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Benjamin Franklin and Jonathan Swift Were Fart Joke Masters. Benjamin Franklin was many things: printer, inventor, postmaster, turkey-zapper, constitution-signer, and connoisseur of fart jokes. The founding father fancied flatus. On Digital Library? So much, actually, that in 1781 he penned an american dream essays essay dedicated to the thunder down under. Franklin lived in dissertation on digital Paris at the time, serving as US Ambassador to of a salesman dream essays France.

There, he heard that the Royal Academy at Brussels was requesting scientific essays and would award prizes for the best papers. The news annoyed Franklin. Dissertation On Digital Library? He thought scientists were falling out of essay touch with reality. Year after year, they churned out dissertation library, pompous papers that didn’t make life better for the common man. Science should be practical, Franklin thought. Science should help everyday problems. Science should, you know, make farts smell good. So Franklin wrote a mock letter, To the essay, Royal Academy,” which opened explaining why people try to restrain and contain their windy emissions: It is universally well known, That in on digital library digesting our common Food, there is created or produced in the Bowels of being essay time human Creatures, a great Quantity of library Wind.

That the permitting this Air to escape and mix with the Atmosphere, is usually offensive to the Company, from the statement interactive activity, fetid Smell that accompanies it. That all well-bred People therefore, to avoid giving such Offence, forcibly restrain the Efforts of Nature to discharge that Wind. Dissertation On Digital Library? Franklin argued that holding back gas could be painful, even life threatening. Economic Issues For Research Paper? If science could improve the smell, maybe people would break wind freely: “Were it not for the odiously offensive Smell accompanying such Escapes, polite People would probably be under no more Restraint in dissertation on digital library discharging such Wind in of a salesman american Company, than they are in spitting, or in blowing their Noses.” Franklin urges the academy to “Discover some Drug wholesome not disagreeable, to on digital be mix’d with our common Food, or Sauces, that shall render the stress, natural Discharges of Wind from our Bodies, not only inoffensive, but agreable as Perfumes.” Because who needs cologne when your air biscuit freshens the room with the aroma of blooming daisies? Franklin’s letter was a joke, of dissertation on digital course. Hurricane Research Paper? He never sent it to the academy. Instead, he mailed it to Richard Price, a British philosopher and dissertation library, friend of Thomas Jefferson and statement interactive, Thomas Paine.

Price was a member of London’s Royal Society, and library, he would’ve appreciated Franklin’s jab at being earliest from academia, especially its closing. At the essay’s end, Franklin writes that science has derailed so far from reality that every discovery combined must be worth a “FART-HING.” (In case you’re wondering, fragrant flatulence probably isn’t possible. When you smell a flatus, you’re actually catching a whiff of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol. The two compounds can turn your toots into nose-burning, stomach-churning bowel bombs. You can quell the smell with bismuth supplements, but these won’t transform your farts into air fresheners. Dissertation? They’ll just knock your stinkers scentless.) Jonathan Swift: Master of the Gasser. Franklin wasn’t the only believer in the art of the fart. Being Earliest Essay Time? Sixty years earlier, Jonathan Swift—a master of satire and library, author of economic paper Gulliver’s Travels —wrote an essay titled “The Benefit of dissertation on digital Farting Explain’d,” published in a pamphlet in economic issues for research 1722.

The paper’s title page is peppered with puns. Swift hides under the dissertation, pseudonym “Don Fartinhando Puff-Indorst, Professor of of a Bumbast at the University of Craccow.” The essay is “translated into English at dissertation on digital the Request and for statement interactive activity, the Use of the Lady Damp-Fart, of Her-fart-shire” by “Obadiah Fizle, Groom of the Stool to the Princess of dissertation Arse-Mini in Sardinia.” Oh, and it was also reviewed by a “College of Fizz-icians.” Seriously. We can’t make this up. It sounds juvenile, but Swift may have been using potty humor to criticize potty humor. By the 18th century, flatulence had become taboo. Farting was rude, and gas-passing was merely raw material for paper, crude jokes (and in dissertation on digital some cases, subject to censorship law.) But it hadn’t always been that way—farts had a proud literary history.

For centuries, authors had used scatology as a serious symbol for mortality, decay, and impurity. Dante, St. Augustine, Chaucer, Marlowe, Dryden, and even Martin Luther wrote about cutting the cheese, using flatulence as a literary symbol and even a political tool. So Swift may have been criticizing the fart’s sad decline into silliness—and he was fighting fire with fire. The essay is divided into four parts, detailing gas’s relationship with law, society, and hurricane research paper, science. The second section, however, may be the most inventive: After clarifying the nature, essence, and definition of the dissertation on digital library, common fart, Swift explains why it’s bad to bottle up your tailwind—and offers a (sexist) theory to one of life’s mysteries: “I shall next enquire into the ill consequence of suppressing [gas], which . . . causes Cholicks, hystericks, rumblings, belching, spleen, etc, but in the women of a more strong constitution, it vents itself intirely in talkativeness; hence we have a reason, why women are more talkative than men.” Swift says it’s better to let one rip than hold it inside. The gassy vapors can float up and mess with your head, especially if you’re a talkative woman, who may not “vent properly.” Swift theorizes that’s why people cry, too: “If this vapour, when rais’d to the head, is there condensed by a cold melancholy constitution, it distills thor’ the paper, Eyes in on digital library Form of Tears.” He captures his thesis with the being earliest, nugget: “Whoth stop’t at one end, burst out. From long and thick to coiled or curly, every type of mustache, beard, and goatee under the Sun (and barber's pole) seemed to be present at the 2017 World Beard and Moustache Championships. The biannual competition—held in Austin, Texas in early September, according to dissertation library Laughing Squid—brings together hairy rivals from around the christopher conclusion, globe, who come before a panel of dissertation library judges to see whose facial hair is the most coiffed and creative.

Participants compete across 17 traditional categories in three main groups: mustaches, partial beards, and full beards. Awards are granted to individuals with the best Salvador Dali–inspired mustache; the hurricane research paper, best goatee freestyle, or short beards styled into elaborate arrangements; and the best natural full beard, among other looks. Held in Leogang, Austria, the 2015 World Beard and Moustache Championships had just 317 competitors, Bryan Nelson—who helped organize this year's event along with the Austin Facial Hair Club— tells Mental Floss. But the 2017 Championships attracted a staggering 738 participants from 33 countries. Nelson believes that the Austin Facial Hair Club pulled off history's largest facial hair competition (the group is awaiting validation from Guinness World Records), and also says that the tournament was the first of its kind to include craft-based categories for women. We had Creative Moustache and Realistic Moustache, Creative Beard and dissertation on digital, Realistic Beard, Nelson says.

For the realistic categories, female participants used either real or fake tresses to create authentic-looking facial hair (which they attached to their faces), and for the creative categories, they were all over beyond from time the place and could be made from whatever, Nelson explains. Dissertation? Seashells, bacon, bones … it's such a creative event. You can check out a handful of 2017's winners—who were captured in all their hairy glory by Las Vegas-based photographer Greg Anderson—below, or view even more hilarious looks on statement interactive activity his Instagram. Some words, regardless of their meaning, are simply more chuckle-worthy than others. Dissertation On Digital Library? To determine which expressions in the English language are truly the most comical, Smithsonian reports that psychologists at the University of Warwick in the UK conducted a survey in student essay which they asked people to rate the “humor value” of a sampling of chosen words. They recently published their findings in the journal Behavior Research Methods. The researchers selected nearly 5000 words, and on digital library, then used Amazon’s online crowdsourcing tool Mechanical Turk to ask more than 800 individuals to rank the humor value of 211 randomly chosen words from the list, on a scale from 1 (humorless) to 5 (humorous). Likely not surprising to being beyond earliest essay from time anyone with younger siblings, the funniest word ended up being “booty,” with an average ranking of 4.32. In descending order, the remaining top 12 words—which all received a score of 3.9 or higher—were “tit,” “booby,” “hooter,” “nitwit,” “twit,” “waddle,” “tinkle,” “bebop,” “egghead,” “ass,” and “twerp.” Why these words are so funny remains fuzzy.

But when they analyzed their findings according to age and gender, the researchers did find that sexually suggestive words like “orgy” and “bondage” tended to tickle the library, funny bones of men, as did the words “birthmark,” “brand,” “chauffeur,” “doze,” “buzzard,” “czar,” “weld,” “prod,” “corn,” and “raccoon.” Meanwhile, women tended to laugh at student stress the words “giggle,” “beast,” “circus,” “grand,” “juju,” “humbug,” “slicker,” “sweat,” “ennui,” “holder,” “momma,” and dissertation on digital library, “sod.” As for people under the age of 32, they were amused by “goatee,” “joint,” and “gangster,” while older participants liked “squint,” “jingle,” “burlesque,” and “pong.” Across the student stress essay, board, all parties were least amused by words like “rape,” “torture,” and “torment.” Although humor is complex and dependent on elements like syntax and on digital, delivery, the study's researchers say that breaking comedy down to single-word units could demystify its essence. “The research initially came about as a result of our curiosity,” said Tomas Engelthaler, the study’s lead author, in a press release. “We were wondering if certain words are perceived as funnier, even when read on their own. It turns out that indeed is the case. Death American Dream? Humor is an everyday aspects of our lives and we hope this publicly available dataset allows future researchers to better understand its foundations.” LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. Dissertation? Caring for a Sick Animal Can Lead to Anxiety and Depression, Study Finds.

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New Nepal Essays and Research Papers. ? Nepal Nepal is very mountainous and hilly. Dissertation. Roughly rectangular in shape, about 650 kilometer long and about 200 kilometer . wide, Nepal is the third biggest country in South Asia, with an area of 147,181 square kilometer of land. Nepal is a land-locked country, surrounded by economic issues for research, India on library three sides and by China's Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) to the north. It is separated from Bangladesh by an approximately fifteen kilometre - wide strip of India's state of West Bengal, and from Bhutan by the eighty-eight. Hinduism , India , Kathmandu 1960 Words | 5 Pages.

? NEPAL GEOGRAPHICAL Nepal is a sovereign nation located in south Asia. Thesis Interactive Activity. Nepal is the world's 93rd largest country . by land mass and it is also the 41st most populous country, with a population of approximately 27 million. Nepal is located in South Asia between China in the north and India in dissertation the south, east and west. While the total land area is 147,181 sq. km including water area of the country that is 3,830 sq. km. Paper. Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape. Dissertation. Nepal is commonly divided into three physiographic. Buddhism , Himalayas , Hinduism 631 Words | 3 Pages.

Women In Nepal Nepal is economic issues paper a landlocked country situated in South Asia between India in the South, West and East and China in the . North. According to a survey done by the Central Bureau of Statistics in dissertation Nepal , the population was recorded to be 26.62 million. In this small country there are still one hundred and one ethnic groups speaking over being beyond earliest essay time, ninety two languages. Customs and traditions differ from one another but what remains the same is the patrilineal and patrilocal type of society that is present. Childhood , Discrimination , Education 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

on 25 April 2015 at 11:56 a.m. NST at a depth of approximately 15 km (which is considered shallow and therefore more damaging than quakes that originate . deeper in the ground),[24] with its epicentre approximately 34 km east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal , lasting approximately twenty seconds.[25] The earthquake was initially reported as 7.5 in the ritcher scale by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) before it was quickly upgraded to 7.8 Mw. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) reported. Aid , Earthquake , Emergency management 2373 Words | 10 Pages. The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a landlocked sovereign state situated in South Asia. On Digital Library. The country is economic bordered by the People’s . Republic of China and on digital library the Republic of India. Kathmandu is capital of Nepal and stress also the largest metropolis of the dissertation on digital, country with a population of around five million. Total population of the country is economic for research around 27 million while two million of them are abroad for jobs and dissertation education. Official language of the country is Nepali while Nepal Bhasa, Maithili and hundred other. Communist state , Constitutional monarchy , Democracy 2049 Words | 6 Pages.

Contribution of World Bank in Nepal. ?#3What is the being earliest essay from, contributions of dissertation World Bank in your country. Interactive Activity. World Bank group was founded in Nepal in dissertation the year 1962 with the mission of essay conclusion freeing . the library, Nepalese economy from poverty. The World Bank Group has been a development partner in Nepal for for research, almost five decades, providing financing, technical assistance and advice. Over the dissertation, years, the issues for research paper, Bank’s support has evolved in focus and form to meet the changing needs of Nepal . But this partnership has always maintained a primary purpose: the dissertation, reduction of poverty. Bank , Economics , Finance 1265 Words | 4 Pages. NEPAL Kollin Smith Period-1 12-17-00 Mr. Sartian Introduction I am doing my report on a country by the name of Nepal . . The formal name is The Kingdom of Nepal . The term for citizens is Nepalese. The capital of Nepal is issues Katmandu. Nepal became independent in 1768 when a number of dissertation library independent hill states were unified by Prithri Narayan Shah as the Kingdom of Gorkha.

The area of Nepal is 56,827 square miles. Its population according to salesman dream essays the 1991 census was 18,462, 081. Nepal is located between. Gyanendra of Nepal , Himalayas , Hindu 909 Words | 4 Pages. Media in Nepal after Democracy - Narendra Maharjan After the Restoration of democracy in 2046 B.S. a drastic change came in dissertation library the Nepali . Media particularly in the private sector. Liberal provision and guarantee of press freedom enshrined in the constitution opened up avenues for the private sector to involve on christopher columbus media sector. The 2046's democracy yielded by the People's Movement also established rights and freedom of the press.

After the success of dissertation on digital library people's movement, new constitution (Nepal's constitution. Censorship , Democracy , Freedom of speech 1177 Words | 4 Pages. Is Water Resource the Only Source for the Development of Nepal? ------------------------------------------------- Is Water Resources the only solution for the development of Nepal ? “ Nepal is . the second richest country in water resources in interactive the whole world.” We grew up hearing this statement since our childhood. Is this statement valid? Are we really that rich in water resources at all? Our present situation points in the other direction though. The government is dissertation on digital making plans and policies with water resources, especially hydro-electricity, in student mind for the ‘accelerated. Agriculture , Gross domestic product , Investment 1333 Words | 4 Pages. com/what-is-an-earthquake) The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake)[6][9] killed more than 8,800 people and . injured more than 23,000.

It occurred at 11:56 NST on 25 April, with a magnitude of 7.8Mw[1] or 8.1Ms[2] and dissertation on digital a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX (Violent). Its epicenter was east of the district of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi).[1] It was the hurricane research, worst natural disaster to strike Nepal since the 1934 Nepal –Bihar earthquake.[10][11][12]. Aid , Development aid , Durbar Square 1814 Words | 9 Pages. ?From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Economy of Nepal Nepal Rastra Bank in Kathmandu Currency 1 Nepalese Rupee (NPR) = . 100 paisa Fiscal year 16 July - 15 July Trade organizations WTO Statistics GDP $41.22 billion (2012 est.)[1] GDP growth 4.6% (2010 est.) GDP per capita $1,600 (2010 est.) GDP by sector agriculture (35%), industry (20%),services (45%) (2010 est.) Inflation (CPI) 8.6% (September 2010 est.), 10.6% (October 2011 est. source: myrepublica.com) Population belowpoverty. Economic growth , Economics , Export 1371 Words | 7 Pages. influence in local arts, cultures and traditions are distinctly visible in every country and society in the region. Nepal , too, has its unique . geography, history and cultural heritage, and still is an integral part of the broader cultural history and tradition of Indian sub-continent. As the saying goes, culture sees no borders. Dissertation Library. While being parts of broader South Asian culture, Nepal and India share special closeness and similarity in cultural tradition.

They are so closely and strongly interlinked. Devanagari , Hindu , Hinduism 1237 Words | 4 Pages. A Powerful Earthquake Struck Nepal Saturday. powerful earthquake struck Nepal Saturday, killing hundreds of people across a swath of four countries as the violently shaking earth collapsed . houses, leveled centuries-old temples and triggered avalanches on Mt. Everest. It was the worst temblor to hit the poor South Asian nation in over 80 years. Statement Interactive. At least 1,910 people were confirmed dead in Nepal , according to on digital library authorities.

Another 34 were killed in thesis statement interactive activity India, 10 in Tibet and two in Bangladesh. Two Chinese citizens died at the Nepal -China border. Dissertation On Digital. Authorities. Earth , Earthquake , Kathmandu 1082 Words | 3 Pages. Popular Struggles in Nepal Bolivia. MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY IN NEPAL --Second movement for student stress, democracy. On Digital Library. Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April . 2006.The movement aimed at hurricane research paper, restoring democracy, it was aimed at regaining popular control over govt. from the king. HISTORY: Nepal a third wave country, had won democracy in 1990. --King was formally the head of the state but the real power was excerised by the elected representatives. --The king Birendra, was the one who accepted this transition from absolute. Constitutional monarchy , Democracy , Gyanendra of Nepal 765 Words | 4 Pages. Eco-tourism: Opportunity and Challenge in Nepal.

?Eco-tourism: Opportunity and Challenge in Nepal Rabi Kiran Adhikari, EMBA, AIM Nepal has been proved to be good destination . for the tourism. On Digital Library. The industry has been growing smoothly. The initiative for the expansion of the industry has been a priority of multisectoral organisation and people. But as expected; our economy has not made significant improvement through tourism. There are various manifestations for being beyond earliest essay, the underdevelopment of the industry. Even though there are various strategies adopted. Development , Ecotourism , Government 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Zachariah T. Ms. Katherine S. Library. English 10A 10 January 2013 Kukri – The Knife of Nepal The kukri or khukuri has been the weapon of choice . for Nepalese soldiers since at least the 1600's and has been extensively used as an all-purpose knife in the Indian cultures. This knife has been used for everything from a reaper of bamboo, wheat, and barley, digging furrows, cutting up meat and vegetables, to the unique, effective fighting knife with an established reputation of being irreplaceable for chopping. Blade , Blade weapons , Dagger 1016 Words | 3 Pages.

Emerging Business Environment in Nepal. ?Emerging Business Environment in Nepal Starting from the basic concept, we’ve grown up studying that Nepal is a landlocked . Issues For Research. country. The key to this very country is dissertation on digital held by India and columbus conclusion China since the antecedent times; two countries that have a firm grip on Industrialization and development from its known history. Once upon a time, they were the only ones who held the key to open up a gate of economic benefits. However, upon the beneficial regards of emerging resources, Nepal itself held its key to open. Government , Infrastructure , Kathmandu 978 Words | 3 Pages. Nepal Airlines Corporation - a Brief History. HISTORY OF AVIATION IN NEPAL The development of dissertation on digital aviation in Nepal can be traced back to the mid 1940's, when a lone pilot who . Statement. spluttered over dissertation, the mountains, dipped into Kathmandu valley landing on a cow grazing field.

That field, Gaucharan, is now the site of Nepal's only international airport. In April of '49, a single engine (seated) vintage Bonanza aircraft of Indian Ambassador Mr. Columbus Conclusion. Sarjeet Singh Mahatahia landed at dissertation library, Gaucharan and christopher thus heralded the dissertation on digital library, beginning of aviation in Nepal . Himalayan aviation. Aircraft , Airline , De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter 2190 Words | 7 Pages. Royal Massacre of Nepal : One of the Greatest Mystery Nepal , also known as the christopher columbus essay, country of Himalayas, was a constitutional . monarchy few years ago. In that interval of dissertation on digital few years, Nepalese people faced the most shocking event in the history of christopher Nepal . In June 2001,the crown prince murdered his own family and killed himself in the end. News channels started to fluorish the dissertation, news all over the world with the name of Royal massacre. After the death of a dream, news come around to the Nepalese society, there were tears. Dipendra of dissertation on digital Nepal , Gyanendra of Nepal , Monarch 2105 Words | 5 Pages. Cinema in Nepal = The first cinema show in essay Nepal took place in Bhadra 17, 1990 BS at Singhadurbar, during the time of on digital library Juddha . Shumsher. = For public cinema show opened up from activity 2004 BS. = The making of Nepali films is said to have begun with D. B. Pariyar's Satya Harishchandra, which was the library, first Nepali Language film to be shot.

It was produced from Kolkata, India, and was released on hurricane research September 14, 1951 (2007BS). This movie was first screened in Nepal at Narayanhiti Palace for King Tribhuvan. . Asha Bhosle , Cinema of Nepal , Film 919 Words | 3 Pages. DiscoveringTourism Destinations Trekking Trails in Nepal loWEr manaslu ECo trEK-gorKha lumbasumbapass KanchenjunGa maKalu . www.taan.org.np TAAN Discovering Tourism Destinations TrekkingTrails in dissertation on digital Nepal © All rights reserved: Trekking Agencies' Association of death salesman dream Nepal - TAAN- 2012 All rights reserved. Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review as permitted under Copyright Laws of the dissertation, Nepal , no part of this book may be reproduced by any process. Altitude sickness , Dolpa District , Mount Everest 30103 Words | 197 Pages. Maoists in Nepal Terrorism is death of a salesman american essays one of the most pressing and ongoing problems in today’s world. It is dissertation on digital a term used to describe violence or . other harmful acts committed or threatened against civilians by groups or persons for political, nationalist, or religious goals.

However, as it is said that ‘one man’s terrorists is another man’s freedom fighter,’ the word terrorism does not have a definite definition. The American Heritage Dictonary defines terrrirism as the unlawful use or threatened use. Birendra of Nepal , Mahendra of Nepal , Maoism 1630 Words | 5 Pages. A Living Art Show The valley of Kathmandu is one of the most concentrated repositories of art and design that exist in the world; it is one of the greatest . living art shows imaginable. Nepal has long been famous for being beyond earliest essay, quality work.

In the past, beautiful bronzes were made, not only for the home market, but for export or sale to pilgrim tourists. Today, exquisite bronze images of the dissertation library, gods and economic issues for research goddesses of the on digital library, Hindu and Buddhist pantheons are still fashioned and sold. Early Chinese travellers marvelled. Art , Arts , Kathmandu 924 Words | 3 Pages. Mountain Mushroom Farming Mountain Mushroom Farming will be a new entrant to vegetable cultivation .The mountain mushroom farming will . be a milestone for the non vegetarian as well as vegetarian consumer. The 2 ropani land at economic issues for research paper, Bhaktapur will be the venue where different kinds of mushroom spice will be in cultivated.

Mushrooms are cultivated for library, their nutritive and medicinal values. In traditional Nepalese food mushroom has relatively low priority due to number of misbelieves and low level of. Agaricus bisporus , Fungiculture , Kathmandu 806 Words | 4 Pages. The Government of Nepal has declared to celebrate the year 2011 as Nepal Tourism Year 2011 and has lunched the time, slogan Together . for Tourism for dissertation on digital library, it. The tourism trade Organizations and the stake holders like us have already accepted the Program and are eagerly awaited to welcome the targeted One Million Foreign Tourists and the Internal Tourists in similar numbers. The whole year will be celebrated by death dream essays, exposing the History, Culture, Nature and Adventure of the on digital, country. Visitors can observe various.

Nepal , Tourism , World Tourism Organization 1113 Words | 4 Pages. ? Nepal , a small, mountainous country tucked between India and China, may seem completely foreign to many Americans. Cows walk down busy streets . unharmed, 24 different languages are spoken, and people eat two meals of rice and lentils every day. Nepali holidays, many of which are related to columbus the Hindu religion, can seem especially bizarre to Americans unfamiliar with the culture. However, if we look beyond how others celebrate to consider the things they are celebrating, we find surprising similarities.

Assam , Devi , Durga 629 Words | 3 Pages. omen’s condition in Nepal is even worse compared to their average situation in the world. Despite positive and improving reports in the . situation, there is a long way to go to really make them feel that they are not exploited and discriminated. The female literacy rate of on digital library Nepal is about 35 percent, according to recent report, compared to male literacy rate of 63 percent. This vast difference exists not only in educational sector but also in thesis statement interactive almost each sector. The education is the foundation of awareness.

Better , Country , Developed country 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Sociological Study of Gurung Community. friends organizations, expert, researcher, media who have given special contribution to advise and encourage me to prepare this studies report. CHAPTER I . 1. Dissertation On Digital. Introduction Gurung Community have their one special position in the caste structure of Nepal , the total population of Gurung is 543571 according to the census of 2001. Gurung mostly follows Buddhist tradition. Stress Essay. The mid hills of on digital Kaski, Gorkha, Lamjung and Dhading are th major settlement regions of Gurung today. They also live in the Sikoles. Buddhism , Data , Gurkha 1339 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Background Information about Sandikhola 1.1.

Demographics The population of Nepal is essay estimated at dissertation library, 30,986,975 people in statement interactive activity the census . of 2014, with a population growth rate of 1.82% and a median age of 22.9 years. Male median age is library estimated at 22.2 years, and activity 23.6 years for males. Dissertation. The majority of the student stress essay, population, 61.1%, is between 15 and dissertation on digital library 64 years old and 31.6% is estimated at younger than 14 years old, whereas only 4.5% of the population are estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising. Central Intelligence Agency , Demographic economics , Demography 1039 Words | 6 Pages. College * Clark University, MA, USA Specialties Managing high growth companies, Incubating start-ups, Creating new ventures, corporate . development and death essays automation, Network architecture, Software design, Management information systems Experience * Founder/Chairman/Managing Director World Link Communications September 1995 – Present (17 years 8 months) Kathmandu, Nepal * Co-Founder/Executive Chairman World Link Financial Services June 2005 – Present (7 years 11. Alonzo Garcelon , Bates College , Benjamin E. Bates 897 Words | 4 Pages. operates as a Private Limited Company of Nepal . Mr. Dissertation Library. Min Bahadur Gurung is the Chairman and also the Managing Director of Bhat-Bhateni Group, . the largest retail chain of Supermarkets in Nepal . He is an extraordinarily dynamic, self-made businessman and a truly called entrepreneur. His passion for history led him to explore ancient and recent civilizations and christopher columbus culture. He also serves as a Chairman of dissertation on digital library Kumari Bank Ltd, one of the renowned commercial bank of salesman american essays Nepal . Mr. and Mrs. Dissertation On Digital Library. Gurung with the help of.

Corporation , Gurkha , Gurung 883 Words | 3 Pages. ? AMENDED 1966 KOSI TREATY AND 1997 KOSI STUDY AGREEMENT Dr. AB Thapa Summary: The 1966 Revised Kosi Treaty is a landmark treaty . entitling Nepal absolute right to use the entire water of the Kosi in whatever way Nepal pleases. Being Beyond Earliest From Time. The amendment of the Kosi treaty from 99 to 199 years solely serves Nepal’s interest. There is no justification in blaming King Mahendra for this amendment to 199 years. The 1997 Kosi Study . Bihar , Dam , Flood 2444 Words | 7 Pages. ?Urbanization in dissertation Nepal Urbanization refers to increasingly large number of people living in thesis interactive small places and basically engaged in library . non-agricultural activities, which depends on development of industrialization, infrastructure within cities, towns and their neighborhoods, thus urbanization is statement activity considered as an library, index of modernization.

The concept of urbanization has been treated in student stress essay many different contexts. The most often used concept of urbanization refers to dissertation the proportion of the death american dream, total population concentrated. City , Economic development , Nepal 1675 Words | 5 Pages. dynasty. Dissertation On Digital. O His Kingdom was supposed to be from economic for research TRISULI to TISTA. O 7th or 12th king was JITADASTI or DASTI. O He had taken part in the battle of . Dissertation On Digital. Mahabharat to help Pandavas. O Buddhist comical describes in his period Lord Buddha had visited Nepal where he made his 1350 disciples. O But,lord Buddha’s visit of Kathmandu valley cannot be paved by historical evidences. O At the peiod of STHUNOK or THUNILO (14TH or 21st )King of paper this dynasty ASHOKA the great king of INDIA visited Lumbini for. Ashoka the dissertation library, Great , Buddhism , Gautama Buddha 1372 Words | 5 Pages. finalize a start date for the cross-country tour. I have been planning this for next month, but because of the of a, federal election the sponsor wants to move . the project a couple months later. | | Gautam, who hails from the rural Ramecchap district of Nepal , lost his arms at 14 while vacationing with his family in dissertation Kathmandu. He was flying a kite that became entangled with overhead power lines. Believing the wire was insulated, he used a piece of iron to hurricane research paper dislodge the dissertation on digital, kite. The resulting jolt badly damaged.

Disability , Eight-thousander , Himalayas 1958 Words | 5 Pages. stove into electricity. This new feature gives everyday people the opportunity to enjoy safe cooking and electricity at an affordable price. . The management team knows that they have great technology; they just need a marketing plan in order to student essay get their product out on the market. The management team has decided that they would use Nepal as the dissertation on digital, opening target market. Even though they have identified many good reasons why the Starlight Stove would benefit Nepal they need to keep it mind, “it's.

Advertising , Marketing , Marketing plan 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and contrast Buddhism and Hinduism. Buddhism is death of a american essays believed to have originated about 2500 years ago, near 500 BC in on the border of Nepal and India. Its founder, Gautama Buddha . (Prince Siddhartha) was raised in a well-to-do family and lived surrounded by excess. Though raised in dissertation this way, Siddhartha was not convinced of the true value of christopher columbus essay these material items. After seeing the “four sights” sent by the gods, Siddhartha born a prince and raised in luxury, renounced the world at on digital library, the age of 29 to hurricane paper search for an ultimate solution to the. Buddhism , Dharma , Dukkha 1318 Words | 4 Pages.

the Nepalese economy, rise in remittance and increase in disposable income of Nepalese people, there has been a growing trend of indulgence of people in . Library. luxury, and above all drinking, Carlsberg. Salesman Dream. Changing family system: The changing family system of Nepal , where youths, modern families, working parents, young couples who are free spirited, are independent and are modernized are seen to be calling for dissertation library, celebrations, parties, get together who prefer easy consumption of beers consume Carlsberg 330 ml. Cultural. American middle class , Beer , Brand 1307 Words | 5 Pages. people move around the world without any difficulty. Tourism helps in bringing different culture together and at the same time help in being beyond earliest from the contribution to . the economy of a country. These people who travel around the world generally would like to have a new experience, see something related to cultural tourism such as heritage, arts, creative, urban culture, rural culture, indigenous culture and experimental culture (MK Smith, 2009) . Therefore, it is very important that the host country preserves it culture. Culture , Globalization , Hospitality industry 2541 Words | 7 Pages. Nepal Music The rhythm, beats, bounce of Nepali traditional folk and classical music is dissertation on digital library spiritual enough to sooth you and entertaining . enough to cheer you. Music is associated with every event in Nepal , then be it birth, marriage,festivals or National events. Various songs, musical instruments and student essay dances are connected with various religious, social and cultural life of the Nepalese.

Music is the heartbeat of Nepal . Dissertation Library. Music is associated to christopher columbus conclusion every event of life, then be it festivals, feasts, marriage. Americas , Indigenous peoples of the Americas , Jazz 977 Words | 4 Pages. History of chaudhari group The catastrophic earthquake of 1933 crippled commerce and social infrastructure in Nepal . This acted as the . catalyst, which augmented the need for rebuilding. Under the Rana Regime, the first row of shops along the popular Juddha Sadak (the present New Road) took shape. Library. It was here that the founder Mr.Bhuramull Chaudhary was given a shop on a yearly rental fee of Rs. Research Paper. 200, which eventually increased to Rs 500. It was situated opposite the present Bishal Bazaar. Consumer electronics , Nepal , Value added 636 Words | 3 Pages. Host: Good morning, world. This Is Millicent McKay in library Brussels with today’s worldwide Cultural Literacy Update. If you’re new to the program, . here’s the stress essay, format: In this studio, three people take your phone calls and answer your questions about etiquette in their countries.

Today’s guests are Jettrin from Thailand, Nadia from Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, and Sujeet from Nepal . We’re all first-name here, so let me welcome Jettrin, Nadia, and Sujeet. Jettrin: Sawatdee Khrab, Millicent. Good morning. 2007 singles , Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles , Buddhism 1079 Words | 5 Pages. Temperature and Rainfall analysis. Gemmer et al.

2004). However, very limited work has been conducted at the national level especially on time series analysis. Dissertation. (Dankers , Hiederer, 2008) . Beyond Essay Time. Based on the available information it was reported that the surface average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5 degrees Celsius per decade (Dhakal, 2003). However, the country lacks comprehensive report on temperature rise and climate changes. However, there is more general information available on climate change and its impacts. Dissertation On Digital Library. The information.

Absolute zero , Celsius , Climate 1692 Words | 7 Pages. Acetravels.com Nepal Travel Guide:Nepal Flights, Nepal Hotels, Trekking Holiday with AceTravels.com . Nepal Travel Guide and Information on Nepal Hotels, Flights Nepal , Trekking, Tour, Vacations, Holiday Car with AceTravels.com: Best Price Guaranteed Acetravels.com Categories:Trekking (1,123) Trekking in nepal (385) Nepal trekking (282) Peak climbing (130) Everest trekking (72) Nepal tour (173) Travel nepal (35) Nepal tourism (120) Annapurna base camp (79) Everest base camp trek (70). Annapurna , Eight-thousander , Everest Base Camp 606 Words | 3 Pages. Nepal From Wikipedia, the being beyond from time, free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the country. For other uses, see . Nepal (disambiguation). Library. Page semi-protected Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ?????? ???????????? ???????? ????? Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal Flag Coat of research arms Motto: ???? ??????????? ?????????? ?????? (Nepali) Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven Anthem: Sayaun Thunga Phulka Made of library Hundreds of Flowers Menu 0:00 Capital and largest city. Gyanendra of Nepal , History of Nepal , India 12274 Words | 50 Pages. treks, rafting, kayaking, paragliding or a peek at the surrounding villages’ life and amazing sights comprising of lakes, waterfalls, mountains, caves and . temples. Research. | Getting There There are countless options available to get from other major hubs of Nepal to Pokhara. Dissertation On Digital. For example…You can fly, use a bus (of which tourist coaches are pretty comfortable) or rent a vehicle.

Approximately twelve to beyond earliest fifteen flights operate from Kathmandu to dissertation on digital Pokhara. | Facilities : Swimming Pool Splash about in thesis statement interactive activity our pool. Hotel , Hotel chains , Hyatt 699 Words | 4 Pages. Background of Nepal Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal , is a landlocked sovereign state . locates in South Asia. With an area of 147,181 square kilometers (56,827 sq mi) and a population approximately 27 million. Nepal is the world’s largest country by on digital, land mass and interactive activity the 41st most populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital. India , Nepal , People's Republic of China 445 Words | 2 Pages. destination chosen for this assignment.

Situated in southern central Nepal , Chitwan National Park formally known as Royal Chitwan National . Park is the first National Park of the country. Library. Formally established in 1973, Chitwan National Park covers an area of 932 sq.km including 4 different districts namely, Chitwan, Makwanpur, Parsa and Nawalparasi. It is the best example of sub tropical low lands in inner terai region of Nepal . Being Earliest Essay. It was originally separated as a reserve centre for the rare one horned. Bird , Chitwan National Park , Conservation 1841 Words | 5 Pages. Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal is the library, place I call my hometown. With many cultural heritages, natural beauties and diverse culture, its is a . city where one can experience the being essay, modern and ancient events mingled with each other. Dissertation Library. Geographically situated between 27°38’32” to 27°45’7” North latitudes and being beyond earliest time 85°16’5” to 85°22’32” East longitudes. It is believed to have some of the oldest human settlements in the central Himalayas.

The city area is generally flat, what is now a city was once a highly productive. City , Kathmandu , Land use planning 973 Words | 3 Pages. nepal Nepal (Listeni/n??p??l/ ne-PAWL[5] Nepali: ????? [ne?pal] ( listen)), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of . Nepal ,[6] is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 27 million (and nearly 2 million absentee workers living abroad),[2] Nepal is the world's 93rd largest country by land mass[7] and the 41st most populous country. Dissertation On Digital. It is american located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by. Birendra of Nepal , Gyanendra of dissertation on digital Nepal , Himalayas 3716 Words | 12 Pages. that he lived around 563 BCE to 483 BCE, while other historians think his passing on statement interactive activity occurred between 486 and 483 BCE. Siddhartha Gautama is said to have . Dissertation Library. been born in Lumbini and was raised in the small state of Kapilavastu, which is now modern day Nepal , and subsequently traveled and taught mainly across the economic for research, regions of eastern India. Many of his teachings were passed down from one generation to another orally at on digital, first, but were later written down about being earliest from time 400 years after Buddha. Many centuries. Buddhism , Gautama Buddha , Indian independence movement 799 Words | 3 Pages.

Ex Gurkha Khukuri House Review - Genuine Gurkha Kukri Knives. “gurkha”,also known as “gorkhali”. Other name for valor, courage, steadfastness, loyalty, neutrality and impartiality come from the small principality of . Gurkha, which by the middle of the 18th century had conquered most of what is on digital library today known as Nepal . Prithivi Narayan Shah the king of Gorkha and his successors became so powerful that they overran the whole of the hill country from the hurricane research, border of Kashmir to the east of Bhutan. Turning south, they began to raid into Much of the question has been answered. 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles , 6th Queen Elizabeth's Own Gurkha Rifles , Brigade of Gurkhas 1560 Words | 5 Pages. Experienced), Pitman, Fox, Madsen, Schoening, Schoening Jr., Martin Adams, Kruse (Mountain Madness): New Zealand: Hall (Leader-Experienced) and . Harris – (Guide – Experienced) (Adventure Consultants) Australia: Groom – (Guide –Experienced) (Adventure Consultants): Japan: Namba (Adventure Consultants): Canada: Hutchison: Scandinavia: Gammelgaard: Russia/Kazakhstan: Boukreev – Guide - Experienced Neal Beidleman Nepal : Lead and climbing Sherpas (1) Beidleman (American) was a guide in the team led by Fischer. Decision making , Decision theory , Group decision making 1756 Words | 5 Pages. I cannot use my presentation aid I would have drawn out dissertation on digital, a rough representation of the picture on student stress the whiteboard). If you want to help solve this problem send . letters of on digital library protest to the United Nations asking them to help stabilize the government of Nepal , who is economic issues for research paper Everest’s only hope for organization.

Many Westerners treat the Sherpas porters poorly during their attempts at on digital library, summiting. Sherpas are the local Tibetans who have made a living guiding people up and down the for research, mountain. Although they are paid. Cho Oyu , Edmund Hillary , Gyachung Kang 1107 Words | 4 Pages. Book Review: Gorkha in Search of Identity. which was the origin of everything the community is enduring today. To make the historical description all encompassing the author has started from events of . eleventh century which led to origin of present day Nepal . The book covers the reason of existence of library 102 ethnics groups in Nepal which should be an education to all interested in Nepalese culture. The first chapter is a blend of informative granny tales and interactive anecdotes supported with authentic extracts from on digital treatise, history and hurricane research proven facts. Book , Gurkha , India 1281 Words | 4 Pages. Day.

First comes the dissertation on digital, birth of Siddhartha Gautama in Lumbini in Nepal which took place under the arbor of Sat trees where queen Mahamaya gave . Christopher Columbus Essay. birth to him. The second event was Siddharta Gautam's supreme attainment as the Buddha, the Enlightened One. The third event was Lord Buddha's Parinibbana over on digital library, 2500 years ago at student essay, Kusinagar. Apart from Sri Lanka, many Asian countries including India, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Indonesia and Nepal celebrate Vesak. Many religious activities are organized during.

Buddhism , Gautama Buddha , India 755 Words | 5 Pages. Acknowledgement I take this as my absolute pleasure to dissertation on digital have gotten an opportunity to write a paper about my country, Nepal and make people . Salesman American. aware of some of the facts of library this country. The fact that my country has not been explored and recognized is a bitter truth; however I am still proud to say that I come from this beautiful land. I would also like to thank Mr. Daniel smith for being essay time, giving me a broader insight of economic growth of a country and its causes throughout our course session. The broader. Development economics , Economic growth , Gross domestic product 1020 Words | 3 Pages. States and Territories of dissertation on digital library India and Sikkim. INTRODUCTION Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in stress essay the Himalayan mountains. The state borders Nepal to the west, China's Tibet . Autonomous Region to the north and east, and Bhutan to the southeast, while the on digital, state of stress West Bengal lies to the south.

With around 607,000 inhabitants as of 2011, Sikkim is the on digital library, least populous state in economic India and the second-smallest state after Goa in on digital library total area, covering approximately 7,096 km? (2,740 sq mi). For Research Paper. Sikkim is nonetheless geographically diverse due to. Himalayas , India , Monsoon 838 Words | 3 Pages. festival in the Nepalese annual calendar, celebrated by library, Nepalese of all caste and creed throughout the country. The fifteen days of celebration occurs during . the bright lunar fortnight ending on christopher columbus conclusion the day of the full moon. Dissertation Library. Thorough out the kingdom of Nepal the goddess Durga in christopher essay conclusion all her manifestations are worshiped with innumerable pujas, abundant offerings and thousands of animal sacrifices for the ritual holy bathing, thus drenching the goddess for dissertation on digital, days in student stress essay blood. Dashain commemorates a great victory. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1609 Words | 4 Pages. Prise Rise of Essential Commodities.

26.4 million populations, nearly 80% of dissertation population is employed directly or indirectly in this field. Despite such a large population working in this field . there has been food deficit which resulted into turning out Nepal a net importer from exporter, a big irony for a country like Nepal . We should put all our efforts to increase its supply by enhancing the productivity of the stress, essential goods thus lowering our dependency on imports which accounts to 70% of our imports. Besides increasing the supply. Austrian School , Collusion , Consumer price index 1119 Words | 4 Pages.

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The Federalist Papers Summary and Analysis of Essay 10. Madison begins perhaps the most famous of the Federalist papers by stating that one of the strongest arguments in favor of the Constitution is the fact that it establishes a government capable of controlling the violence and damage caused by on digital factions. Madison defines factions as groups of people who gather together to protect and promote their special economic interests and political opinions. Although these factions are at odds with each other, they frequently work against the public interest, and economic for research paper infringe upon the rights of others. Both supporters and opponents of the plan are concerned with the political instability produced by rival factions. The state governments have not succeeded in solving this problem; in fact, the situation is so problematic that people are disillusioned with all politicians and blame government for dissertation, their problems. Economic Paper? Consequently, a form of popular government that can deal successfully with this problem has a great deal to recommend it. Given the nature of dissertation on digital library, man, factions are inevitable.

As long as men hold different opinions, have different amounts of wealth, and own different amount of property, they will continue to fraternize with people who are most similar to statement interactive them. Both serious and trivial reasons account for the formation of factions but the most important source of on digital library, faction is the unequal distribution of property. Men of greater ability and talent tend to possess more property than those of lesser ability, and thesis statement activity since the first object of government is to protect and encourage ability, it follows that the rights of property owners must be protected. Property is divided unequally, and, in addition, there are many different kinds of property. and men have different interests depending upon the kind of property they own. For example, the dissertation, interests of landowners differ from those who own businesses. Government must not only protect the conflicting interests of property owners but must, at the same time, successfully regulate the conflicts between those with and without property. To Madison, there are only two ways to control a faction: to remove its causes and to control its effects. The first is impossible. There are only two ways to remove the beyond, causes of a faction: destroy liberty or give every citizen the on digital, same opinions, passions, and death american interests. Dissertation Library? Destroying liberty is a cure worse then the disease itself, and the second is impracticable. Interactive Activity? The causes of factions are thus part of the dissertation library, nature of man and we must deal with their effects and accept their existence.

The government created by the Constitution controls the damage caused by such factions. The framers established a representative form of government, a government in which the many elect the few who govern. Pure or direct democracies (countries in which all the citizens participate directly in making the laws) cannot possibly control factious conflicts. This is because the statement interactive, strongest and largest faction dominates, and dissertation library there is no way to christopher conclusion protect weak factions against the actions of an obnoxious individual or a strong majority. Direct democracies cannot effectively protect personal and dissertation on digital library property rights and have always been characterized by conflict. If the thesis statement activity, new plan of government is adopted, Madison hopes that the men elected to office will be wise and good men,­ the best of America. Theoretically, those who govern should be the least likely to sacrifice the public good to temporary condition, but the opposite library, might happen. Men who are members of particular factions, or who have prejudices or evil motives might manage, by intrigue or corruption, to statement win elections and then betray the dissertation on digital library, interests of the death of a salesman dream, people. However, the dissertation on digital library, possibility of this happening in a large country, such as the United States, is greatly reduced.

The likelihood that public office will be held by qualified men is greater in large countries because there will be more representatives chosen by a greater number of citizens. This makes it more difficult for the candidates to deceive the people. Representative government is paper needed in large countries, not to on digital library protect the people from the christopher columbus essay conclusion, tyranny of the few, but to guard against the rule of the library, mob. In large republics, factions will be numerous, but they will be weaker than in small, direct democracies where it is easier for factions to consolidate their strength. In this country, leaders of factions may be able to influence state governments to support unsound economic and political policies ­as the states, far from being abolished, retain much of their sovereignty. If the framers had abolished the state governments, the opponents of the proposed government would have a legitimate objection. The immediate object of the interactive, constitution is to bring the present thirteen states into a secure union. Almost every state, old and on digital library new, will have one boundary next to territory owned by a foreign nation. The states farthest from the center of the country will be most endangered by these foreign countries; they may find it inconvenient to send representatives long distances to the capitol, but in terms of safety and hurricane research protection they stand to gain the dissertation library, most from christopher essay a strong national government. Madison concludes that he presents these previous arguments because he is confident that many will not listen to those prophets of gloom who say that the proposed government is unworkable. For this founding father, it seems incredible that these gloomy voices suggest abandonment of the idea of coming together in strength ­- the states still have common interests.

Madison concludes that according to the degree of pleasure and dissertation pride we feel in being Republicans, ought to be our zeal in statement activity cherishing the spirit and supporting the character of Federalists. James Madison carried to the Convention a plan that was the exact opposite dissertation library, of Hamilton's. In fact, the theory he advocated at Philadelphia and in his Federalist essays was developed as a republican substitute for the New Yorker's high toned scheme of state. Madison was convinced that the class struggle would be ameliorated in America by establishing a limited federal government that would make functional use of the thesis interactive activity, vast size of the country and the existence of the states as active political organisms. He argued in his Notes on Confederacy, in library his Convention speeches, and again in essay Federalist 10 that if an extended republic was set up including a multiplicity of economic, geographic, social, religious, and sectional interests, these interests, by checking each other, would prevent American society from being divided into the clashing armies of the rich and the poor. Thus, if no interstate proletariat could become organized on purely economic lines, the property of the rich would be safe even though the mass of the on digital library, people held political power. Madison's solution for the class struggle was not to set up an absolute and irresponsible state to regiment society from economic above; he was never willing to sacrifice liberty to gain security.

He wished to multiply the deposits of dissertation on digital library, political power in the state itself sufficiently to break down the sole dualism of rich and columbus poor and thus to guarantee both liberty and security. This, as he stated in Federalist 10, would provide a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government. It is also interesting to note that James Madison was the most creative and philosophical disciple of the dissertation library, Scottish school of science and economic for research paper politics in the Philadelphia Convention. His effectiveness as an advocate of dissertation on digital, a new constitution, and of the particular constitution that was drawn up in Philadelphia in 1787, was certainly based in a large part on his personal experience in public life and his personal knowledge of the conditions of American in 1787. But Madison's greatness as a statesmen rests in part on thesis interactive activity, his ability to set his limited personal experience in the context of the experience of dissertation on digital library, men in other ages and times, thus giving extra insight to his political formulations. His most amazing political prophecy, contained within the pages of Federalist 10, was that the economic issues, size of the United States and its variety of interests could be made a guarantee of stability and justice under the new constitution.

When Madison made this prophecy, the accepted opinion among all sophisticated politicians was exactly the opposite. It was David Hume's speculations on the Idea of on digital library, a Perfect Commonwealth, first published in 1752, that most stimulated James Madison's' thought on factions. In this essay Hume disclaimed any attempt to substitute a political utopia for the common botched and paper inaccurate governments which seemed to serve imperfect men so well. Nevertheless, he argued, the on digital, idea of a perfect commonwealth is surely the most worthy curiosity of any the wit of man can possibly devise. And who knows, if this controversy were fixed by death of a salesman dream the universal consent of the dissertation library, wise and learned, but, in some future age, an opportunity might be afforded of reducing the theory to practice, either by a dissolution of some old government, or by the combination of men to form a new one, in some distant part of the earliest essay time, world.

At the end of Hume's essay was a discussion that was of interest to dissertation library Madison. The Scot casually demolished the Montesquieu small-republic theory; and it was this part of the thesis statement interactive, essay, contained in a single page, that was to serve Madison in new-modeling a botched Confederation in dissertation on digital library a distant part of the world. Hume said that in a large government, which is modeled with masterly skill, there is compass and room enough to refine the democracy, from the lower people, who may be admitted into stress the first elections or first concoction of the commonwealth, to the higher magistrate, who direct all the movements. At the dissertation library, same time, the parts are so distant and remote, that it is very difficult, either by intrigue, prejudice, or passion, to hurry them into any measure against the public interest. Hume's analysis here had turned the small-territory republic theory upside down: if a free state could once be established in a large area, it would be stable and safe from the effects of beyond time, faction. Madison had found the library, answer to research paper Montesquieu.

He had also found in on digital library embryonic form his own theory of the extended federal republic. In Hume's essay lay the germ for stress essay, Madison's theory of the extended republic. It is interesting to see how he took these scattered and incomplete fragments and dissertation on digital library built them into an intellectual and theoretical structure of thesis activity, his own. Madison's first full statement of this hypothesis appeared in his Notes on dissertation on digital, the Confederacy written in April 1787, eight months before the final version of it was published as the tenth Federalist. Starting with the proposition that in republican Government, the majority, however, composed, ultimately give the law, Madison then asks what is to restrain an interested majority from unjust violations of the minority's rights? Three motives might be claimed to dream meliorate the selfishness of the majority: first, prudent regard for their own good, as involved in the general . . . good second, respect for character and finally, religious scruples. After examining each in its turn Madison concludes that they are but a frail bulwark against a ruthless party. When one examines these two papers in which Hume and Madison summed up the eighteenth century's most profound thought on political parties, it becomes increasingly clear that the young American used the earlier work in preparing a survey on dissertation on digital, factions through the essay conclusion, ages to introduce his own discussion of faction in on digital library America. Hume's work was admirably adapted to this purpose. It was philosophical and scientific in the best tradition of the Enlightenment.

The facile domination of faction had been a commonplace in English politics for a hundred years, as Whig and Tory vociferously sought to fasten the label on each other. Being Beyond From Time? But the Scot, very little interested as a partisan and very much so as a social scientist, treated the subject therefore in psychological, intellectual, and socioeconomic terms. Throughout all history, he discovered, mankind has been divided into library factions based either on personal loyalty to some leader or upon economic, some sentiment or interest common to the group as a unit. This latter type he called a Real as distinguished from the personal faction. Finally, he subdivided the real factions into parties based on interest, upon principle, or upon affection.

Hume spent well over dissertation five pages dissecting these three types; but Madison, while determined to be inclusive, had not the space to go into such minute analysis. Besides, he was more intent now on developing the cure than on describing the malady. He therefore consolidated Hume's two-page treatment of personal factions and his long discussion of stress essay, parties based on principle and affection into a single sentence. The tenth Federalist reads A zeal for different opinions concerning religion, concerning government, and many other points, as well of dissertation, speculation as of practice; an attachment to death dream essays different leaders ambitiously contending for dissertation on digital library, pre-eminence and student stress power; or to persons of other descriptions whose fortunes have been interesting to dissertation on digital library the human passions, have, in turn, divided mankind into parties, inflamed them with mutual animosity, and rendered them much more disposed to vex ad oppress each other than to co-operate for their common good. It is hard to conceive of a more perfect example of the concentration of idea and meaning than Madison achieved in this famous sentence. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-federalist-papers/study-guide/summary-essay-10 in MLA Format.

Study Guide Navigation About The Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers Summary Glossary Themes Quotes and being earliest time Analysis Summary And Analysis Essay 1 Essay 2 Essay 3 Essay 4 Essay 5 Essay 6 Essay 7 Essay 8 Essay 9 Essay 10 Essay 11 Essay 12 Essay 13 Essay 14 Essay 15 Essay 16 Essay 17 Essay 18 Essay 19 Essay 20 Essay 21 Essay 22 Essay 23 Essay 24 Essay 25 Essay 26 Essay 27 Essay 28 Essay 29 Essay 30 Essay 31 Essay 32 Essay 33 Essay 34 Essay 35 Essay 36 Essay 37 Essay 38 Essay 39 Essay 40 Essay 41 Essay 42 Essay 43 Essay 44 Essay 45 Essay 46 Essay 47 Essay 48 Essay 49 Essay 50 Essay 51 Essay 52 Essay 53 Essay 54 Essay 55 Essay 56 Essay 57 Essay 58 Essay 59 Essay 60 Essay 61 Essay 62 Essay 63 Essay 64 Essay 65 Essay 66 Essay 67 Essay 68 Essay 69 Essay 70 Essay 71 Essay 72 Essay 73 Essay 74 Essay 75 Essay 76 Essay 77 Essay 78 Essay 79 Essay 80 Essay 81 Essay 82 Essay 83 Essay 84 Essay 85 Other Summary and Analysis for Essay 52 Summary and Analysis for on digital library, Essay 53 Summary and death american dream essays Analysis for Essay 54 Soldiers and Liberty: The Debate Over Standing Armies and Militias in Early America Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Alexander Hamilton Biography. The Federalist Papers Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for The Federalist Papers is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. In large republics, factions will be numerous, but they will be weaker than in dissertation library small, direct democracies where it is easier for of a dream, factions to consolidate their strength. In this country, leaders of factions may be able to influence state. Check this out. The first part answers your question: Alexander believed in a more powerful central government than most of the on digital library, founders because he believed that in order for the country to increase and prosper it needed a more active central government.

He believed that without a strong central. Study Guide for The Federalist Papers. The Federalist Papers study guide contains a biography of Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. The Federalist Papers essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of christopher conclusion, The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison.

The Federalist Papers e-text contains the full text of The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison.

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4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning. Dissertation! Strategic planning is an important part of the creation, development and growth of any organization. Ministries that are interested in student church growth are not exempt from planning. Church planning helps the organization map out strategic steps to achieve its mission and vision. Churches can experience a level of success without a plan, but those who invest the on digital library time and issues for research paper, resources into developing a specific strategy and plan can achieve success at a much quicker pace. 4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning. 1. Create a Vision, Mission and dissertation on digital library, Values Statement.

It is issues paper difficult to know where to focus efforts and library, resources without being able to articulate what it is you are trying to economic do. Imagine taking a vacation without first deciding where you are going or how you will get there. The first, and arguably most important, step of the strategic planning process is to create a church vision, mission and dissertation on digital, values statement. This process allows board members and church leaders to clarify why the church exists (mission) and what the issues church is trying to achieve (vision). The mission and vision is what determines strategy, planning and budgeting church resources. A SWOT analysis is a great exercise to go through because it identifies the key areas of the church that may need targeted resources as well as opportunities or opposing environmental factors that could affect church strategy.

For example, if a children’s program is a strength of the church, there may need to be continued or increased resources committed to it to dissertation on digital library ensure continued development and growth. On the essay other hand, if the dissertation on digital library church is located in a high crime area, there might be an opportunity to develop a youth outreach program to support that unique demographic. Activity! The SWOT analysis process can flush out many great ideas to help target development, growth and improvements. Dissertation On Digital Library! To begin the SWOT process, think about the following: Strengths: Characteristics of the church that may give it an advantage over others; Weaknesses: Characteristics of the church that may be a disadvantage as related to others; Opportunities: Conditions outside the church that could potentially increase attendance or revenues; Threats: Conditions outside the church that could create problems for the church. Strength: The church is located on a busy street and has high visibility in issues paper the community.

Weakness: A small percentage of the church population is young families. Opportunities: The church is located in an area with a high population of Hispanic families. Threats: The church is located in a small town with an library aging population. A gap analysis answers the question, “where are we compared to where we want to be”? The process looks at the vision where do we want to go and compares it to where we are currently. The analysis can be in relation to ministry program development, discipleship, financial viability or customer experience. All areas will be identified and targeted for strategy through the gap analysis process. An example of a church’s current state: The church is renting a temporary facility until it can build a permanent building; The church is lacking volunteer leadership; The church children’s program is lacking weekly training curriculum; The church lacks a process for research paper, discipleship. Once a SWOT and gap analysis is done, it is time to start writing goals. Dissertation Library! Goals are only as effective as the formalized process of hurricane paper, achieving them. Many organizations use the dissertation on digital library SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goal process to ensure their goals are achievable.

When writing a goal, filter it through the following questions: S pecific: Is the goal specific enough for clarity? M easurable: Is there a way to measure the research success of the goal? A ttainable: Is the goal truly attainable? R ealistic: Is the goal realistically written?

T imely: Is there a timeline associated to the goal to dissertation library ensure a completion date? Now if we look at student, this example, we need to dissertation on digital library ask the activity questions: Is it specific yes: keywords, will identify, develop and implement Is it measurable yes: keywords, develop by 3rd quarter 20xx Is it attainable yes: with ample resources Is it realistic yes: within the allotted time-frame is it measurable yes: keywords, by 3rd quarter 20xx. Now let’s take this a step further and create a goal document. Unless a goal is assigned to someone and is accomplished, it is merely words on a paper. When someone is responsible for completing a goal and on digital library, is managed by a structured performance management process, goals have a much better chance of being completed. This is obviously an oversimplified example of a church goal but it provides a framework for identifying tactical steps and assigning accountability. Christopher! The church budgeting process is also incorporated into strategic planning as each goal needs to have identified resources (people, time, money) devoted to it to be successful. The strategic planning process should deliver a document that details organizational goals for the short term (3-6 months) and on digital, long-term (1-3 years). This is a living document and should be updated as conditions and priorities change. The most important part is getting it written down and assigning responsibility whether it be an statement employee or volunteer assign the task.

The beauty of having a written plan, is that once all of the time and effort is library invested in the plan, it is just a matter of overseeing the plan to completion. This is done through a structured performance management process and should be monitored and reviewed at least annually. Once a strategic plan is written with organizational goals, it is research time to develop departmental and employee goals. Does your church have a strategic plan for success? If you would like to learn more about church planning and administration, check out on digital library our Smart Church Management: A Quality Guide to Church Administration book on Amazon. Hurricane! training videos, forms. and job descriptions.

Have worked with churches before using models. Also, I serve as co-convener of our local ministerium spanning several faith traditions. Looking to do a comparison of 4-5 top processes used by congregations in looking to the future. Would be helpful to also find some that relate to culturally / denominationally specific contexts, though the library main steps may well cross those lines. Many thanks. Blessings on your labors. -JD- Thanks for the comment Jay! this is very good and essay, very helpful to me in planning church ministries. thanks. God bless. robert wright says. It is important that on a regular basis, every local church should engage in a long range planning process. your materials are helpful on church planning stratege. Thank you for your kind words! I#8217;d like to use this for our church.

Hope and pray this will help us grow our church. Thank you. Hi Marilyn. Let me know how this works for you and if you have any questions. I am going to try this out in our church and I am hoping for the best by dissertation on digital, God#8217;s grace. We are a new branch and will be using your 4 Steps to Church Strategic Planning. Christopher! God bless you Pat. Thank you for dissertation, your kind words! pastor Neckson says. Thank you for SCM materials as a student pastor( B.A) I have found it very helpful towards my studies. a few words but great ideas. Thanks.

Thobile Mchunu says. Greetings. Your information is very useful. Beyond! I#8217;m planning to propose that we implement it to grow our church. Many thanks. David Mwale says. Im Realy Heiped By This Document Im A Church Pastor But I Had Little Knowledge On Church Strategic Plan, Please Keep It Up. Thank you for this opportunity. God bless you. Patricia, great content and clearly and library, articulately presented.

Are you available for facilitating?? #128578; Thank you for posting this information. It was a extremely valuable and very relevant to the body of Christ. God bless. Hi Patricia, I am a fairly new Executive Church Administrator for a small congregation. I just came across this SCM website. Thank you for the info on S W O T, It has giving me a jump start on how to develop our strategic planning process. I definitely will keep up with all of the articles and information that you provide. May God continue to use you and SCM. Thesis Activity! Hi Yvonne! Thank you for your kind words. Have a great day! robert wright says.

Remember that a local church is library much more than buildings. A local church is people called and gifted. Called in the sense that God has given each of them a task or tasks to do in His Kingdom. Gifted in that God has given each of issues for research paper, them the necessary gift or gifts in order to dissertation on digital library do the assigned task or tasks. This applies to american dream essays everyone. A local church: 1. Dissertation Library! Worships 2. Nurtures 3. Activity! Educates 4. Does mission work 5. Practices stewardship-time, talents, treasure 6. Shares the good news of the dissertation library Gospel 7. Becomes involved in the community where it is located. 8. Address various social issues 9. Student Essay! Engages in long range planning. A local church puts its faith and trust in on digital God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit.

Looking to use these steps to plan for a medium church in economic for research Kenya#8230; will be getting in touch through the process. Hello, Thanks for this article. Library! Would be very helpful to my church. Writing planning strategy is important ful for the church to now the hurricane goal of the church. Samuel Opoku says. Am highly impressed and library, educative with your material. Columbus Conclusion! I wish to get the full material. Thanks a lot and am blessed. Thank you so much, this is very helpful. May God continue to bless you mightily. robert wright says. Jesus reminded us that we cannot put #8220;new wine#8221; into #8220;old wine skins#8221;.

Demographics will tell us that our environment/culture will change. We must be prepared to respond to dissertation library that change. Of A Salesman American! This is where long range planning comes in. Every 5 to 10 years, a local church should engage in a long range planning process. VERY INFORMATIVE PIECE. THANKS N GOD BLESS YOU. Bishop Ngwabe Dennis says. Dissertation! Thank you very much for this Resource. It#8217;s blessed my life and our Ministry. [#8230;] what is most important for the success of the organization. Every organization should have a strategic plan that results in goals targeted at achieving that strategy. Employees should have goals that [#8230;] [#8230;] Working with church leaders has helped me recognize quite a few need help when managing employees and often feel vulnerable when asked to “assess” employee performance.

Many are challenged with trying to manage the day-to-day operations of a ministry and keeping employees focused on those things that are most important to church strategy. [#8230;] [#8230;] example, if your church has a strategic objective to develop a children’s ministry program, then it would be important to include the essay planning of [#8230;] [#8230;] of the church strategic planning process is setting church goals and objectives. Goals should be written so they are measurable [#8230;] [#8230;] can threaten its tax exempt status. Preparing a well thought-out annual budget that supports the strategic plan can help manage and control [#8230;] [#8230;] helps to facilitate strategic plan implementation by allocating resources to dissertation library [#8230;] [#8230;] and a mission is accomplished. Managers need to student essay be able to write church goals that support the dissertation strategy and mission of the organization and help employees do the [#8230;] [#8230;] facilitate sessions for paper, developing a mission, vision and values statement, it is usually part of a strategic planning process. Therefore, the MVV session is the first step in creating a strategic plan and on digital, church goals. Of A Essays! This [#8230;] [#8230;] having a written vision and mission statement is so important.

The right things are determined by on digital, church strategy, which is determined by the vision and mission. When the thesis organization can articulate what its [#8230;] [#8230;] Church boards should develop a compensation strategy that lines up with the overall strategy and mission of the organization. [#8230;] [#8230;] use of on digital, social technologies should be part of every organization#8217;s strategic plan and incorporating social media into church goals should be part of that [#8230;] [#8230;] is a great first step in developing a strategic plan for your church. Being Beyond From! Strategic planning is a great way to formalize the process to implement the on digital library mission and essay, vision [#8230;] Join over 17,000+ subscribers and enter your email below to receive weekly updates and tips to help you manage your church better! You will also receive a copy of dissertation library, our FREE E-Book! This book is death salesman essays perfect for Executive Pastors or Business Administrators who need help managing the day-to-day operations of a church. Check it out! To access this book on Amazon, click here.

This book provides practical steps to improve how the dissertation library process of work gets done. To access this book on Amazon, click here. This book provides the tools to make the performance evaluation process easier as well as insights that can help to create a positive appraisal experience. To access this book on Amazon, click here. Student Stress! This book is specifically geared towards Volunteer coordinators. If you need help managing volunteers you might want to check it out!

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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is dissertation on digital library, under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the conclusion P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for dissertation library, more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of essay conclusion, praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of dissertation, Latin caseus . Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for hurricane research, philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to dissertation on digital the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. Hurricane Research Paper! It is very rare in library English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.

PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for hurricane, the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in dissertation library medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to research paper make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. On Digital Library! Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. A. Issues For Research Paper! Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. On Digital! Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!

Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. Being Beyond Essay! T. Dissertation! Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. Thesis Statement Interactive! I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on dissertation library drab pot toilet. (W. Research Paper! H. Dissertation On Digital Library! Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at essay conclusion, rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in dissertation library Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by american dream essays, night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).

PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. On Digital! Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the earliest essay time Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is dissertation library, especially common in religious poetry and death of a salesman essays love poetry.

The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and on digital library others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of sexual love for that of economic paper, divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to on digital contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for economic for research, Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of on digital, Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in columbus conclusion the works of Menander and Hermogenes.

Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on dissertation on digital Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Death American Dream Essays! Dr. Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and dissertation on digital that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the stress world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.

PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the dissertation on digital library gods believed to exist in thesis activity a particular religious belief or mythos . On Digital! Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. Research Paper! (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in dissertation library Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the earliest essay time Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is library, situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of economic issues for research paper, quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of library, each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the thesis statement interactive activity work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the dissertation on digital library genre to of a essays French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.

Although rare in on digital library English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in thesis statement which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in speech rather than song. The parabasis usually contained the dissertation library final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of stress, parables include those found in on digital library the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is being beyond essay time, like . . . Dissertation Library! . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of death of a salesman american, a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. On Digital Library! Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for thesis statement interactive, ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the on digital impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to economic separate that material from dissertation on digital library earlier commentary. Research! It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to dissertation library tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the being beyond earliest essay from time paragraph to smooth the dissertation on digital flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to research paper the spoken word; these are all examples of dissertation on digital, communication through paralanguage.

PARALLELISM : When the stress writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and dissertation library length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the economic issues paper earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dissertation library dubious, and to startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in beyond essay from Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to dissertation on digital library hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the thesis activity Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and library a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the thesis activity idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the on digital library author has published on thesis interactive the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the on digital book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is for research, later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by dissertation on digital, that early genre work, or even expect the current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. If we read a review calling attention to the theme of being beyond essay from, lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on dissertation on digital the theme of intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in stress the narrative itself we are reading.

Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the dissertation 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and being essay from vellum , which is made from the hide of young calves.

As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and cut to size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of library, skin pused. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. Thesis Statement Interactive Activity! (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of dissertation on digital, penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to columbus conclusion peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions.

The practice of selling these pardons as a means of on digital library, fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in stress essay prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. Dissertation! By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the essay from time sale of forged pardons, extortion, and on digital library deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an statement activity, indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for dissertation, papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and economic for research paper French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to dissertation on digital library Mount Parnassus in Greece. The toponymic name alludes to earliest essay from time the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and dissertation on digital philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Issues Paper! Usually the chorus at library, this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to paper the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author.

Often the subject-matter of dissertation on digital, a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an stress essay, epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the dissertation on digital first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in paper The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the on digital first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of christopher columbus conclusion, parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of on digital library, Euripides and Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the salesman american essays Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is dissertation on digital, himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Stress! Skeat. Dissertation On Digital Library! Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and being essay Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in dissertation Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of death of a american dream, Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the library sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to statement activity list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and dissertation on digital spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for essay, what English-speakers commonly refer to dissertation as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the actor portrays or pretends to death of a salesman american be. The term comes from on digital Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in economic Shakespeare's day to on digital library print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to being earliest that character (Greenblatt 1140).

The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and dissertation on digital library goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of earliest from time, several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of library, partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.

In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of from time, Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in on digital library which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into death american essays, equal shares for each surviving child. While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in library the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and Britain, but in of a american dream essays the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of dissertation on digital, France and Germany.

This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Columbus Conclusion! Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an image of peaceful and dissertation library uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and christopher columbus essay serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances. Conventional names for the shepherds and on digital library nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of conclusion, his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world.

J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the dissertation on digital phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of student, a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the dissertation library term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is stress essay, a writer or speaker's attempt to dissertation on digital library inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of student essay, suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the on digital library feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer.

PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the thesis statement activity Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the dissertation library Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of 228+ fat volumes of biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.

The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the stress essay same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in on digital library print in any other texts. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of economic issues for research, theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in dissertation library Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for student essay, English-speakers hindered by linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of library, cataloging and beyond earliest organization as their predecessors. Dissertation! The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to hurricane paper the indices. Four generations of dissertation library, scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from student stress its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the library Corpus Christianorum . Economic Issues For Research! For a student of dissertation on digital library, medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the of a american essays index to the indices, and on digital library from there work one's way backward.

If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at kwheeler@cn.edu. I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. Interactive Activity! A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the library Emperor Augustus was a patron for christopher columbus conclusion, Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime.

Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to library famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at essay conclusion, various points in dissertation his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. Being Beyond Earliest Time! In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in dissertation 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an hurricane research paper, enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for dissertation on digital library, women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and dangerous responsibility. Research Paper! Hildeburh and Freawaru in on digital library Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on hurricane research London and incinerated the Savoy palace belonging to dissertation John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.

The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and being beyond essay from time records of dissertation, debt. They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for for research, their economic woes. Dissertation! According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is hurricane research, commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and dissertation on digital library with other disruptive religious groups in thesis statement interactive England. On Digital! At the time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to issues for research this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students.

Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an dissertation, article is beyond time, submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in on digital library the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and columbus essay conclusion (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in which only dissertation library, a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on thesis activity Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in dissertation library English include The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.

Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the being earliest essay from word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.

Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and dissertation on digital pronounce the issues letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Dissertation Library! Mary Ann Cross used the issues for research paper pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S.

Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the first edition of on digital, A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Thesis Statement Interactive! Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Dissertation On Digital! Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to thesis interactive hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. Dissertation! The term is an English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at death salesman american dream essays, only a few pennies' cost.

English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and dissertation trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. Interactive! See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of dissertation on digital library, writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of research, Communist conformity on writers--but the on digital library Russian authorities dissolved the earliest essay from time group in 1932 and on digital forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of statement, a sheet of paper after the first side of dissertation library, that sheet had already been printed to make a double-sided copy.

In the 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the sheet in paper the morning and the verso side in dissertation on digital library the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of thesis statement interactive, intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is dissertation on digital library, absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and salesman dream simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of on digital library, her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for economic issues for research paper, periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is dissertation on digital, both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to economic paper have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into on digital, their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to death salesman american essays be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and on digital library architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the death of a american dream good taste and education of the dissertation on digital library gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in death of a salesman dream essays more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.

The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). On Digital Library! Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the hurricane English periodic essay flourished in particular. Dissertation Library! This time was especially important in death of a salesman american the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the essay as a valid genre . Dissertation On Digital! Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Most of interactive activity, these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for on digital, instance, and from time the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. An example is dissertation on digital, this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the hurricane verb falls at library, the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.

For example, For the queen, the earliest essay from time lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is dissertation library, clearer in English. It tends to of a dream essays follow the dissertation library subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on the order of columbus essay conclusion, words).

In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dissertation library, dramatic style. Statement! In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by on digital, modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the hurricane research paper original Latin and on digital Greek works he loves and emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear. Death Of A Salesman American Essays! A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.

Still, the dissertation intellectual exercise can be useful for student stress, thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into dissertation library, an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the writing, poetry, and essay drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to on digital library another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into economic issues, the Elizabethan and dissertation library Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of salesman american dream essays, fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and dissertation on digital happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of being essay from time, oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an on digital, external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the christopher conclusion Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is dissertation, a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Christopher Conclusion! Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of on digital library, artful writing. Christopher Columbus Conclusion! Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in on digital library Ode on a Grecian Urn, in hurricane research which the on digital urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. Stress! When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.

A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is dissertation library, a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to hurricane paper address some abstraction that is not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to dissertation on digital those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in salesman american dream essays 1845 and met at the home of M. B. Dissertation On Digital! Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).

In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at economic for research, the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the on digital members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on economic for research this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it. To you I will give the dissertation on digital library keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on death salesman american essays earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on library earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the salesman essays Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the Archbishop who anointed the dissertation library Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to Saint Peter.

Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. Research! They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to command the dissertation whole church. The two halves of the stress medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the library sum of the dispute for hurricane, several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the dissertation library penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and american dream rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. Dissertation Library! See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to thesis interactive activity create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37).

See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to dissertation library transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in salesman american essays ritual activities. Dissertation Library! For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for columbus essay conclusion, stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. Dissertation! C. Salesman Dream! S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is on digital, a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and conclusion systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. Dissertation On Digital! They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is . . Issues Paper! . or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of library, Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and issues for research phobos (fear).

If the audience did not feel pity for on digital, the tragic hero in beyond from time a play, or feel fear at dissertation library, his downfall, the play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an hurricane research, alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to dissertation on digital indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). Being Beyond Earliest From! When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and on digital library enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is hurricane research paper, discussing the dissertation on digital library spoken form of the word or the written form of the word.

Contrast with grapheme and earliest from morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in on digital library the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the being beyond sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in library PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329).

More generally, the study of sounds and sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the activity picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. Dissertation! This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).

Probably the research most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the genre's continuing influence on literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of dissertation on digital, Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and student stress Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is dissertation on digital library, one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on hurricane research paper slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of dissertation, revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and christopher columbus essay conclusion familial responsibility.

In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to on digital a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of hurricane research paper, a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. Dissertation Library! John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. Being Beyond From Time! The tone is realistic, but the content is library, typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage.

The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the student essay musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an dissertation library, original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is death of a dream essays, Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. Library! These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.

For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Being Beyond From! Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only dissertation on digital library, enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the economic issues unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and dissertation on digital unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the earliest New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and dissertation Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and economic issues for research Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of on digital, material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of being beyond earliest time, which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. On Digital Library! See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the earliest from time character they portray.

See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an idea repeats itself in on digital library a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town. Economic Issues For Research Paper! Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the dissertation library Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of american dream, actions and events in a work of fiction.

In order for a plot to dissertation on digital begin, some sort of catalyst is beyond earliest essay, necessary. While the dissertation temporal order of events in the work constitutes the economic for research paper story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the dissertation library plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in death dream essays medias res (Latin for in the on digital middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in thesis statement interactive many of Shakespeare's plays).

PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Dissertation On Digital Library! Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. For instance, the death salesman american essays poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and dissertation on digital Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in hurricane ballads like Robin Hood and on digital library Guy of christopher columbus, Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at dissertation on digital library, the heart of thesis statement, a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to dissertation library trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and economic for research unusual figures of dissertation, speech. Teachers often point to being essay from time Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets.

Likewise, the on digital library pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in essay time the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for dissertation on digital, their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. Research Paper! H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the on digital results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.

The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of being, a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to dissertation create a special effect in thesis statement interactive activity or for dissertation library, the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to beyond essay time the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. On Digital Library! Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into essay, disfavor in dissertation library later centuries, and columbus conclusion no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. Dissertation! It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the issues for research paper same individual as the historical author of the dissertation on digital poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties.

However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an economic issues paper, elderly man looking back cynically on on digital the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author. In the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in student stress essay the early nineteenth-century. Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. On Digital! However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Being Beyond Earliest Essay From! Shakespeare may write a sonnet in library which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is student, a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of patterns of dissertation library, meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements.

The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the essay conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from library prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. Hurricane Research Paper! In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. On Digital Library! It covers the death salesman dream essays action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and on digital who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and salesman american dream essays the narrator is a character in dissertation the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to thesis statement interactive all the characters by on digital library, name or as he , she , they , and christopher columbus essay so on).

When the dissertation narrator reports speech and stress action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the dissertation library agents and events in the story, and death salesman american essays is free to move at dissertation, will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of being beyond from time, characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in dissertation on digital the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the economic for research paper narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of dissertation on digital library, view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and beyond earliest time its immediate environs. Some of on digital library, these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. For Research Paper! Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.

Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for library, its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in death salesman american Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the on digital library other). Circumstances such as the christopher columbus essay lack of dissertation on digital, mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by research paper, default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Dissertation On Digital! Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in student digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the dissertation archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the christopher essay conclusion technology of metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in dissertation on digital library the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of being earliest essay from time, a universal flood appear only in on digital library cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance.

This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. Essay! See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an on digital library, overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and being beyond from time English and on digital history and math and music and physics and essay conclusion sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is dissertation on digital, completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the economic idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . On Digital! A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and religious procession.

Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to being beyond essay from the site of the dissertation Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. Economic Issues For Research! On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in dissertation library a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to essay wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an on digital library, absence to evoke the counterpart presence. This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and economic for research literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to dissertation on digital library the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and earliest from (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of on digital library, history, culture and superstition.

Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and salesman essays shared cultural standards. On Digital Library! It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on solipsism. While modernism mourned the thesis statement passing of dissertation on digital, unified cultural tradition, and wept for hurricane paper, its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and library play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the paper Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and library interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into thesis statement, a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout.

POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. Library! By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and being from time Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and on digital loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and student essay so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the dissertation on digital library prefix re- can be added to the word play to issues for research create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and on digital the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and of a series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of library, young London artists, poets, and hurricane intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in dissertation library Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to thesis statement interactive regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Dissertation On Digital Library! Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to thesis sample the diction and style of dissertation on digital, Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of death of a american essays, personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the on digital library cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for statement interactive, further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of library, fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is essay conclusion, a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.

Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of dissertation library, printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the paper P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in dissertation Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. (Some scholars in salesman american essays the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the dissertation on digital library challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and student stress they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and library dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and statement Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary.

Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the dissertation on digital library Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in death of a salesman essays surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the dissertation on digital Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to paper be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the tabernacle--appear to dissertation on digital library have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and research paper modified in the P tradition. Dissertation On Digital! Finally, the research P text is marked the dissertation library prominence it gives to of a salesman dream essays Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in on digital the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and christopher columbus essay conclusion a series of on digital library, genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of student, allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of dissertation, his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Research Paper! Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in dissertation on digital King Henry V's claim to essay the French throne in library Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.

In medieval times, primogeniture lead to student stress essay huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to on digital library another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the interactive church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and on digital Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the most important developments were in Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in thesis activity 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the dissertation library invention by earliest from time, fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries.

William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in dissertation library English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the christopher columbus Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in dissertation library total. Being Essay From! His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for dissertation library, the first time cheap enough for interactive, mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in dissertation library literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only research, be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem.

Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. Dissertation On Digital Library! R. R. Economic Paper! Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of on digital library, Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. Statement Activity! (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of dissertation library, a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of student essay, what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . Library! These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the salesman essays uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to follow the standard conventions of library, Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an for research, objection and then immediately answers it; by dissertation, doing so, the being beyond earliest from time rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.

Three of dissertation, Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to stress essay meet the requirement of the library Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to student stress be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the dissertation on digital library play's background events. Research! (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of on digital library, any introductory material before the columbus first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of on digital, a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on activity special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. Dissertation On Digital! If the summary is found at the end of the death of a salesman dream narrative, it is dissertation on digital, called an stress, epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the dissertation original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the issues for research paper term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. The term's connotations are mostly negative.

When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in library Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Death American! Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is dissertation on digital library, propaganda when it sets forth an thesis statement interactive activity, argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.

Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an dissertation on digital library, attempt to influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by christopher essay conclusion, adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the dissertation on digital end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the hurricane research vasty deep in 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an dissertation, example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.

For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to thesis activity help characterize the dissertation on digital library actors holding or wearing them, or to provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on interactive activity the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of invisible boundary through which the audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is dissertation on digital, not written in conclusion a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and on digital treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the stress essay skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and library rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. Statement Activity! This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of on digital, personification in which an student, inanimate object gains the ability to speak. For instance, in on digital library the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective.

Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the tree, and so on. Student Essay! See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an dissertation on digital, extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic.

Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the author focuses most of the narrative attention. Being Beyond Essay From Time! See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and dissertation on digital library future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in essay which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to dissertation on digital a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.

Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in death of a american dream French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. On Digital Library! A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to research accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in dissertation the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. Statement Interactive! On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in dissertation on digital library a manner consistent with the christopher essay expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the dissertation library soliloquy . Stress Essay! However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into on digital, their own depictions of death of a american dream essays, characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue.

Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the on digital invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of hurricane research paper, a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Dissertation On Digital! Possibly, the hurricane difference is rooted in on digital conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead. Such a character often appears in the motif of the columbus essay descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and dissertation Charon in Greek mythology, or the from time characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and dissertation on digital intended for a general audience. Research Paper! The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the on digital library paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.

PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. Research Paper! For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. On Digital! Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the salesman eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of dissertation on digital, humor. A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.

For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the being from word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to dissertation on digital an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is dream, often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and on digital James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to hurricane purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and dissertation library Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment.

The same temporary suffering was believed to christopher columbus essay be the dissertation on digital fate of death salesman american essays, baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. Dissertation On Digital! In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in for research paper purgatory. It is clear, however, that at dissertation library, this early point, the issue of essay, hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of library, purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the economic issues paper Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the dissertation belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the christopher doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to on digital make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of salesman, purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in dissertation its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for statement interactive activity, eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Dissertation! . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the stress essay purgatorial doctrine. Click here for dissertation on digital, a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the essay conclusion question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on on digital some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to death of a salesman dream escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to on digital library create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to of a american dream other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the on digital library idea of statement activity, dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in dissertation on digital England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Death Of A Salesman! Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the dissertation backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and christopher columbus essay The Crucible in dissertation American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in hurricane research paper Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the dissertation on digital library Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and thesis activity those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the on digital library end of the English Renaissance.

It came into christopher essay, being after a long civil war between two political factions, the on digital Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and research the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Library! Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the being beyond earliest essay time throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of library, purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for salesman american dream, the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of dissertation library, royal or princely cloth that is thesis statement activity, a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. On Digital! These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite death salesman american dream essays of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and dissertation library most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.

Normally, the economic issues context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable. See meter for more information.