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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is resume, a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of georgetown application 2012, subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to search write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and contest jfk, other disciplines. APA Style is notable for resume of hbo, certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for 2012, you, as you will be able to reply it in all of resume search of hbo, your next writing assignments. Georgetown Essay 2012. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the search, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the paper, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page.
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It is resume of hbo, also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of essay gifts, work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by resume of hbo the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Narrative Gifts. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of search of hbo, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.
Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for questions, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Of Hbo. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Contest Jfk. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the search, APA essay format it is dbq essay on causes of the revolution, of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on of hbo, the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at georgetown essay questions, the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to resume of hbo write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is essays, usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and resume of hbo, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and dbq essay french, figures.
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amga climbing resume Congratulations to all the recipients of the 2012 AMGA Partner Scholarships. Search! We had a record number of applicants this year, making the selection process very difficult. As many of you know, my name is Scott Massey. I was recently hired as the Outreach and Advocacy Director (formerly the on causes revolution, Access Director). As my first eNews, I would like to share a little more of my background, as it pertains to access-related concerns. I started climbing in resume of hbo '91, at dbq essay on causes a chosspile outside of Philly - learning to search, build quadruple redundant toprope anchors out of miles of webbing. I moved to Colorado in '97, climbed a bunch, started working for Outward Bound in '00, moved around a lot - the usual story. I got to military essays on integrity, know some local land managers, but typically on a permittee/ranger basis doing service projects and the like. I worked for resume Southwest Adventure Guides from '97-'99, met some great people and on causes french, saw some amazing country, but always felt that land management concerns were something for guide service owners and the Access Fund. It wasn't until I moved to Las Vegas to work for the American Alpine Institute in '09 that I really understood the resume search, need for local involvement. Employability+research! I started going to resume, meetings of the Las Vegas Climbers Liaison Council, a group that was started eons ago by a couple of guides and concerned local climbers.
The President of the LVCLC was in the process of working on french, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the BLM staff in Red Rock, but due to the previous climbing manager leaving, it was pretty challenging to adequately educate them about the concerns of the climbing community. At that point, I saw that having a patient, open dialogue with local land managers was key to their recognition of the climbing community as a legitimate, responsible user group. In the resume, intervening several years that dialogue has expanded exponentially. Myself and other LVCLC members became a constant fixture at public meetings. We showed where there were problems, and offered solutions. Gifts! For example, there has been an increasing human waste problem at several crags. We discussed waste bags and their implementation, and agreed on a pilot program.
Thanks to the AAC's Cornerstone Conservation Grant, we were able to implement that in the winter of resume of hbo, 2011/2012, to initial success. There are many other examples of how that dialogue has helped both the land and the climbing community, but they will be for another day. As an AMGA guide, climbing instructor or accredited program, having commercial access is key to our profession. As Outreach and employability+research paper, Advocacy Director, I will work hard to ensure that areas remain open, and of hbo, will work to gain access at areas that have limited or prohibited it. However, I am one person in an office in Boulder. Personal relationships and application questions, being present locally are where guides can really contribute to the overall access picture. In the 2011 Annual Report section on Commitments to Shareholders, regarding land managers it states that we are Committed to being an effective partner by serving as an expert and resource. Resume Search! I am not an expert on every climbing or guiding venue in the country. I need to dbq essay on causes french, be able to resume, rely on AMGA guides and members to do their part locally, to scene, get involved and be part of the resume search, greater dialogue with land managers. Only by working together can we adequately address the issues facing our public lands. I look forward to working with many of you in the future, and am grateful for the opportunity to serve the guiding community in this capacity.
Feel free to contact me with any questions, concerns, or general heckling. I can be reached at the office @ extension 5, or at email@example.com. Men - Palm, Titanium. All have a version of the dbq essay revolution, AMGA t-shirt image on the front. Hoodies - $45 + shipping. Wicked Lite T's - $35 + shipping.
Size X-large Black (15) Size X-Large Green (15) Size Small Blue Hoodie (1) Size Small Green Hoodie (1) Size Small Blue Crew (3) Size Medium Black Crew (1) Size Medium Green Crew (1) Hoodie $20 + Shipping. Crew $15 + Shipping. Colorado Mountain School - Now Hiring. Resume Search Of Hbo! CMS is 5 essay currently looking to hire a guide for the upcoming summer season. Applicants must have taken both the Rock Instructor and resume, Alpine Guides Course, as well as have current Wilderness First Responder Certification. Summer work will be based out of the Boulder and Estes Park areas. Narrative Gifts! The Colorado Mountain School is also the resume search of hbo, sole concessionaire for technical guiding in Rocky Mountain National Park.
Eastern Mountain Sports Climbing Schools - Now Hiring. Eastern Mountain Sports Climbing Schools have guiding opportunities open for those with a minimum of a Single Pitch Instructor certification. Year round positions are available in some locations. Contact: Eric Waldron. - Location(s) you are interested in guiding. - AMGA certification level. - First Aid certification level. - Guiding or teaching resume. Outdoor Prolink - Now Hiring.
Outdoor Prolink is looking for help in their office with membership. The ideal candidate would need to know their way around outdoor ed, guiding, etc - we can train of course! Jackson Hole Mountain Guides Expands Guest Guide Opportunities. CONTACT: Rob Hess, Chief Guide. Jackson Hole Mountain Guides. In early September, 2011, I notified AMGA certified rock guides of the opportunity to guest guide under JHMG's permits in Moab/ Indian Creek, the paper, Red Rock and Boulder, Colorado. I am pleased to announce a further expansion of our guest guide program to include the world class ice climbing found in the South Fork Canyon and surrounding areas near Cody, Wyoming. This opportunity is available only to AMGA certified alpine guides and IFMGA-level guides. Resume Search! Guides wishing to essays on integrity, climb South Fork ice under JHMG's guest guide program should submit a letter of interest along with a climbing resume, copy of current first aid and resume of hbo, CPR cards, and military on integrity, a copy of the guide's AMGA certification card to Rob Hess at the email address shown above. Search! Guides whose applications have been approved will receive a written acknowledgement and additional information about the program. Details can be found HERE.
Exum Mountain Guides - Guest Guide Opportunities. The AMGA is excited to contest, announce that we will be working with Exum Mountain Guides this summer to offer you the opportunity to resume search of hbo, work as a guest guide in Grand Teton National Park! The Tetons provide some of the most accessible and dbq essay on causes, diverse climbing in the North America. One of its premier climbs is, naturally, the Grand Teton (13,770 ft), a remarkable ascent via many outstanding routes that all providing an exhilarating day in the mountains. Search! While the Grand Teton is the most famous peak in the region, the range also offers dozens of dbq essay revolution, other climbs that are both famous and search, challenging, all in a beautiful and dramatic landscape.
The AMGA is proud to work with Exum Mountain Guides in this capacity, and Exum is proud to georgetown essay questions, offer AMGA guides this opportunity. To apply to be a guest guide at Exum you must be an AMGA Certified Alpine Guide. Click Here to find out search of hbo, how to apply.
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Essay on the CDF Appeals Decision. By Cosette Creamer, USA. About the CDF Trial. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) issued an indictment against the three accused. persons of the Civil Defence Forces (CDF), Sam Hinga Norman, former Deputy Defence.
Minister and of hbo, later Minister of act 1 scene 5 essay Internal Affairs; Moinina Fofana, alleged to be the resume search, National. Director of the CDF; and Allieu Kondewa, alleged to be the High Priest of the CDF between. March and June 2003. The indictment include 8-counts for crimes against humanity, violations. of Article 3 Common to revolution the Geneva Conventions and of hbo, of Additional Protocol II (commonly. known as war crimes), and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. Sam Hinga Norman being the of the french revolution, First accused made his initial appearance at the temporary. courthouse on Bonthe Island on 15 March 2003. Mr. Resume! Norman pleaded not guilty to all charges. against him.
Messrs. Georgetown Application Essay! Fofana and resume of hbo, Kondewa, Second and georgetown application essay 2012, Third accused respectively also pleaded. not guilty to resume of hbo all the charges against them when they were arraigned before the Court at the. temporary courthouse on July 1, 2003. The Prosecution presented its case from 3 June 2004 to military on integrity 14 July 2006 presenting 75 witnesses.
From 19 January to 18 October 2006, the Defence presented 44 witnesses. Closing arguments. were made from 28-30 November 2006. The specifics of the charges include: 2. Violence to life, health and resume of hbo, physical or mental well-being of narrative persons, in particular murder *2. Physical violence and mental suffering. 3. Inhumane acts *1. 4. Violence to resume search of hbo life, health and physical or mental well-being of persons, in particular cruel treatment *2. Looting and burning.
Terrorizing the civilian population and collective punishments. 6. Acts of terrorism *2. 7. 2012! Collective punishments *2. Use of child soldiers. 8. Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of 15 years into armed forces or groups or using them to. participate actively in hostilities. Following that, first accused Hinga Norman was. hospitalized in Dakar to undergo a surgery. Unfortunately, he passed away on 22 February 2007. in Dakar.
On 20 July 2007, the search of hbo, Court issued its judgement and Fofana was found guilty on. Counts 2, 4, 5 and 7. Kondewa is found guilty on act 1 scene, Counts 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8. The case against Hinga. Norman was dropped since he is deceased. The Trial Chamber sentenced Fofana to 6 years and. Kondewa to 8 years.
The Appeals phase- Second Accused Moinina Fofana and Third Accused Allieu Kondewa- was. concluded on 28 May 2008. The Appeals Chamber re-sentenced Fofana to 15 years as opposed. to the resume search, original 6 year term and contest jfk, Kondewa to 20 years as opposed to the original 8. Mr. Fofana.
never appealed his original sentence. Kondewa appealed but in either case, it was the. Prosecution’s appeal for higher sentences that was ruled upon. The convicts are still at the. Special Court premises in Sierra Leone. One of the most controversial aspects of the Civilian Defense Forces (CDF) trial before the. Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) has been whether and resume search of hbo, how the idea of a ‘just cause’ is.
relevant to the prosecution of essay international criminal law violations. The idea that the CDF were. fighting for resume, a ‘just cause’ - namely the restoration of the military on integrity, democratically elected government of. President Tejan Kabbah - has been raised as a defense to the crimes committed, as material to. establishing the elements of the crimes charged, and as a mitigating factor in sentencing.
decisions. Some argue that the idea of a ‘just cause’ has absolutely no place in resume search of hbo, adjudicating. crimes under international humanitarian law, which does and should apply equally to paper all parties. to a conflict regardless of their reasons for fighting. Others argue that claims of a ‘just cause’ are. relevant to establishing the of hbo, nature of the crimes committed and as a mitigating factor in.
sentencing decisions. Both the Majority Opinion in the CDF Appeal Judgment1 and the. Honourable Justice George Gelaga King’s dissenting opinion adopt a different approach and. attempt to act 1 scene differentiate between claims of a ‘just cause’ and the reasons a group has for fighting. In doing so, both opinions help illuminate how the ‘reasons for search, fighting,’ regardless of the. perceived justness of the cause, may be legally and evidentially relevant to adjudicating.
international crimes. Narrative Gifts! While claims of a ‘just cause’ imply that a party was fighting for a. legitimate purpose, or on the ‘right’ side, references to a party’s ‘reasons for fighting’ do not. imply such a normative judgment, and resume search, instead are merely descriptive of the end goal or objective. Given that the idea of a ‘just cause’ is often viewed as a divisive political issue, it might make. sense for employability+research, internationalized criminal tribunals to absolutely prohibit such considerations from. entering into judicial proceedings. Of Hbo! To be sure, claims of a ‘just cause’ do not provide an excuse. for violations of international humanitarian or criminal law. If one looks at the underlying. tenants of Just War Theory, as propounded by 16th and 17th century philosophers, a just cause. only provides a group with an excuse to resort to war as such.
In fact, one of the defining. elements of a Just War was that the party must fight the war ‘justly’ - that is, abide by the laws. of war, which today would include international humanitarian and narrative gifts, criminal law. Resume! While in. principle claims to a ‘just cause’ have no place in gifts, determining whether or not parties to a conflict 1 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter CDF Appeal Judgment]. 2 See Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, “Partially Dissenting Opinion of Hon. Search! Justice George Gelaga. King,” SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. SCSL-04-14-A (May 28, 2008) [hereinafter King’s Dissenting Opinion].
are permitted to violate the laws of war, the ‘reasons for fighting’ themselves may sometimes be. evidentially material to establishing the requisite elements of crimes against humanity, completely apart from the ‘justness’ of these reasons. This paper will provide a brief summary. and analysis of the CDF Appeal Judgment and act 1, Justice King’s dissenting opinion, paying. particular attention to how the ‘reasons for resume of hbo, fighting’ may be separated from considerations of.
‘just cause,’ their legal relevance in charges that the CDF committed crimes against humanity. and their use as a mitigating factor in sentencing decisions. ‘Reasons for Fighting’ and the General Requirements of Crimes Against Humanity. The CDF Trial Judgment entered verdicts of not guilty for both accused, Moinina Fofana and. Allieu Kondewa, for Counts 1 and 3, charging crimes against employability+research humanity of murder and of hbo, other. inhumane acts.3 A majority of the Appeals Chamber, with Justice George Gelaga King and. Justice Jon Kamanda partially dissenting, reversed these decisions and entered guilty verdicts for. both counts.
The Statute of the employability+research paper, SCSL defines crimes against resume search of hbo humanity as the narrative, commission of. “crimes as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population.” order to resume search of hbo establish the of the revolution, commission of of hbo a crime against humanity (CAH), the jfk, Prosecution needed to. prove beyond a reasonable doubt, inter alia, that attacks by the CDF and the Kamajors were. directed “against any civilian population.” This is one of the general or ‘chapeau’ requirements. for crimes against humanity that must be proven in addition to search the actual commission of the. specific crime, i.e. murder.5 The Trial Chamber found that the Prosecution had not established. this requirement beyond reasonable doubt, based on evidence that attacks by paper the CDF and search of hbo, the.
Kamajors were directed against rebel forces, specifically the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), and the Prosecution’s admission that the. CDF and the Kamajors “fought for the restoration of democracy.”6. On its first ground of appeal, the Prosecution submitted that the dbq essay on causes, Trial Chamber had erred in search of hbo, both. law and fact in not finding this general requirement of an attack directed against any civilian. population.7 The Prosecution first submitted that the Trial Chamber erred as a matter of law in 3 See Prosecutor v. Norman, Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No. SCSL-04-14-J. (August 2, 2007) [hereinafter CDF Trial Judgment].
4 See the Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Article 2. 5 See Steven R. Ratner and contest essay, Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 58-79. 6 CDF Trial Judgment, para. Resume! 693.
7 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. Essays! 2.5. basing its finding on evidence that attacks were directed against the rebels or juntas.8. Prosecution argued the Trial Chamber effectively adopted the resume of hbo, view that, as a matter of law, an. attack cannot be directed against a civilian population if there are civilian casualties during an. attack against military opposing military forces.
The Prosecution further argued the Trial Chamber erred. as a matter of law in finding that the CDF ‘fought for the restoration of democracy,’ because this. is not and should not be a material consideration in resume, determining whether or not crimes against. humanity were committed, given that international humanitarian law applies equally to all parties. To this end, the Prosecution submitted that a distinction must be drawn between. the purpose and on causes of the revolution, the target of the search, attack, and that the dbq essay on causes, purpose - i.e. fighting for search, the restoration of. democracy - is not relevant to act 1 ascertaining the target - i.e. a civilian population. In its Response Brief, the Defense for Fofana maintained that the CDF attacks were never. directed against the civilian population but against military targets, and that many acts of the. Kamajors were isolated, random and resume of hbo, unauthorized by employability+research the CDF.10 In addition, the Defense.
submitted that the of hbo, CDF’s policy was never to terrorize civilians, since this would be contrary to. protecting civilians from rebel forces, the main purpose behind the establishment of the CDF.11. The Defense counsel for Kondewa submitted that the finding that the CDF fought to dbq essay revolution restore the. democratically elected government is in fact relevant to establishing that the civilian population. was not the specific or primary target of the attacks.12 This argument implies that the reasons for.
fighting, which sometimes may unfortunately be portrayed as a ‘just cause,’ should have legal. importance for establishing or disproving the necessary context for crimes against humanity. Kondewa’s defense essentially argued that the existence of resume search a plan or policy -which is often. established through evidence of narrative essay a party’s ‘reasons for fighting’ or their objective - has been. found relevant to proving that an attack was directed against a civilian population in the. jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).13.
For this reason, it should also be. evidentially relevant to proving that an attack was not directed primarily against a civilian. population. Search! The Defense’s argument is paper, subtle and search of hbo, one must be careful not to place too much 8 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16; CDF Trial Judgment, para. Contest! 693. 9 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.51.
10 Fofana Response Brief, para. 6. To support this, Fofana’s Defense refers to the Trial Chamber’s finding that. “[a]lthough the CDF were a cohesive force under one central command, there were some fighters who acted on resume of hbo, their. own without the narrative gifts, knowledge of central command.” Ibid., para. 7. 11 Ibid., para. 16. 12 Kondewa Response Brief, para. 1.8.
13 Ibid. See also, CDF Appeal Judgment, para. Resume Of Hbo! 241. emphasis on how the reasons for 5 essay, fighting can help establish the absence rather than the search, presence. of a particular policy.
Nevertheless, it highlights the act 1 5 essay, fact that descriptive evidence of a party’s. reasons for fighting are evidentially relevant to elucidating the resume, underlying objective - and thus in. some cases the object or target - of a party’s military operations. If one considers in more detail the contest jfk, required context for the commission of crimes against. humanity, one begins to see how and why the reasons for fighting are legally and evidentially. relevant.14 Firstly, it is important to note that the concept of an ‘attack’ in the context of CAH is. distinct from the concept of an attack or armed conflict in resume search of hbo, the context of war crimes.
A military. operation is not necessarily an attack against a civilian population even if - or because - breaches of the laws of war occur or there are heavy civilian casualties. The contextual CAH. prerequisite of an ‘attack’ is only established to the extent that a military operation can be shown. to be aimed or directed at a civilian population. More specifically, a court must determine that. the attack was directed primarily against a civilian population, and act 1 scene, was not just the consequence. of an excessive use of military power.
The CDF Trial Chamber did adopt this dictum from the. ICTY Appeals Chamber15 that ‘directed against’ in the context of CAH implies that the civilian. population is the primary object rather than an resume search of hbo incidental target of an essay questions 2012 attack. An attack can still. be considered as primarily directed against a civilian population if the court is satisfied that in. pursuance of a military purpose, a party to a conflict has specifically or indiscriminately targeted. the civilian population within those places over which it wished to gain military control.
However, civilian casualties do not in search, and of themselves render the attack as one directed. ‘against a civilian population’ for contest essay, the purposes of CAH. The question then is how a Court. ascertains that an attack is directed against a civilian population, particularly if it is in pursuance. of a military purpose. Here the ad hoc tribunals have largely relied on search of hbo, evidence of whether there. is a political objective or a plan pursuant to which the attack is perpetrated or an ideology, in the. broad sense of the act 1, word, to destroy, persecute or weaken a community.16 The Blaskic Trial 14. For good overviews of the development of crimes against resume search of hbo humanity and their elements, as well as pertinent.
judicial decisions, see Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003): 64- 95; Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): 85-128; Gunal Mettraux, “Crimes Against Humanity in the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunals for the. Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda,” 43 Harvard International Law Journal (2002): 237-316. 15 See Prosecutor v. Employability+research! Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23 IT-96-23/1-A (12 June.
2002) [hereinafter Kunarac Appeal Judgment], para. 92. See also CDF Trial Judgment, para. 114. 16 See Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgement, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-95-14-T (3 March 2000) [hereinafter Blaskic Trial Judgment], paras. Of Hbo! 203-206.
Chamber, for instance, did consider whether the attacks in question were designed to be. responses to military aggression or had military objectives.17 In the dbq essay, context of the conflict in the. former Yugoslavia and resume search, the systematic nature of attacks that were directed against specifically. Muslim civilian populations, it concluded that the act 1 5 essay, attacks could not have been justified by. The ICTY has adopted a liberal interpretation of the term ‘civilian,’ which the SCSL has largely. followed. For instance, the ICTY has held that ‘civilian’ includes victims who at one time bore. arms, and that at a minimum the “Prosecution must show that the perpetrator could not. reasonably have believed that the resume search of hbo, victim was a member of the armed forces.”18. international law, as well as the jurisprudence of the ICTY and ICTR, the victims of CAH may.
include military personnel or rebel forces who are hors de combat - who have laid down arms or. are injured.19 However, the targeted population must still be predominantly civilian in contest essay jfk, nature, and non-civilians are victims because of their membership or presence within the resume search of hbo, civilian. population that is targeted by the accused or the attack. The ad hoc tribunals have also emphasized the policy of targeting civilian populations as an. important part of the paper, context of CAH. In fact, “[i]t is the existence of such a policy that endows. the criminal act with a great dimension which warrants its punishment as a crime against.
A policy of attacks against search of hbo a civilian population is one of the main aspects of. proving the dbq essay of the french, commission of a CAH, and is often used to search establish the application, ‘systematic’ component of. such attacks. This supports the argument that the resume of hbo, grounds for commission or the reasons for. fighting - which are often outlined within a group or organization’s official policy - are very. much relevant to elucidating whether or not such a policy was intentionally targeting civilian. populations or alternatively solely military targets or rebel forces. While they are not necessarily. determinative, the reasons for fighting do provide evidence either supporting or undermining the. contention that particular attacks were direct against a civilian population, and employability+research, thus cannot.
automatically be discounted. Both the resume, Majority Opinion and Justice King’s Dissenting Opinion 17 See ibid., paras. 425-28, 573-79, 623-34, 676-78. 18 Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23-T IT-96-23/1-T (22 February. 2001) [hereinafter Kunarac Trial Judgment], para.
435. 19 See Prosecutor v. Military! Mrksic and search of hbo, Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT- 95-13/1 (27 September 2007), paras. 29-32; Blaskic Trial Judgment, paras.
210, 216; Prosecutor v. Kayishema and. Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. ICTR-95-1-T (21 May 1999) [hereinafter Kayishema Trial. Judgment], para. 127. 20 Kayishema Trial Judgment, paras.
124-6. recognize this, but address the distinction between a ‘just cause’ and contest jfk, the reasons for fighting. differently, based on how they interpret the resume, argument that the CDF were fighting for the. restoration of a democratically elected government. The Appeals Chamber, in its majority opinion, first denied the Prosecution’s argument that the. Trial Chamber made its finding that the scene 5 essay, CDF fought for the restoration of democracy a decisive. consideration in its judgment.21 Not surprisingly, it emphatically rejected the idea that fighting.
for the resume of hbo, restoration of democracy could provide a justification for the commission of crimes. against humanity. Contest! However, instead of attempting to differentiate between the idea of a ‘just. cause’ as justification and resume of hbo, the ‘reasons for fighting’ as material to the determination of the. context of CAH, the Appeals Chamber instead decided to interpret the Trial Chamber’s judgment. as not heavily relying on the finding that the CDF were fighting for the restoration of democracy. For this reason, the Appeals Chamber did not consider whether or how the employability+research paper, finding could be. material to the contextual elements of CAH. It did, however, note the argument of resume Kondewa’s. Defense Counsel that because the reasons for fighting can be evidentially material to establishing.
a policy of attacking civilian populations, they should also be evidentially material to. establishing the absence of such a plan.22. The Appeals Chamber also denied the Prosecution’s alternative submission of legal error, that. the Trial Chamber had rejected the possibility that civilians were targeted merely because there. was evidence of attacks directed against rebel forces. The Appeals Chamber was unable to. conclude that the Trial Chamber considered as a matter of dbq essay on causes french revolution law that a military attack cannot. coexist with an attack directed against any civilian population.23 Thus the Appeals Chamber did. not reverse the Trial Chamber’s verdict of of hbo not guilty on the basis of the misapplication of the.
legal principles of CAH. In his dissenting opinion, Justice King first considered whether the finding that the CDF was. ‘fighting for the restoration of democracy’ is of the revolution, a material consideration in determining whether a. civilian population is the primary object of an attack. While he agreed with the Prosecution’s. contention that international humanitarian law applies equally to resume of hbo all sides of a conflict, he did not. think the Trial Chamber was necessarily referring to which side of the military essays on integrity, conflict was in the right.
21 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. 247-9. 22 Ibid., para. Resume Search Of Hbo! 241. 23 Ibid., para. 251-2. For him, the Trial Chamber was actually referring to the fact that the object of attacks by the. CDF and the Kamajors was the AFRC and act 1 5 essay, the RUF, in order to restore the elected government. For Justice King, this is a relevant factor in resume, evaluating the “totality of the evidence” to determine. whether or not the attacks were primarily directed against civilians or, alternatively, rebel. forces.24 In particular, it is a relevant factor in determining whether the of the, charges put forth in the.
Prosecution’s indictment - that the CDF was fighting to resume search of hbo gain control of the territory and. population of Sierra Leone - had been sufficiently proven.25. Justice King argued that the evidence did not support these charges, given that the contest, CDF were. fighting to restore the democratically elected government and not to “gain complete control over. the population of Sierra Leone.”26 While he stated numerous times that the reasons for fighting. were materially relevant, he did not specify how exactly they might be important in determining. whether the attacks were directed against the civilian population. One could further elaborate on. Justice King’s position to argue that the reasons for fighting provide evidence of the object of. attack and not simply the purpose of the attack.
Often, the reasons for fighting or the of hbo, purpose of. an attack - the very policy behind the attack that must be established to prove the systematic. requirement of the CAH - will inform which objects of attack are chosen. Military Essays! While the two are not. equivalent, they are also not mutually exclusive.
The purpose of the attack can elucidate what. the intended targets were, but it is not exclusively determinative of those targets. The second issue raised by the Prosecution on appeal was whether the Trial Chamber erred as a. matter of resume fact in act 1 5 essay, finding the absence of attacks directed against a civilian population. In. reviewing the resume search, Trial Chamber’s findings that attacks were not directed against any civilian. population, the Appeals Chamber first noted that this conclusion was “devoid of articulation of. its reasoning” and that the georgetown essay, Trial Chamber “misdirected itself when applying the [legal] principle. it had already stated, by confusing the target of the attack with the purpose of the attack.
When. the target of the attack is the civilian population, the purpose of that attack is immaterial.”27. While this latter statement is certainly true, the Appeals Chamber put the cart before the resume search of hbo, horse. The issue before both the Trial and the Appeals Chamber was whether a civilian population was. the target, and the purpose of the attack can be evidentially relevant in adducing whether this is 24 King’s Dissenting Opinion, paras. Gifts! 28-9. 25 CDF Indictment, para. Resume Search Of Hbo! 19. 27 CDF Appeal Judgment, paras. 298, 300. the case; only paper if and when it is resume search, found that a civilian population was the employability+research paper, target, does the purpose.
of the attack lose its relevance and become immaterial. In other words, the purpose of the attack. is material to whether a civilian population is the target but only becomes immaterial when a. civilian population is the target. The Appeals Chamber then reviewed the record with respect to each attack and found sufficient. evidence of targeted attacks against civilians as a group or population. Of particular importance. for the Appeals Chamber was the search, Trial Chamber’s own finding that there were incidents when. the CDF or the Kamajors committed crimes after combat operations against the AFRC had.
The Appeals Chamber thus granted the Prosecution’s submission of an error of. fact and reversed the acquittals on the basis of its own findings of fact. This is particularly. important if one considers the act 1, rationale behind and resume, normative desirability of appellate review of. acquittals, addressed below.
Justice King dissented as to whether the attacks by the CDF and Kamajors were in fact directed. against any civilian population. He disagreed with the Appeals Chamber’s findings that in. Tongo, Bo, Kenema and employability+research paper, Korbondo, the Kamajors and the CDF engaged in attacks directed. against the civilian population. He first considered whether attacks in resume search of hbo, these areas had a military.
objective, and supported the Trial Chamber’s findings, for example, that these attacks were. military operations against rebels in employability+research, Tongo and that there were only eleven civilian casualties in. Although this is never fully elaborated, Justice King could have further argued that. such attacks cannot be considered directed against search of hbo a civilian population, because they were. military operations not directed against civilians per se (so do not satisfy the systematic or policy. requirement for CAH), and the extent of civilian casualties was not sufficiently widespread to. constitute a crime against humanity (under the alternative widespread requirement). Justice King argued that the Trial Chamber looked for essay jfk, relevant legal authority and principles and.
applied those principles to the factual findings made. He thus disagreed with the Appeals. Chamber’s contention that the Trial Chamber’s opinion is devoid of “articulation of its. He also disagreed with the Prosecution’s charge that it is “apparent” from the Trial. Chamber’s findings that it considered, as a matter of law, that an attack is not “directed against. the civilian population if civilians are attacked in the course of attacks directed against resume search of hbo opposing 28 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. Military Essays! 305; CDF Sentencing Judgment, para. 85. forces,” a contention that a majority of the Appeals Chamber also rejected.29 Justice King. argued that this view cannot be attributed to the Trial Chamber, because it did examine the.
evidence and then arrived at the conclusion that the evidence did not prove beyond a reasonable. doubt that the civilian population was the primary - as opposed to an incidental - object of the. Justice King also did not agree with the Appeals Chamber’s view that the Trial Chamber. confused “the target of the search of hbo, attack with the purpose of the attack.”30 For Justice King, the Trial. Chamber was actually saying that the Prosecution had not proven that the civilian population was. the primary object or target of the attack, and that there was substantial evidence supporting a. finding the primary object was the AFRC and its allies (a military target) and not the paper, civilian. population.31 Though Justice King never explicitly makes this point, he could have argued that. while the purpose of the search, attack may not be determinative, it is in questions, fact entirely relevant to. establishing the target of the search, attack, given that the objective or purpose of a particular attack. partly determines the objects or targets against paper which it is directed.
This is especially relevant in. ascertaining whether the resume, contextual requirements for CAH - a widespread or systematic attack. against any civilian population - have been established. Justice King’s dissent partially derives from the role he argued the Appeals Chamber should. adopt in reviewing findings of fact, particularly on essay, appeals from acquittals. Resume Search Of Hbo! For Justice King, the. Appeals Chamber should not usurp the Trial Chamber’s power to enter findings of fact in the. first instance, because it “has not heard the evidence and it might select pieces of evidence which. tend to support its findings of fact, whereas countervailing evidence may, in the circumstance, not be given the application questions, weight that the Trial Chamber, which saw and heard the witnesses, gave to of hbo it.”32. Thus the Appeals Chamber should largely defer to the Trial Chamber’s findings of fact, and it is.
“only where the evidence relied on by the Trial Chamber could not reasonably have been. accepted by essays any reasonable person that the of hbo, Appeals Chamber can substitute its own finding for. that of the Trial Chamber.”33 This is particularly true when the Appeals Chamber is considering. an appeal from an acquittal. While legally, under international law, an appellate court can. reverse an 5 essay acquittal on the basis of errors of law and of hbo, fact, from a normative point of view one 29 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 2.16. 30 CDF Appeal Judgment, para. Contest! 304. 31 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para.
53. 32 Ibid., para. 44. 33 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para. 55, quoting ICTY Delalic et al, Appeal Judgment, para. 458. can argue that it should be especially careful in resume search, doing so solely on the basis of errors of jfk fact, given that this conflicts with the resume, idea of double jeopardy in some legal systems.
While civil and common law systems differ substantially in the scope of appeals permitted, if. one reviews the various proposals put forth during the drafting of the ICTY Statute, on employability+research, which the. SCSL Statute is largely based, only one proposal put forth by the Organization of the resume of hbo, Islamic. Conference suggested that prosecutorial appeals should be permitted on both issues of application 2012 law and. fact.34 The majority of the proposals either suggested no basis for prosecutorial appeals, or that. such appeals should be limited to reviewing errors of of hbo law. Application Questions 2012! With no clear rationale or.
commentary, but arguably to appease all of the resume, negotiating parties, the adopted ICTY Statute. provided for a wide scope of appeal for both the prosecution and the defense. supports the idea of a broad provision of ‘equality of jfk arms.’ However, the primary justifications. for appellate review in resume, ad hoc tribunals, namely consistency of decisions and the development of. law, do not usually apply to appellate review of findings of fact, given that factual decisions have. little if any relevance beyond the individual case.35.
Common law systems generally do not allow factual review of acquittals in contest, trials by a jury or. bench trials, since this violates the presumption of innocence. Civil law systems vary depending. on the structure and trial process of their lower and upper courts. One justification put forth for a. broad scope of appellate review is justice in the individual case. Appellate review of factual. issues in resume search of hbo, the case of reviews of convictions certainly does further the interest of justice in the. individual case, given the severity of the jfk, punishment that accompanies a conviction. It is. debatable whether appellate review of factual issues in the case of acquittals also furthers this. interest.
For example, if the appellate court reaches a different conclusion regarding the search, facts, this in narrative gifts, itself might demonstrate ‘reasonable doubt,’ indicating that the prosecution has not. fulfilled its burden of proof. In the ad hoc courts, an acquittal by search a three-judge panel is essays, arguably. less likely to be subject to evidentiary misunderstandings than a jury verdict or a verdict by a. single judge, and thus the practical need for prosecutorial appeals from acquittals on resume, questions of. fact is reduced.36. In fact, if any error in interpreting or evaluating the evidence is made, it is military on integrity, more. likely to be made by of hbo the Appeals Chamber, which is further from the record and the witnesses. Narrative Gifts! 34 See Mark C. Fleming, “Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals,” 37 Texas International Law. Journal (2002): 111-155, at 118-19. 35 Ibid., pp. Resume Search! 135-6.
36 It should be noted that this criticism does not apply to prosecutorial appeals on issues of fact where the on causes of the revolution, defendant. bears the burden of proof, for instance if the Trial Chamber acquitted on the basis of an insanity defense. One commentator has argued that the “legitimacy of the international tribunals, which relies in. large part on their ability to deliver fair justice through fair procedures, could be compromised if. the accused is in danger of being convicted as long as one of two chambers concludes that he is. guilty.
The interest in preserving justice in of hbo, the individual case recommends that a conviction. stand only if both chambers agree that a conviction is reasonable in light of the evidence.”37. because Article 20 of the Statute of the SCSL provides for a broad scope of prosecutorial appeal. on acquittal does not in itself normatively justify appellate review of questions of fact in the case. of an acquittal and does not lessen the severity of the criticisms levied against this practice. While in the near future, a broad scope of 5 essay prosecutorial appeal is likely to be retained in the ad. hoc tribunals, it is an issue underpinning Justice King’s dissent in the CDF Appeal Judgment and. one that deserves further consideration as international criminal procedure develops. Mitigating Factors in resume of hbo, Sentencing Decisions: CDF’s ‘Just Cause’ and Motive of narrative Civic Duty. The sentencing inquiry undertaken by Trial Chambers in the ad hoc tribunals entails wide.
discretion and is similar to that in common law countries, where there are no fixed penalties and. courts are not constrained by previous sentences that have been handed down. Instead, sanctions. are purportedly tailored to fit the unique circumstances of each offence and the individual. circumstances of the offender. Central to this inquiry is the resume search, principle of proportionality - that the. severity of the sanction should be commensurate with the gravity of the offence.38. the length of a sentence, a Trial Chamber is first required to gifts establish a penalty proportionate to. the seriousness of the crime and resume search, then required to take into account any individualized. aggravating and mitigating circumstances, though the ad hoc tribunals have rarely indicated the. weight given to each consideration.
The aggravating circumstances should be proven beyond. reasonable doubt, while mitigating factors may include those not directly related to the offence. and only need to be established by a balance of probabilities.39. Although the tribunals have proffered a number of rationales for sentencing, their decisions. rarely elaborate on how the sentences imposed will actually further these objectives. As some. commentators argue, international sentencing law is essay, so “indeterminate that sentencers are free to 37 Fleming, p. 140. 38 For an overview of the sentencing practices of the ad hoc tribunals, see Mirko Bagaric and John Morss, “International Sentencing Law: In Search of resume Justification and a Coherent Framework,” 6 International Criminal Law. Review (2006): 191-255. 39 See, for example, Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No.
IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003), para 145. switch from one rationale to another as they choose.”40. Another commentator has suggested that. international sentencing practices may actually undermine the legitimacy of the international. criminal justice system and its contribution to local or more holistic processes of transitional. justice, by scene not adequately “relating the outcomes of of hbo international sentencing to local perceptions. of justice.”41 Supporting this skepticism is the essays on integrity, fact that it is difficult to empirically substantiate.
claims that international sentences do in fact contribute to the rationales often advanced, such as. peace, reconciliation, retribution or deterrence. This implies that the gap between “what victims. and victimised communities perceive as justice and what passes as international criminal justice” Though it is debatable whether this critique can really be generalized to resume search all ad hoc. tribunal decisions, the dbq essay of the french, difficulty of relating an internationalized form of justice in the form of. international sentences to the local context of Sierra Leone is search of hbo, particularly apparent in the diverse.
reactions by Sierra Leoneans to the CDF Appeals Judgment. The Trial Chamber in the CDF case held, with Justice Bankole Thompson dissenting, that there. was no defense of ‘necessity’ in international criminal law, and that ‘necessity’ could not be. taken into account as a mitigating factor in sentencing. However, the Trial Chamber did. consider as mitigating factors that the Defendants and the CDF/Kamajors were “fighting to. support a legitimate cause which. was to dbq essay on causes of the french restore the democratically elected government of.
President Kabbah,” that they fought with the support of ECOMOG, and search of hbo, that this “contributed. immensely to re-establishing the rule of law.”43 It also concluded that “the contribution of the. two Accused Persons to the establishment of the much desired and military, awaited peace in search, Sierra Leone. and the difficult, risky, selfless and for a very sizeable number of their CDF/Kamajors, the. supreme sacrifices that they made to achieve this through a bloody conflict, is in itself a factor. that stands significantly in mitigation in military essays on integrity, their favour.”44. With regard to motive of civic duty, it. found that the resume of hbo, Defendants did not join the conflict for ‘selfish reasons’ and that they “acted from. a sense of civic duty rather than for personal aggrandizement or gain.”45. 40 Bagaric and Morss, at 208.
41 Ralph Henham, “International Sentencing in the Context of Collective Violence,” 7 International Criminal Law. Review (2007): 449-468, at 451. 43 CDF Sentencing Judgment, paras. 79, 83, 87. 44 Ibid., para.
91. 45 Ibid., para. 94. On appeal, the Prosecution alleged ten errors of the essay gifts, Trial Chamber in its sentencing decision. The Appeals Chamber gave credence to only one alleged error, that of “treating the ‘just cause’ of the Accused as a mitigating factor” and considering motive of ‘civic duty.’46 The Prosecution.
submitted that the Trial Chamber effectively found that fighting on the ‘right’ side of a conflict. could serve as a mitigating factor in sentencing, and search, that accepting the so-called ‘justness’ of the. party to the conflict during mitigation would “almost certainly lead to a total disregard for. humanitarian law.”47 The Prosecution finally submitted that the Trial Chamber’s treatment of. ‘motive of civic duty’ as a mitigating factor was also based on an assumption that the Defendants. were fighting on the ‘right’ side of the conflict. In response, the Defense for Fofana submitted that motives of either so-called ‘just cause’ or. ‘civic duty’ are part of the factual and contextual differences that the Trial Chamber must. consider in individualizing the narrative gifts, punishment, and that the Trial Chamber didn’t consider whether. the Defendant fought on the ‘right’ side of the conflict per se, but merely whether he had a ‘good. motive.’48 The Defense for Kondewa also submitted that because an ‘evil motive’ can be.
considered an aggravating factor in sentencing decisions, a ‘good motive’ can similarly be. considered a mitigating factor.49. The Appeals Chamber first noted that as a general matter, motive may be considered for. sentencing purposes, although it does not constitute a defense against criminal liability. This is.
supported by the fact that the ICTR, to which the SCSL may refer for sentencing practices, often. considers the search, character and motive of the accused during the conflict as a mitigating factor.50. However, the on causes of the revolution, Appeals Chamber then argued that the political motive of resume search of hbo ‘just cause’ had no place. in international criminal justice, and that international humanitarian law “specifically removes a. party’s political motive and the ‘justness’ of employability+research a party’s cause from consideration.”51 While this is. certainly true, political motives only of hbo have no place in international humanitarian law when.
considering the guilt or innocence of the accused. Though the narrative gifts, ad hoc tribunals generally render. their judgments and search of hbo, sentencing decisions together, for reasons of essay procedural efficiency, 46 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. Search Of Hbo! 4. 47 Prosecution Appeal Brief, para. 9.39. 48 Fofana Response Brief, paras. Act 1 5 Essay! 193-6. 49 Kondewa Response Brief, paras. Resume Search Of Hbo! 9.38-9.39, citing Blaskic Trial Judgment, para.
785. 50 For an overview of the sentencing practices of the ICTR, see the contest essay, Human Rights Watch report on “Charging, 51 CDF Appeals Judgment, para. 530-1. sentencing decisions are discrete and independent judgments that take into account different. factors than judgments concerning the guilt or innocence of the accused.52. The Appeals Chamber further argued that any motive considered by the Trial Chamber must be. “consistent with sentencing purposes,” referring to those ‘legitimate’ rationales elaborated by the. ICTY, which include: individual and general deterrence; retribution; public reprobation and.
stigmatization by the international community; and rehabilitation. The Appeals Chamber. considered the primary objectives to be retribution and deterrence.53 It argued that allowing. mitigation for the personal motives of an accused would undermine the purposes of sentencing. rather than promote them, and would implicitly legitimize the resume of hbo, unlawful conduct.54. concluding, the Appeals Chamber noted that the most important consideration in sentencing is. the “revulsion of act 1 scene 5 essay mankind, represented by the international community” and not the “tolerance. by a local community of the crime; or lack of public revulsion in resume of hbo, relation to the crimes of such. community; or local sentiments about the persons who have been found guilty of the crimes.”55.
Thus, the Appeals Chamber held that the Trial Chamber erred by on integrity considering ‘just cause’ and. ‘motive of civic duty’ as relevant factors in its sentencing decision, and that the Appeals. Chamber had the ability to revise these sentences. Justice King dissented on both issues, arguing. that the Appeals Chamber interfered with the discretion afforded to the Trial Chamber in. determining the appropriate penalties. Justice King argued that the Trial Chamber did not take into account ‘just cause’ as a mitigating. factor, but rather what the Defense had in fact pleaded - that the resume, fighting was mobilized in order. to restore the democratically elected government of. President Kabbah, without implying any.
normative evaluation about whether this end was ‘just.’56 The Trial Chamber Justices. themselves only mentioned the of the, phrase ‘just cause’ in rejecting the defense of necessity raised by. Justice Bankole Thompson in his Dissenting Opinion. Resume! Justice King thus appeared to be arguing. (a) that the Defense never pleaded just cause as a mitigating factor, and thus the Trial Chamber.
did not consider it as such; and (b) that when the military essays, Trial Chamber considered the argument that the. CDF and resume, the Kamajors were fighting to restore the democratically elected government as a 52 For this argument, see Ralph Henham, “Procedural justice and human rights in international sentencing,” 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210. 53 Ibid., para. 532. 54 Ibid., para. 534. 55 Ibid., para. 564. 56 King’s Dissenting Opinion, para.
107. mitigating factor, this is not equivalent to paper considering a ‘just cause’ argument because the Trial. Chamber was considering the personal reasons for fighting held by the accused as individuals. and not necessarily the political justness of the collective cause. In Justice King’s opinion, a. reasonable person would conclude that the Trial Chamber took into account both the gravity of.
the offence and resume of hbo, the individual circumstances of the accused, and so correctly applied Article 19. of the Statute of the paper, SCSL.57 For this reason, he dissented with the Majority’s view that the Trial. Chamber took into consideration factors that it should not have considered in exercising its. sentencing discretion, and so the Appeals Chamber did not have the right or the search of hbo, power to. substitute its own discretion.
The essence of the disagreement between the majority of the Appeals Chamber and Justice King. relates to whether the mitigating factors considered by military on integrity the Trial Chamber were personal motives. or factors, which are entirely pertinent to sentencing decisions, or collective and effectively. ‘political’ motives that do not enter into determinations of penalties. One could argue that the. Appeals Chamber was so concerned with preserving the appearance of impartiality and avoiding. a perception of resume ‘victor’s justice’ that it entirely refused to consider the essay jfk, guilt of the CDF relative. to the other parties of the conflict. It is perhaps for this reason that the CDF Appeals Sentencing.
Decision gave rise in some circles to the perception of a gap between ‘internationalized justice’ and ‘local justice.’ However, the resume of hbo, fact that the Appeals Chamber strove to avoid the perception of. ‘victor’s justice’ in application essay 2012, and of itself is a laudable undertaking. Yet in doing so, the Court overlooked. the fact that the SCSL is required to take into account individual factors that bear - not on search, the. relative guilt or innocence of the accused - but on the extent of their punishment. majority of the Appeals Chamber appears to have reached an appropriate judgment in deciding. that the justness of a party’s reasons for fighting is not relevant to sentencing, the personal. reasons of the accused for fighting - in the descriptive sense - should bear on his or her conduct. during the conflict and thus act as an individualized mitigating factor during sentencing.
In the. future, the ad hoc tribunals should be careful to dbq essay on causes clearly differentiate between collective political. motives - such as a ‘just cause’ - and these personal political motives that bear on the conduct of. the accused during the conflict. 57 Ibid., para. 115-116. Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla#61676;kic, Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No.
IT-95-14-T (3 March. Prosecutor v. Fofanah and Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Appeals Chamber, Case No. Search! SCSL-04- 14-A (May 28, 2008). Prosecutor v. Kayishema and georgetown application essay 2012, Ruzindana, Judgment, ICTR Trial Chamber, Case No. ICTR-95-1- Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23-T IT-96- 23/1-T (22 February 2001). Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al., Judgment, ICTY Appeals Chamber, Case No. IT-96-23 IT-96-
23/1-A (12 June 2002). Prosecutor v. Mrksic and Others (Vukovar Hospital Case), Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT-95-13/1 (27 September 2007). Prosecutor v. Dragan Nikolic, Sentencing Judgment, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Case No. IT-94-2- S (18 December 2003). Prosecutor v. Norman, Fofanah and of hbo, Kondewa, Judgment, SCSL Trial Chamber I, Case No.
SCSL-04-14-J (August 2, 2007). Articles and Books. Mirko Bagaric and John Morss, “International Sentencing Law: In Search of Justification and a. Coherent Framework,” 6 International Criminal Law Review (2006): 191-255. Anthony Cassese, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Mark C. Fleming, “Appellate Review in the International Criminal Tribunals,” 37 Texas. International Law Journal (2002): 111-155. Ralph Henham, “International Sentencing in the Context of french revolution Collective Violence,” 7 International. Criminal Law Review (2007): 449-468. Ralph Henham, “Procedural justice and human rights in international sentencing,” 4. International Criminal Law Review (2004): 185-210.
Kriangsak Kittichaisaree, International Criminal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). Gunal Mettraux, “Crimes Against Humanity in search of hbo, the Jurisprudence of the International Criminal. Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda,” 43 Harvard International Law Journal. Steven R. Ratner and Jason S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in. International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, 2nd Ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, About the Author. Cosette Creamer is a J.D.-Ph.D. candidate at Harvard University, Department of Government. and worked as a legal intern for contest essay jfk, the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Program during the resume of hbo, Summer. The publication of this essay has been financed by the Open Society Initiative for West. Africa (OSIWA). Essay Jfk! The Contents of this Publication are entirely the sole responsibility of.
the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Programme. 30 Wellington Street, Freetown, Sierra Leone. Tel: +232 (0)33 445 287. Photo: The late Hinga Norman, former head of Sierra Leone’s CDF. A new approach in resume search of hbo, an imperfect world. Commentary By J Boima Rogers, Oxford, UK.* The current Syrian quagmire which has spilled over to Europe in the form of the refugee crisis gives grounds (. ) Analysis | September 2015 | 8539 views. Ebola persists but raging heads fight about politics. By Titus Boye-Thompson, Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is a shame that while Ebola rages in Freetown and the North of Sierra Leone some still fail to have a (. French Revolution! ) Analysis | June 2015 | 8660 views. Credit: Pambazuka News By Karim F Hirji, Tanzania* Retired Professor Hirji, a book addict, has bought copies with frayed, half-torn or missing pages.
He (. ) Analysis | December 2014 | 9111 views. Toronto: Historic APC-Canada branch inauguration at Taj banquet hall. Freetown: RainboCenter may close down soon. JFK makes Commercial Law a priority. Sierra Leone: Threat to peaceful co-existence. Update on APC-Canada inauguration September 30.
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essay on resume, photos We had an contest essay amazing time exploring Iceland as you can see in resume search of hbo, our Iceland video–now, here is a preview of our adventures through photos. Act 1 Scene 5 Essay? The beauty of Iceland is immeasurable, so rather than trying to of hbo, summarize it, I’m going to let the essays on integrity photographs speak for themselves and get right to search, it in our Iceland photo essay: Evening snorkeling in Silfra at žingvellir National Park. We went on the “Under the Midnight Sun” evening snorkeling tour and military on integrity, along with our guide, we were the only people in the river so we had the entire area to ourselves. The water in resume of hbo, Silfra is a stunningly bright blue and contest jfk, some of the resume search clearest water on earth. Crossing a single lane bridge while driving along Route 1 in south Iceland. In 1996, following a volcano eruption, a flood destroyed bridges and Route 1 in southern Iceland. This is scene a memorial created from twisted bridge girders that were destroyed in search, the flood.
Lookout spot along Route 1 for employability+research, viewing a glacier outlet in resume search of hbo, Vatnaj¶kull National Park in south Iceland. Rock formation spotted in a field while road tripping the south coast of Iceland. Near the entrance of Vatnaj¶kull National Park with a glacier in act 1 5 essay, the background. There was a dust storm in this lava field near Route 1 when we were driving by. The ever changing landscape in Iceland always makes for search of hbo, interesting scenery when driving Route 1. Driving on a rainy day out to the Drumb³ Base Camp for georgetown application questions, our White Water Canoeing trip.
Relaxing in a stretch of search of hbo, calm water of the Hvt¡ River while white water canoeing. Cliff jumping into narrative essay, the Hvt¡ River during our white water canoeing trip. Micah and resume of hbo, I were too cold to jump into the freezing water, but others from our group were more brave. Boat that gives tours of J¶kuls¡rl³n, the glacier lagoon. Ice at the glacial lagoon, J¶kuls¡rl³n. Walking along the contest essay jfk black sand beach where the icebergs from J¶kuls¡rl³n float out to the ocean. Walking around the resume lava fields at žingvellir National Park. Exploring inside a secret lava cave located in žingvellir National Park. River running through žingvellir National Park near the area where the world’s oldest parliament was established in 930.
–xar¡rfoss, a waterfall along the tectonic rift in žingvellir National Park. The upper falls at Gullfoss, which translates to mean Golden Falls. Gullfoss is located along the famous Golden Circle route. Gullfoss is located in the canyon of the Hvt¡ river and plunges over a cavern that is105 ft. deep. The Strokkur geyser in the geothermally active valley of Haukadalur erupts every few minutes to heights anywhere between 15-40 meters high. Hot Spring at the geothermally active valley of Haukadalur. Steam from the on causes of the french hot springs and mud pots at the Gunnuhver geothermal area in the Reykjanes peninsula. Taking a stroll with Inga from Tiny Iceland at Gunnuhver, a geothermal area in the Reykjanes peninsula. Camper van parked near Valahnºkur, a black sand beach in the Reykjanes peninsula. Ship resting in the field along the resume of hbo road in the Reykjanes peninsula.
Plane in the field just off of Route 1. This barn looks as though it was engulfed by employability+research paper a lava flow many years ago. Resume Search? We spotted numerous houses like this along the essay questions 2012 coast. Beautiful and friendly Icelandic horses that came to say hi to us. Hvalsneskirkja is a church that was built out of search of hbo, stone in 1887. Pools near the entrance of the Blue Lagoon. Don’t try to swim here though, as the contest jfk water is not warm like it is once you get inside to the actual lagoon. Pools of resume search, glacial water at the base of the georgetown questions 2012 Fallj¶kull outlet glacier.
Sk³gafoss is resume search of hbo one of the largest waterfalls in employability+research paper, Iceland and drops around 200 ft. off of a cliff. The famous Hallgrmskirkja Church and statue of Leif Ericson in downtown Reykjavk. Search Of Hbo? The statue was a gift from the people of the United States to the people of application questions, Iceland. The Sun Voyager sculpture in Reykjavik is an ode to search, the sun. Funky buildings with street art making a statement in Reykjavik. How to get a fresh drink of pure glacial water from a small stream.
Our glacier hike guide, Magnus, pointing out some interesting facts. View from the start of our hike on paper, the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Our guide showing us how to walk on resume of hbo, the glacial ice. Getting the ropes ready for ice climbing along the icefalls coming from the 5 essay Vatnaj¶kull ice cap. Looking out to the coast while standing on the icefall of the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Our guide climbing up the resume of hbo icefall walls without any ropes. Working on act 1 5 essay, setting up the second rope line along a steeper wall for resume search, even more ice climbing. Rappelling down the ice wall after climbing all the way to the top. It was hard to essay jfk, tell where the glacier stopped and the clouds started when we were hiking. Looking down into a water filled crevice on resume, the glacier.
Finishing up the remainder of our hike, our other guide, leading us in, out and around the crevices. LOVE these photos! We just back from two weeks in Iceland- what an incredible trip and country! We’ve started blogging our trip a bit but we are still working things up. It looks like you guys also had an amazing time! Thanks! We did have an amazing time! Glad you guys enjoyed it as well. I will have to go check out georgetown application essay questions 2012 your posts about it–always fun to have exciting Iceland stories to read!! Ÿ™‚
Wow, fabulous photos! What an amazing looking adventure! Thanks, Mary! We had a really great time! Excellent photos. Looks like you had great weather to search, photograph Hallgrmskirkja Church. I went and toured the south, but I want to go back to drive the georgetown application essay entire Ring Road. Thank you! We did have great weather that day in Reykjavk, one of the resume few nice weather days of the jfk trip Ÿ™‚ It was still amazing the other days though, even with the rain! I would love to drive the entire Ring Road as well–we decided we have to resume of hbo, do that next time we visit! Hope you get to as well!
Woah, rappelling down the ice looks EPIC! Amazing post! Thanks! Rappelling down the ice was sooo fun!! The glacier hike/ice climb was definitely our favorite activity of the contest essay jfk trip!
Great photos! They do speak for resume search, themselves… Ok, I think I need to open an Iceland specific savings account. It’s been high on my list for awhile but never seems to make the cut in the end (mostly due to expenses). Act 1? These photos are so incredible… I’ve got to get there!
Looks like you had a fantastic experience. Lol, I think you should!! It’s such a great place! We had an amazing time Ÿ™‚ We were surprised though, it wasn’t quite as expensive as we thought it would be!
We used hotel points and frequent flier miles to offset some of the costs, and the tours are spendy, but thankfully there is so much else that you can do for of hbo, free/cheap as well. AWESOME pictures! Now I want to scene 5 essay, visit. Hope you had a thick wetsuit for that snorkeling! Thanks! It was such a great trip! And, yes, thankfully, we had drysuits on for snorkeling, so it was actually pretty warm Ÿ™‚ I’m dying to go to Iceland, it looks like a photographers dream place to visit – so different and exotic than my world. Resume Search? I love all the nature, thanks for essays on integrity, sharing this. Thanks! It is definitely a great spot for resume search, photographers, you would love it!
It’s so beautiful! We are flying to Iceland in two days – going to georgetown 2012, be spending two weeks there! Your pictures have me so amped up! How did you organize that rappelling experience? I would love to do something like that! How long were you there for, and what month did you visit in? I can’t wait to share my stories with you via my blog when we get back! Ÿ™‚
Sorry for the delayed response! I hope you are having a great time in Iceland already! We were there for of hbo, 6 days in May. The rappelling was on on causes of the french, a glacier hike/ice climbing tour. We did the search Glacier Xtreme tour with Glacier Guides–it was one of the trips from Skaftafell. We would highly recommend it–it was so much fun!!
Hope you get a chance to contest essay, go and have a great trip–look forward to reading about it! Jessica - a passion and a passport. WHOAAAA I need to get to ICELAND like yesterday! When I finally do book my trip, I want a detailed itinerary of EVERYTHING you guys did! Ÿ™‚ promise?! Ÿ™‚ And those photos are phenomenal! Thanks!! Ÿ™‚ And yes, promise! I’ll let you know everything we did for sure! Let me know when you go–you will love it! We have lots more about our trip coming up the next few weeks, so stay tuned Ÿ™‚ Gorgeous photos!
I’ve been dreaming about visiting Iceland for years and finally made the of hbo trip last month. It’s taken me so long to go through all the photos I took (almost 1,000 in essay gifts, three days!) but I managed to blog a few of them. We visited several of the places you mention, although we didn’t have chance to go on a glacier hike. Looks like it was amazing! That’s a lot of photos in 3 days, wow! I can see how you could take that many though! I’m glad you enjoyed it too Ÿ™‚ The glacier hike was fun–we really enjoyed it. I will have to search, go check out more of your photos and posts from Iceland! Thankyou for sharing your amazing images of a place I can only dream about ever visiting – what a wonder travel blogging is! That water must have been so cold!!
Have a great weekend ahead. I am joining you through Travel Photo Monday. Thanks so much for stopping by! It was a beautiful country! The water was cold, but when we were snorkeling we had drysuits on thankfully! The canoeing was pretty chilly though! Ÿ™‚ WOAW, what incredible photos. 5 Essay? Each one looks more spectacular than the other.
I guess you had a fantastic trip, eh? You make me want to hop on a plane, like right now! Thanks!! We did have a great time Ÿ™‚ We want to search of hbo, hope on a plane and head back too, lol! Absolutely amazing photos! The colours, composition and quality are stunning. Act 1? How did you find Gullfoss waterfall? I was taken away by resume search its might and power. Thanks so much!
Really appreciate it! We enjoyed Gullfoss too–it was so pretty and georgetown application 2012, powerful! Wow that is so amazing, I had no idea that so many beautiful things are in search of hbo, Iceland. Thank you so much for sharing. Act 1 Scene 5 Essay? I think that my bucket list is so full that I will not be able to do this. But I have your wonderful pix to act like I was. Resume Of Hbo? I feel so humbled. Military Essays On Integrity? WOW again.
God bless you all. Thanks, Kymee! Iceland is of hbo indeed gorgeous! I know how you feel about the georgetown application essay places you want to visit–there are so many it seems hard to of hbo, imagine making it to them all! I hope you get to georgetown essay, Iceland one day, but if not at least you get to search, see how pretty it is military essays Ÿ˜‰ Obviously I still want to go to resume of hbo, Iceland myself, but I feel I don’t even need to after seeing this incredible photos, well done! Thanks so much! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ It was so pretty I feel like it’s hard to questions 2012, take a bad photo, haha!
We loved it there though, such a beautiful place! OMG, your photos are AMAZING!! Love the texture and the way you captured the unique non-traditional vacation moments. Can’t wait to visit Iceland Ÿ™‚ Thank you–really appreciate it! Ÿ™‚ It was such a fun place; we had an resume of hbo amazing time and on causes of the french, so many unique experiences. Hope you love it too when you get there! Just stunning! Iceland was the most beautiful place I’ve ever visited and I can see that there are so many more things to discover there. Snorkeling in Silfra at resume search of hbo žingvellir…. wow! Hope to be back soon, and the same for you. Thank you!
I agree, it was so beautiful and hope we both make it back soon too! There is so much more we want to see there as well! Snorkeling was great–especially since we had so many layers on–wasn’t very cold Ÿ™‚ Wow, stunning stunning photos! I live in Minneapolis (saw you were from contest here) and went to Iceland with my dad two years ago, and fell in love with it. Of Hbo? Amazing place!
Great blog! Found it through the TBEX monthly challenge! Thank you so much and glad you stopped by to employability+research, check us out! Always fun to run into fellow Minnesotans Ÿ™‚ Glad you enjoyed Iceland as well! Superb photos. I did Highway 1 around Iceland and the photos bring me back. Its a great country with so much spectacular landscapes and scenery (that you capture so well). Search? One of the best countries I was in. Thanks so much! One of our favorite countries as well! Sounds like fun to go all the way around the on causes revolution ring road–we hope to do it next time.
Only made it half way this time. Every time I see photos from Iceland I struggle to believe this is actually planet earth… Ÿ™‚ Wonderful photo essay indeed! Oliver recently posted…Dreams. Henry David Thoreau. Thanks! We are always thinking the same thing–such a crazy landscape! I really enjoy photo essays and these pictures are especially good! Iceland is beautiful but boy am I glad to of hbo, not be in that cold!
Thanks so much, Daidri! Appreciate it. It was a bit chilly at times, but thankfully it was in the 50s the essays majority of our trip, so it was pretty decent weather for May! Definitely nothing like a tropical beach though Ÿ™‚ Wow! Amazing photos! This landscape looks fantastic! Thanks so much, Urska! It was so unique–we loved exploring all the crazy landscapes! Iceland is search our favorite country!
So excited to head back for scene 5 essay, the third time in September. Wow, third time?! That’s awesome! Hope you have a great time Ÿ™‚ It’s been our favorite country so far too–we are trying to search of hbo, plan a second trip out there–hopefully next spring we can make it back! Isn’t Iceland just amazing. I was just there in March and did a lot of the same things you guys have done. On Causes French? Looking at resume search your photos I definitely wish I would have gone snorkeling and climbing/hiking on the ice. Those photos are just stunning.
I am already planning my next trip back. We are planning another trip back too–isn’t it such an amazing spot?! Glad you had a great time. You will have to essay jfk, put ice climbing and snorkeling on resume search of hbo, the list for next time! Ÿ™‚ Incredible photos, Jenna!
Love the way you arranged the gallery€”feels like the perfect “Iceland In a Nutshell” tour. Employability+research? Scrolling through really brought back a ton of amazing memories of my trip to Iceland several years back. (Have a few pictures that are startlingly similar to some of yours here actually!) Thanks for resume of hbo, sharing Ÿ™‚ Thank you! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ Isn’t Iceland such an amazing spot?! Glad to act 1 5 essay, bring back some memories!! looks like you had an amazing time. Resume? Great photos. I read need another trip to employability+research paper, Iceland as my last was not great! Oh no! What happened on resume of hbo, your last trip? We loved Iceland and had a wonderful time–I hope you get to go back and enjoy it one day!
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