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Essay invention telephone

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The Invention Of The Telephone, an …

Essay invention telephone

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Invention Of Telephone Life History …

bwrite an essay Writers use the descriptive essay to create a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing. Unlike a narrative essay, which reveals meaning through a personal story, the purpose of a descriptive essay is to reveal the meaning of a subject through detailed, sensory observation. The descriptive essay employs the power of language and invention all the human senses to bring a subject to life for the reader. If readers come away from a descriptive essay with the feeling that they have really met a person, gone to master s thesis, a particular place, or held a certain object, the writer has done a good job. If readers also feel an emotional connection and deep appreciation for the subject’s significance, the writer has done a great job. The Five-Step Writing Process for Descriptive Essays. Professional writers know one thing: Writing takes work. Telephone? Understanding and following the proven steps of the writing process helps all writers, including students. Thesis And Semiotics? Here are descriptive essay writing tips for each phase of the writing process: 1. Prewriting for the Descriptive Essay. In the prewriting phase of descriptive essay writing, students should take time to think about who or what they want to describe and why.

Do they want to write about a person of essay, significance in their lives, or an object or place that holds meaning? The topic doesn’t have to be famous or unusual. The person could be a grandparent, the object, a favorite toy, and thesis the place, a tree house. Once a topic is chosen, students should spend time thinking about the qualities they want to essay invention telephone, describe. Brainstorm about all the details associated with the best nyu entrance, topic. Even when not writing about a place, reflect on the surroundings.

Where is the object located? Where does the person live? Consider not just physical characteristics, but also what memories, feelings, and ideas the subject evokes. Memory and emotion play an important role in conveying the subject’s significance. Essay? Plan the focus of each paragraph and create an outline that puts these details into a logical sequence.

2. Drafting a Descriptive Essay. When creating the initial draft of a descriptive essay, follow the outline, but remember, the goal is to give the reader a rich experience of the research papers, subject. Keep in mind, the most important watchword of writing a descriptive essay is show, don’t tell. One of the best ways to show is to involve all of the senses—not just sight, but also hearing, touch, smell, and taste. Write so the reader will see the invention telephone, sunset, hear the song, smell the flowers, taste the pie, or feel the touch of best nyu entrance essay, a hand. Use descriptive and figurative language, as well as concrete images to describe the subject.

Similes and metaphors work well. Here are some examples: The house was old. The house frowned with a wrinkled brow, and inside it creaked with each step, releasing a scent of neglected laundry. If you had to pick a study buddy, you would pick this guy. Essay? The clock had been in our family for years. The clock stood by nyu entrance essay our family, faithfully marking the essay invention, minutes and hours of line resume, our lives.

Enjoy the telephone, process of describing the subject—it can be a rewarding experience. A descriptive essay doesn’t rely on facts and examples, but on the writer’s ability to nyu entrance, create a mental picture for the reader. Invention? 3. Revising a Descriptive Essay. In the revision phase, students review, modify, and best nyu entrance reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be. In revising a descriptive essay, students should reread their work with these considerations in mind: Does the essay unfold in essay a way that helps the reader fully appreciate the batman essay, subject? Do any paragraphs confuse more than describe?

Does the essay, word choice and figurative language involve the five senses and convey emotion and meaning? Are there enough details to give the reader a complete picture? Has a connection been made between the cloning research, description and its meaning to the writer? Will the reader be able to identify with the conclusion made? Always keep the reader in mind from essay telephone opening to concluding paragraph. A descriptive essay must be precise in its detail, yet not get ahead of itself. It’s better to go from the general to cooks, the specific. Otherwise, the reader will have trouble building the image in their mind’s eye.

For example, don’t describe a glossy coat of fur before telling the reader the essay telephone, essay is about a dog! 4. Example Master S Thesis? Editing a Descriptive Essay. Essay Telephone? At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics. It’s also the time to improve style and clarity. Watch out for cliches and loading up on adjectives and adverbs.

Having a friend read the essay helps writers see trouble spots and essay edit with a fresh perspective. 5. Publishing a Descriptive Essay. Sharing a descriptive essay with the rest of the class can be both exciting and a bit scary. Remember, there isn’t a writer on earth who isn’t sensitive about his or her own work. The important thing is to learn from the experience and take whatever feedback is given to make the next essay even better. Time4Writing Teaches Descriptive Essay Writing. Time4Writing essay writing courses offer a highly effective way to invention, learn how to write the types of essays required for school, standardized tests, and college applications. A unique online writing program for elementary, middle school, and high school students, Time4Writing breaks down the writing process into manageable chunks, easily digested by resume young writers. Students steadily build writing skills and confidence, guided by one-on-one instruction with a dedicated, certified teacher. Our middle school Welcome to the Essay and Advanced Essay courses teach students the fundamentals of writing well-constructed essays, including the descriptive essay. The high school Exciting Essay Writing course focuses in depth on the essay writing process with preparation for college as the goal.

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The Invention Of The Telephone, an …

nrsa cover letter Part I Overview Information. Department of Health and Human Services. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), ( ) National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), ( ) National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ( ) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), ( ) National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and invention telephone Skin Diseases (NIAMS), ( ) National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and research papers Bioengineering (NIBIB), ( ) Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and telephone Human Development (NICHD), ( ) National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), ( ) National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), ( ) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), ( ) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), ( ) National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), ( ) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ( ) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), ( ) National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), ( ) National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), ( ) National Center for being beyond earliest essay time Research Resources (NCRR), ( ) This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is a reissue of telephone, PA-09-210. Update: The following update relating to this announcement has been issued:

February 10, 2011 - This PA has been reissued as PA-11-113. August 16, 2010 - IMPORTANT NOTE! NIH has eliminated the error correction window for due dates of January 25, 2011 and beyond. As of January 25, all corrections must be complete by beyond earliest essay from time the due date for an application to invention, be considered on-time. See NOT-OD-10-123.

November 5, 2010 - See Notice NOT-OD-11-018 Notice of Need to Expire and Reissue Fellowship Applications (Fs) to Comply with Language in New Application Forms. Program Announcement (PA) Number: PA-10-110. APPLICATIONS MAY NOT BE SUBMITTED IN PAPER FORMAT. This FOA must be read in conjunction with the application guidelines included with this announcement in for Grants (hereafter called A registration process is necessary before submission and applicants are highly encouraged to start the process at least four (4) weeks prior to the grant submission date. See Section IV. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Number(s) 93.866, 93.272, 93.855, 93.856, 93.286, 93.865, 93.173, 93.121, 93.847, 93.848, 93.849, 93.279, 93.113, 93.867, 93.859, 93.837, 93.838, 93.839, 93.233, 93.172, 93.282, 93.853, 93.361, 93.389, 93.846, 93.398. Release/Posted Date: February 16, 2010. Opening Date: March 8, 2010 (Earliest date an being earliest, application may be submitted to NOTE: On-time submission requires that applications be successfully submitted to no later than 5:00 p.m. local time (of the applicant institution/organization).

Council Review Date(s): Not applicable to invention, Individual Fellowships. Additional Information To Be Available Date (URL Activation Date): Not Applicable. Expiration Date: New Date January 8, 2011 (per issuance of NOT-OD-11-018), Original Date: January 8, 2013. Due Dates for E.O. 12372. Additional Overview Content. Purpose . The purpose of from time, this individual postdoctoral research training fellowship is to provide support to promising Fellowship Applicants with the potential to become productive, independent investigators in scientific health-related research fields relevant to the missions of participating NIH Institutes and Centers.

Mechanism of Support. This FOA will utilize the Ruth L. Kirschstein Individual Postdoctoral National Research Service Award (NRSA) award mechanism (F32) . Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards. Because the essay telephone, nature and scope of the proposed research training will vary from application to application, it is anticipated that the size and duration of each award will also vary. The total amount awarded and the number of awards will depend upon the mechanism numbers, quality, duration, and costs of the applications received. Budget and Project Period. Although the financial plans of the ICs provide support for this program, awards pursuant to this funding opportunity are contingent upon the availability of funds and the receipt of a sufficient number of meritorious applications. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! NRSA postdoctoral support normally may not exceed 3 years.

Application Research Strategy Length: The F32 Research Strategy section may not exceed 6 pages, including tables, graphs, figures, diagrams, and charts. See Eligible Institutions/Organizations. Institutions/organizations listed in Section III, 1.A. are eligible to apply. Eligible Project Directors/Principal Investigators (PDs/PIs). The PD/PI is the individual Fellowship Applicant. Applicants must be citizens or non-citizen nationals of the telephone, United States, or have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence.

Individuals with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to undertake the proposed research training are invited to work with their institution/organization to time, develop an application for support. Essay Telephone! Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Number of PDs/PIs. Only one PD/PI may be designated on the application. Number of Applications. An individual may not have two or more competing NIH fellowship applications pending review concurrently. Resubmissions. Best Essay! Applicants may submit a resubmission application, but such application must include an essay telephone, Introduction addressing the previous peer review critique (Summary Statement). Best Essay! See new NIH policy on resubmission (amended) applications (NOT-OD-09-003, NOT-OD-09-016).

Renewals. Awards are generally not renewable and are not transferable from one PD/PI to another. Application Materials. See Section IV.1 for application materials. General Information. For general information on SF424 (RR) Application and invention Electronic Submission, see these Web sites: SF424 (RR) Application and vs spiderman Electronic Submission Information: General information on Electronic Submission of Grant Applications: Hearing Impaired. Telecommunications for the hearing impaired are available at: TTY: (301) 451-5936.

Table of Contents. Part I Overview Information. Part II Full Text of Announcement. Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Training Objectives. 1. Mechanism of Support. 2. Funds Available. 1. Invention Telephone! Eligible Applicants. A. Eligible Institutions.

B. And Semiotics! Eligible Individuals. 2. Cost Sharing or Matching. 3. Other-Special Eligibility Criteria. 1. Essay Telephone! Request Application Information. 2. Content and Form of Application Submission. 3. Submission Dates and Times. A. Submission, Review, and Anticipated Start Dates. 1. Letter of example of psychology, Intent. B. Essay Invention Telephone! Submitting an Application Electronically to the NIH. C. Application Processing.

4. Intergovernmental Review. 5. Funding Restrictions. 6. Other Submission Requirements. 2. Review and Selection Process. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. 2. Administrative and National Policy Requirements. 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s) 2. Peer Review Contact(s) 3. Financial/Grants Management Contact(s)

Part II - Full Text of Announcement. Section I. Funding Opportunity Description. 1. Research Training Objectives. The purpose of the postdoctoral fellowship (F32) award is to provide support to promising postdoctoral applicants who have the papers, potential to become productive and successful independent research investigators. The proposed postdoctoral training must offer an opportunity to enhance the applicant's understanding of the health-related sciences, and must be within the broad scope of biomedical, behavioral, or clinical research or other specific disciplines relevant to the research mission of the participating NIH Institutes and Centers. Applicants with a health professional doctoral degree may use the invention telephone, proposed postdoctoral training to satisfy a portion of the degree requirements for a master's degree, a research doctoral degree or any other advanced research degree program. The NRSA legislation requires that the Nation’s overall needs for biomedical research personnel be taken into vs spiderman, account by essay invention giving special consideration to physicians and other health professionals who propose to become active biomedical researchers and who agree to cooks resume, undertake a minimum of 2 years of biomedical, behavioral or clinical research. Telephone! Individuals from diverse racial and ethnic groups and example individuals with disabilities and invention telephone individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Each NIH Institute and Center (IC) has a unique scientific purview and different program goals and initiatives that evolve over time.

Prospective Fellowship Applicants are encouraged to contact the relevant NIH staff for IC-specific programmatic information: Table of Institute and Center Contacts. 1. Being Beyond Earliest Essay Time! Mechanism of essay invention, Support. 2. Funds Available. Facilities and Administrative (FA) costs are not allowed for line cooks fellowship awards. Stipends: Kirschstein-NRSA awards provide stipends to fellows as a subsistence allowance to help defray living expenses during the research and clinical training experiences. The awards are not provided as a condition of employment with either the Federal government or the sponsoring institution. For the telephone, most recent stipend levels, see the following website: The awarding NIH Institute will adjust awards on the anniversary date of the fellowship award to ensure consistency with the vs spiderman, stipend level in effect at that time.

No departure from the published Kirschstein-NRSA stipend schedule may be negotiated between the institution and the fellow. Fellows with less than one full year of essay invention telephone, relevant postdoctoral experience at the time of award will receive initial support at the zero level. Relevant experience may include research (including research in industry), teaching, internship, residency, clinical duties, or other time spent in full-time studies in a health-related field beyond that of the qualifying doctoral degree. The sponsoring IC will adjust awards on the anniversary date of the fellowship award to ensure consistency with the cloning research papers, stipend schedule in effect at that time. No departure from the published Kirschstein-NRSA stipend schedule may be negotiated between the institution and the fellow. The stipend for each subsequent year of Ruth L. Invention! Kirschstein-NRSA support is the next level of experience using the stipend schedule in effect at that time.

For fellows sponsored by domestic non-federal institutions, the stipend will be paid through the sponsoring institution. For fellows sponsored by Federal institutions, the monthly stipend payment will be deposited in the fellow's U.S. bank account or paid directly to the fellow by U.S. And Semiotics! Department of essay, Treasury check. Tuition and thesis and semiotics Fees: The NIH will contribute to telephone, the combined cost of tuition and cloning papers fees at the rate in place at the time of essay invention, award. Tuition, for the purposes of this policy, means the research papers, combined costs of tuition and fees. For the most recent tuition/fees levels, see the following website: Institutional Allowance: F ellows sponsored by nonfederal or nonprofit institutions (domestic or foreign) will receive an institutional allowance to help defray fellowship expenses such as health insurance, research supplies, equipment, books, and travel to scientific meetings. Self-only health insurance (available to fellows without families) or family health insurance is an allowable cost for fellows at essay telephone, the sponsoring institution only if such self or family health insurance is research papers, applied consistently to all persons in a similar training status and regardless of the essay invention telephone, source of support.

This allowance is intended to cover training-related expenses for the individual fellow and is not available until the fellow officially activates the award. If an individual fellow is enrolled or engaged in training for less than six months of the award year, only one-half of vs spiderman, that year's allowance may be charged to the grant. The Notice of essay invention, Award will be revised and the balance must be returned to the NIH. NIH provides an best, institutional allowance to fellows sponsored by Federal laboratories or for-profit institutions for expenses associated with health insurance, travel to scientific meetings and books. Essay Invention Telephone! For fellows at example s thesis, for-profit institutions, the institutional allowance will be paid to the institution for disbursement to the fellow.

Funds for fellows at Federal laboratories will be disbursed from the awarding IC. Funds are not available to essay, cover the costs of travel between the nyu entrance essay, fellow’s place of essay, residence and a training institution. However, in thesis and semiotics, an individual case of extreme hardship, a one-way travel allowance may be authorized by the sponsoring institution. Such travel must be paid from the institutional allowance. For the essay, most recent institutional allowance levels, see the following website: Other Training Costs: As part of this award, additional funds may be requested. In all cases, the additional funds requested must be reasonable in relationship to the total dollars awarded under the fellowship and must be directly related to the approved research training experience. Such additional funds shall be provided only in exceptional circumstances that are fully justified and explained by the sponsoring institution in the application. Reasonable accommodations: Additional funds may be requested by the sponsoring institution to make changes or adjustments in the academic or research environment that will make it possible for an otherwise qualified individual with disabilities to perform the work necessary to best, meet the requirements of the degree program in which he/she is enrolled.

Individuals with disabilities are defined as those with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities (see: Americans with Disabilities Act Home Page). The accommodations requested under this program must be directly related to essay invention telephone, the work required to meet the nyu entrance essay, requirements as regards to both course work and laboratory experience, and essay telephone must be appropriate to the special needs of the applicant. Some types of accommodations that might be provided under this award include, but are not limited to: specialized equipment, assistive devices, and personnel such as readers, interpreters, or assistants. This award is not meant to relieve the sponsoring institution of thesis, its obligation to provide reasonable accommodations as defined by essay telephone the Americans with Disabilities Act. NIH will not provide funds for infrastructure alterations such as lowering countertops, widening doorways, etc. Cooks Resume! Off-site research training: Additional funds may be requested by telephone the sponsoring institution if the research training of a fellow involves extraordinary costs for travel to field sites remote from the sponsoring institution. Foreign site research training: Applications that include training at a foreign site may include a single economy or coach round-trip travel fare.

No allowance is provided for dependents. U.S. flag carriers must be used to the maximum extent possible when commercial air transportation is available for travel between the United States and a foreign country or between foreign countries. Supplementation of Stipends, Compensation, And Other Income: The sponsoring institution is allowed to provide funds to the fellow in addition to the stipend paid by the NIH. Such additional amounts either may be in the form of an augmented stipend (supplementation) or in line, the form of compensation, provided the conditions described below are met. Telephone! Under no circumstances may the conditions of stipend supplementation or the services provided for cooks compensation interfere with, detract from, or prolong the fellow's approved Kirschstein-NRSA training program. See also: Stipend Supplementation: Supplementation, or additional support to invention telephone, offset the cost of living, may be provided by master the sponsoring institution. Supplementation does not require additional effort from the fellow. DHHS funds may not be used for supplementation under any circumstances.

Additionally, no funds from other Federal agencies may be used for invention supplementation unless specifically authorized by the NIH and the other Federal agency. Compensation: The sponsoring institution may provide additional funds to a fellow in the form of compensation (as salary and/or tuition remission) for services such as teaching or serving as a research assistant. Thesis! A fellow may receive compensation for services as a research assistant or in some other position on a Federal research grant, including a DHHS research grant. However, compensated services should occur on invention a limited, part-time basis apart from the normal research training activities, which require a minimum of essay from time, 40 hours per week. In addition, compensation may not be paid from a research grant supporting the telephone, fellow's research training experience. Educational Loans or G.I. Bill: An individual may make use of Federal educational loan funds and assistance under the Veterans Readjustment Benefits Act (G.I. Bill). Such funds are not considered supplementation or compensation. NIH Grants Policy: NIH grants policies as described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement will apply to the applications submitted and awards made in response to this FOA. Section III.

Eligibility Information. 1. Best Essay! Eligible Applicants. 1.A. Eligible Institutions. Public/State Controlled Institutions of Higher Education Private Institutions of Higher Education Hispanic-s erving Institutions Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (TCCUs) Alaska Native and essay invention Native Hawaiian Serving Institutions Nonprofits with 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education) Nonprofits without 501(c)(3) IRS Status (Other than Institutions of Higher Education) For-Profit Organizations ( including Small Businesses) Non-domestic (non-U.S.) Entities (Foreign Organizations) Other(s): Eligible Agencies of the Federal Government. The sponsoring institution must have staff and facilities available on site to provide a suitable environment for best essay performing high-quality research training. The research training should occur in telephone, a research-intensive environment that has appropriate human and thesis technical resources and essay telephone is demonstrably committed to research training in the particular program proposed by best nyu entrance the applicant. Foreign sponsorship: An individual may request support for training abroad. In such cases, the applicant is required to provide detailed justification for the foreign training, including the reasons why the essay telephone, facilities, the sponsor , or other aspects of the being beyond essay from, proposed experience are more appropriate than training in essay telephone, a domestic setting. Essay! The justification is evaluated in terms of the scientific advantages of the foreign training as compared to the training available domestically. Essay! Foreign training will be considered for funding only when the scientific advantages are clear.

1.B. Cloning Research Papers! Eligible Individuals. Any individual(s) with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to essay telephone, carry out the proposed research as the PD/PI is invited to work with his/her organization to of psychology s thesis, develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Citizenship: By the essay, time of award, the individual applicant must be a citizen or a non-citizen national of the United States or have been lawfully admitted for permanent residence (i.e., possess a currently valid Permanent Resident Card USCIS Form I-551, or other legal verification of cloning papers, such status). Invention! Non-citizen nationals are generally persons born in outlying possessions of the line resume, United States (i.e., American Samoa and Swains Island). Telephone! Individuals on temporary or student visas are not eligible. Individuals may apply for the award in advance of example master, admission to the United States as a Permanent Resident recognizing that no award will be made until legal verification of Permanent Resident status is provided.

Degree Requirements: Before a Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral fellowship award can be activated, the individual must have received a PhD, MD, DO, DC, DDS, DVM, OD, DPM, ScD, EngD, Dr PH, DNSc, ND (Doctor of Naturopathy), PharmD, DSW, PsyD, or equivalent doctoral degree from an accredited domestic or foreign institution (it is the essay invention telephone, responsibility of the sponsoring institution to determine if a foreign doctoral degree is batman essay, equivalent). Invention Telephone! Certification by an authorized official of the degree-granting institution that all degree requirements have been met is also acceptable. Line Resume! A Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship may not be used to support studies leading to the MD, DO, DDS, DVM, or other similar health-professional degrees. Neither may these awards be used to support the clinical years of residency training. Telephone! However, these awards are appropriate for the research fellowship years of example of psychology master s thesis, a research-track residency program. Research clinicians must devote full-time to their proposed research training and confine clinical duties to those activities that are part of the research training program. 2. Essay Telephone! Cost Sharing or Matching. Number of Applications. An individual may not have two or more competing NIH fellowship applications pending review concurrently.

Resubmissions . Applicants may submit a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous peer review critique (Summary Statement). Beginning with applications intended for the January 25, 2009 official submission due date, all original new applications (i.e., never submitted) and competing renewal applications are permitted only batman, a single amendment (A1). Essay Invention! See new NIH policy on resubmission (amended) applications (NOT-OD-09-003, NOT-OD-09-016). Line! Original new and essay competing renewal applications that were submitted prior to cooks, January 25, 2009 are permitted two amendments (A1 and A2). For these “grandfathered” applications, NIH expects that any A2 will be submitted no later than January 7, 2011, and NIH will not accept A2 applications after that date. Renewals. Awards are generally not renewable and are not transferable from one PD/PI to essay, another. Fellowship awardees requiring further research training should contact the NIH awarding component to see if they may submit a renewal application.

Duration of Support: Individuals may receive up to 3 years of aggregate Kirschstein-NRSA support at the postdoctoral, including any combination of support from institutional training grants (e.g. T32) and an individual fellowship award. However, it is not possible to have concurrent NRSA support from two different sources (e.g., Individual F and line cooks T32). Essay Telephone! Applicants must consider any prior NRSA research training in determining the thesis, duration of support requested. Invention Telephone! Accurate information regarding previous Kirschstein-NRSA support must be included in the application and will be considered at the time of being earliest from, award. Training beyond the aggregate limit may be possible under certain exceptional circumstances, but a waiver from the NIH awarding component is required. Individuals seeking additional Kirschstein-NRSA support beyond the third year are strongly advised to consult with relevant NIH staff before preparing a justification.

Any waiver will require a detailed justification of the need for invention additional research training. A waiver request should be made to the program official at the awarding NIH Institute at least six months prior to the termination date of the fellowship award. A request for a waiver cannot be made prior to the issuance of the initial award. Individuals are required to pursue their research training on a full-time basis, normally defined as 40 hours per week or as specified by the sponsoring institution in accordance with its own policies. Support for subsequent years of the fellowship award beyond the example master, first budget period is based upon telephone evidence of satisfactory progress in the predoctoral research training program which is thesis, determined by invention telephone the NIH Program staff review of information documented in the progress report. Sponsor: Before submitting a fellowship application, the applicant must identify a sponsor (also called mentor or supervisor) who will supervise the training and research experience. The sponsor should be an active investigator in the area of the proposed research training and example of psychology master be committed both to the research training of the Fellowship Applicant and to invention telephone, the direct supervision the applicant’s research. The sponsor must document the nyu entrance essay, availability of sufficient research support and facilities for high-quality research training.

The sponsor, or a member of the essay invention telephone, mentoring team, should have a successful track record of mentoring. Applicants are encouraged to identify more than one mentor, i.e., a mentoring team, if this is deemed advantageous for providing expert advice in all aspects of the beyond earliest essay from, research and training program. In such cases, one individual must be identified as the principal sponsor who will coordinate the applicant’s research training program. The applicant must work with his/her sponsor(s) in preparing the essay invention, application. The sponsor should describe the research training plan for the applicant (coordinated with the applicant’s research strategy). The sponsor and best any co-sponsors are also expected to provide an assessment of the applicant’s qualifications and potential for a research career. The research environment and the availability and quality of needed research facilities and research resources (e.g., equipment, laboratory space, computer time, available research support, etc.) must also be described. The description should include items such as classes, seminars, and opportunities for interaction with other groups and scientists. Training in career skills, e.g. grant-writing and essay presentation skills are strongly encouraged. Sponsoring Institution: Before submitting a fellowship application, the best essay, applicant must also identify a sponsoring institution. The sponsoring institution must have appropriate staff and facilities available on site to provide a suitable environment for performing high-quality research training and be demonstrably committed to essay telephone, research training in the particular program proposed by the applicant.

In most cases, the fellowship supports research training experiences in being earliest time, new settings in order to maximize the acquisition of new skills and knowledge. However, in essay invention, unusual circumstances, applicants may propose postdoctoral training experiences at research, their doctorate institution or at the institution where they have been training for essay telephone more than a year. In such cases, the example of psychology, applicant must carefully document the opportunities for new research training experiences specifically designed to broaden his/her scientific background. Foreign Training: An individual may request support for foreign training. In such cases, applicants are required to provide detailed justification for the foreign training, including the reasons why the facilities, the sponsor, or other aspects of the proposed experience are more appropriate than training in a domestic setting. The justification will be evaluated in terms of the scientific advantages of the foreign training as compared to the training available domestically. Foreign training will be considered for funding only when opportunities and the scientific advantages are clear.

Foreign Organizations: Several special provisions apply to applications submitted by foreign organizations. Additional information regarding foreign grants is available in the NIH Grants Policy Statement ( Section IV. Application and Submission Information. To download a SF424 (RR) Application Package and SF424 (RR) Application Guide for completing the SF424 (RR) forms for this FOA, use the “Apply for Grant Electronically” button in this FOA or link to and essay telephone follow the directions provided on that Web site. Appropriate registrations with and eRA Commons must be completed on or before the cooks resume, due date in order to successfully submit an telephone, application . Vs Spiderman! Several of the steps of the registration process could take four weeks or more. Therefore, applicants should immediately check with their business official to determine whether their organization/institution is already registered with both and telephone the Commons. All registrations must be complete by the submission deadline for the application to be considered “on-time” (see 3.C.1 for more information about on-time submission). A one-time registration is papers, required for institutions/organizations at both: The PD/PI (Fellowship Applicant) should work with their institutions/organizations to telephone, make sure they are registered in essay from time, the NIH eRA Commons.

Several additional separate actions are required before an essay invention, applicant can submit an electronic application, as follows: 1) Organizational/Institutional Registration in Registered. Your organization will need to research, obtain a Data Universal Number System (DUNS) number and register with the Central Contractor Registration (CCR) as part of the registration process. If your organization does not have a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) or Employer Identification Number (EIN), allow for extra time. A valid TIN or EIN is essay invention, necessary for cloning papers CCR registration. The CCR also validates the EIN against Internal Revenue Service records, a step that will take an additional one to two business days. Direct questions regarding registration to: Contact Center Phone: 800-518-4726. Business Hours: M-F 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. To find out telephone, if an organization is already Commons-registered, see the example of psychology master, List of invention, Grantee Organizations Registered in NIH eRA Commons.” Direct questions regarding the Commons registration to: eRA Commons Help Desk.

Phone: 301-402-7469 or 866-504-9552 (Toll Free) Business hours M-F 7:00 a.m. – 8:00 p.m. Line Resume! Eastern Time. 3) Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI) Registration in invention, the NIH eRA Commons: Refer to the NIH eRA Commons System (COM) Users Guide . The individual designated as PD/PI on the application must be registered also in the NIH eRA Commons. The PD/PI must hold a PD/PI account in cooks, the Commons. Applicants should not share a Commons account for both an Authorized Organization Representative/Signing Official (AOR/SO) role and a PD/PI role; however, if they have both a PD/PI role and an Internet Assisted Review (IAR) role, both roles should exist under one Commons account. This registration/affiliation must be done by the AOR/SO or his/her designee who is already registered in the Commons. Both the essay invention telephone, PD/PI and AOR/SO need separate accounts in the NIH eRA Commons since both are authorized to view the application image. Note: The registration process is not sequential. Applicants should begin the being essay from, registration processes for essay telephone both and eRA Commons as soon as their organization has obtained a DUNS number. Only one DUNS number is beyond earliest from time, required and the same DUNS number must be referenced when completing registration, eRA Commons registration and the SF424 (RR) forms.

1. Telephone! Request Application Information. Note: Only the forms package directly attached to line, a specific FOA can be used. You will not be able to use any other SF424 (RR) forms (e.g., sample forms, forms from another FOA), although some of the invention, Attachment files may be useable for more than one FOA. 2. Example Master S Thesis! Content and Form of Application Submission. Prepare all applications using the essay invention, SF424 (RR) application forms for beyond from time this FOA through and in accordance with the SF424 (RR) Application Guide ( The SF424 (RR) Application Guide is critical to invention, submitting a complete and being essay accurate application to NIH. Some fields within the SF424 (RR) application components, although not marked as mandatory, are required by NIH ( e.g., the “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component must contain the PD/PI’s assigned eRA Commons User ID ). Agency-specific instructions for such fields are clearly identified in the Application Guide. For additional information, see “Frequently Asked Questions – Application Guide, Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” The SF424 (RR) application has several components.

Some components are required, others are optional. The forms package associated with this FOA in includes all applicable components, required and essay invention telephone optional. A completed application in response to this FOA includes the data in the following components: SF424 (RR) (Cover component) Research Related Project/Performance Site Locations. Research Related Other Project Information. Research Related Senior/Key Person. PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form.

PHS398 Cover Letter File. Note: Specific instructions related to each of the components are included in the Individual Fellowship Application Guide SF424 (RR). Foreign Organizations ( Non-domestic [non-U.S.] Entities) NIH policies concerning grants to foreign (non-U.S.) organizations can be found in the NIH Grants Policy Statement at: Applications from Foreign organizations must: Request budgets in U.S. dollars; Comply with Federal/NIH policies on best essay human subjects, animals, and biohazards; and Comply with Federal/NIH biosafety and biosecurity regulations (see Section VI.2 ., “Administrative and essay National Policy Requirements”) Proposed research training should provide special opportunities for essay from time training through the essay, use of unusual talent, resources, populations, or environmental conditions in other countries that are not readily available in the United States (U.S.) or that augment existing U.S. Line Cooks! resources. 3. Submission Dates and Times. 3.A. Submission, Review, and Anticipated Start Dates. Opening Date: March 8, 2010 (Earliest date an application may be submitted to

Council Review Date(s): Not applicable to Individual Fellowships. 3.A.1. Letter of Intent. A letter of intent is not required for the funding opportunity. 3.B. Submitting an Application Electronically to the NIH. 3.C.

Application Processing. Applications may be submitted on or after the opening date and must be successfully received by no later than 5:00 p.m. Essay Invention Telephone! local time (of the applicant institution/organization) on the application due date(s). (See Section IV.3.A. for all dates.) If an application is cloning papers, not submitted by the due date(s) and time, the telephone, application may be delayed in line cooks, the review process or not reviewed. All applications must meet the following criteria to be considered “on-time”: All registrations must be complete prior to the submission deadline The application must receive a tracking number and timestamp (or eRA help desk ticket confirming a system issue preventing submission) by 5:00 p.m. local time on the submission deadline date. Essay Invention! Any system identified errors/warnings must be corrected and example of psychology the submission process completed within the “error correction window.” Please visit for detailed information on what to do if or eRA system issues threaten your ability to submit on time. Submission to is not the last step – applicants must follow their application through to the eRA Commons to check for errors and warnings and view their assembled application! 3.C.2 Two Day Window to Correct eRA Identified Errors/Warnings. IMPORTANT NOTE! NIH has eliminated the error correction window for due dates of January 25, 2011 and beyond. As of January 25, all corrections must be complete by invention telephone the due date for an application to cooks, be considered on-time.

See NOT-OD-10-123. Once an essay invention, application package has been successfully submitted through, NIH provides applicants a two day error correction window to correct any eRA identified errors or warnings before a final assembled application is created in the eRA Commons. The standard error correction window is two (2) business days, beginning the day after the submission deadline and excluding weekends and standard federal holidays. Line! All errors must be corrected to successfully complete the submission process. Warnings will not prevent the application from essay telephone, completing the submission process. Please note that the following caveats apply: Initial application submission must be “on-time.” The AOR/institutions is expected to enforce that application changes made within the error correction window are restricted to vs spiderman, those necessary to address system-identified errors/warnings. NIH may reject any application that includes additional changes. Proof of “on-time” submission (e.g., timestamp and tracking number) and description of all changes made within the window must be documented in the PHS 398 Cover Letter component of the application. 3.C.3 Viewing an Application in the eRA Commons. Once any eRA identified errors have been addressed and essay invention telephone the assembled application has been created in the eRA Commons, the PD/PI and the Authorized Organization Representative/Signing Official (AOR/SO) have two weekdays (Monday – Friday, excluding Federal holidays) to view the assembled application before it automatically moves forward to NIH for further processing.

If everything is and semiotics, acceptable, no further action is essay invention, necessary. The application will automatically move forward to the Division of Receipt and Referral in the Center for Scientific Review for processing after two weekdays, excluding Federal holidays. Prior to the submission deadline, the AOR/SO can “Reject” the assembled application and of psychology master s thesis submit a changed/corrected application within the two-day viewing window. Essay Invention! This option should be used if it is determined that some part of the example of psychology master s thesis, application was lost or did not transfer correctly during the submission process, the AOR/SO will have the option to “Reject” the application and submit a Changed/Corrected application. In these cases, please contact the eRA Help Desk to essay, ensure that the issues are addressed and corrected. Batman Vs Spiderman! Once rejected, applicants should follow the instructions for correcting errors in invention telephone, Section 2.12 of the SF 424 (RR) application guide, including the requirement for cover letters on late applications. The “Reject” feature should also be used if you determine that warnings are applicable to your application and need to be addressed now. Remember, warnings do not stop further application processing. If an essay time, application submission results in warnings (but no errors), it will automatically move forward after two weekdays if no action is taken.

Some warni ngs may need to be addressed later in invention telephone, the process. If the two-day window falls after the submission deadline, the AOR/SO will have the option to “Reject” the application if, due to an eRA Commons or system issue, the application does not correctly reflect the submitted application package (e.g., some part of the application was lost or didn’t transfer correctly during the submission process). Beyond! The AOR/SO should first contact the eRA Commons Helpdesk to confirm the system error, document the issue, and telephone determine the best course of action. NIH will not penalize the applicant for an eRA Commons or system issue. If the AOR/SO chooses to “Reject” the image after the submission deadline for a reason other than an eRA Commons or system failure, a changed/corrected application still can be submitted, but it will be subject to the NIH late policy guidelines and may not be accepted. The reason for this delay should be explained in the cover letter attachment. Both the batman vs spiderman, AOR/SO and PD/PI will receive e-mail notifications when the application is invention telephone, rejected or the application automatically moves forward in the process after two weekdays. Upon receipt, applications will be evaluated for completeness by the Center for Scientific Review, NIH . Incomplete applications will not be reviewed. There will be an acknowledgement of receipt of nyu entrance, applications from and the Commons . The submitting AOR/SO receives the invention telephone, acknowledgments. The AOR/SO and the PI receive Commons acknowledgments.

Information related to the assignment of an application to a Scientific Review Group is also in the Commons. Note: Since email can be unreliable, it is the responsibility of the applicant to check periodically on research their application status in the Commons. The NIH will not accept any application in essay invention telephone, response to this FOA that is essentially the same as one currently pending initial merit review unless the applicant withdraws the pending application. The NIH will not accept any application that is essentially the same as one already reviewed. However, the NIH will accept a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the critique from the previous review. 4. Intergovernmental Review. All NIH awards are subject to the terms and beyond earliest from conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Citizenship: Fellowship Applicants must meet the citizenship/residency requirements as described in the Eligibility section of this announcement (see Section III) at telephone, the time of of psychology master s thesis, award.

Concurrent Awards: A Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship may not be held concurrently with another federally sponsored fellowship or similar Federal award that provides a stipend or otherwise duplicates provisions of this award. Tax Liability: Internal Revenue Code Section 117 applies to the tax treatment of all scholarships and fellowships. The Tax Reform Act of 1986, Public Law 99-514, impacts on the tax liability of all individuals supported under the NRSA program. Under that section, non-degree candidates are required to report as gross income all stipends and any monies paid on essay telephone their behalf for course tuition and fees required for attendance. Degree candidates may exclude from gross income (for tax purposes) any amount used for tuition and related expenses such as fees, books, supplies, and equipment required for courses of instruction at a qualified educational organization. The IRS and being beyond earliest essay from Treasury Department released regulations in January 2005 (Revenue Procedure 2005-11) clarifying the student exception to the FICA (Social Security and Medicare) taxes for students employed by essay a school, college, or university where the student is pursuing a course of study. Our understanding is that these final regulations do not apply to or impact Kirschstein-NRSA programs or awards. An NRSA stipend is provided by the NIH as a subsistence allowance for Kirschstein-NRSA fellows and trainees to help defray living expenses during the research training experience. NRSA recipients are not considered employees of the Federal government or the grantee institution for purposes of the award.

Note that the NIH takes no position on the status of a particular taxpayer, nor does it have the authority to dispense tax advice. The interpretation and implementation of the thesis, tax laws are the domain of the IRS. Individuals should consult their local IRS office about the essay, applicability of the tax laws to thesis and semiotics, their situation and for information on their tax obligations. Future Year Support: Funds for continuation beyond the initial year are determined by the progress described in the continuation application, the timely submission of all required forms, and the availability of telephone, funds. Service Payback: As required by the NIH Revitalization Act of research, 1993, postdoctoral fellows incur a service obligation of 1 month for invention telephone each month of support during the batman, first 12 months of the essay invention telephone, Ruth L. And Semiotics! Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. The 13th and subsequent months of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA support are acceptable postdoctoral payback service. Invention! Thus, individuals who continue under the award for 2 years will have paid off their first year obligation by the end of the second year. Applicants accepting an award for the first 12 months of a Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support must sign a payback agreement (PHS Form 6031) in which they agree to engage in papers, health-related research training, research, and/or teaching for 12 months. Those who do not pay back their obligation through continued Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA supported training may satisfy their obligation by essay telephone serving in being beyond earliest from, a position in which health-related research, research training, or teaching are the primary activities. Such individuals must engage in research, research training, or teaching at a rate of telephone, 20 or more hours per week averaged over a full work-year.

Payback service may be conducted in line resume, an academic, governmental, commercial, or nonacademic environment, in the United States or in a foreign country. Examples of acceptable payback service include research associateships/assistantships, postdoctoral research fellowships, and essay college or high school science teaching positions. Examples of unacceptable payback service include clinical practice and best essay administrative responsibilities not directly related to scientific research. Payback service positions are arranged by the individual, not by the NIH. The NIH will review and approve the activity at the end of the year in which it occurs. Service to satisfy any outstanding obligation must be initiated within 2 years after termination of essay, Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA support, and must be performed on a continuous basis. For individuals who fail to fulfill their service obligation, the United States is entitled to being earliest, recover the total amount of Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA funds paid to the individual for the obligated period plus interest at essay, a rate determined by and semiotics the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Treasury. Financial payback must be completed within 3 years, beginning on the date the United States becomes entitled to recover such amount. Under certain conditions, the invention telephone, Secretary, DHHS, may extend the period for starting service, permit breaks in service, extend the period of repayment, or otherwise waive the essay, payback obligation when compliance would constitute a substantial hardship against invention telephone equity and batman good conscience. Policies regarding the Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA payback obligation are explained in the Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA Section of the NIH Grants Policy Statement available at

PD/PI Credential (e.g., Agency Login) The NIH requires the PD(s)/PI(s) to fill in his/her Commons User ID in the “PROFILE – Project Director/Principal Investigator” section, “Credential” log-in field of the “Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile” component. The applicant organization must include its DUNS number in its Organization Profile in the eRA Commons. This DUNS number must match the DUNS number provided at CCR registration with For additional information, see “Frequently Asked Questions – Application Guide, Electronic Submission of Grant Applications.” Cover Letter (Section 5.2 of SF424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide) Fellowship Applicants are required to attach a cover letter to essay invention, the PHS Cover Letter component of the application.

The cover letter must contain the same list of referees (including name, departmental affiliation, and institution) that is included in the Other Project Information Component Item 12, Other Attachments. In addition, applicants may request assignment (referral) to a particular NIH Institute or Center, as well as a specific Scientific Review Group. See SF 424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide, Section 5.2, for additional information. PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form (Section 5.3 of cloning research papers, SF424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide ) All application instructions outlined in the SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide are to be followed (see:, taking into invention telephone, consideration the following additional instructions (Note that only selected items are emphasized below). See SF 424 Individual Fellowship Application Guide, Section 5.3, for additional information. Research Training Plan. Item 1. Introduction: Required for a resubmission or revision application. This section is limited to 1 page. Item 2. Specific Aims: The Fellowship Applicant must describe concisely the Specific Aims, b road, long-term objectives and the goal of the proposed research to test a stated hypothesis. Line Cooks! The Specific Aims section is required for all Fellowship applications and is limited to 1 page.

Item 3. Research Strategy: This section, including tables, graphs, figures, diagrams, and charts, is limited to 6 pages. Essay Telephone! See Table of Page Limits. This section should address the Significance of the proposed studies, including the background leading to the present application; and and semiotics the Approach (including preliminary studies, if any) to invention telephone, provide experimental support of the proposed hypothesis. Fellowship Applicants must describe a tailored research training plan, including a description of the research strategy (preferably hypothesis-driven) well-suited to the stage of his/her career development to best nyu entrance essay, date. Essay! Describe the skills and techniques that the candidate will learn during the best nyu entrance essay, award period, and discuss the relationship of the proposed research training to the applicant’s career goals. The applicant’s plan should be coordinated with the essay, sponsor’s plan (see below), and should include substantive detail that adds to the information about time allocations requested. The applicant must describe the background leading to the proposed research, the significance of the research, the research approach (design and methods) for achieving the Specific Aims (see above), the rationale, and expected/alternative outcomes of the proposed studies. It is beneficial to include pertinent preliminary data obtained by the applicant in the current or prior laboratory.

If the sponsoring institution is a foreign institution, information must be provided describing how the institution and sponsor offer clear scientific advantages for time research training not currently available in essay invention, the United States. Other Research Training Plan Sections. Item 16. Resource Sharing Plan: NIH considers the sharing of cloning research papers, unique research resources developed through NIH-sponsored research an important means to enhance the value and further the essay invention, advancement of the research. When resources have been developed with NIH funds and the associated research findings published or provided to NIH, it is important that they be made readily available for research purposes to qualified individuals within the research papers, scientific community. If the invention, final data/resources are not amenable to sharing, this must be explained in the Resource Sharing section of the application (see (a) Data Sharing Plan : Not Applicable. (b) Sharing Model Organisms : Regardless of the amount requested, all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated are expected to include a description of a specific plan for line sharing and distributing unique model organisms and related resources, or state appropriate reasons why such sharing is restricted or not possible. See Sharing Model Organisms Policy, and NIH Guide NOT-OD-04-042.

(c) Genome-Wide Association Studies ( G WAS ): Regardless of the amount requested, applicants seeking funding for a genome- w ide association study are expected to provide a plan for submission of GWAS data to the NIH-designated GWAS data repository, or provide an appropriate explanation why submission to the repository is not possible. A genome-wide association study is defined as any study of genetic variation across the entire genome that is designed to essay invention telephone, identify genetic associations with observable traits (e.g., blood pressure or weight) or the presence or absence of a disease or condition. For further information see Policy for Sharing of Data Obtained in NIH Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies (go to NOT-OD-07-088, and Item 17. Nyu Entrance Essay! Respective Contributions: The Fellowship Applicant and his/her sponsor/mentor should describe how they have collaborated to essay telephone, develop the current research training proposal. This section is limited to 1 page.

Item 18. Best Essay! Selection of Sponsor and Institution: The Fellowship Applicant should discuss how he/she arrived at selecting the sponsor(s) and essay invention telephone the institution. Best! This section is limited to 1 page. Item 19. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Applications must include a plan to obtain instruction in the responsible conduct of research. This section should document prior instruction in responsible conduct of research during the applicants current career stage (including the date of last occurrence) and propose plans to receive instruction in responsible conduct of invention, research. Such plans must address five instructional components, format, subject matter, faculty participation, duration of instruction, and frequency of instruction, as outlined and explained in NOT-OD-10-019. Thesis! The plan may include career stage-appropriate, individualized instruction or independent scholarly activities that will enhance the invention telephone, applicants understanding of ethical issues related to their specific research activities and the societal impact of that research. The role of the sponsor/mentor in responsible conduct of research instruction must be described. Applications lacking a plan for instruction in responsible conduct of research will be considered incomplete and may be delayed in the review process. The background, rationale and batman essay more detail about instruction in the responsible conduct of research can be found in NOT-OD-10-019.

This section is invention, limited to 1 page . Item 7. Goals for Fellowship Training and Career: The Fellowship Applicant should provide details of his/her overall career goals for training, and explain how the proposed research will enable the research, attainment of these goals. This section is limited to 1 page. Item 8. Activities Planned Under This Award: The Fellowship Applicant should provide a detailed description of all planned activities under the proposed research training plan, such as coursework, seminars, scientific conferences, opportunities for interaction with other groups and scientists, and any special or unique training opportunities for the applicant that are available in the training environment. G ive a year-by-year accounting including an estimate the percentage of time to essay, be devoted to each activity. This section is limited to 1 page. Item 9. Other Research Experience: The Fellowship Applicant should provide a summary of master s thesis, his/her research experience to date and discuss how the proposed research training plan will add to this experience.

This section is limited to 2 pages. Item 10. Citizenship: Applicants who have applied for and have not yet been granted admission as a permanent resident should check the Permanent Resident of U.S. Pending block. A notarized statement documenting legal admission for permanent residence must be submitted prior to the issuance of an essay, award. Individuals admitted to the United States as Permanent Residents will be required to submit notarized evidence of legal admission prior to the award. Applicants must follow the batman vs spiderman essay, specific instructions on Appendix materials as described in the SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide (See ). Do not use the essay telephone, Appendix to circumvent the page limitations. An application that does not comply with the required page limitations may be delayed in and semiotics, the review process.

Other Project Information Component (Section 4.4 of SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide) – Other Attachments (Item 12) Important Note: The following attachments must be included for Fellowship applications. Submit each attachment separately using the Other Attachments section of the Other Project Information Component. Sponsor and telephone any Co-Sponsor(s) Information (Limited to research, 6 pages) a. Research Support Available : The sponsor(s) who will directly supervise the applicant’s research, must currently be funded to conduct independent research in the area of the proposed research training (e.g., Principal Investigator on an R01 or equivalent) b. Sponsor's/Co-Sponsor’s Previous Fellows/Trainees : The sponsor(s) must describe past experience in telephone, the guidance of other research trainees and fellows. c. Training Plan, Environment, Research Facilities : The sponsor(s) must describe in detail his/her commitment to batman vs spiderman essay, and proposed role in guiding the individual applicant during the research training experience. Invention! The sponsor(s) should describe the being beyond essay from time, research training plan for the applicant (coordinated with the applicant’s own research training plan). The description should include items such as classes, seminars, and telephone opportunities for interaction with other groups and example of psychology scientists. Essay Invention! Training in career skills, e.g. grant-writing and presentation skills are strongly encouraged. The description should also elaborate on the research environment and available research facilities and equipment, and discuss the example of psychology master, relationship of the proposed research training to the applicant's career. The application should describe the quality and appropriateness of the essay telephone, training environment for the applicant’s development including the strength of the institutional commitment to fostering the fellows’ training. Describe the quality and being beyond time availability of facilities and resources (e.g. Telephone! equipment, laboratory space, computer time, subject populations) for the proposed training.

Additionally, the thesis and semiotics, quality of the facilities and related resources (e.g., equipment, laboratory space, computer time, available research support, etc.) must be described. d. Number of Fellows/Trainees to be Supervised During the Fellowship : The sponsor(s) should provide information on other trainees they will be supervising during the essay telephone, period of essay from time, this fellowship award. e. Telephone! Applicant's Qualifications and Potential for a Research Career : The sponsor(s) are also expected to provide an assessment of the applicant’s qualifications and potential for a research career. The application must include statements that address the cloning, planned value of the proposed fellowship experience and research training program, and how these relate to the applicant’s needs in preparation for an independent research career. Applicants should provide evidence of their potential for a productive and telephone successful research career based upon the quality of their previous research training and academic record. Letters of Reference (Section 5.4 of SF424 (RR) Individual Fellowship Application Guide) Candidates must follow the Supplemental Instructions in the SF424 RR Individual Fellowship Application Guide for Section 5.4 – Letters of Reference. Please note that the specified Fellowship Reference Form must be used.

This is a separate process from submitting an application electronically. Of Psychology S Thesis! Reference letters are submitted directly through the eRA Commons at and do not use Letters of reference are an important component of the application for fellowship support. Applicants for this fellowship must arrange to essay, have at essay, least three (but no more than five) letters of reference submitted on their behalf to telephone, the eRA Commons Web site. The letters should be from well-established scientists (referees) addressing the qualities of the Fellowship Applicant as well as his/her potential to develop research skills needed in preparation for a productive research career in scientific areas related to the mission of being beyond from, one of the participating Institutes.

These letters should be from individuals not directly involved in the application, but who are familiar with the candidate’s qualifications, training, and interests, including advisory committee members (if applicable). Resubmission applications will require new letters of essay invention, reference. Letters of reference may be submitted any time after the FOA opens and line cooks resume no later than 5 business days after the application due date. The Fellowship Reference Form can be submitted through eRA Commons at prior to application submission through Applications that are missing the required letters of reference may be delayed in the review process or not reviewed. Section V. Application Review Information. Only the review criteria described below will be considered in the review process. 2. Review and Selection Process. Applications that are complete will be evaluated for scientific and technical merit by (an) appropriate scientific review group(s) in accordance with NIH peer review procedures ( using the review criteria stated below. As part of the scientific peer review, all applications will:

Undergo a selection process in which only invention, those applications deemed to have the highest scientific and technical merit, generally the top half of applications under review, will be discussed and assigned an impact/priority score; Receive a written critique; and Receive a second level of review by appropriate staff within the assigned NIH Institute or Center. The mission of the NIH is to support science in pursuit of knowledge about the papers, biology and essay telephone behavior of living systems and to apply that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability. As part of this mission, applications submitted to the NIH for grants or cooperative agreements to support biomedical and behavioral research are evaluated for scientific and technical merit through the NIH peer review system. Reviewers will provide an overall impact/priority score to reflect their assessment of the likelihood that the fellowship will enhance the candidate’s potential for, and commitment to, a productive independent scientific research career in a health-related field, in consideration of the nyu entrance essay, scored and additional review criteria. Scored Review Criteria. Reviewers will consider each of the five review criteria below in essay telephone, the determination of scientific and technical merit, and give a separate score for each. An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact. Are the cloning papers, applicant’s academic record and research experience of high quality? Does the telephone, applicant have the potential to develop as an independent and productive researcher in biomedical, behavioral or clinical science?

Sponsors, Collaborators, Consultants. Are the sponsor(s) research qualifications (including successful competition for research support) and batman track record of mentoring appropriate for the proposed fellowship? Are there (1) evidence of a match between the research interests of the applicant and the sponsor (including an understanding of the applicant’s research training needs) and invention (2) a demonstrated ability and commitment of the sponsor to assist in meeting these needs? Are the qualifications of any collaborator(s) and/or consultant(s), including their complementary expertise and previous experience in cloning, fostering the training of fellows, appropriate for the proposed research project? Is the proposed research plan of high scientific quality, and does it relate to the applicant’s training plan? Is the training plan consistent with the applicant’s stage of research development? Will the research training plan provide the applicant with individualized and supervised experiences that will develop research skills needed for his/her independent and productive research career? Does the proposed research training plan have the potential to provide the fellow with the requisite individualized and supervised experiences that will develop his/her research skills? Does the invention, proposed research training have the potential to serve as a sound foundation that will lead the fellow to batman essay, an independent and productive career?

Institutional Environment and Commitment to Training. Are the research facilities, resources (e.g. equipment, laboratory space, computer time, subject populations), and invention telephone training opportunities adequate and appropriate? Is the institutional environment for the scientific development of the applicant of high quality, and is there appropriate institutional commitment to fostering the fellows’ training as an independent and productive researcher? Additional Review Criteria. As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will consider the following additional items in the determination of scientific and technical merit, but will not give separate scores for these items . Protections for earliest essay time Human Subjects. For research that involves human subjects but does not involve one of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate the justification for involvement of human subjects and essay invention telephone the proposed protections from thesis and semiotics, research risk relating to their participation according to telephone, the following five review criteria: 1) risk to subjects, 2) adequacy of protection against risks, 3) potential benefits to the subjects and others, 4) importance of the knowledge to nyu entrance essay, be gained, and 5) data and safety monitoring for clinical trials. For research that involves human subjects and invention telephone meets the criteria for one or more of the six categories of research that are exempt under 45 CFR Part 46, the committee will evaluate: 1) the thesis and semiotics, justification for the exemption, 2) human subjects involvement and characteristics, and 3) sources of materials. Inclusion of Women, Minorities, and Children. When the essay invention, proposed project involves clinical research, the committee will evaluate the cloning, proposed plans for inclusion of telephone, minorities and members of both genders, as well as the master s thesis, inclusion of children.

Vertebrate Animals. The committee will evaluate the involvement of essay telephone, live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment according to the following five points: 1) proposed use of the animals, and thesis species, strains, ages, sex, and numbers to be used; 2) justifications for the use of animals and for the appropriateness of the species and numbers proposed; 3) adequacy of veterinary care; 4) procedures for limiting discomfort, distress, pain and injury to that which is unavoidable in the conduct of scientifically sound research including the essay invention telephone, use of analgesic, anesthetic, and tranquilizing drugs and/or comfortable restraining devices; and 5) methods of euthanasia and reason for best essay selection if not consistent with the telephone, AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia. For additional information, see Biohazards. Being Essay From! Reviewers will assess whether materials or procedures proposed are potentially hazardous to research personnel and/or the environment, and if needed, determine whether adequate protection is proposed. Resubmission Applications.

When reviewing a Resubmission application (formerly called an amended application), the essay invention, committee will evaluate the being beyond time, application as now presented, taking into consideration the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group and changes made to the project. Renewal Applications. Essay Telephone! When reviewing a Renewal application (formerly called a competing continuation application), the committee will consider the thesis, progress made in the last funding period. Additional Review Considerations. As applicable for the project proposed, reviewers will address each of the invention, following items, but will not give scores for these items and should not consider them in providing an overall impact/priority score. Training in papers, the Responsible Conduct of essay invention telephone, Research: Reviewers will evaluate plans for instruction in responsible conduct of research as well as the past record of instruction in responsible conduct of research, where applicable. Reviewers will specifically address the five Instructional Components (Format, Subject Matter, Faculty Participation, Duration of Instruction, and nyu entrance Frequency of Instruction) as detailed in NOT-OD-10-019. The review of telephone, this consideration will be guided by batman essay the principles set forth in NOT-OD-10-019. Plans and past record will be rated as ACCEPTABLE or UNACCEPTABLE. Applications with unacceptable plans will not be funded until the applicant provides an acceptable, revised plan. Select Agents Research.

Reviewers will assess the information provided in this section of the application, including; 1) the Select Agent(s) to be used in the proposed research, 2) the registration status of all entities where Select Agent(s) will be used, 3) the procedures that will be used to monitor possession use and transfer of Select Agent(s), and 4) plans for appropriate biosafety, biocontainment, and security of the Select Agent(s). Resource Sharing Plans. Reviewers will comment on whether the following Resource Sharing Plans, or the rationale for not sharing the following types of resources, are reasonable: 1) Data Sharing Plan (; 2) Sharing Model Organisms (; and 3) Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) ( Budget and Period Support. Reviewers will consider whether the budget and the requested period of support are fully justified and reasonable in relation to the proposed research training. Applications submitted in response to this funding opportunity will compete for invention telephone available funds with all other recommended applications. The following will be considered in making funding decisions:

Scientific and technical merit of the proposed project as determined by being essay from scientific peer review. Availability of funds. Relevance of the proposed project to telephone, program priorities. 3. Anticipated Announcement and Award Dates. 1. Award Notices. If the thesis, application is under consideration for funding, NIH will request just-in-time information from the applicant. For details, applicants may refer to the NIH Grants Policy Statement Part II: Terms and invention Conditions of NIH Grant Awards, Subpart A: General. Activation: No funds may be disbursed until the fellow has started training under the award, and an Activation Notice (PHS 416-5) has been submitted to the NIH. A fellow has up to six months from the issue date on the award notice to activate the line, award. Under unusual circumstances, an NIH Institute may grant an extension of the activation period upon receipt of a specific request from the fellow, countersigned by the sponsor and invention telephone an institutional official.

Fellowships must be administered in resume, accordance with the current NRSA section of the Grants Policy Statement (, and essay invention telephone any terms and conditions specified on nyu entrance the Notice of essay invention telephone, Grant Award. Leave Policies: In general, fellows may receive stipends during the normal periods of of psychology s thesis, vacation and holidays observed by individuals in comparable training positions at the sponsoring institution. For the purpose of telephone, these awards, however, the period between the spring and fall semesters is considered to be an active time of research and research training and is not considered to be a vacation or holiday. Fellows may receive stipends for up to nyu entrance essay, 15 calendar days of sick leave per year. Sick leave may be used for medical conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth.

Fellows may also receive stipends for up to 60 calendar days of essay, parental leave per year for the adoption or the birth of a child when those in comparable training positions at the grantee institution have access to the same paid leave for this purpose and the use of research papers, parental leave is invention telephone, approved by vs spiderman essay the program director (see NOT-OD-08-064). A period of terminal leave is not permitted, and payment may not be made from fellowship funds for leave not taken. Fellows requiring periods of time away from their research training experience longer than specified here must seek approval from the NIH awarding component for an unpaid leave of essay telephone, absence. Part-Time Training: While Kirschstein-NRSA awardees are required to pursue research training full time, normally defined as 40 hours per week, or as specified by the sponsoring institution in accordance with its own policies, under pressing personal circumstances, a fellow may submit a written request to thesis and semiotics, the awarding component to permit less than full-time training. Such requests will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

They must be approved by the awarding NIH Institute or Center in advance for each budget period. The nature of the circumstances requiring the part-time training might include medical conditions, disability, or pressing personal or family situations such as child or elder care. Telephone! Permission for part-time training will not be approved to cloning, accommodate other sources of funding, job opportunities, clinical practice, clinical training, or for other responsibilities associated with the fellow's position at the institution. In each case, the fellow must submit a written request countersigned by the sponsor and an appropriate institutional business official that includes documentation supporting the need for part-time training. The written request also must include an estimate of the expected duration of the essay invention, period of part-time training, an example of psychology s thesis, assurance that the fellow intends to return to full-time training when that becomes possible, and essay invention telephone an assurance that the trainee intends to complete the proposed research training program. In no case will it be permissible for the fellow to be engaged in Kirschstein-NRSA supported research training for batman vs spiderman less than 50 percent effort. Individuals who must reduce their commitment to invention telephone, less than 50 percent effort must take a leave-of-absence from Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship support. The fellowship notice of award will be reissued and the stipend will be pro-rated during the period of vs spiderman essay, any approved part-time training. Certification Requirements: Individuals admitted to the United States as Permanent Residents must submit notarized evidence of essay invention telephone, legal admission prior to the award.

Service Payback: A Payback Agreement Form (PHS 6031) must accompany the of psychology master, Activation Notice for any award that occurs during the individual's initial 12 months of essay invention telephone, Ruth L. Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. When support ends, the fellow must submit a Termination Notice (PHS 416-7) to the NIH. If the fellow has a payback obligation, he or she must notify the NIH of any change in thesis and semiotics, address and submit Annual Payback Activities Certification Forms (PHS 6031-1) until the payback service obligation is satisfied. Invention Telephone! Forms may be found on batman essay the NIH Website at Inventions: Fellowships made primarily for educational purposes are exempted from the PHS invention requirements. Fellowship awards will not contain any provision giving PHS rights to invention, inventions made by the fellow. Publication and Sharing of batman vs spiderman essay, Research Results: NIH supports the practical application and sharing of essay invention telephone, outcomes of funded research. Therefore, fellows should make the results and accomplishments of of psychology, their Kirschstein-NRSA fellowship activities available to the research community and to the public at large. The grantee organization should assist fellows in these activities, including the potential commercialization of essay invention, inventions. No restrictions should be placed on the publication of results in a timely manner.

Fellows are encouraged to submit reports of their findings for publication to the journals of their choice. Responsibility for direction of the project should not be ascribed to cooks, the NIH. However, NIH support must be acknowledged by a footnote in language similar to the following: “This investigation was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (number).” In addition, federal funding must be acknowledged as provided in “Public Policy Requirements and Objectives-Availability of Information-Acknowledgment of Federal Funding”. Copyrights: Except as otherwise provided in the terms and conditions of the award, the recipient is free to essay telephone, arrange for copyright without approval when publications, data, or other copyrightable works are developed in the course of work under a PHS grant-supported project or activity. Any such copyrighted or copyrightable works shall be subject to a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license to the Government to reproduce, publish, or otherwise use them, and to authorize others to do so for Federal Government purposes. Payback Agreement: A Payback Agreement Form (PHS 6031) must accompany the Activation Notice for nyu entrance any award that occurs during the individual’s initial 12 months of Kirschstein-NRSA postdoctoral support. Application for Continued Support.

When multiple years are involved, awardees will be required to submit the Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Fellowship Progress Report for Continuation Support (PHS 416-9) annually as required in the NIH Grants Policy Statement. The report is due two months before the beginning date of the next budget period and must include information describing the essay, current year's progress as well as the research and training plans for the coming year. Batman Vs Spiderman Essay! Note that the essay invention, instructions request a listing of all courses and publications completed during the past year. Termination Notice: When support ends, the being beyond earliest essay, fellow must submit a Termination Notice (PHS 416-7) to the NIH within 30 days following termination. Section VII. Agency Contacts.

We encourage your inquiries concerning this funding opportunity and invention telephone welcome the best nyu entrance, opportunity to answer questions from potential applicants. Inquiries may fall into invention telephone, three areas: scientific/research (program), peer review, and financial or grants management issues: 1. Scientific/Research Contact(s): Applicants should refer to line cooks, Table of Institute and essay telephone Center Contacts to obtain contact information. 2. Peer Review Contact(s): 3. Financial/Grants Management Contact(s): Applicants should refer to Table of s thesis, Institute and Center Contacts to obtain contact information. Section VIII. Other Information.

Required Federal Citations. Use of Animals in essay invention telephone, Research: Recipients of PHS support for cooks resume activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of essay telephone, Laboratory Animals ( as mandated by the Health Research Extension Act of and semiotics, 1985 (, and the USDA Animal Welfare Regulations ( as applicable. Human Subjects Protection: Federal regulations (45 CFR 46) require that applications and proposals involving human subjects must be evaluated with reference to the risks to telephone, the subjects, the adequacy of protection against these risks, the potential benefits of the research to the subjects and others, and the importance of the knowledge gained or to be gained ( Data and Safety Monitoring Plan: Data and safety monitoring is required for all types of clinical trials, including physiologic toxicity and dose-finding studies (Phase I); efficacy studies (Phase II); efficacy, effectiveness and comparative trials (Phase III). Monitoring should be commensurate with risk. Being Beyond Earliest Essay! The establishment of data and telephone safety monitoring boards (DSMBs) is required for multi-site clinical trials involving interventions that entail potential risks to the participants (“NIH Policy for Data and Safety Monitoring,” NIH Guide for vs spiderman essay Grants and Contracts , Sharing Research Data:

Investigators submitting an NIH application seeking $500,000 or more in direct costs in any single year are expected to include a plan for data sharing or state why this is essay invention telephone, not possible ( Investigators should seek guidance from their institutions, on issues related to essay, institutional policies and local institutional review board (IRB) rules, as well as local, State and Federal laws and regulations, including the Privacy Rule. Policy for Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS): NIH is interested in advancing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify common genetic factors that influence health and disease through a centralized GWAS data repository. For the purposes of this policy, a genome-wide association study is essay telephone, defined as any study of genetic variation across the thesis, entire human genome that is designed to identify genetic associations with observable traits (such as blood pressure or weight), or the essay invention, presence or absence of a disease or condition. All applications, regardless of the amount requested, proposing a genome-wide association study are expected to provide a plan for submission of vs spiderman essay, GWAS data to the NIH-designated GWAS data repository, or provide an invention telephone, appropriate explanation why submission to the repository is and semiotics, not possible.

Data repository management (submission and access) is governed by the Policy for Sharing of Data Obtained in essay, NIH Supported or Conducted Genome-Wide Association Studies, NIH Guide NOT-OD-07-088. For additional information, see Sharing of cloning research papers, Model Organisms: NIH is committed to support efforts that encourage sharing of important research resources including the sharing of model organisms for telephone biomedical research (see At the same time the NIH recognizes the rights of grantees and contractors to elect and retain title to vs spiderman, subject inventions developed with Federal funding pursuant to the Bayh-Dole Act (see the NIH Grants Policy Statement . Invention Telephone! Beginning October 1, 2004, all investigators submitting an NIH application or contract proposal are expected to vs spiderman, include in the application/proposal a description of a specific plan for essay sharing and distributing unique model organism research resources generated using NIH funding or state why such sharing is restricted or not possible.

This will permit other researchers to essay from time, benefit from the resources developed with public funding. The inclusion of a model organism sharing plan is not subject to a cost threshold in any year and essay is expected to be included in all applications where the development of model organisms is anticipated. Access to Research Data through the Freedom of Information Act: The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-110 has been revised to provide access to research data through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) under some circumstances. Data that are: (1) first produced in a project that is supported in whole or in part with Federal funds; and (2) cited publicly and officially by research a Federal agency in invention, support of an action that has the force and effect of law (i.e., a regulation) may be accessed through FOIA. It is important for applicants to understand the basic scope of this amendment.

NIH has provided guidance at Applicants may wish to batman vs spiderman, place data collected under this funding opportunity in a public archive, which can provide protections for the data and manage the distribution for an indefinite period of time. If so, the application should include a description of the archiving plan in the study design and include information about this in invention telephone, the budget justification section of the application. In addition, applicants should think about being earliest how to structure informed consent statements and other human subjects procedures given the potential for wider use of essay invention telephone, data collected under this award. Inclusion of Women And Minorities in Clinical Research: It is the policy of the beyond essay time, NIH that women and members of minority groups and their sub-populations must be included in all NIH-supported clinical research projects unless a clear and essay compelling justification is provided indicating that inclusion is inappropriate with respect to the health of the subjects or the purpose of the research. Vs Spiderman! This policy results from the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 (Section 492B of Public Law 103-43).

All investigators proposing clinical research should read the NIH Guidelines for telephone Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research” (; a complete copy of the updated Guidelines is available at beyond essay from, The amended policy incorporates: the use of an NIH definition of clinical research; updated racial and ethnic categories in compliance with the new OMB standards; clarification of language governing NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials consistent with the SF424 (RR) application; and updated roles and responsibilities of NIH staff and the extramural community. The policy continues to require for invention all NIH-defined Phase III clinical trials that: a) all applications or proposals and/or protocols must provide a description of plans to conduct analyses, as appropriate, to address differences by sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic groups, including subgroups if applicable; and b) investigators must report annual accrual and progress in conducting analyses, as appropriate, by thesis and semiotics sex/gender and/or racial/ethnic group differences. Inclusion of Children as Participants in Clinical Research: The NIH maintains a policy that children (i.e., individuals under the age of 21) must be included in all clinical research, conducted or supported by the NIH, unless there are scientific and essay ethical reasons not to include them.

Required Education on the Protection of research, Human Subject Participants: NIH policy requires education on the protection of human subject participants for all investigators submitting NIH applications for research involving human subjects and telephone individuals designated as key personnel. The policy is earliest time, available at Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC): Criteria for Federal funding of research on hESCs can be found at and at

Only research using hESC lines that are registered in the NIH Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry will be eligible for Federal funding ( It is the responsibility of the applicant to essay invention telephone, provide in the project description and elsewhere in the application as appropriate, the official NIH identifier(s) for example of psychology master the hESC line(s) to be used in the proposed research. NIH Public Access Policy Requirement: In accordance with the NIH Public Access Policy, investigators funded by the NIH must submit or have submitted for essay telephone them to the National Library of of psychology master, Medicine’s PubMed Central (see, an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication . The NIH Public Access Policy is available at ( ). For more information, see the essay, Public Access webpage at Standards for thesis and semiotics Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued final modification to the Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information, the Privacy Rule, on August 14, 2002.

The Privacy Rule is essay telephone, a federal regulation under the Health Insurance Portability and cloning research papers Accountability Act (HIPAA) of invention telephone, 1996 that governs the protection of individually identifiable health information, and is administered and enforced by the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR). URLs in NIH Grant Applications or Appendices: All applications and proposals for being earliest NIH funding must be self-contained within specified page limitations. For publications listed in the appendix and/or Progress report, Internet addresses (URLs) or PubMed Central (PMC) submission identification numbers must be used for publicly accessible on-line journal articles. Publicly accessible on-line journal articles or PMC articles/manuscripts accepted for publication that are directly relevant to the project may be included only as URLs or PMC submission identification numbers accompanying the full reference in either the Bibliography References Cited section, the invention, Progress Report Publication List section, or the Biographical Sketch section of the NIH grant application. A URL or PMC submission identification number citation may be repeated in each of these sections as appropriate. There is no limit to example of psychology s thesis, the number of URLs or PMC submission identification numbers that can be cited.

Healthy People 2010: The Public Health Service (PHS) is committed to achieving the health promotion and disease prevention objectives of Healthy People 2010, a PHS-led national activity for setting priority areas. Telephone! This FOA is related to thesis, one or more of the priority areas. Potential applicants may obtain a copy of Healthy People 2010 at This program is described in the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance at and essay is not subject to the intergovernmental review requirements of Executive Order 12372. And Semiotics! Awards are made under the authorization of Sections 487 of the Public Health Service Act as amended (42 USC 288) and under Federal Regulations 42 CFR 66. Essay Invention! All awards are subject to the terms and conditions, cost principles, and other considerations described in papers, the NIH Grants Policy Statement. NIH encourages applications for educational loan repayment from qualified health professionals who have made a commitment to pursue a research career involving clinical, pediatric, contraception, infertility, and health disparities related areas.

The LRP is an important component of NIH's efforts to recruit and retain the next generation of researchers by providing the invention, means for developing a research career unfettered by the burden of student loan debt. Best Nyu Entrance! Note that an NIH grant is not required for eligibility and concurrent career award and essay LRP applications are encouraged. The periods of career award and LRP award may overlap providing the LRP recipient with the required commitment of time and earliest essay from effort, as LRP awardees must commit at least 50% of their time (at least 20 hours per week based on a 40 hour week) for two years to the research. For further information, please see: and Human Services (HHS)

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10 Online Tools for Kids to Improve Writing Skills. Children’s creativity is endless. Little ones are able to imagine things that go beyond expectations. If kids engage in writing from an early age, they will be able to expand their creative potential. Children have a natural tendency to notice and observe the world around them; writing is a fun way for kids to express themselves and build skills at the same time! Needless to essay invention say, it won’t be easy to teach a young one to write. Batman Essay. It will take more than providing a piece of paper and a pencil, and leaving everything else to natural tendencies. This skill requires a lot of essay telephone practice to resume be developed, so it would be best to start as early as possible. The following tools will help you make writing easier for essay telephone your child. This online tool covers the and semiotics, basics of the essay writing process by showing children what each of the five paragraphs should to contain. Once your child makes enough progress, they can continue practicing with the Writing Worksheets that the site provides.

There are five fun essay writing activities provided for free: Rules of Writing an Essay, Essay on Twin Towers Devastation, Autobiography of My Favorite Thing, Picture Writing, and Essay on Mom. This website provides fun resources that teach young children how to write and understand written content. The lessons are taught through short cartoons and interactive exercises. The writing section offers a great base of tasks that will test your child’s ability to write understandable content. Interactive activities are an important part of the learning process. This website provides effective exercises for essay invention telephone grades K-12. Preschool age children can also benefit from this tool using their Story Map and Learning About Language games. This is an batman vs spiderman, awesome website dedicated to essay the art of writing. It offers resources on fiction, poetry, nonfiction, art, and photography.

In addition, Teen Ink provides summer programs and nyu entrance camps for teenagers. The essays featured on the website provide inspiration for learners who want to improve their writing skills. EssayMama offers great tips and guides on writing, as well as fun articles that inspire children to express their own thoughts in written form. Essay. This isn#8217;t the most visually stunning website, but that doesn’t make it any less useful for parents and instructors. A list of vs spiderman essay links guides you to online resources that will be useful at any stage of the learning process. You can explore the basic steps of research, character development, the 5-paragraph essay, picture book projects, the 3-step creative writing process, and much more. You will also find awesome games that teach writing through fun activities. This is a mandatory website for parents and telephone educators who want to teach writing effectively. You will find links to resources organized in seven categories: Writing Skills, Writing Sentences, Writing Paragraphs, Writing Essays, Writing Mechanics, Standardized Testing Writing, and Teaching Writing.

Some of the most useful tools this website provides are the graphic organizers and fun exercises for each category. This website provides a collection of essay from simple essays, short paragraphs, project works, poems, and speeches for children. You will find great essay topics for kids ages 6-10. Try assigning some of these topics on invention, a regular basis and of psychology s thesis you’ll see how your child makes step-by-step progress. Each sample comes with an assigned target age group, so you won’t confuse your learner with content that’s too complicated for essay invention telephone them to understand.

Good sample essays for young children are not easy to locate. This website is thesis and semiotics a great source of invention content in four categories: narrative, persuasive, expository, and descriptive essays. Start with the featured essays, then dig deeper to thesis and semiotics find inspiration on different topics. When your child starts writing more, encourage them to take part in the site#8217;s weekly essay contest. Winners are published in the mini essays section. As your child makes progress in invention, the art of essay writing, it might be difficult for them to limit the thoughts that they put on batman, paper in a clean sentence. You might notice that their expressions are becoming confusing; that’s completely natural for young learners. Hemingway Editor is a great tool you can use in such situations. It analyzes the essay invention, sentence and provides a readability score. In addition, you will see all confusing sentences highlighted in yellow and red. When you don’t know where to start with the editing stage, this tool will provide effective guidance.

Hi Julie, I also wanted to add WriteWell to this list It is tool that is example growing in popularity with the homeschool segment. Child Development Books Our recommendations for books on child development for essay telephone parents. Total Focus Program A cognitive behavioral therapy multi-media program to help ADHD kids focus and behave. Thesis. The information on essay telephone, this website is solely for line cooks resume informational purposes. IT IS NOT INTENDED TO PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. Neither Child Development Institute, LLC nor Dr. Myers nor any of the editors, columnists or authors take responsibility for any possible consequences from any action taken which results from reading or following the information contained in this information.

The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine or psychology, and this information does not replace the essay, advice of your physician or mental health care provider. Of Psychology Master. Before undertaking any course of treatment, the reader must seek the advice of essay telephone their physician or other health care provider. Beyond From. See additional information. Copyright 1999-2015 Child Development Institute, LLC - All Rights Reserved.

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Free Information Technology essays. Information technology continues to have an ever-growing impact upon society and the way that society conducts its affairs. Invention Telephone! Information and being earliest essay from, communications technologies have spread out in almost in every professional, commercial and industrial activity and most organizations would find it difficult, if not impossible, to function without relying heavily on these technologies. On the other hand, information and communications technologies have posed and invention telephone, continue to create novel and complex social and legal problems. Frequently, the law has been found wanting when dealing with the issues raised by these constantly evolving technologies, and legislators and the courts have often struggled to come to terms with the challenges raised by them. An understanding of the legal issues involved remains of key importance to persons and organizations concerned with information and time, communications technology, and it is only armed with such understanding that they can satisfactorily address and cater for the problems raised by the development and use of these technologies.

Success in any field of essay, human activity leads to of psychology crime that needs mechanisms to control it. Legal provisions should provide assurance to users, empowerment to law enforcement agencies and deterrence to invention telephone criminals. The law is being earliest essay from time as stringent as its enforcement. Crime is no longer limited to space, time or a group of people. Cyber space creates moral, civil and criminal wrongs. It has now given a new way to express criminal tendencies. Back in 1990, less than 100,000 people were able to essay log on to the Internet worldwide. Now around 500 million people are hooked up to surf the net around the globe. In many cases, law enforcement officers have lacked the tools needed to batman essay tackle the problem; old laws didn't quite fit the crimes being committed, new laws hadn't quite caught up to the reality of invention, what was happening, and there were few court precedents to look to for guidance. Furthermore, debates over privacy issues hampered the ability of enforcement agents to gather the evidence needed to prosecute these new cases. Finally, there was a certain amount of antipathy or at the least, distrust between the two most important players in any effective fight against cloning papers, cyber crime: law enforcement agencies and computer professionals.

Yet close cooperation between the two is crucial if we are to control the cyber crime problem and make the Internet a safe 'place' for its users. Law enforcement personnel understand the criminal mindset and know the basics of gathering evidence and bringing offenders to justice. IT personnel understand computers and networks, how they work, and how to track down information on them. Each has half of the key to defeating the cyber criminal. IT professionals need good definitions of cybercrime in telephone order to know when (and what) to cloning research papers report to police, but law enforcement agencies must have statutory definitions of essay telephone, specific crimes in order to charge a criminal with an line offense.

The first step in specifically defining individual cybercrimes is to sort all the acts that can be considered cybercrimes into organized categories. In this assignment I will be focused on various aspects of the invention, issues and situations in cyber space, the types of cyber crimes, cyber crimes in various jurisdictions and criminal justice system in Sri Lanka. Beyond Earliest From Time! In further understanding I would like to state that, the cyber crimes in cyber space I will explain as social issues in cyber space. SOCIAL ISSUES AND CYBER SOCIAL ISSUES. In Sri Lanka we can identify some special social issues in essay ordinary circumstances. I will list out those as follows:- ' Age and the life course.

' Education and public schools. ' Work and occupations. ' Health and medicine. ' Alcohol and vs spiderman essay, drugs. ' Crime and the justice system. Now I would like to list out the cyber crime issue in cyber space as follows:- ' Source Code Theft (Stealing Computer Programs) ' Denial of Service Spreading Virus Malicious Codes.

' Defamation Social Networking Abuse(eg. FACEBOOK etc) ' Email related crimes. ' Intellectual Property crimes- software piracy, copyright infringement, trademarks violations. According to essay invention telephone these two lists we can identify that the social issues in ordinary circumstances and in cyber space are quiet different. Therefore we have to go into depth here for recognized major cyber issues in relation to the criminal justice system in Sri Lanka. Cyber crime is the being earliest time, latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world. 'Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the conventional crime, and where either the computer is an invention telephone object or subject of the conduct constituting crime. 'Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the of psychology master, ambit of cyber crime' The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of activity - financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking.

The computer may however be target for unlawful acts in the following cases- unauthorized access to computer/ computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, e-mail bombing, data diddling, salami attacks, logic bombs, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts, web jacking, theft of invention, computer system, physically damaging the computer system. United Nations' Definition of Cybercrime. Cybercrime spans not only state but national boundaries as well. Perhaps we should look to cloning research papers international organizations to provide a standard definition of the crime. Essay! At the Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, in a workshop devoted to the issues of crimes related to computer networks, cybercrime was broken into two categories and defined thus: a. Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime): Any illegal behavior directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. b. Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crime): Any illegal behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. In the present global situation where cyber control mechanisms are important and we need to push cyber laws but the real issue is how to prevent cyber crime. For this, there is need to raise the probability of apprehension and line cooks, conviction. For this Sri Lanka needs total international cooperation with specialized agencies of different countries. Telephone! Police has to ensure that they have seized exactly what was there at the scene of crime, is the same that has been analyzed and batman vs spiderman, the report presented in court is based on this evidence. It has to maintain the chain of custody.

The threat is essay not from the cloning research papers, intelligence of criminals but from our ignorance and the will to fight it. The law is stricter now on producing evidence especially where electronic documents are concerned. CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIMES. The subject of cyber crime may be broadly classified under the following four groups. 01.

Against Individuals. i. Harassment via e-mails. iii. Dissemination of obscene material. v. Unauthorized control/access over computer system. vi. Invention! Indecent exposure. vii. Email spoofing. viii. Essay! Cheating Fraud.

02. Against Individual Property: - i. Computer vandalism. ii. Transmitting virus. iii. Essay Invention! Unauthorized control/access over computer system. iv. Intellectual Property crimes. v. Internet time thefts. 03. Cloning Research! Against Organization: - i. Unauthorized control/access over computer system.

ii. Possession of unauthorized information. iii. Cyber terrorism against the government organization. iv. Distribution of pirated software etc. 04. Against Society at large: i. Essay! Pornography (basically child pornography). ii.

Polluting the batman vs spiderman, youth through indecent exposure. iv. Financial crimes. v. Essay Telephone! Sale of illegal articles. vi. Online gambling. TYPES OF CYBER CRIMES AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN CYBER SPACE.

' Unauthorized access to computer systems or networks / Hacking- This kind of offence is normally referred as hacking in the generic sense. However the framers of the earliest, information technology act 2000 have no where used this term so to invention telephone avoid any confusion we would not interchangeably use the word hacking for 'unauthorized access' as the latter has wide connotation. ' Theft of information contained in electronic form-This includes information stored in vs spiderman essay computer hard disks, removable storage media etc. Theft may be either by essay telephone, appropriating the data physically or by tampering them through the virtual medium. ' Email bombing-This kind of activity refers to sending large numbers of mail to the victim, which may be an individual or a company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing. ' Data diddling-This kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before a computer processes it and from time, then changing it back after the processing is completed. Telephone! The electricity board faced similar problem of data diddling while the thesis, department was being computerized. ' Salami attacks- This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. Essay Invention Telephone! An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed.

' Denial of Service attack-The computer of the victim is flooded with more requests than it can handle which cause it to crash. Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attack is cooks also a type of denial of essay, service attack, in which the offenders are wide in number and cloning research papers, widespread. E.g. Amazon, Yahoo. ' Virus / worm attacks-Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a computer or a file and essay telephone, then circulate themselves to vs spiderman other files and to other computers on a network. They usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. Essay Telephone! Worms, unlike viruses do not need the host to attach themselves to. They merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on vs spiderman essay a computer's memory.

E.g. love bug virus, which affected at least 5 % of the computers of the globe. The losses were accounted to be $ 10 million. The world's most famous worm was the Internet worm let loose on the Internet by Robert Morris sometime in 1988. ' Logic bombs-These are event dependent programs. This implies that these programs are created to invention do something only when a certain event occurs.

' Trojan attacks-This term has its origin in resume the word 'Trojan horse'. In software field this means an essay telephone unauthorized programme, which passively gains control over another's system by being beyond, representing itself as an authorized programme. The most common form of installing a Trojan is telephone through e-mail. Best Essay! E.g. a Trojan was installed in the computer of a lady film director in the U.S. while chatting. The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer obtained her nude photographs. Invention Telephone! He further harassed this lady. ' Internet time thefts-Normally in cooks these kinds of thefts the Internet surfing hours of the victim are used up by another person. Essay Invention! This is batman done by gaining access to the login ID and the password. ' Web jacking- This term is derived from the telephone, term hi jacking.

In these kinds of offences the hacker gains access and control over batman vs spiderman essay the web site of another. He may even mutilate or change the information on essay invention telephone the site. This may be done for fulfilling political objectives or for money. ' Phishing It is the example of psychology s thesis, process by essay invention, which someone obtains private information through deceptive or illicit means in line order to falsely assume another person's identity. The Phisher will use spoofed emails to lead the recipient to essay invention counterfeit websites. Once here, the victim is tricked into divulging credit card information, account usernames and passwords, social security numbers, etc. Batman Essay! E.g. Verify your account'. Businesses should not ask to send passwords, login names, or other personal information through e-mail. If we receive an e-mail message from Google asking you to update your credit card information, it is a phishing scam.

' Intellectual Property rights violations. Intellectual property law is important because it is the telephone, key to protecting innovation in computer hardware and software in its widest sense. Intellectual property rights, which are include copyright, the law of confidence, design rights, trade marks, patents and thesis, regulations to protect integrated circuits etc. These rights provide a basic framework of protection from piracy and plagiarism for computer programs, databases and works created using a computer and works or other information created, stored, made available online and essay telephone, transmitted digitally. ' Face Book issue. Cyber Social networks are popular platforms for thesis and semiotics, interaction, communication and collaboration between friends. Facebook as one of these social networks has become a popular social medium among contemporary Sri Lankan youth. Essay Invention Telephone! But in today's context this face book becomes a nuisance to the society. Because, in past there were some suicide issues in relation to the Facebook.

On the other hand, a massive attack was carried out through 'Facebook' against of psychology master s thesis, Muslims in Sri Lanka. 'There are some peoples attempt to interpret suicides committed by four young women during the past two months as deaths that occurred due to 'Facebook'. Invention Telephone! Certain media had reported these deaths as 'another death due to 'Facebook'. There is a dialogue in the society as well regarding these events. Now the intention of the government in nyu entrance essay Sri Lanka to ban 'Facebook' using the suicide committed by a married woman at Padukka, the deaths of Inusha Imandi of invention telephone, Kothalawala, Kurunegala, Dinishika Kannangara of Pitigala in Elpitiya and the student at Polpithigama should be recognized. One of the four deaths was due to an illicit affair. There had been various incidents that have been reported due to illicit affairs. The girl at Kurunegala committed suicide due to frustration as a result of the punishment meted out to her. The death of the young woman at Pitigala was due to the love industry created by the present society. Being Essay From! Present day young women have been subjected to an inferior complex that only beautiful people can have love affairs. Essay Telephone! It is a result of the love commercial industry created by capitalism.

The suicide committed by the student at Polpithigama was due to the absence of a person for her to discuss her frustration and mental stress. There fore on one hand these kinds of useless actions are happening not because of face book. People should have the line cooks resume, responsibility to protect their lives and they have a duty to maintain a privacy with these social networks. According to reports compiled by psychiatrists and researchers Sri Lanka is placed 11th in the number of suicides committed in the world. Annually about 4000 commit suicide in the country. The number of suicides by essay invention, young people in research Sri Lanka is higher. We are placed 5th in suicides by young people. Our country is placed 2nd in suicides by young women and girls aged between 10 and 29. Latest research reports state that when one person commits suicide 20 others attempt suicide. It is essay telephone also stated that the number of suicides is low due to batman emergency health care.

The reason for many of invention, these suicides is poverty, failure in examinations, breaking down of love affairs, drunkenness, domestic quarrels and violence, abuse, marginalizing and vs spiderman, mental sickness. But in telephone majority position of the society is going against with these social networks like face book and twitter etc. However these kinds of issues become major social issues in cyber space. ' Social and cultural issues relating to the gender and ICT. In our society there are lots of gender discrimination situations. Especially in relation to the ICT there are some social issues like accessibility of the vs spiderman essay, ICT to women and telephone, the harassments using ICT. Women tend to have less access than men to those ICT facilities that do exist.

Frequently, rural information centers or cyber cafes are located in places that women may not be comfortable frequenting. Since most communications facilities in example s thesis rural areas are shared public access, women also have problems of essay invention telephone, time. Given multiple roles and thesis and semiotics, heavy domestic responsibilities, their leisure hours are few, and the centers may not be open when women can visit them. Or they may be open evenings, when it is problematic for women to visit them and essay invention, return safely to line resume their homes in the dark. Their mobility to access to transport to those areas are also more limited than that of men. Some accommodations that may be needed to ensure gender equality in essay telephone access and thesis and semiotics, use of ICTs are adaptation of essay, schedules to suit women's hours and availability of women support staff and trainers. Another cultural aspect of gender and ICTs is gender bias in attitudes towards women studying or using information technology. Throughout the world, there are problems in attracting young women to example of psychology s thesis science and technology studies. The problem is worse in Africa than in any other region. 'Many (predominantly male) math and science teachers in Africa hold outmoded views that girls cannot think or work scientifically and invention telephone, that science is too mechanical and technical for and semiotics, girls, thus discouraging female students' In some Pacific countries (especially those of Melanesia) traditional cultural attitudes discriminate against telephone, women having access to resume education and technology.

Girls are encouraged to take any job or get married rather than seek higher education. Invention! The alternative of doing two things at the same time is not realistically entertained. Sometimes collateral cultural factors, other cultural attitudes based in gender bias, and not the immediate gender identification of technology use, prevent young girls and women from accessing and using ICTs. In Uganda, girls did not get access to the limited number of computers installed in school because of the socio-cultural norm that 'girls do not run.' As a result, boys ran and got to the computers first and refused to give them up to girls. 'In India, in example of psychology master s thesis the well-known 'whole in the wall' experiment, the aggressiveness of boys pushing away girls prevented the girls from using the computers' Above acts we can consider as the major cyber crimes and social issues in cyber space in world. In the essay telephone, sense of criminal justice system in Sri Lanka we can identify another major issue as cyber terrorism. Now I will explain the cyber terrorism in a broader perspective. DEFINITION OF THE CYBERTERRORISM.

Defines cyber terrorism as The use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructure (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to essay coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines 'Terrorism as the unlawful use of invention telephone, force or violence, committed by a group(s) of example of psychology, two or more individuals, against persons or property, to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in essay invention furtherance of political or social objectives'. Since cyber terrorism covers a vast area of technical aspects it is required to know the exact differences between the following: i. Hacker: A term used by some to mean a clever programmer and by batman, others, especially those in popular media, to mean someone who tries to break into computer systems. ii. White hat: A hacker, who identifies a security weakness in a computer system or network but, instead of taking malicious advantage of it, exposes the telephone, weakness in a way that will allow the system's owners to thesis and semiotics fix the invention telephone, breach before it can be taken advantage by others. iii.

Black hat: A hacker who breaks into a computer system or network with malicious intent. Unlike a white hat hacker, the black hat hacker takes advantage of the break-in, perhaps destroying files or stealing data for some future purpose. Of Psychology Master! The black hat hacker may also make the invention telephone, exploit known to being beyond earliest essay other hackers and/or the public without notifying the victim. This gives others the opportunity to exploit the vulnerability before the organization is able to secure it. iv. Grey hat: A hacker who exploits a security weakness in a computer system or product in order to bring the weakness to the attention of the owners. Unlike a black hat, a grey hat acts without malicious intent. The goal of a grey hat is to improve system and essay telephone, network security. However, by publicizing vulnerability, the cooks, grey hat may give other hackers the opportunity to exploit it. This differs from the invention, white hat who alerts system owners and vendors of vulnerability without actually exploiting it in essay public.

v. Invention! Phishing: An e-mail fraud method in which the research, perpetrator sends out legitimate-looking email in an attempt to gather personal and financial information from recipients. Essay Telephone! Typically, the messages appear to come from well-known and trustworthy Web sites. Web sites that are frequently spoofed by phishers include PayPal, eBay, MSN, Yahoo, BestBuy, and papers, America Online. A phishing expedition, like the fishing expedition it's named for, is a speculative venture. Essay Telephone! The phisher puts the lure hoping to fool at least a few of the prey that encounter the bait. vi. Rootkit: A collection of tools or programs that enable administrator-level access to a computer or computer network. Typically, a hacker installs a rootkit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access, either by example of psychology master, exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once the rootkit is installed, it allows the attacker to mask intrusion and essay invention telephone, gain root or privileged access to research the computer and, possibly, other machines on the network. vii.

Spam: The use of electronic messaging systems to invention telephone send unsolicited bulk messages, especially advertising, indiscriminately. Example! While the most widely recognized form of spam is essay e-mail spam, the term is applied to similar abuses in and semiotics other media: instant messaging spam, Usenet newsgroup spam, Web search engine spam, spam in blogs, wiki spam, online classified ads spam, mobile phone messaging spam, Internet forum spam, junk fax transmissions, social networking spam, social spam, television advertising and essay invention telephone, file sharing network spam. viii. Spyware: Any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a spybot or tracking software), spyware is a programme that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties. Spyware can get in a computer as a software virus or as the result of installing a new program.

ix. Trojan horse: A program in which malicious or harmful code is and semiotics contained inside apparently harmless programme or data in such a way that it can get control and do its chosen form of essay invention telephone, damage, such as ruining the file allocation table on your hard disk. A Trojan horse may be widely redistributed as part of a computer virus. x. Virus: A program or programming code that replicates by being copied or initiating its copying to another program, computer boot sector or document. Viruses can be transmitted as attachments to an e-mail note or in being time a downloaded file, or be present on a diskette or CD. The immediate source of the e-mail note, downloaded file, or diskette you've received is essay usually unaware that it contains a virus. Papers! A virus that replicates itself by resending itself as an e-mail attachment or as part of a network message is known as a worm. THE MAJOR HACKING EVENTS WORLD EXPERIENCED. Hacking has been around for decades. During the 1960s, the word hacker grew to prominence describing a person with strong computer skills, an extensive understanding of how computer programs worked, and a driving curiosity about computer systems.

Hacking, however, soon became nearly synonymous with illegal activity. While the first incidents of hacking dealt with breaking into phone systems, hackers also began diving into computer systems as technology advanced. Today's crimes are often financially-motivated fraud. There are some major hacking incidents that made some of the essay invention telephone, biggest headlines in history. In 1994: Russian hackers siphon $10 million from and semiotics Citibank and transfer the telephone, money to bank accounts around the of psychology master s thesis, world. Vladimir Levin, the 30-year-old ringleader, uses his work laptop after hours to transfer the funds to accounts in telephone Finland and Israel. Levin stands trial in the United States and is sentenced to three years in prison. In 1996: i. Hackers alter Web sites of the United States Department of Justice (August), the research papers, CIA (October), and the U.S. Air Force (December). ii.

Canadian hacker group, Brotherhood, breaks into essay invention, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. iii. The U.S. General Accounting Office reports that hackers attempted to break into Defense Department computer files some 250,000 times in 1995 alone. According to the report about and semiotics, 65 percent of the attempts were successful. In 1997: i. A 15-year-old Croatian youth penetrates computers at a U.S. Air Force base in Guam. ii. First high-profile attacks on essay invention Microsoft's Windows NT operating system. In 1998 : i. January: Yahoo notifies Internet users that anyone visiting its site in recent weeks might have downloaded a logic bomb and worm planted by hackers claiming a logic bomb will go off if Kevin Mitnick is not released from prison. ii.

Ethnic Tamil guerrillas swamped Sri Lankan embassies with over 800 e-mails a day for more than two weeks. The messages read as 'We are the Internet Black Tigers and we're doing this to of psychology s thesis disrupt your communications.' Intelligence authorities characterized it as the first known attack by terrorists against a country's IT infrastructure. In 1999 : i. Software security goes main stream in the wake of Microsoft's Windows 98 release, year 1999 become a banner for security (and hacking). Hundreds of advisories and essay telephone, patches were released in response to newly found (and widely publicized) bugs in Windows and other commercial software products. A host of security software vendors release anti-hacking products for thesis and semiotics, use on home computers. ii. The Melissa worm is released and quickly becomes the most costly malware outbreak to essay date. iii. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! 'Level Seven' hacks The U.S Embassy in China's Website and places racist, anti-government slogans on embassy site in regards to invention 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.

In 2000 the I LOVE YOU worm, also known as VBS/Love letter and Love Bug worm, is a computer worm written in VB Script. It infected millions of computers worldwide within a few hours of thesis and semiotics, its release. It is considered to be one of the most damaging worms ever. It originated in the Philippines; made by an AMA Computer College student for his thesis. In 2010: i. UN department of safety and security hacked by Turkish hacker DigitALL(1923Turk)Mirror Link. ii.

The Stuxnet worm is found by VirusBlokAda. Stuxnet was unusual in that while it spread via Windows computers, its payload targeted just one specific model and invention telephone, type of SCADA systems. Example Of Psychology Master! It slowly became clear that it was a cyber-attack on Iran's nuclear facilities - with most experts believing that Israel was behind it - perhaps with US help. In one of the first events to really bring 'hacktivism' to the attention of the mainstream press, it was reported that some of the documents stolen by Anonymous revealed HB Gary Federal was working with Bank Of America(BOA) to respond to Wikileaks' planned release of BOAs internal documents. 40. Essay! The HB Gary documents detailed some planned shady tactics, including launching a 'dirty tricks' campaign against Wikileaks and disrupting a reporter who was assumed to be sympathetic to Wikileaks. SRI LANKAN EXPERIENCES OF CYBER TERRORISM. Sri Lanka, for the second time in line three years, grabbed the attention of cyber security experts when a new computer virus started circulating around the globe last week.

In its original form, the virus displays a message box entitled Mawanella and copies itself to the hard disk and essay invention telephone, thereafter replicates itself, copying the line cooks, virus code to all out-going email messages from the infected computer. The virus code is based on the now infamous Love Bug virus, which originated from the Philippines, in 1997. LTTE cyber attack on Sri Lanka Army website. Invention Telephone! Sri Lankan Army site 'assassinated' by rebels 'Horrible' and 'gruesome'[1st May 2009] Sri Lanka Army's official news wing, ( has been illegally hacked and technically 'assassinated' by suspected Tiger terrorists or their proxies, during the wee hours on Friday (1st May), inserting some horrible and line cooks, gruesome images, .This new form of information 'terrorism' is a criminal offence that can be subjected to prosecution, according to international legal provisions. The attack on the site sent army technicians scrambling to remove the content. By Friday afternoon California time, the site appeared to be running normally. Another government website has been hacked by suspected Tiger rebels the government. Invention! Information Department said. The government news portal has come under a cyber .Attack this morning by the suspected LTTE hackers.

SRI LANKAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM. GOVERNMENT'S PERSPECTIVE SRI LANKA'S LEGISLATIONS ON CYBER ISSUES. The law regarding Legal Security and Copy Right Laws in Sri Lanka based on the English law. Example Of Psychology S Thesis! Both English law and Sri Lankan laws are having common features in regarding to the e-media. Essay Invention! Furthermore in Sri Lanka there is no any difference between domestic law and the international law regarding cyber-terrorism. There are several legislations which passed by the Parliament recently. i. Information and Communication Technology Act (No.27 of 2003) ii. Batman! Evidence (Special Provisions) (Act No.14 of essay invention, 1995) iii. Being Earliest Essay! Intellectual Property Act (No. 36 of 2003 (Sections related to Copyright) iv.

Electronic Transactions Act (No. 19 of 2006) v. Computer Crimes Act (No. 24 of 2007) vi. Payment And Settlement Systems Act, (No. 28 of invention telephone, 2005) vii. Batman! Payment Devices Frauds Act (No.30 of 2006) Information and Communication Technology Act (No.27 of essay invention telephone, 2003)

This act is line resume developed to improve ICT and resolve its disputes efficiently. In UK there are several laws as Computer Misuse Act (1990), Trade Marks Act (1994), Defamation Act (1996), Data Protection Act (1998), the Copyright and Related Regulations (1996), Electronic Communication Act (2000), Telecommunications Regulations (1999), 'The Consumer Protection (Distant Selling) Regulations (2000) By this act it establishes a national committee on Information and Communication Technology in Sri Lanka and to introduce a national policy on essay telephone ICT and for the preparation of an research papers action plan. Intellectual Property Act (No. 36 of telephone, 2003 (Sections related to Copyright) We are mainly considering regarding the thesis, copy rights sections of this act. Invention Telephone! According to the act Copyright means the rights given by law to the creators for their literary and artistic works. Cloning! The rights take two forms. i. Economic rights. ii. Moral rights.

Copyright protects the rights of the authors of literary and essay invention telephone, artistic works and ensures them the economic benefits and recognition thereby promoting creativity in literary and artistic fields and investment. Papers! Such creations enhance economic development, education, culture, and enjoyment of life. When it comes to the Cyber terrorism it deals with the software matters or any matter which related to computers. Electronic Transactions Act (No. 19 of 2006) This act deals with the telephone, creation and exchange of data messages, electronic documents, electronic records and other communications in electronic form in Sri Lanka.

And it provides for the appointment of a certification authority and accreditation of certification service providers. Computer Crimes Act (No. 24 of 2007) This is an act to resume provide for the identification of computer crime and to invention provide the best, procedure for the investigation and prevention of such crimes; and to provide for matters connected there with and incidental. Invention! The Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act No.

24 of 2007 primarily addresses computer-related crimes and hacking offences. Thesis! Content related offences are being addressed through a series of telephone, changes to the Penal Code and other statutory provisions. Cultures globally are progressively reliant on information and communication technologies (ICT) and thus susceptible to risks such as cyber-crime which comprises a misuse of technological innovation. To deal with this element Sri Lanka introduced the Computer Crimes Act No. 24 of 2007 which was introduced into functional impact from July 15, 2008.

Apart from offering a better way of life for thesis and semiotics, community the fast growth of ICT increases essential questions regarding storage space of private details, privacy, data protection and crime. Essay! Computer systems are not only focused for criminal activity but are also important equipment used in the commission payment of other violations such as fraud, scams, forgery, damage, removal of business details and ruin of computer features, etc. The phrase 'Computer Crime' is a common phrase used to recognize all criminal offenses or scammers that are linked with or related to computers and it. Generally computer crime consists of three components. Being! They are:- i. Computer Related crimes ' Computers used as a tool for criminal activity such as theft, fraud, etc. ii. Essay! Hacking offences ' which affects integrity, availability and example of psychology master s thesis, confidentiality of a computer system or network (also includes the essay telephone, introduction of viruses, worms etc). iii.

Content related Cyber Crime ' where computers together with Internet resources are used to distribute illegal data. E.g.;- Internet based pornography, criminal copyright infringement. Sri Lankan Computer Crime act is content with 38 chapters. All those rules and regulation are discussed in the Computer Crime Act. Any person who obtains unauthorized access to a computer or network (Computer hacking and cracking), modification of a computer or network unlawfully, offences committed against national security, dealing with data unlawfully obtained illegal interception of data, using of illegal device, unauthorized disclosure of information enabling access to and semiotics a service are the offences defined under sections 3 to essay 10 of the Act respectively. It states: i. The illustrations given in the Act states that for any unauthorized modification or damage or potential damage to take place, any one of the following should occur ' ii. Impairing the operation of any computer, computer system or the reliability of any data or information held in any computer; or.

iii. Destroying, deleting or corrupting or adding, moving or altering any information held in any computer; iv. Making use of a computer service involving computer time and data processing for the storage or retrieval of data; v. Introducing a computer program which will have the effect of nyu entrance essay, malfunctioning of a computer or falsifies the data or any information held in any computer or computer system (eg:- viruses, worms, etc). Other than that following offences also include in computer crime act. Unauthorized obtaining of information from telephone a computer or a storage medium; unauthorized use of computer service and interception of data; selling, importing or distributing any device or computer access code or password for of psychology master s thesis, the commission of essay invention telephone, offences under the Act; providing access information to a service without authority or in breach of a contract.

Section 15 16 of the act describes regarding the investigations in connection with offences under the same Act. To achieve this objective, the act has been included allowing a board of professionals to assist the batman, Cops in the research computer crime activity offences. In terms of the role imagined for professionals they will believe legislation only invention telephone, when their assistance is called for. The Act encourages the professionals with specific abilities, such as visiting the scene of crime for purposes of research, investigation, to access and analyze computers, data or information organized in a computer, etc. A panel of essay invention, experts will be appointed by the Minister-in-charge of the subject of Science and Technology. Earliest Essay! Qualifications, experience and remuneration of such experts are explained in the section 17 of the Act. Section 18 of the act states that such experts called upon to assist any police officer shall have power to enter any premises along with a police officer not below the rank of a sub-inspector, access any information system, computer or computer system or any program, data or information held in such computer to perform any function or to do any such other thing, require any person to disclose any traffic data, oral examination of any person, do such other things as may be reasonably required for the purpose of the same Act. Further section 19 21 also describe that if preservation of information reasonably required for the purposes of investigations, expert or Police officer has powers to arrest, search and seize any information accessible within any premises without a warrant in the course of investigation.

Section 23, section 24, section 28 and section 29 is related to the duties of the invention telephone, investigator. Section 28 provides immunity from legal proceedings against experts (who are peace officers under the section 29 of the Act) and Police officers appointed for investigations under the Act. Section 33 of the Act provides where a request is made to the Government of Sri Lanka, by or on of psychology master s thesis behalf on invention telephone another Government for being beyond earliest time, the purpose of extradition of the person accused or convicted of an telephone offence under this Act the Minister shall forthwith notify the requesting Government of the measures which the Government of Sri Lanka has taken, or proposed to take to extradite the person for that offence. Thesis And Semiotics! Rights of non-resident persons arrested under this Act specified under Section 34 of the Act. Under section 35 of the essay invention, Computer Crime Act the provisions of the Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters Act No. 25 of 2002 are applicable for the investigation and prosecution of the offences under the Computer Crime Act. Other computer related offences are: i. Master! Publication of an obscene article electronically may be a criminal offence under amended section 2 of the Obscene Publication Ordinance, No. 22 of 1983. ii. Section 286B of the Penal Code (Amendment Act No.

16 of 2006) introduced the offence as it is invention a duty of person providing service by computer to prevent sexual abuse of a child and person who contravenes the master, same shall be guilty of an offence. iii. Further, storing or distribution of child phonography by e-mail and the Internet may be an offence under section 286(c) of the Penal Code (Amendment) No. 22 of telephone, 1995 read with provisions under Electronic Transactions Act No. 19 of 2006. However, it is time to bring new amendments to research papers the same law avoiding certain unnecessary disputes that arise over interpretation of creation of invention telephone, pseudo-photographs under this Ordinance.

When compared to other countries legislative enactments on Cyber Crimes, the adequacy of Sri Lankan legislation need to be examined the provisions of Computer Crimes Act No 24 of 2007 in the view of Indian legislations. Sri Lanka legislative enactment on Cyber Crimes is Computer Crimes Act No 24 of 2007and Indian legislation is Information Technology Act 2000 and its Amendment Act on 2008 which is being earliest from known as the Cyber law. Securing unauthorized access to a computer is an offence and under Section 2 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and essay telephone, also by Section 1(2) of the nyu entrance, Indian IT Act state that a person can commit an offence being in the country or being outside of the invention, country and also the affected media can be in example of psychology master or outside the country. By Section 75 of the Indian IT Act the telephone, offender can be of other nationality if he commits the offence to an Indian located computer or network. Therefore both India and Sri Lanka have extended its legislative applications to identify offenders even outside of their jurisdictions. Section 3 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act covers unauthorized access and similarly the Indian IT Act covers it under the cyber security of Section 2 of the Act. Section 6 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act defines that offences committed against the national security, the national economy or public order shall be guilty of an offence. Indian IT Act covers this area under Section 70 of its Act. Illegal interception of data is an offence under Section 8 of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and Section 9 states that using of illegal devices is an offence and for committing this offence using a computer password or access code to access the computer is sufficient. Similarly using another's password or unique identification code is a punishable offence under the Section 66C of the Indian IT Act. Part II of the Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act deals with investigations procedures and appointment of panel of experts for such investigations.

Code of Criminal Procedure Act, No. 15 of and semiotics, 1979 applies for the Section 15 and appointment of a panel of essay invention telephone, experts is stated under Section 17 (Code of Criminal Procedure Act No.15, 1979). Line Cooks Resume! Experts in telephone this section are persons who are having electronic engineering or software engineering qualifications to assist Police Officers. Comparatively the Indian IT Act applies Indian Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 for investigations. Both Sri Lankan Computer Crimes Act and line cooks resume, the Indian IT Acts have provided provisions to appoint computer emergency response teams termed as Sri Lanka CERT and Indian CERT respectively. Punishments by ways of fines and imprisonment are key features of provisions of both Sri Lankan and telephone, Indian computer crimes legislations and the minimum and maximum periods of imprisonments have been defined. However Indian IT Act provides a separate chapter on offences. Chapter 38 of the Intellectual Property Act No.36 of 2003 defines the Offences and Penalties against violation of Intellectual Property Rights and these provisions are applicable for line, Intellectual Property Rights violations in cyber space as well. Under the Sri Lanka Telecommunications Act No. 25 of 1991 'Intrusion', 'interception and essay, disclosure of contents of message' by telecommunication officials, other than in the course of his duty are offences under sections 52-54 of the Act.

Usage information means information relating to the identity of calling subscriber, called subscriber, date and time of best nyu entrance essay, originating of message and essay invention telephone, the type of cooks resume, message for the purpose of sections 52 and 54. Offences under this Act are cognizable offences. Section 12 explains on Confidentiality of telephone, information obtained in the course of an investigation. Even though Sri Lanka currently has Methods on master fighting criminal activity like the method against essay invention, interaction that increases national hate, the new law is to help deal with these concerns better. And we still need more exercising and attention. Sri Lanka is completely helpful of the example master s thesis, strategy implemented by the authorities of European countries and is efficiently looking at the alternatives to accede to the meeting.

Initial actions have already been started by invention telephone, the government in this relationship and it is best predicted that formal conversation would started with the Council of European countries for this objective, during 2009. ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE SRI LANKAN GOVERNMENT. With the rapid development of the Internet, many economies are now increasingly dependent on public network applications such as online banking, online stock trading, e-business, e-government and e-customs. The protection of the various national information infrastructures that make up this new and emerging e-economy is critical to a country's political and economic stability and security. The need to protect these critical national information infrastructures is also urgent. Attacks on essay invention telephone information infrastructures are increasing in frequency, sophistication and cooks resume, scale. For example, the Code Red II Internet worm integrated characteristics of a computer virus, Trojan, Worm and Hacking activity to propagate quickly across the Internet and infect massive numbers of host computers. When discussing the Sri Lankan situation it is a must to gain an idea on the background. Sri Lanka's telecommunication regulator is Telecommunication Regulatory Commission Sri Lanka (TRCSL) and essay invention telephone, its main objective is to ensure the availability of advanced and high quality service throughout the best, country at an affordable price.

TRCSL directly engage with the telecommunication service providers to essay ensure the aim is being achieved and also regulates the services given by drafting policies in the field of telecommunication. Information and Communication Technology Agency of Sri Lanka who is a fully owned organization of the Sri Lankan government work along with TRCSL in implementing the policies, building up ICT related infrastructure and ICT training with the aim of building Sri Lanka A IT save country. With funding of the World Bank ICTA is conducting programmes to develop ICT infrastructure and it has been a major contributor in achieving the essay, country's development objectives through the growths related to Connectivity, Accessibility and Content. Essay Telephone! Sri Lanka's Network Readiness Index has risen significantly during the recent past years and comparing it with Pakistan a similar South Asian developing country Sri Lanka is in a comprehensive status. These development projects have made a significant change to research the society at large and through this positive transformation there are some unavoidable drawbacks too. The newborn IT educated younger generation is involving in cyber related crimes more often and due to this vulnerabilities are growing within the networks To address this urgent need, countries have established Incident Response Teams and in telephone Sri Lanka the national CERT is the SLCERT (Sri Lanka Computer Emergency Readiness Team) which is a fully owned subsidiary of ICTA (Information and Communication Technology of Sri Lanka). A national CERT (Computer Emergency Readiness Team) is an organization which acts as the focal point for Cyber Security of a nation. Thesis! It can be taken into consideration as the most trusted source of advice about the latest threats and vulnerabilities affecting computer systems and networks and invention, a source of expertise assistance in responding to recovering from cyber attacks. Since the inception of Sri Lanka CERT in 2006 the rate of incident reporting has increased rapidly and to prove that in 2010 it was only thesis and semiotics, 151 whereas in 2011 it was 1469 and all these incidents have been resolved satisfactorily. Type of Incident No. Hate/Threat Mail 3.

Unauthorized Access 3. Intellectual property violation 5. Social Network Accounts 1,425. SLCERT provides its expertise through consultancy services to the government organizations, non government organizations, various institutions and individuals. There they provide technical consultancy through ethical hacking and penetrant testing, and issues a security certification for the network's security level.

Furthermore they provide legal consultancy if needed at invention telephone, an incident. The present Sri Lankan legislation does not specifically cover Cyber Crimes to meet the global standards where as the cloning, Indian legislation has mostly addressed the Cyber Crimes issue. The conclusion stresses the fact that the existing legislation and litigation is not merely sufficient to overcome these ever increasing crimes but also find new security measures in addition to telephone the existing ones to override the hackers and strengthen the computer systems from possible cyber attacks. Traditional crime has long ago moved online. Crimes like money laundering, child pornography, sexual exploitation of children, sale and trafficking of illegal drugs, prostitution, internet fraud, credit card fraud, illegal gambling, hate propaganda, racism crimes, intellectual property theft, piracy harassment, stalking threats, extortion identity theft and many more. Cybercrime is rather a novel aspect of criminal activity to the Sri Lankan society. With the advancement of information technology and knowledge of computer science in Sri Lankans, some individuals have turned cybercrime as a mean of acquiring wealth in an unlawful and undetected manner and also to achieve political and example of psychology master s thesis, social status. Cybercrime is mostly committed by the educated youth. Essay Telephone! There has been an increasing of cybercrime complains within the last year according to the Sri Lanka, Computer Emergency Response Team (SLCERT).

In the recent past, an papers increase in the number of cyber-criminal activities in Sri Lanka had been observed. Essay! A representative of SLCERT said that most complaints are related to hacking of passwords, stealing of information, demanding ransoms in addition to Facebook and credit card related crimes. Cyber crimes in Sri Lanka has made a major topic due to various reasons, most effecting reason is the lack of implementation of already enacted policies and regulations which is being put up to regulate the illegal activities in cyberspace and the mitigate the misconducts but in papers Sri Lanka most of telephone, them are being ignored by the law enforcement authorities and due to that criminals are acting without any consent. The liability of the Government is to make sure that nationwide systems are protected and have not been occupied. To accomplish this, the countries internet actions need to be harmonized both on an institutional stage and region and provincial stages and this has to cloning research papers be led by the top organization for essay invention, internet protection in Sri Lanka CERT. One of the arguments, which are always advanced to justify this stand of non-enactment, is that 'the measures suggested are not adequate to deal with the problem'. It must be appreciated that 'something is best essay better than nothing'. The ultimate solution to any problem is not to enact a plethora of statutes but their rigorous and dedicated enforcement.

The courts may apply the existing laws in essay a progressive, updating and purposive manner. Cooks! It must be appreciated that it is not the 'enactment' of a law but the desire, will and efforts to accept and enforce it in its true letter and essay invention telephone, spirit, which can confer the most strongest, secure and safest protection for any purpose. The enforcement of these rights requires a 'qualitative effort' and not a 'quantitative effort'. Vs Spiderman Essay! Thus, till a law dealing expressly with cyber terrorism is enacted, we must not feel shy and hesitant to use the existing provisions. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of essay telephone, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in batman vs spiderman your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to essay invention telephone us by a student in and semiotics order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Social Issues And Cyber Social Issues . Available from: [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to essay have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on essay time. Essay UK is a trading name of Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and invention telephone, Wales under Company Number 08866484 . Registered Data Controller No: ZA245894.

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