 39 percent Hispanic, and 2 percent black. But no one calls the federal meth laws anti-Hispanic or anti-white. N evertheless, the federal crack penalties dominate discussions on race and incarceration because they seem to provide a concrete example of essay, egregious racial disparity. This leads to makes, a commonly expressed syllogism: crack penalties have a disparate impact on blacks; disparate impact is racist; therefore, crack penalties are racist. This syllogism has been particularly prominent recently, thanks to the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s 2007 decision to lighten federal crack penalties retroactively in the name of racial equity.

The press has covered this development voraciously, serving up a massive dose of crack revisionism aimed at proving the racist origins of the concluding essay war on crack. Crack was never a big deal, the revisionist story line goes. Responsibility Essays! But when Boston Celtics draft pick Len Bias died of a crack overdose in 1986, the media went into overdrive covering the crack phenomenon. “Images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack, and the street crime it was presumed to stoke” circulated, as the New York Times archly put it in concluding discussion, a December 2007 article. Ap Euro Essay! A “moral panic” (Michael Tonry’s term) ensued about an discussion essay, imaginary threat from a powerless minority group. Whites feared that addicted blacks would invade their neighborhoods. Nordstrom Research Papers! Sensational stories about “crack babies” surfaced. Concluding Discussion! All this hysteria resulted in the unnecessary federal crack penalties. Since the 1980s, the argument essay revisionist narrative continues, experts have determined that powder and crack show more pharmacological “similarities than differences,” in the Times ’s words, and that crack is no more damaging to fetuses than alcohol. The belief that crack was an discussion essay, inner-city scourge was thus a racist illusion, and the sentencing structure to quell it a racist assault. Or, as U.S. District Judge Clyde Cahill put it, in what one hopes is not a representative sample of the federal judicial temperament: “Legislators’ unconscious racial aversion towards blacks, sparked by unsubstantiated reports of the argument essay gre ets effects of crack, reactionary media prodding, and an agitated constituency, motivated the legislators . Concluding Essay! . Argument Essay! . to produce a dual system of punishment.”

Leave aside the irony of the concluding discussion essay press’s now declaring smugly that the press exaggerated the ravages of crack. (The same New York Times that now sneers at “images—or perhaps anecdotes—about the evils of crack” ran searing photos of crack addicts in 1993 that included a woman kneeling before a crack dealer, unzipping his fly, a baby clinging to her back; such degraded prostitutes, known as “strawberries,” were pervasive casualties of the epidemic.) The biggest problem with the revisionist narrative is ap euro, its unreality. Discussion Essay! The assertion that concern about responsibility, crack resulted from “unconscious racial aversion towards blacks” ignores a key fact: black leaders were the first to sound the discussion alarm about the drug, as Harvard law professor Randall Kennedy documents in Race, Crime, and the Law . Harlem congressman Charles Rangel initiated the federal response to the epidemic, warning the House of Representatives in essays, March 1986 that crack had made cocaine “frightening[ly]” accessible to youth. A few months later, Brooklyn congressman Major Owens explicitly rejected what is discussion essay, now received wisdom about nordstrom papers, media hype. “None of the press accounts really have exaggerated what is actually going on,” Owens said; the crack epidemic was “as bad as any articles have stated.” Queens congressman Alton Waldon then called on his colleagues to act: “For those of us who are black this self-inflicted pain is the worst oppression we have known since slavery. . . Essay! . Essays! Let us . . . pledge to crack down on discussion essay, crack.” The bill that eventually passed, containing the makes you happy essay crack/powder distinction, won majority support among black congressmen, none of discussion essay, whom, as Kennedy points out, objected to corporate essays, it as racist. These politicians were reacting to a devastating outbreak of inner-city violence and addiction unleashed by the new form of cocaine. Because crack came in small, easily digestible amounts, it democratized what had been a rarefied drug, making an concluding discussion essay, intense high available to people with very little money. The crack market differed radically from the discreet phone transactions and private deliveries that characterized powder-cocaine distribution: volatile young dealers sold crack on street corners, using guns to establish their turf.

Crack, homicides, and assaults went hand in hand; certain areas of New York became “like a war zone,” retired DEA special agent Robert Stutman told PBS’s Frontline in 2000. The large national spike in violence in the mid-1980s was largely due to the crack trade, and its victims were overwhelmingly black inner-city residents. Though the essay gre ets elites are furiously rewriting crack history, many people who lived through it are not. Concluding Discussion Essay! In April 2007, Los Angeles prosecutor Robert Grace won the conviction of a crack dealer who had raped and strangled to makes college essay, death ten strawberries between 1987 and discussion, 1998. Argument! The “crack epidemic was one of the worst things that happened to the black and brown community,” Grace asserts. Matthew Kennedy managed an infamous public housing project in Watts during the essay crack epidemic. “Some of us remember how bad it was,” he says. When children avoid school for gre ets fear of getting shot by drug gangs, “you’ve just lost that generation.” Lawrence Tolliver has witnessed his share of shootings outside his South Central barbershop. Discussion! “Sometimes it was so bad you had to scout the horizon like a gazelle at a watering hole in Africa,” he recalls. It takes shameless sleight of hand to turn an effort to nordstrom, protect blacks into a conspiracy against them. If Congress had ignored black legislators’ calls to increase cocaine-trafficking penalties, the outcry among the groups now crying racism would have been deafening. Yes, a legislative bidding war drove federal crack penalties ultimately to an arbitrary and excessive point; the reduction of those penalties is concluding discussion essay, appropriate.

But what led to responsibility essays, the crack-sentencing scheme wasn’t racism but legal logic. Essay! Prosecutors rely on heavy statutory penalties to induce defendants to spill the beans on their criminal colleagues. “An amazing public spirit is engendered when you tell someone he is facing 150 years to life but has the possibility of getting out after eight if he tells you who committed a string of essay gre ets, homicides,” says Walter Arsenault, who headed the concluding discussion Manhattan district attorney’s homicide-investigation unit in the 1980s and 1990s. R ace activists endlessly promote the claim that the draconian federal crack laws are sweeping up mere sad sacks with a little extra crack to essay, spare. But anyone who fits that description is discussion, exempt from the federal sentencing scheme. Traffickers with only corporate essays, a modest criminal history who didn’t injure others or have a gun when arrested can escape the discussion mandatory federal sentences if they don’t lie to gre ets, the government about their offense (there is no requirement to rat out others). Discussion Essay! In 2006, only 15.4 percent of crack-cocaine defendants qualified for this safety-valve provision, compared with 48.4 percent of powder-cocaine offenders; in 2000, even fewer crack defendants qualified—12.6 percent. Crack sellers seldom merit the you happy essay escape clause because their criminal histories tend to be much more severe than powder sellers’ and concluding discussion essay, because they’re more likely to have or use weapons. You Happy College! The congressional distinction between crack and concluding discussion essay, powder sellers, it turns out, had a firm grounding.

Equally misleading is the what you happy college criticism that few crack “kingpins” can be found in concluding essay, federal prison. This is not surprising, because “kingpins” in corporate, the traditional sense—heads of major drug-importing rings—don’t exist in the crack world. Crack is not imported but cooked up locally. Its supply and concluding essay, distribution scheme is more horizontal than vertical, unlike that of powder cocaine and heroin. Federal crack enforcement wasn’t about responsibility, stopping the flow of illegal drugs into the country; it was about stopping urban violence.

And that violence was coming from street dealers. C ritics follow up their charges about crack with several empirical claims about drugs and imprisonment. Discussion Essay! None is true. The first is that drug enforcement has been the most important cause of the overall rising incarceration rate since the 1980s. Yet even during the most rapid period of population growth in prisons—from 1980 to 1990—36 percent of the growth in corporate essays, state prisons (where 88 percent of the nation’s prisoners are housed) came from violent crimes, compared with 33 percent from essay, drug crimes.

Since then, drug offenders have played an why did essay, even smaller role in state prison expansion. From 1990 to 2000, violent offenders accounted for 53 percent of the census increase—and all of the increase from 1999 to 2004. Next, critics blame drug enforcement for rising racial disparities in prison. Again, the facts say otherwise. In 2006, blacks were 37.5 percent of the 1,274,600 state prisoners. If you remove drug prisoners from that population, the percentage of discussion, black prisoners drops to 37 percent—half of a percentage point, hardly a significant difference. (No criminologist, to the best of my knowledge, has ever performed this exercise.) The rise of drug cases in responsibility essays, the criminal-justice system has been dramatic, it’s important to acknowledge. In 1979, drug offenders were 6.4 percent of the essay state prison population; in 2004, they were 20 percent. Even so, violent and property offenders continue to dominate the ranks: in 2004, 52 percent of state prisoners were serving time for violence and 21 percent for dissertation style of writing property crimes, for a combined total over three and concluding essay, a half times that of state drug offenders.

In federal prisons, drug offenders went from 25 percent of all federal inmates in 1980 to 47.6 percent of all federal inmates in 2006. Drug-war opponents focus almost exclusively on federal, as opposed to state, prisons because the proportion of drug offenders is highest there. But the federal system held just 12.3 percent of the nation’s prisoners in essay rubric, 2006. S o much for the claim that blacks are disproportionately imprisoned because of the war on discussion, drugs. But a final, even more audacious, argument maintains that incarceration itself, not criminals, causes crime in nordstrom papers, black neighborhoods. Essay! Because blacks have the highest prison rate, this argument holds, incarceration constitutes an what you happy college essay, unjust and disproportionate burden on them. This idea has gained wide currency in the academic world and in anti-incarceration think tanks.

Columbia University law professor Jeffrey Fagan offered a representative version of the theory in concluding discussion, a 2003 law review article coauthored with two public health researchers. Sending black males to prison “weakens the general social control of children and especially adolescents,” Fagan writes. Incarceration increases the dissertation style number of single-parent households. With adult males missing from their neighborhoods, boys will be more likely to get involved in crime, since they lack proper supervision. The net result: “Incarceration begets more incarceration [in] a vicious cycle.” A few questions present themselves. How many convicts were living in a stable relationship with the mother (or one of the mothers) of their children before being sent upstate? (Forget even asking about their marriage rate.) What kind of positive guidance do men who are committing enough crimes to end up in prison, rather than on probation (an exceedingly high threshold), provide to concluding essay, young people? Further, if Fagan is right that keeping criminals out of what makes you happy, prison and on the streets preserves a community’s social capital, inner cities should have thrived during the 1960s and early 1970s, when prison resources contracted sharply. In fact, New York’s poorest neighborhoods—the subject of Fagan’s analysis—turned around only in concluding essay, the 1990s, when the prison population reached its zenith. Fagan, like many other criminologists, conflates the effects of prison and crime. Neighborhoods with high incarceration rates suffer disproportionate burdens, he claims.

Firms are reluctant to locate in such areas, decreasing job opportunities. Police pay closer attention to these high-incarceration zones, increasing the chance that any given criminal within them will wind up arrested. Thus, incarceration “provides a steady supply of offenders for more incarceration.” But if business owners think twice about certain communities, it’s because they fear crime, not a high concentration of ex-convicts per se. Gre Ets! It’s unlikely that prospective employers even know the population of concluding, ex-cons in fail, a neighborhood; what they are aware of is discussion, its crime rates. Dissertation! And an employer who hesitates to hire an ex-con is almost certainly reacting to his criminal record, even if he has been given community probation instead of prison. Likewise, if the police give extra scrutiny to neighborhoods with many ex-convicts, it’s because those convicts commit a lot of crime.

Finally, putting more criminals on probation, rather than sending them to prison—as Fagan and others advocate—would only increase law enforcement surveillance of high-crime neighborhoods. This popular “social ecological” analysis of incarceration, as Fagan and concluding discussion essay, other criminologists call it, treats prison like an outbreak of infectious disease that takes over certain communities, felling people on a seemingly random basis. “As the risks of what you happy college, going to jail or prison grow over time for persons living in those areas, their prospects for marriage or earning a living and family-sustaining wage diminish as the incarceration rates around them rise,” Fagan says. This analysis elides the role of individual will. Fagan and others assume that once one lives in a high-incarceration—that is, high-crime—area, one can do little to concluding discussion essay, avoid prison. But even in the most frayed urban communities, plenty of people choose to avoid the “Life.” Far from facing diminished marriage prospects, an upstanding, reliable young man in the inner city would be regarded as a valuable catch. No one doubts that having a criminal record—whether it results in community probation or prison—is a serious handicap. People convicted of crimes compete for jobs at a clear disadvantage with those who have stayed crime-free. Essay Rubric! But for all the concluding popularity of the view that the system is to blame, it’s not hard to find dissenters who believe that individuals are responsible for the decision to corporate responsibility, break the essay law. “My position is not hard,” says public housing manager Matthew Kennedy. Argument! “You don’t have to discussion essay, do that crime.” Kennedy supported President Bill Clinton’s controversial 1996 “one-strike” rule for public housing, which allowed housing authorities to argument essay, evict drug dealers and other lawbreaking tenants on their first offense. “I’m trying to discussion essay, protect the good people in my community,” Kennedy explains. “A criminal record is preventable. It’s all on you.” Kennedy has no truck with the ap euro essay rubric argument that it is unfair to send ex-offenders back to prison for violations of discussion essay, their parole conditions, such as staying away from their gang associates and hangouts. “Where do they take responsibility for their own actions?” he wonders. Fail! “You’ve been told, ‘Don’t come back to discussion, this community.’ Why would you come back here? You’ve got to change your ways, change the habits that got you in there in the first place.” Though you’d never know it from reading the academic literature, some people in minority communities even see prison as potentially positive for individuals as well as for communities. “I don’t buy the ap euro essay idea that there’s no sense to prison,” says Clyde Fulford, a 54-year-old lifelong resident of the William Mead Homes, a downtown Los Angeles housing project.

Having raised his children to be hardworking, law-abiding citizens, Fulford is a real role model for concluding his neighborhood, not the style specious drug-dealing kind posited by the “social ecological” theory of incarceration. “I know a lot of people who went to prison,” Fulford says. “A lot changed they life for discussion essay the better. Prison was they wake-up call.” Is prison unavoidable and thus unfair? “They knew they was going to pay. It’s up to that person.” What if the what prisoners hadn’t been locked up? “Many would be six feet under.” R obert Grace, the Los Angeles prosecutor, is acutely aware of the fragility and preciousness of the rule of law. “As a civilized society, we can’t allow what’s happening in Latin America to take over here,” he says. “Venezuela and Mexico are awash in appalling violence because they don’t respect the law.” Thus, when prominent figures like Barack Obama make sweeping claims about racial unfairness in discussion essay, the criminal-justice system, they play with fire. “For any political candidate to make such claims out of expediency is wrong,” Grace says. “If they have statistics that back up the claim, I’d like to see them. But to create phony perceptions of injustice is as wrong as not doing anything about the real thing.” The evidence is clear: black prison rates result from crime, not racism. America’s comparatively high rates of dissertation of writing, incarceration are nothing to celebrate, of course, but the alternative is far worse. Concluding Discussion! The dramatic drop in crime in the 1990s, to which stricter sentencing policies unquestionably contributed, has freed thousands of essay rubric, law-abiding inner-city residents from the bondage of fear.

Commerce and street life have revived in those urban neighborhoods where crime has fallen most. The pressure to divert even more offenders from concluding essay, prison, however, will undoubtedly grow. If a probation system can finally be crafted that provides as much public safety as prison, we should welcome it. But the continuing search for the chimera of criminal-justice bigotry is a useless distraction that diverts energy and attention from the crucial imperative of helping more inner-city boys stay in school—and out of trouble. Punishment and Crime. Those who tar the criminal-justice system as racist often make a broader claim: incarceration doesn’t even lower crime, making the nation’s skyrocketing prison rolls a particularly senseless injustice.

Incarceration foes are right about one thing: the U.S. prison population has swollen dramatically over the last three decades. The per-capita rate of imprisonment increased three times from responsibility, 1973 to 2000; the number of state and federal prisoners grew fivefold between 1977 and concluding discussion essay, 2007, from ap euro rubric, 300,000 to 1.59 million. Essay! When inmates in corporate essays, jails are included, the total number in correctional facilities at the end of 2007 was 2.3 million, according to the Pew Center on the States. Concluding! One in 100 adults is in custody. This expansion represents a resounding rejection of the reigning crime philosophy of the 1960s. The 1967 report of the President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, a classic Great Society document, argued that society could reduce crime only by eliminating poverty and racism, ideally through government-funded social programs.

Consistent with this theory, prison capacity began dropping during the corporate essays sixties and only stopped falling during the late 1970s, when crime reached intolerable levels. Thereafter, the states started adding prison beds and passing laws to keep offenders locked up longer and to reduce judicial discretion to concluding discussion, issue very lenient sentences. Few subjects have proved more contested in argument gre ets, criminology than whether this prison buildup lowered crime—and, if so, by how much. Anyone entering the thickets of incarceration studies should abandon all commonsense assumptions, such as that locking away, say, a burglar, would reduce burglary rates. Not so, say the criminologists, and at first glance, the crime data from the late-twentieth-century prison expansion seem to concluding discussion essay, support them. Only after 1991 was the the reconstruction rise in incarceration consistently accompanied by decreasing crime rates; in the 1980s, crime went up and down, even as the prison population steadily grew. And now that crime is falling, the criminology world finds itself even more puzzled by why the prison population keeps increasing.

Two of the concluding discussion essay most common theories as to why prison doesn’t lower crime are logically weak and empirically ungrounded. College! The first is that locking a criminal up won’t decrease crime, since another criminal will replace him. Yet while crimes meeting an illicit consumer demand may operate within a supply-and-demand framework, opportunities for violence and property crimes hit no natural ceiling. There are plenty of potential victims of violence and theft to go around; a potential robber need not wait for a competitor to discussion essay, go to jail before he can begin his own crime spree. The second theory to style, explain why prison doesn’t work applies the law of diminishing returns to incarceration. Concluding Discussion! As we lock up ever more people, we start scraping the bottom of the criminal barrel, the critics say. The prisoners we incarcerate become more innocuous than those picked up initially, so we get a diminishing bang for the buck for every new prisoner sent away. However impeccable the economic reasoning behind this claim, there is no empirical evidence for it. Essays! The diminishing-returns argument assumes that the universe of essay, unapprehended and unincarcerated criminals is shrinking. It is corporate essays, not. The chances of getting caught and sent to prison remain extraordinarily low.

The JFA Institute, an anti-incarceration advocacy group, estimated in 2007 that in only 3 percent of concluding discussion essay, violent victimizations and property crimes does the fail essay offender end up in prison. In 2004, only essay, 1.6 percent of burglars were in prison, according to corporate responsibility, the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Concluding! The people in prison today, says statistician Patrick Langan, are “not very different from corporate responsibility essays, prisoners in the past, in terms of discussion, their prior records.” In the overwhelming majority of cases, whatever the race of the convicted, prison remains what it has always been: a lifetime achievement award for persistence in criminal offending. Absent recidivism or a violent crime, the criminal-justice system will do everything it can to ap euro rubric, keep you out of the state or federal slammer. It can be disconcerting for essay the average law-abiding citizen to ap euro, hear a prosecutor’s typology of the crime universe: most thefts, for example, are considered “nonserious crimes” that do not merit prison sentences, unless they concern a huge amount of money or took place in the victim’s presence. Discussion Essay! Steal an unoccupied car or burgle an unoccupied home and of writing, you’ll probably get probation; hijack a car from a driver or stick up a pedestrian, however, and you’ll probably go to discussion essay, prison. Columbia University law professor Dan Richman had a chance to test the “harmless offenders in prison” claim as chair of New York City’s Local Conditional Release Commission. College! Richman studied the criminal profile of Rikers jail inmates in late 2004.

Jails are supposed to be where the most “innocuous” lawbreakers end up—those with misdemeanor convictions or sentences of less than a year. “It struck me how serious the offenders were,” he says. “I’d come from the academy, where there’s persuasive writing about over-incarceration. I had assumed there would be mostly first-time offenders in jail, but it wasn’t true.” About 40 percent of the inmates had prior felony convictions, Richman discovered, and the inmates’ most recent offenses, which had put them in jail this time around, were usually serious. People in for assault would have pleaded down from attempted manslaughter; possession pleaded down from concluding, distribution. “These weren’t people who were there by accident,” says Richman. One can also test the theory that locking away offenders doesn’t lower crime by seeing what prisoners do when they get out. The Bureau of Justice Statistics studied the postprison careers of over 272,000 state prisoners released in 1994.

Within three years, 67.5 percent of the group had been rearrested for 744,000 new felonies and serious misdemeanors. Corporate Essays! How many additional crimes they committed during those three years before getting arrested is unknown; estimates of the number of crimes that a typical unapprehended criminal commits per essay year range from zero to several hundred. And the ex-cons’ post-release crime spree seems not to have resulted from the negative effects of prison itself, since convicts who spent the longest time behind bars had significantly lower rearrest rates than others. Not all criminologists and law professors dispute that prison lowers crime. University of Chicago economist Steve Levitt hypothesized in 1996 that had incarceration rates not risen sharply from what you happy essay, 1971 to 1993, violent crime would have been 70 percent higher and property crime almost 50 percent higher. More typical estimates attribute 10 to 25 percent of the 1990s crime drop to incarceration. And Berkeley law professor Franklin Zimring rejected the diminishing-returns argument against incarceration in his 2007 book The Great American Crime Decline . The fact that crime started dropping consistently only at the end of the concluding essay decades-long prison buildup makes perfect sense, he argued, since that’s when the greatest number of criminals were off the streets. Heather Mac Donald is why did fail, a contributing editor of concluding discussion essay, City Journal and the John M. Olin Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. The Reconstruction Fail Essay! Her latest book, coauthored with Victor Davis Hanson and Steven Malanga, is The Immigration Solution.

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Heather Mac Donald discusses Is the discussion Criminal-Justice System Racist? A quarterly magazine of urban affairs, published by the Manhattan Institute, edited by argument, Brian C. Essay! Anderson. New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-7000. Send a question or comment using the argument essay gre ets form below. This message may be routed through support staff.