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This means you can get up and running very quickly, and theses can easily port your own proprietary software, completely in C, while also maintaining or surpassing the performance of assembly on other DSPs. List of 200+ Software Packages for Audio, Voice, Sensor Fusion and IoT. Table of Partner Audio, Voice, Sensor Fusion and IoT Software. HiFi DSP Customers Are Designing Exciting Products. Tensilica HiFi DSPs are at how to index work in many popular products. Learn more in our Customer Profiles Section. Choose From Six HiFi DSPs for Audio, Voice and Speech. Definition. HiFi Mini DSP - Smallest, lowest power DSP for merchant venice, always-listening voice trigger and the april voice recognition HiFi 2 DSP - Highly efficient DSP providing the lowest power MP3 audio processing HiFi EP DSP - Superset of HiFi 2 optimized for how to write index, DTS Master Audio, improved voice pre- and post-processing, and cache memory HiFi 3 DSP - Efficient 32-bit processing for audio enhancement algorithms, wideband voice codecs, and multi-channel audio HiFi 3z DSP - Most energy-efficient DSP for the april theses, object-based audio, super-wideband voice codecs, and neural network-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) HiFi 4 DSP - 2X HiFi 3 performance for DSP-intensive applications like multi-channel object-based audio, digital assistant front-end processing, and neural network-based ASR. Features for a Wide Range of Audio, Voice, and place Speech Processing.
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Our HiFi DSPs utilize Xtensa LX processor technology with custom instructions (better code density, fewer cycles), flexible datapath widths (higher efficiency per cycles), multiple instructions per cycle (VLIW—higher efficiency per cycle), and simultaneous data operations (SIMD—parallelization). The April Theses. A comprehensive Eclipse-based software development environment is provided, with everything from a source code editor, debugger, and ISS to an optimized compiler for exceptional code density. Optimized for on the place today, Always-Listening Voice Trigger and the april definition Recognition. Essay Writing In Hindi. HiFi Mini is our smallest, lowest power DSP supporting always-listening voice trigger and speech command modes. The HiFi Mini DSP enables a hands-free experience. Cadence is working with Sensory and theses definition other software partners who provide innovative voice activation, speech command recognition, voice pre-processing and noise reduction products—all optimized on the HiFi Mini DSP. We optimized the HiFi Mini DSP to be as small and power-efficient as possible for frank essay, voice trigger and voice recognition in the april theses, two major ways. First, the DSP uses compact 40-bit encoding, which significantly improves code size. Second, we added efficient 16-bit instructions that are optimized for voice and audio codecs. HiFi 3z and merchant play essay HiFi 4 DSPs efficiently support front-end and neural network assisted speech recognition (ASR) processing.
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Architectural enhancements to our HiFi EP significantly improves DTS Master Audio decoding and tolerance to high external memory latency over the HiFi 2 DSP. With HiFi EP, single-core Blu-ray Disc SoCs can easily be implemented in 65GP with additional MHz to spare for other audio functions. The April Theses. The 32-bit architecture of how to write index our HiFi 3 DSPs significantly lowers the definition, required MHz for essays, complex audio enhancement algorithms, thus lowering the required power. And if you need the performance to drive object-based audio, look at our HiFi 4 DSP. The April Theses. With twice the performance of the HiFi 3 DSP, it can handle intensive algorithms in one instance. Because of the efficiency of the Tensilica HiFi DSP architectures, only a fraction of the available MHz to perform audio decoding and encoding functions is required, leaving extra headroom for other control as well as media and signal-processing tasks. Consultation Service Dublin. Tensilica HiFi DSP Family Specification. What are the differences among the the april theses definition, HiFi DSPs? ISA Subset Variant. ISA Variant Definitions. HiFi Mini Always On Voice Recognition and Sensor Fusion.
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Low-power always-on wake capabilities will continue to evolve. Right now this is commonly used for voice trigger, face trigger, and the april theses definition ultrasonic motion detection. For these evolving applications, you need both ease of frank development and performance headroom. You need HiFi Mini. HiFi Mini's low-power audio buffer sharply reduces MIPS requirements, up to 8X lower than other solutions. The RAM includes phrase memory and theses data buffers (1.6-1.8x). ROM includes recognizer code and constants for acoustic model and vocabulary. Sensor fusion combines control and signal processing. HiFi Mini can easily support both, as it's based on the Xtensa 32-bit RISC CPU. It is efficient in both control and DSP-intensive tasks and in india features smart power management. Cadence works with several software partners to the april theses definition, bring the best software for sensor fusion to the HiFi Mini.
Watch HiFi Mini Demonstration from how to write index RealTek at CES 2015. Watch Ty Kingsmore from Realtek Semiconductor as he demonstrates his new products at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2015 in Las Vegas. Definition. This uses the HiFi Mini DSP for always-on, always-listening capabilities, significantly lowering power by offloading the host processor. HiFi Audio Tunneling for Android Prolongs Battery Life. The Industry's Most Efficient, Lowest Power Way to Offload Audio/Voice in Your Android Device. Venice Essay. The CadenceTensilica HiFi Audio Tunneling (HAT) for Andoid solution allows OEMs to quickly take advantage of the new audio tunneling features contained first available in the KitKat release of theses Android. Essays Employees. Tremendous power savings are realized by the april, completely offloading the audio decoding and post-processing functionality from the essays on hiring employees, host CPU to the HiFi DSP. The April Theses. Additionally, this audio tunneling solution allows the DSP to send the audio content directly out for retendering, eliminating the need to move uncompressed audio data back to anti semitic essay, the host. We estimate that this cuts audio power by up to 14X, thereby doubling phone mp3 playback. The Audio Tunneling feature in Android is the optimal audio offloading solution as it greatly reduces the amount of data passed back to the host from the DSP.
See the chart below for an illustration of this reduced interprocessor communications. NOTE: Above shows the definition, amount of interprocessor data exchanged to decode five minutes of high quality MP3 (stereo, 256Kbps). Cadence offers HAT, a solution which includes the HiFi Kernel driver and an audio framework. The HiFi Kernel driver loads the DSP firmware and manages interprocessor communications. The framework schedules the essay on the of religion in india, audio tasks and manages the audio processing components including codec and the april theses post-processing modules. This solution is available in source code format and can be easily adapted to a particular platform or SOC.
Consulting services are available to port to a customer's board. Cadence provides a HiFi Kernel Driver - a reference for porting to index, a given platform or SoC. This defines communication between the host and the HiFi DSP. It includes firmware loading for the HiFi DSP on the april theses definition, system start. True Tunneling - Totally Offloaded to DSP. With HiFi Mini, audio decode and post-processing are totally offloaded from the host controller. The HiFi Mini is able to on the of religion in india today, output directly to the renderer, maximizing the off-time for the host processor and minimizing the amount of data copied back to the host.
Cadence provides an easy-to-use driver for definition, interprocessor communications, compatible with Android. Most other approaches only essays, use the OMX layer or proprietary interfaces and the april are not as efficient. Learn More - Watch our MWC Demo Video. HiFi 4 Ultra-High-Performance Audio DSP. Designing for the Future?
HiFi 4 Offers the Highest Performance for Next-Generation Demands. Employees. Next-generation audio standards will employ advanced features such as object-based audio, which multiplies the the april theses, DSP processing demands as compared to today's mainstream multi-channel audio. These complex algorithms are moving from movie theaters to home entertainment and even to how to write, automobiles to provide a much more impressive user experience. Theses Definition. Ideal for Emerging Object-Based Audio. Consultation Service. With emerging object-based audio standards, individual sounds become objects that can be placed anywhere in a room. Instead of theses definition being mixed at a recording studio, these sounds are mixed on the fly at each location where they are played back.
The object-based audio system calculates where the sound should emanate so that it appears in roughly the same space, no matter where speakers are located. This provides a more natural and essay in hindi immersive sound experience, and requires much more DSP processing power. Theses. Instead of dissertation consultation having to definition, use multiple DSPs to accomplish this, designers can now get the DSP power they need from one core – the HiFi 4 DSP. Optimized for the Most Demanding DSP Algorithms. Our HiFi 4 DSP is a highly optimized audio/voice processor geared for efficient execution of audio and how to write index voice codecs and pre- and post-processing modules as well as other demanding DSP functions in areas such as wireless communications. Its key features include: Support for four 32x32-bit multiplier-accumulators (MACs) per cycle with 72-bit accumulators, more than double the performance of other audio DSPs for computationally intensive functions such as fast Fourier transform (FFT) and finite impulse response (FIR) Support for eight 32x16-bit MACs per cycle under specified conditions Four very long instruction word (VLIW) slot architecture capable of issuing two 64-bit loads per cycle Optional vector floating-point unit available, providing up to four single-precision IEEE floating-point MACs per the april theses definition cycle Software compatible with the existing HiFi DSP family consisting of over 140 HiFi-optimized audio and on the place of religion today voice codecs and audio enhancement software packages. “Audio processing requirements continue to increase, particularly as we move to object-oriented audio in the home,” stated John Couling, senior vice president at Dolby Laboratories . “Cadence’s HiFi 4 provides the processing power required to the april, help enable a better, more immersive and personalized experience for users of high-end home entertainment systems who want to take advantage of the sound improvements inherent in object-oriented audio.” DTS:X™ is the stella essay, next-generation audio codec from DTS that leverages object-based audio to the april, give listeners new, immersive and interactive experiences, stated Joanna Skrdlant, vice president, solutions licensing at essays on hiring DTS . The April Theses Definition. The HiFi 4 DSP with quad 32-bit MACs is an ideal processor to support the demanding needs of object-based audio decoding such as DTS:X processing to essay, provide a compelling consumer audio experience.” “Consumers will soon be able to experience immersive sound and personalize their listening experience while listening to the april theses, TVs and writing on rainy season in hindi new media devices receiving the the april, new MPEG-H Audio standard promoted by the MPEG-H Audio Alliance,” said Robert Bleidt, Division General Manager, Fraunhofer USA Digital Media Technologies . “Immersive sound may involve 10 or 12 channels of audio, with additional audio elements such as dialogue, alternate languages, home- or away-team commentary, or even driver's or athlete's microphones requiring more channels to be transmitted for high-profile broadcasts, increasing the decoder workload. Thus, DSPs such as the Cadence Tensilica HiFi 4 DSP will play an essay on the of religion today, important role in efficiently implementing the new standard in tomorrow's consumer electronics. “Our Maxx technologies utilize Waves’ 20+ years of professional audio expertise and the april innovation to dramatically improve sound quality on a broad range of devices from TVs and PCs to mobile and essay place of religion automotive infotainment, said Tomer Elbaz, EVP and general manager of Waves Consumer Division . “The Cadence Tensilica HiFi 4 DSP is ideal for efficiently running our all our technologies in the highest performance mode to provide the the april theses, best user experience. Audio, Voice, and Speech Software—Over 200 SW Packages Available Now. List of write index 200+ Partner Software Packages Already Supported on HiFi DSPs. The following is a list of audio and voice enhancement software packages available for Tensilica HiFi DSPs.
AEC Wideband AMR Wideband+ Decoder AMR Wideband+ Encoder DAB/MP2 Decoder DAB+ Decoder Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) Decoder Dolby AC-4 Decoder Dolby Digital AC-3 Decoder, 5.1 ch Dolby Digital AC-3 Consumer Encoder (DDCE) 2, 5.1 ch Dolby Digital Compatible Output Encoder 5.1 ch Dolby Digital Live Encoder Dolby Digital Plus Consumer Decoder 7.1 ch Dolby Digital Plus Decoder/Converter 5.1 ch Dolby Mobile 3+ Dolby MS10 Multistream Decoder Dolby MS11 Multistream Decoder Dolby MS12 Multistream Decoder Dolby ProLogic II and IIx Decoder Dolby TrueHD Decoder 7.1 ch Dolby Volume 2, 5.1 ch DRA Decoder, 7.1 ch DTS Boost DTS Broadcast and DMP 5.1 ch DTS Core Decoder 5.1 ch DTS Envelo Headphone and Speaker DTS-HD (Master Audio), Express, Transcoder, and Neo:6 DTS-HD PP DTS Interactive Encoder DTS M6 Decoder, 5.1 ch DTS Neural Surround DTS Symmetry FLAC Decoder, 7.1 ch MP3 Decoder MP3 Encoder MPEG-2 Layer 2 Decoder, 5.1 ch MPEG-4 aacPlus v2 Decoder 2, 7.1 ch MPEG-4 aacPlus v2 Encoder MPEG-4 aacPlus v1 Decoder 2, 7.1 ch MPEG-4 aacPlus v1 Encoder MPEG-2/4 AAC LC Decoder 2, 7.1 ch MPEG-4 AAC LC Encoder MPEG-4 BSAC Decoder MPEG-H Audio Decoder mSBC Bluetooth Decoder mSBC Bluetooth Encoder mSBC Decoder mSBC Encoder Ogg Vorbis Decoder RealAudio 8, 9, and 10 Decoder Sample Rate Converter SBC Bluetooth Decoder SBC Bluetooth Encoder WMA Decoder WMA Encoder WMA 10 Pro Decoder 2, 7.1 ch WMA 10 Pro Lossless Decoder 2, 7.1 ch. AAC-ELD AMR Narrowband Speech Codec AMR Wideband Speech Codec Bluetooth CVSD Decoder Bluetooth CVSD Encoder G711 Speech Codec G722 Speech Codec G723.1 Speech Codec G726 Speech Codec G.729AB Speech Codec GSM-EFR Speech Codec GSM-FR Speech Codec GSM-HR Speech Codec Opus SILK Speech Codec. Audio Voice, Sensor Fusion, and IoT Partners. Please see our listing of the specialty of each partner here. Partner Software Offerings for Audio, Voice, Sensory Fusion and theses definition IoT. The Strongest Partner Ecosystem for Audio, Voice, Sensor Fusion and IoT. Cadence has the essay place of religion in india today, largest partner ecosystem for audio, voice, sensor fusion and IoT. The April Theses. Here's a list of our partners, by specialty. Design Tools Speed Your Adoption and Integration Processes.
The Industry's Most Powerful and Complete Design Environment. A key advantage of the on hiring employees, HiFi DSPs is that they use a simple programming model. Software developers can port audio, voice, and enhancement software codecs completely in the april theses, C, while maintaining or surpassing the frank stella, performance of the april theses definition assembly on other DSP and CPU architectures. This minimizes the how to write index, time required to port and maintain special or proprietary audio software. We deliver patented, proven tools that automate the the april definition, process of essays on hiring generating your HiFi-based DSP along with matching software tools. These tools have been proven in hundreds of designs and the results are guaranteed correct by construction. The Xtensa® Software Developer's Toolkit provides a comprehensive collection of the april theses code generation and essay on rainy season in hindi analysis tools that speed the software development process.
The Cadence Tensilica Eclipse-based Xtensa Xplorer Integrated Development Environment (IDE) serves as the cockpit for the entire development experience.
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Osceola and the Second Seminole War Essay Sample. What was the role and guerrilla warfare tactics that were applied by Osceola during the theses, second Seminole war? During his time many Native Americans had several names and essay Osceola was no exception. This name was the distorted version of his Indian name by the whites. The April Theses! His original name was Asiyahola. This man was born in United States of America in 1803 and passed on in January 1838. He was a Creek warrior during his time and emerged the winner during the Seminole war II.
His character came to essay writing on rainy in hindi be widely known during the 2 nd Seminole war. My main focus on this paper will be to discuss the role Osceola played and the guerrilla warfare tactics that he used in the april, order to win this fight. The Seminole wars both first and the second and the third were often referred to essay on rainy as the Florida wars. These were as a result of the conflicts that occurred in Florida in the 19 th century between different American native groups which were referred by one name as Seminoles. The April Theses! The first war started from 1817 and ended in 1818 while the second war lasted from stella 1835 up to the april theses 1858. The third war erupted from 1855 to 1858.
Osceola’s took part in the second Seminole conflict which was known as the Seminole war. This war had its origin in the treaty of consultation, Payne’s landing of 1832 that was signed by the Seminole chiefs. This took place in the april theses definition, Florida where these chiefs agreed to be resettled in other territories. Essay On The Today! There arose a disagreement between these chiefs after some Seminole chiefs declined to stick by the terms of the treaty. They insisted on the april theses definition staying in Florida something that provoked a sharp reaction to the whites. They embarked on a campaign of levelling and directing their harassment to these adamant chiefs.
They pointed out that the dissertation dublin, U.S government had a role of making sure that the treaty was not violated. These chiefs who refused to the april theses be resettled in the West of essays, Mississippi River were led by Osceola who was an Indian Chief at that time. This was in 1832 after the whites started relocating the Native Americans. It did not take long before the second Seminole war erupted in 1935. Osceola came to be recognised widely because of his masterly in applying guerrilla tactics. He came to be respected by the army officers who were sent to capture him but they could not manage to capture and conquer him due to his ability to employ deceptive tactic. He was from Alabama and theses was an merchant venice anti semitic play, original upper Creek. He refused to have any connection with white blood. He kept saying that there was no foreign blood that was running in his system. (Mark C.C., 1996; 45)
In 1813-1814 the Creek war broke out. It was a civil war fought between the whites and the Red Sticks but U.S joined on the side of the White sticks against the Red Sticks who objected to the idea of the definition, whites grabbing the dissertation consultation service, Creeks land and polarising their culture. When the war reached Osceola’s village they went into hiding but in 1814 the war was brought to a grinding halt by the General Jackson who slaughtered Indians in the april, thousands. Essay In India! Osceola and his mother who feared for their safety migrated to Florida which was under Spanish authority. The area was swampy but it became a home to the april theses the Seminoles. This movement was spearheaded by Peter McQueen who was Osceola’s great uncle and tribal leader of the creeks. Soon after they settled in their new territory the 1 st Seminole war erupted due to aggression by the whites on on rainy season the Georgia-Florida border in 1819. This prompted Neamathla who was the Seminole chief to resist any intrusion by the whites. In reaction to this, the United States army set on fire the village of Neamathla.
It is these disturbances that distorted the Osceola’s perception towards the Creeks. He came to hate them as well as their counterparts, the whites. Theses Definition! After the war was over; they went to join McQueen who by then stayed at Tampa Bay. Osceola who was in his teen age loved hunting, athletics and also practised warriorship skills. During the Green Dance that was held once in a year that Osceola acquired his other name Asi Yaloto’ or simply the Black Drink Singer, his role during these ceremonies was to frank stella essay serve the black drink. (Kenneth C.D., 2003; 56-78) In 1819 the Spanish government sold Florida the the april, United States of America which immediately started thinking to concentrate all the Seminoles who were in Florida in one area. The Seminoles were not pleased to hear that they would be resettled in another area. They remained undecided on essay writing season what to theses do such that they even refused to plant crops for essay in india, they never knew when they would be forced to migrate. Finally this came to be after Moultrie’s Creek treaty was signed in 1823 and was supposed to theses definition remain in force for the next 20 years. In this treaty it was agreed that the Seminoles would be moved from their territory to essay place in india today the south, an area was not favourable to them in any way.
It had no grazing fields, they could not find anywhere to fish and there trade with Cuba was disrupted. This time Osceola who was 19 years old was present during the signing of the treaty as warriors were allowed to join. The April Theses! After the treaty he assisted the surveyors who were marking the reservations boundary. Venice Semitic Play Essay! He came to be known by the Whites and theses definition other Seminoles. Essay On The Place Of Religion In India Today! Finding it hard to survive in the new land, Seminoles led by Osceola returned back to the swampy region that was very productive in 1825.
Later he met Che-Cho-ter whom he married. Theses Definition! In 1832 he led the Seminoles in resisting the whites and consultation dublin this earned him the titled of the the april theses, war chief (Tustenuggee). As it was the tradition of the Seminoles, anybody could become a leader if he managed to attract a big following because of his particular character traits such as being a warrior or extra ordinary hunting skills. Consultation Service Dublin! It is in definition, this respect that Osceola came to dissertation consultation service be the war chief. (Kenneth, 1973; 29) It is during their time that Payne landing treaty was signed. This was a declaration that the Seminoles would be relocated to Arkansas so as they would be united with other creeks. Those creeks that had fled Florida the likes of the april theses definition, Osceola had no intention of uniting with other creeks that fought them during the frank essay, Creek war and were determined to the april oppose this decision (Weigly R.F., 1967; 245).
A year later, another treaty was passed to enforce that of 1932 though it had not yet expired. This was referred to dissertation consultation service as the treaty of the april theses definition, Fort Gibson. When Seminoles made up their minds to resist the planned migration, Osceola as their war chief became very instrumental in laying the consultation service dublin, war strategies and in taking care as well as arranging for ammunition stores. He was a brave ruler who was even prepared to put his life along the line especially when he drew his hunting knife and tore the the april definition, document that was supposed to be signed between him and Thompson. Osceola organised his people properly in dealing with the formidable U.S army by making his warriors disciplined as he was well aware that that was the only way they could resist the whites. The resistance went on passively for sometime.
His warriors conducted raids on the lands of the whites until a battle between U.S army and his warriors broke out frank stella essay after his men descended on a train that was used by the government in transporting supplies to other areas. The government sought to punish him but this proved itself to be too difficult as he became so elusive by playing hide and seek game in the swamps of the april, Florida. Though he was not the duly elected Indian chief, he was able to dissertation service command his warriors who were about 4,000. His men terrorised the U.S army which comprised of the april definition, more than forty thousand for over ten years since the stella, war broke out. The April Definition! Osceola and his men attacked Thompson at Fort King, in fighting the Americans; Osceola used the dissertation consultation service, principle of hit and run. He decided to take this course after he realised that the the april theses definition, whites forced his delegates into signing such agreements. That is when declined to sign a treaty in 1835 and instead drew a sword form his pocket and pierced the paper claiming that to him it was the only way of signing that treaty. In fact, the consultation dublin, whites were sing force to theses make them sign those documents but Osceola showed them that he was not the type to be commanded by Colonel Clinch. (Dockstader F.J., 1977; 198-201) After Osceola refused to sign the proposal in front of place, these powerful characters, he became a hero to most of the Seminoles. These chiefs were threatened by Jackson that they would be stripped off their powers should they fail to sign the document.
Thinking that this would make them cooperate with him, this backfired and produced a different reaction to the Seminoles. It became their motivating force to stand and fought for their rights. The relationship that was somehow enjoyed by the Seminoles and the whites in the past turned sour though Jackson was determined to have them moved elsewhere despite the the april, fact that they strongly resisted. Jackson organised his military ready to start the operation. They surrounded these villages and forced the Seminoles to get sell their properties and livestock to the government personnel’s. Tampa Bay was used in transporting the first 400 Seminoles how halfway adhered to the 1935 Gibson treaty. Neither Osceola nor Jackson was ready to change his mind and both pursued different goals that were of write, interest to them. Osceola made sure that all the Seminole chiefs had enough stock of fighting weapons such as hampering the governments plan of migrating the Indians he planned how chief Emathla would be killed this was one of the definition, rebel chiefs who agreed to of religion in india today sign the Gibson’s treaty thus betraying the rest of Seminoles.
He urged Indians not to the april theses agree selling their livestock as well as other properties to the agents of the government. The killing of Emathla reflected to frank essay the government how well Osceola and theses his men were organised and determined to essay resist any move designed to suppress them. The April! He removed his people from areas that were not safe those that were safe and impregnable such as the swampy regions. This worried the settlers who had already grabbed some land from the area. They fled from essay on rainy their land and converged on some forts that had been constructed by definition, the government. The government led by Jackson descended on Indians whom they concentrated on certain designated camps as they awaited to be ferried to Arizona and to the west of Mississippi River. Those Seminoles who managed to escape definitely joined the Osceola camp. The royalty that these Indians shown to their leader made Thompson to be worried. On The Of Religion In India! He wrote a letter to the U.S government urging them to reconsider its decision but his plea was turned down. The April Theses! This shown hour determined the government was in moving the Indians to another area.
In preventing further development of hostilities in how to, Florida, the war department appointed General Clinch to be the commander in chief of all military operations in Florida. His military men who amount to about five hundred were not enough to keep the angry Indians in check who were more than thousand warriors. Clinch strategically positioned his army barracks in some designated areas that were in dire need of security. Osceola was very sharp at learning the weaknesses of the government. He noted that the government had concentrated its army at the Western Peninsula and definition thus decided to conduct his raid on the Eastern side near the St. John’s River. (Wickman P.R., 1996; 98) In a company of essay of religion in india today, two fifty warriors, Osceola attacked white farms and destroyed the properties that were there mercilessly. This prompted the government to the april theses recruit more officers however they could not subdue the Indian forces. Osceola led his warriors in raiding the whites’ sugar plantations something that propelled all the whites to flee the write index, area in search of a safer place. They vacated the whole of theses, North and Central Florida.
Osceola and his army came out of their hideouts when they were least expected to attack. He led his warriors in attacking the forts and that had been constructed somewhere between military road. He was very sure that his Spanish weapons were far much better than the muskets that were used by the US army. Osceola stage managed the offensive attacks to kill Thompson who was based at Fort King. While waiting to attack the fort, the warriors first surveyed the writing on rainy season, area long before they could launch their attacks. (Viele J., 1996; 98) They reached to the april the scene long before and each took his position. In this attack, Thompson and Lieutenant Smith who were having a short walk after taking their supper were killed by Indians. Osceola also organised how the two infantry companies that belonged to essays major Dade would be attacked. He was a person who took his time before he could make a move. He only did so when he was sure that he was safe.
He took many days planning how he would attack these companies. During this time he assessed the security of the companies using some spies. He never allowed his men to be disunited; he always made sure that they fought in groups. He positioned his army to bar all the possible escape routes. After they surrounded the theses, region, they attacked the fort from three sides. Dade and a significant number of how to write index, his forces perished in that unexpected attack.
This is the april theses definition, one of the guerrilla warfare tactics that Osceola was using. In guerrilla warfare you should monitor the essays, moves of your opponent and descend on him when you are least expected. You should only engage yourself in offensive attacks only when your opponent is exhausted. During this incidence, the the april theses, army retaliated by on the today, directing their guns at definition, the Seminoles who were hiding. After their ammunitions ran out, the essay on the place today, Indians came out of their hiding places and killed many of these soldiers. His warriors never engaged themselves in a direct confrontation or a face to face encounter. They made sure that they kept their plans as dark as night.
They carried out the april theses definition quick raids and then escaped before the army could retaliate. Osceola was favoured by his terrain which he was very familiar of. He knew where he could hide in case they were attacked. The government did all that it could to make sure that all the dissertation dublin, Indians were removed from the swamps where they used to hide. The April! General Clinch strongly believed that he could flush these Seminoles out with his strong forces that were heavily equipped. He believed that if he combined all his six infantry companies that were under his jurisdiction he would launch an offensive attack against the Indians. He had also recruited about frank stella essay 500 militia men though they lacked the necessary training and more so they were undisciplined unlike those of Osceola’s. Using his well equipped army Clinch would severally close the Withlaccochee River at give the Indians surprise attacks but his army many a times made him fail to achieve his objectives. His men were not disciplined and kept on breaching the rules for example in December 1835 his army left the definition, Fort Drane at night so that they could attack the Seminole warriors at dawn. During the night they were supposed to observe silence and not to start camp fires but one disgruntled soldier went ahead and blew his instrument. This alerted the Seminoles that the army were on their way to attack them who quickly organised themselves and patiently waited for them. (Weisman, B.R., 1999; 85)
The U.S army had to close a swollen river using a canoe so as to frank reach the other side. After crossing they hid themselves in hammock thickets that could hardly cover them properly. In fact the area was an open ground. This worked to the advantage of the Indians who from nowhere attacked this army wiping out not less than a third of it then they ran away when Colonel Alexander launched three quick counteractive attacks. After a period of definition, three days both sides had incurred heavy life losses but on essay season in hindi the clinch’s side it was terribly bad. Theses! No matter how the U.S government wanted to get rid of the service dublin, Indians from Florida they could not successfully do so because Osceola’s army seemed to definition be impregnable. It even made Clinch to give up driving out Seminoles out of the region. He sent all those who had volunteered and survived back home. According to Osceola, this meant that the government was unable to deal with him and thus be was solely responsible for stella, the region.
He continued launching his attacks to specific forts which were full of whites who were escaping from the wrath of Osceola. His warriors destroyed these plantations as well their plantations. Osceola’s victory was not in vain in the april definition, fact, he had clearly observed all the moves of his enemies. He last knew how strong they were, their weaknesses and that is consultation, what he capitalised on. Another thing is that their leader was very familiar with the terrain of his region unlike the whites who were new to the region. Clinch’s army was undisciplined thus lacking the the april definition, code of ethics this somehow worked against their wishes in that when they were told to essays on hiring be quiet throughout the night, they went ahead and made noise.
This alerted their enemies who patiently waited for them. These armies also were not familiar with the theses, Florida terrain especially they did not know what kind of an merchant venice anti semitic play, environment they would find after crossing the swollen river. (Misall J. and Mary L.M., 125-134) After they crossed they found an open ground with nowhere to hide themselves. This made the warriors to the april theses attack them without straining a lot. Their general had not taken time to learn about the geography, the terrain and essay season the climate of the the april, region. How To Index! That is why he risked crossing the swollen river using a canoe knowing very well that if they were attacked they would not be able to cross the the april theses definition, river quickly. Also clinch’s moves were uncalculated and untimely. Why did he choose to conduct his attack during the torrential rains? He could have waited for the rains to subside.
Osceola was able to in india keep his army united and the april theses definition he knew when it was safe to conduct his raid. He was able to divide the attention of his opponents. For example the raid he organised at the vicinity of dissertation consultation service, St. Augustine made some army men to be dispatched to the area leaving a small number of them in the april, the targeted fort. He also knew how to plan for the raids to happen simultaneously.
Osceola was also well aware that befriending his enemies so that he could use them as his spies was of great importance in guerrilla tactics. It is only by use of these spies that you can know what kind of a force that you are dealing with. For this reason, he was able to convince the blacks to help him fight the U.S military. This is why Pacheco a black man was used in giving the details and the time picture of Fort King. Write! (Covington J.W., 1993; 102) Osceola was arrested on 21 st October 1837 after he was tricked by General Jesup to go for a peace council under false impression that he would not be arrested. He was jailed in a fort at St. Augustine where he succumbed to definition fever and malaria in 30 th January 1838. To conclude, this essay has clearly revealed that Osceola through young achieved many things that many at this age could not have achieved. Through not a chosen tribal leader, he was able to become a ruler because of his outstanding skills in hunting and because of his brevity. He volunteered himself to protect his community from the external aggression that was directed to his people.
He sacrificed himself to essay on rainy season in hindi fight the Americans whom he knew very well were more than his warriors. Mark C.C. U.S. History. New York : Macmillan library. 1996; 45. Kenneth C.D. Don’t Know Much About History . New York: Harper – Collins Publishers.
2003; 56-78. Alderman C.L. Osceola and the Seminole Wars . New York, Julian Messner. 1973; 29. Dockstader F.J. Great North Indians . New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977; 199-200. Weigly R.F. History of the United States Army . Bloomington.
1967: 245. Wickman P.R. Osceola’s Legacy . University of Alabama Press. 1991; 36. Viele J. The Florida Keys: A history of the pioneers . Sarasota, Florida Pineapple Press Inc. The April! 1996; 98. Weisman, B.R. Unconquered People . Gainesville. Florida University Press. 1999; 85. Misall J and Mary L.M.
The Seminole wars: America’s longest Indian Conflict . Dissertation! University Press of Florida. 2004; 125-135. Covington J.W. The Seminoles of definition, Florida. Gainesville Florida: University Press of Florida. How To Write! 1993; 102.
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Animalism in definition Mcteague Essay examples. The last decade of the twentieth century in America saw a rise in stella essay programs for human's self betterment. A popular form of betterment is the april, that of the inner animal. Interest in Native American animal mysticism, vision quests, and totem animals have increased dramatically in the past few years. No forms of media have been spared; Calvin Klein's supermodels come on during sitcom commercials to tell viewers they need to be a beast, or to get in touch with their animal within. Anti Essay. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, however, animalism was viewed not as a method of self-improvement but as the reprehensible side of humanity that lingered beneath the surface, waiting for an opportune time to come out show more content McTeague's pact with nature is sealed when he kills Trina in the coatroom of a school. When he flees, he relies on his animal instincts to the april, keep him alive. Like a deer chased by a wolf, McTeague manages to elude his pursuers until they trap him in Death Valley. The hunting pack then closes in, and McTeague joins Essay on Frank Norris’s Novel McTeague. where Trina and McTeague were looking to rent a bigger home to live in. McTeague took it upon himself to sign the paper work to claim the house theirs.
The cost of the dissertation, house is $35.00 a month. Trina thought this was not a reasonable price, therefore she continued to do her research on the home finding out that the water was in the april definition the basement. But this information was unless to her since McTeague surprises her with having signed the papers without her knowing. Employees. Her reaction to McTeague was not plesant Propaganda, War, Famine and the april theses, Death in Orwell's Animal Farm Essay. They threaten that Jones will come back if the frank stella essay, pig are not fully functioning and alert. Napoleon and Snowball send messengers to the april, spread the ideas of animalism to the outside world and surrounding farms and teach them to sing Beasts of England from beginning to end propaganda has been there.
Snowball spread propaganda that would promote Animalism by building a windmill. Writing. This windmill was to theses definition, be used for luxuries that would make life better for everyone on Animal Farm. Snowball also said that although Eventually the principles of employees, Animalism are reduced to one principle: “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. (Orwell, 1945) ” It is important to note that in the april definition Animal Farm Orwell is not attacking the underlying principles of Socialism that are propagated by Karl Marx and Lenin, but rather the perversion of these principles by leaders like Stalin. Although Animal Farm is written as a critique of Stalin era Soviet Union, it could be widely viewed as a critique of any system Marxist Criticism Is Always Concerned with the Class Struggle in History. well being of the place of religion, pig. We pigs are brainworkers. (Appendix one) Consequently the animals find themselves in the april theses definition a state of confusion. Their situation, they are constantly reassured, is better than before. They now live under their original ideal of animalism, they are told. This can be closely related to the theory of 'Carbonarism', which was identified as having been created under the Italian Communist Party (1921-43).
The theory is largely based around the recurring tendency to distract the masses The Similarities of the Russian Revolution and Animal Farm by George Orwell. The rise and writing season, fall of Leon is portrayed in Napoleon’s actions towards Snowball. Leon was inspired by Karl Marx’s theory of Communism, which was made to unite the workers of the world creating the perfect society. On the other hand, Animalism is created to make a world where all animals are together and share in the success of the farm. Definition. Leon Trotsky was represented by Snowball, who thought that a number of rebellions were required to achieve the revolution's goals. Snowball invented many influential power and influence increases.
This, once again, points straight towards corruption. Finally, the ideals of the revolution given by Old Major to the animals are gradually wiped out over time – at least, for the pigs. The Seven Commandments of merchant anti semitic play, Animalism, which are truly what the revolution is built around, are The Psychology of the april theses definition, Nihilism Essays. protagonist. The reader is able to merchant venice essay, observe the thoughts of the protagonist has they come to him in a fit of sorrowful rage. This passage of stream of consciousness suggests the protagonist’s destruction of his humanity and the adoption of savage animalism. In Richard Wright’s The Man Who Lived Underground the reader follows the protagonist Fred Daniels, whose name incidentally is the april theses definition, not revealed until typed out on a typewriter, as he adopts a life under the city in a sewer system. He is hiding to essay on rainy season in hindi, Animal Farm - Napoleon and Boxer Act in Ways to Destroy Freedom and Eq. Napoleon gave the the april, other animals little food, while he lives a lavish lifestyle. He tells the animals lies about their memories, and gives them false information for his own benefits such as, equality in rations will be contrary to the principles of Animalism. He overworks the animals while he did not work laboriously, and uses the followers for money. br brAlthough the leaders hold a big part in destroying freedom and equality, the followers also play a part.
Throughout the essay writing, novel Orwell foreshadows fear of Jones coming back to convince them that Napoleon is theses, right. He creates power through many methods. Making the animals file past Old Major's skull is a reinforcement of his leadership and a way of allying himself with the beloved father of animalism. It makes the employees, animals respect the new leader as much as the old leader. He uses the word 'sacrifice' and 'own contribution' to theses definition, make the animals feel that what they are doing is for a greater cause which makes them willing to sacrifice' for the 'greater
Essay on Summary and Comment on Animal Farm (6th Grade) Jones and Napoleon and Snowball take over the control after driving the former owner away. The Manor Farm was changed to ‘The Animal Farm’ and the animals set up the foundations of what they called ‘Animalism’. They also hang up the how to write, seven commandments the pigs invented, for the inhabitants of the definition, animal farm to see: 1. Whatever goes upon frank stella essay two legs is an enemy. 2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings is theses, a friend. 3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in anti semitic play essay a bed. 5
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Case#x02013;Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and the april theses, blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. We conducted a pair-matching case#x02013;control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4#x02013;12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The case and frank stella essay, control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the april theses definition Mental Disorders , 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R).
We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for dublin ADHD. There was a significant difference in theses definition, BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to place of religion in india, lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL vs. The April. #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10#x02013;8.77, p #x0003c; 0.01; 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL vs.#x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47#x02013;6.98, p #x0003c; 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables. This was the dissertation consultation service dublin largest sample size case#x02013;control study to date to study the association between BLLs and ADHD in Chinese children. ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders, characterized by the april definition developmentally inappropriate levels of dissertation consultation inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity [American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2000; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Rappley 2005; Remschmidt 2005]. Prevalence of ADHD in the april, children has been reported to be 3#x02013;8% worldwide (Froehlich et al. 2007; Leung et al. 1996; Remschmidt 2005). Children who have ADHD are at increased risk for essays on hiring employees conduct disorder, antisocial behavior, and drug abuse later in the april theses, life (Satterfield et al. 2007). How To Write Index. Moreover, the costs associated with their medical care and education are substantial (Leibson et al. 2001). Although the causes of ADHD remain unclear, both genetic and the april theses, environmental factors are thought to influence the employees etiology of ADHD (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Millichap 2008; Remschmidt 2005; Swanson et al. 2007).
Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated high heritability, and various polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes have been found to increase susceptibility to ADHD (Castellanos and Tannock 2002; Durston 2003; Khan and Faraone 2006). Furthermore, many environmental risk factors and potential gene#x02013;environment interactions have also been shown to increase the risk for the disorder (Banerjee et al. 2007; Biederman and Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; Thapar et al. 2007). Indeed, there is growing interest in studying the definition relationship between chronic heavy metal toxicity, including lead exposure, and write, ADHD (Braun et al.
2006; Konofal and Cortese 2007; Millichap 2008; Nigg et al. 2008). Lead is one of the well-established environmental poisons, and its general toxic effects, particularly in children, continue to be a major public health issue worldwide [American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2005; Lidsky and Schneider 2003; Needleman 2004]. The April Definition. It is well known that lead can cause cognitive impairment and correlate with decreased IQ scores and dissertation service dublin, impaired attention (Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004), and increased BLLs were associated with higher distractibility and impulsiveness scores in the affected children (Needleman 1993). Theses Definition. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that child blood lead levels (BLLs) not exceed 10 #x003bc;g/dL (CDC 1991; WHO 1995). Merchant Semitic Play. As a result of rapid industrialization in the april theses definition, China, it is estimated that tens of millions of merchant venice essay children 1#x02013;18 years of age have BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Huo et al. 2007; Ren et al. 2006; Wang and Zhang 2006). Furthermore, several recent studies have shown that cognitive deficits and behavioral problems in theses definition, children still exist even with BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL (Binns et al. On Hiring. 2007; Braun et al.
2006; Canfield et al. 2003; Koller et al. 2004). Early studies have documented an association between dentine lead, whole-tooth lead, hair lead, and symptoms of inattention (Bellinger et al. 1994a, 1994b; Fergusson et al. The April. 1993; Needleman and Leviton 1979; Needleman et al. 1979; Tuthill 1996), and subsequent studies showed that lead exposure can cause attention deficit disorder and impulsivity (Brockel and Cory-Slechta 1998; Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Kahn et al. 1995; Minder et al.
1994; Silva et al. Dissertation Consultation Service. 1988; Thomson et al. 1989; Wasserman et al. 1998, 2001). However, these studies may not be conclusive. Definition. First, few studies have investigated the effect of lead exposure on ADHD formally diagnosed with the established criteria in International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) (WHO 2007) or in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of venice anti semitic play Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised (DSM-IV-R; APA 2000) (Burns et al. 1999; Eppright et al. 1997; Silva et al. The April Theses. 1988). Second, most studies were limited by small sample size, and some studies lacked sufficient control of stella confounding factors (Bellinger et al. 1994b; Minder et al.
1994). Third, early studies involved children who had higher BLLs than the definition levels seen in contemporary children (Needleman and Leviton 1979; Wasserman et al. 1998) and essay on the place in india today, thus may not be directly relevant to definition, children with lower levels of lead exposure. In addition, there is no investigation of lead exposure and ADHD in service, Chinese children. Therefore, in an effort to the april theses definition, evaluate the index association between BLLs and theses definition, the risk for ADHD in Chinese children, we performed a case#x02013;control study involving large samples of children 4#x02013;12 years of on hiring employees age. We also considered known potential variables in the etiology of ADHD, such as delivery characteristics, perinatal factors, parental psychosocial factors, and prenatal exposure to tobacco and the april definition, alcohol. This study was designed as a pair-matching case#x02013;control study. ADHD subjects were consecutively recruited from how to write index children coming for the april theses definition initial or follow-up assessment from play essay October 2003 to August 2007 in the april theses, two pediatric clinics at the Anhui Provincial Children#x02019;s Hospital and the Institute of on the place of religion Anhui Traditional Chinese Medicine in Anhui Province, People#x02019;s Republic of the april theses China.
The two major hospitals served the same local population in Anhui province and accepted referrals from on the in india today all administrative districts within the province. All ADHD (ICD-10 codes F90, 208#x02013;210) subjects were children of Chinese Han nationality 4#x02013;12 years of age at the time of investigation and had a lifetime medical history that fully met the the april theses definition DSM-IV-R criteria (APA 2000; Su et al. 2001) for ADHD. Essay In India. The DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria had been previously translated into Chinese, and the reliability for the ADHD diagnosis was previously assessed (Su et al. The April Theses. 2001).
The diagnoses of ADHD were derived from a structured diagnostic interview based on Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for merchant venice semitic essay School-Age Children (K-SADS-E) (Ambrosini 2000), which was modified to assess DSM-IV-R criteria and incorporate parents#x02019; and teachers#x02019; reports of behavioral symptoms, clinical observation of behavior, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and the april, Singh 1986), and tests of attention such as the Conners#x02019; Continuous Performance Test (Homack and Riccio 2006). Dissertation. The interviews were performed in our outpatient clinic and administered by raters (trained research assistants) to children, one of their parents, and their teachers. All the raters, from theses definition two involved pediatric clinics, have postgraduate degrees in psychology and had been trained to high levels of interrater reliability. We computed #x003ba; coefficients of agreement between all the on the of religion raters and three experienced board-certified child psychiatrists who listened to audio taped interviews made by the raters. The April Theses. Based on 120 interviews, the median #x003ba; was 0.87; #x003ba; was 0.95 for ADHD. Children with identifiable perinatal insults, autism, Asperger syndrome, other pervasive developmental disorders (ICD-10 codes F84.0#x02013;F84.9, 308.0), and mental retardation (ICD-10 codes F70#x02013;F79, 312#x02013;315) were excluded.
The non-ADHD controls were randomly selected from computerized lists of outpatients admitted for frank stella essay acute upper respiratory infection at the same two pediatric medical clinics during the the april definition daytime and during the on rainy season in hindi same study period. By the theses definition pair-matched design, each ADHD case and control set had the same sex, the same age (difference between birthdays within 6 months), and almost the same level of socioeconomic status (SES). The controls were given the same full diagnostic assessment as the how to write ADHD cases and screened only for the absence of ADHD without exclusion of any other diagnosis except for the april theses definition the same exclusion criteria applied to cases. SES is measured by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), and essays employees, PIR is the the april theses definition ratio of family income to the poverty threshold for the year of the interview. Low SES was defined as having PIR values #x0003c; 1 in our analysis and high SES as having PIR #x0003e; 3. The others were regarded as middle SES. The study was approved by our institutional review boards and complied with all applicable requirements of the United States. The parents of merchant essay all the children in this study provided written informed consent at enrollment. Blood samples (2 mL/child) were collected in heparinized syringes. Lead concentrations were measured by anodic stripping voltametry through a blood lead analysis instrument (3010B; ESA Laboratories, Inc., Chelmsford, MA, USA) after the blood samples were digested with an organic tissue solubilizer. The limit of the april definition detection was 1.0 #x003bc;g/dL. No detectable values were given values of essays on hiring employees 0.70 (1.0 divided by the square root of the april definition 2).
Lead values were calculated as the means of four analyses of each sample. Epidemiologic studies have shown that male sex, low SES, and on rainy season, young age are associated with a raised prevalence of ADHD. Moreover, its prevalence falls with age (Biederman and Faraone 2004; Doyle 2004; Scahill and Schwab-Stone 2000). To address these important confounding factors, we employed a pair-match design on age, sex, and SES; thus, the stratified control subjects were at risk at the same sex, age, and SES. In addition, we considered multiple covariates and potential confounders for theses definition the association of lead exposure and ADHD in our study. They were based on established predictors of child behavioral problems and those widely used in studies of pediatric lead exposure (Banerjee et al.
2007; Biederman and on hiring employees, Faraone 2005; Linnet et al. 2003; Mick et al. 2002; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004; Swanson et al. Theses. 2007; Wasserman et al. 2001).
The following variables were used: family history of ADHD (ADHD in parents and siblings, diagnosed by psychiatrists, obtained from merchant play clinical reports), household composition (normal: child lives with biological parents; single: child lives with only one parent; or recombined: child lives in remarried family), maternal tobacco use during pregnancy (at least one cigarette per theses definition day during the last trimester), maternal drinking during pregnancy (at least two glasses per merchant venice week during the entire pregnancy), labor complications, cesarean delivery, perinatal distress [low birth weight and admission to theses, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) as markers], parents#x02019; age at childbirth, and parents#x02019; education. Because all the cases recruited were of Chinese Han nationality, the variable of ethnic origin could not be used in place of religion, our analysis. These variables were obtained from clinical records or questionnaires completed by direct interview of the parents. Study factors were defined as binary variables or categorical variables. For example, maternal smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy were recorded as binary variables#x02014;that is, drinker or nondrinker, cigarette smoker or nonsmoker.
We analyzed some continuous potential risk factors as categorical variables according to cut points suggested by theses definition the literature. For example, low birth weight is typically defined as #x0003c; 2,500 g (St Sauver et al. Essay Of Religion. 2004). The April Definition. Maternal and paternal age were analyzed as three categories (St Sauver et al. 2004): #x0003c; 20 years, 20#x02013;30 years, and #x0003e; 30 years of age. Maternal and paternal education were analyzed as #x02264; 9 years of frank compulsory education, high school education (9#x02013;12 years), or some college or advanced training (#x02265; 12 years). The association between BLLs and ADHD was evaluated using the the april Pearson chi-square test for essays employees categorical variables and the Student t -test for continuous data. We also performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with a binary outcome of ADHD in relation to theses definition, BLLs, adjusting for merchant venice anti semitic play essay other potential confounding factors (Hosmer and the april definition, Lemeshow 2000).
In the regression model, BLLs were analyzed as an ordered categorical variable and recorded as three categories: #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL, and #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL. We then performed a conditional logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise procedures based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates to construct a final best-fit logistic regression models to identify predictors of stella risk for ADHD among known risk factors and theses definition, BLLs. Venice Anti Semitic Play Essay. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and definition, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for differing levels of exposure. All statistical tests were considered to be significant at an alpha level of 0.05 on a two-tailed test and writing season, performed with the statistical software SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The analysis included 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD control subjects matched by age, sex, and SES.
There were 434 sets of boys and 196 sets of girls. The average ages were 7.9 #x000b1; 2.1 years. The mean BLLs were 8.77 #x000b1; 3.89 #x003bc;g/dL in the ADHD group and 5.76 #x000b1; 3.39 #x003bc;g/dL in the control group. The ADHD group had higher BLLs ( p #x0003c; 0.05, see Table 1 ). There was no significant difference in BLLs between males and females. Figure 1 shows BLL distribution and cumulative distribution of ADHD children and controls. Only 10.1% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas this percentage increased significantly to 24.4% in ADHD children. (#x003c7; 2 = 237, p #x0003c; 0.01). In addition, 49.8% of non-ADHD children had BLLs #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, whereas of the ADHD cases, 74.7% had BLLS #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL (#x003c7; 2 = 116, p #x0003c; 0.01). Additional information in the april, demographic and the distribution of risk factors are shown in Table 2 . We performed a conditional multivariate logistic regression analysis with all variables (BLLs and essays employees, all risk factors) simultaneously included in the same model to adjust for each other. We found that the ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs (OR = 5.19, p #x0003c; 0.01 for children with BLLs 5#x02013;10 #x003bc;g/dL; OR = 7.15, p #x0003c; 0.01 for with BLLs #x02265; 10 #x003bc;g/dL, using the sample with BLLs #x02264; 5 #x003bc;g/dL as referent) and the april definition, family history of ADHD (OR = 4.54, p #x0003c; 0.01, compared with the sample without familial ADHD history). The risk for ADHD decreased as the mother#x02019;s education level increased (OR = 0.69, p = 0.017, using the sample of #x02264; 9 years maternal education as referent). Stella Essay. The analysis also found an association between ADHD and maternal smoking during pregnancy, but the p- value is near the significant threshold (OR = 4.04, p = 0.047).
The remaining confounding variables in our analysis were not associated with ADHD status ( Table 2 ). To eliminate multivariable interaction and multicollinearity, we then performed a backward stepwise logistic regression based on the maximum partial likelihood estimates. In the final best-fit model, the theses association between ADHD and how to, maternal smoking during pregnancy was excluded, but ORs for theses the associations between ADHD and family history of ADHD, maternal education levels, and BLLs were largely unchanged from estimates obtained in the original model used in Table 2 ( Table 3 ). We also performed a conditional multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis stratified by sex and age. How To Index. As with the total sample, ADHD cases were significantly associated with higher BLLs than the lower BLLs in all subdefinitions ( Table 4 ), which indicates that increased risk for ADHD associated with BLLs is not modified by age and sex. We examined the effect of BLLs in theses definition, ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls with adjustment for most other known risk factors in Chinese children 4#x02013;12 years of age.
We found ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead. The children with BLLs #x0003e; 10 #x003bc;g/dL had 4.1- to 8.7-fold higher risk for ADHD. Even when their BLLs were under the consultation service recommended level but #x0003e; 5 #x003bc;g/dL, the risk also showed a 3.5- to 7.0-fold increase. Family history of ADHD was another positive high-risk factor. Decreased risk for ADHD was associated with higher maternal education. Lead may play important roles in the etiology of ADHD.
Recently, Braun et al. (2006) analyzed data from a U.S population-based sample and concluded that prenatal tobacco exposure and environmental lead are risk factors for ADHD; they found 4.1-fold increased odds of ADHD with increased BLLs. Our work confirmed this finding in the referred sample that relied on the DSM-IV-R criteria. The April Theses. In addition, Nigg et al. (2008) reported that low-level lead exposure was associated with formal clinical diagnostic ADHD by write DSM-IV-R criteria in a community sample in the United States, where regulations have reduced the incidence of lead poisoning and the april, the current population average of lead levels is essays on hiring employees, relatively lower. This is the april definition, consistent with our finding that the writing on rainy risk of ADHD was associated with low lead exposures (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL) in definition, Chinese children. Stella. Some studies documented varying behavioral effects of lead exposure in males and females (Burns et al. The April. 1999; Ris et al. 2004).
However, in our study, sex and age did not modify the essay on rainy in hindi relationship between BLLs and ADHD. Further studies investigating how neurobehavioral outcome varies with sex and age may be required. In our study, the absence of a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and ADHD was unexpected, in contrast to previous reports (Braun et al. 2006; Linnet et al. 2003; Swanson et al. 2007). The reason might be that, in China, few women smoke during pregnancy and throughout life, which limits the statistical power in detecting a significant difference. Another reason might be that smoking and theses, drinking variables of the mother were recorded as a dichotomy in our study, and the threshold to frank stella, define the variables may underreport in definition, utero smoke and alcohol exposure. This potential misclassification might underestimate the true association between pregnancy smoking and ADHD. Our study found higher maternal education was associated with decreased risk for write index ADHD.
This result is consistent with previous work, which indicated that low maternal education, low SES, and single parenthood are important adverse factors for ADHD (Biederman and theses, Faraone 2005; Millichap 2008; St Sauver et al. 2004). Apart from environmental risk factors for ADHD, our current report indicated that children with a family history of ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. It is also consistent with previous work, which showed that ADHD is transmitted in families (Biederman and Faraone 2002, 2005; Millichap 2008). Although our study showed the association between lead and ADHD, we cannot explain clearly the mechanism that underlies the relationship. As for the etiology of ADHD, dopamine system dysfunction has important effects (Biederman and Faraone 2002; Swanson et al. 2007). There is extensive evidence that lead alters midbrain/striatal dopamine functioning as well as gene expression in the striatum (Cory-Slechta 1995; Kala and Jadhav 1995; Szczerbak et al.
2007), so the neurotoxic effect of lead on service, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system may be implicated in the april definition, the pathway to ADHD. Lead exposure could represent a hidden major effect on index, ADHD incidence via genotype by environmental interaction (Swanson et al. 2007). The strengths of this study are as follows: a ) Our sample size was the largest to definition, date in case#x02013;control studies to investigate BLLs and ADHD. b ) The ADHD diagnosis was made through an extensive clinical evaluation based on the DSM-IV-R diagnostic instrument and performed by child and adolescent psychiatrists. On Rainy Season In Hindi. c ) The investigators matched the cases and controls on potentially important aspects such as age, sex, or SES. This is the april definition, important because lead levels are highest among younger children compared with adolescents, and ADHD is of higher prevalence among children of elementary and middle-school age. This study suggests that there is a link between ADHD and BLLs, and dissertation consultation dublin, the results reinforced findings from previous studies (Braun et al. 2006; Nigg et al. 2008).
If on the april definition, further inquiry these associations are found to be causal, lead exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for this common psychiatric condition of childhood. Considering that ADHD typically starts in early childhood and that lead poisoning is one of the essays most common and entirely preventable pediatric problems (AAP 2005; CDC 1991), strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary prevention of definition lead exposure in frank stella, children. For example, clinicians should alert parents to potential adverse outcomes of lead associated with this disorder. In addition, routine screening for the april theses definition lead exposure may be needed so that if ADHD symptoms emerge, they can be managed at an early stage. Moreover, BLLs #x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL also indicated a risk factor. This may suggest that the lower standard may effectively protect children from the harmful effects of essay on rainy lead, which is consistent with previous investigations (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. The April. 2003; Surkan et al. 2007). Some studies (Ruff et al.
1993; Tong et al. 1998) found an association between declining BLLs and improved cognitive test scores, independent of whether iron or chelation therapy was administered. However, other works (AAP 2005; Canfield et al. 2003) indicated that the venice semitic essay damage caused by blood lead exposure is irreversible. Further epidemiologic studies and rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether chelation therapy or removal of possible lead exposure sources might help children with ADHD. This study has several limitations. Theses. First, temporality between high BLLs and ADHD could not be ascertained definitely in this case#x02013;control design. It is essay on rainy season, possible that hyperactive children ingest more lead rather than that lead causes hyperactivity. The April Theses Definition. Therefore, further studies with serial lead measurements, even from the frank antenatal to the postnatal period, and more continuous measures of ADHD symptoms or of specific underlying neurobehavioral domains may be required to document the temporal relationship between lead exposure and development of ADHD.
Second, some might argue that concurrent blood lead tests are not an adequate biomarker of a child#x02019;s lifetime exposure. However, recent studies indicate that concurrent BLLs are a stronger predictor of lead-associated IQ decrements than blood lead measured during early childhood (Lanphear et al. 2005). Third, recall bias is one of the the april problems of the case#x02013;control study. Dissertation Consultation Dublin. In this study, the main variable of interest was the theses definition BLLs, which were objectively measured. However, other variables such as in merchant venice anti semitic, utero tobacco and the april, alcohol exposure may be susceptible to recall bias. Fourth, the cohort was not a random population sample, so potential selection biases cannot be fully ruled out. In addition, because all our sample was Chinese Han, no children living in write index, foster families were included, and none of the the april theses definition sample had health insurance, our results may not generalize to children with different socioeconomic or ethnic backgrounds. Finally, it is interesting that Nigg et al. (2008) found a significant relationship between combined-type ADHD and low-level lead exposure but not predominantly inattentive type and lead exposure.
However, we were unable to do analogous analyses by dissertation consultation subtype because of the definition constraints of the study matching scheme. This hospital-based case#x02013;control study suggests a strong relationship exists between ADHD and lead exposure, even low-level lead exposure (#x0003c; 10 #x003bc;g/dL BLL), in Chinese children. Essay Writing Season. If this finding is confirmed in future studies, the potential to prevent ADHD by the april definition reducing childhood lead exposure should be considered.