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Essays on determinism in American …
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Essays on determinism in American …
natural rights essay Photo: Paula Kupfer. Natural Rights, Cultural Rights, and the Politics of Memory. Andreas Huyssen | Columbia University. Human rights and memory discourses must be robustly linked with each other to add a necessary dimension of futurity to memory and in american literature, of history to human rights politics. Drawing on the early modern notion of natural rights, this paper asks to what extent ‘rights of nature’ need to be considered to nurture the tips for writing sustainability of human rights as social rights. I want to ask a simple question that defies easy answers: what do rights have to do with memory?
At the on determinism literature most simple level, one could argue that only memory of tips an effective cover, rights violations can nurture human rights regimes in essays on determinism in american, the future. Memory and human rights must be linked more robustly with each other discursively and practically to prevent memory from becoming a vacuous exercise feeding parasitically on ap us history questions, itself and to prevent human rights from literature, losing its historical grounding and risking legalistic abstraction and political abuse. As Walter Benjamin suggested (1969), the dead do have a claim on us, since we are, from their point of view, the coming generations. Resume! Nothing messianic about that. No need to talk about redemption. As Max Horkheimer argued (1993) against Benjamin’s theological temptation: the dead are dead and cannot be reawakened. But they do have a right to remembrance. This is in american literature a mark of human civilization, after all, long before the explicit articulation of human and persuasive, any other rights, and ever more so after this most murderous century of human history that we have left behind. In American Literature! Where would today’s international human rights movement be without memory of the killing fields of the 20th century? And yet, memory and rights discourses don’t blend easily. Debates about human rights and transitional or retroactive justice in law and political theory have too often remained separated by a deep gulf from discussions of memory and paper or present tense, historical trauma in the humanities.
This is surprising since one would expect these fields to be inherently complementary and mutually supportive. Yet there remains a fundamental tension between memory and the law. Restrictive limitations that have prevented a closer relationship exist on essays on determinism in american literature, either side of this discursive divide. Memory discourse is usually concerned with recent collective pasts and their effects on apa research paper or present, the present, but it lacks a strong normative dimension that would lead toward individual legal rights claims. Thus some legal scholars and political theorists have argued that memory of past injury can only be a weak substitute for justice. At the same time, however, legal proceedings, especially in cases of essays on determinism in american literature, retroactive justice after the resume end of dictatorships as in essays literature, Chile or Argentina, depend on individual memory to arrive at convictions. In addition, I would argue that what happens in tips for writing cover letter, courts also depends, though indirectly, on the strength of memory discourses in the public sphere—on films, media, literature, the literature arts, and education. The biblical demand to ap us history essay questions remember, so strong in contemporary worldly culture as a counterweight to rampant amnesia, is on determinism in american a moral demand which is not legally enforceable. Reasonably so, since were it enforceable, it would violate the right to forget. Memory itself always remains fragile and difficult to verify. Human rights, on the other hand, is Janus-faced: morality and law.
It shares the moral dimension with memory discourse which lacks the juridical. This is why there remains a fundamental tension between memory and rights discourse, and given contemporary culture’s often frivolous and exploitative obsessions with memory, one may legitimately ask whether memory helps or hinders justice. Photo! Not even to speak of cases where memory is literature used to incite violence as in Slobodan Milosevic’s Serbian propaganda campaign about the 1389 battle of Kosovo which was key in triggering the ethnic cleansing in paper past tense, Bosnia and Kosovo. The Croatian writer Dubravka Ugresic, in her book of essays The Culture of Lies (1998), has made the essays on determinism in american powerful argument that the apa research disintegration of Yugoslavia was characterized by literature the simultaneity of order paper online canada, a terror of forgetting and essays literature, a terror of memory. Human rights discourse, by paper or present contrast, makes strong normative legal claims in literature, the name of justice, but often ends up in ap us, an idolatry of abstract principles, thus ignoring the historical and political contexts which must be recognized and negotiated if a politics of human rights is to take hold in a specific country at a given time. Or it is abused as a political veil of particular interests, which critics of human rights often point to in order to discredit human rights claims altogether. Idolatry and literature, abuse are especially visible internationally in the facile equation of universal human rights with Western democracy. They are implicit in the notion that rights may spread from the US to other parts of the world once they reach a certain level of development. While the genealogy of the current international human rights movement goes back to European sources of natural law of the 17th and 18th centuries, its meaning is not exhausted by this origin which precedes the democratic revolutions of the US and apa research paper, France.
We must first acknowledge that democracy is essays in american literature neither a human right, nor is it inevitably identical with any ideal type human rights regime (Habermas 2009). To the extent that democracy operates with majority rule, it may violate the rights of minorities, a constellation rife with conflict especially in the years after World War I and its many newly formed nations and again in a different constellation after the end of the Cold War. We must also reject any teleological construction of modernity with its theory of cultural and political lag. From its early articulations in Europe on, the propagation of human rights was always coupled with their denial in colonial situations (few exceptions such as the Salamanca school notwithstanding). Thus rights in the colonial world inevitably had to turn against European domination. The question of rights has always been a question of power and asymmetrical relations. And yet, rights discourse conjures up a horizon of expectations that tends to surpass limited human rights practices. Struggles for individual, minority, and ethnic group rights in democratic and non-democratic countries alike abound in the world today and challenge both legal debates and political theory. A second political point must be registered.
The traditional idea of tips for writing letter, nationhood, as it developed during the on determinism in american Westphalian regime of sovereign nation states since the 17th century and characterizes political communities across the world until this day, is not inevitably conducive to the cultural or political rights of minorities. Ever since the Huguenot massacres in France, minority and cultural group rights have often been suppressed in Europe in the interest of enforcing the kind of religious or national homogeneity which is simply no longer adequate to our contemporary world--its flows of migration and cultural mixing, and the development of flexible citizenship. Ever more frequently, the claims of national majority cultures conflict with the rights of others within the nation: indigenous populations, descendants of slaves, disenfranchised groups, sexual minorities, and immigrants of tips an effective, all kinds. At the essays in american same time, a human rights regime entirely beyond states and nations is not yet imaginable today, even if some political theorists have begun to conceptualize a “global civil society” as opposed to world government (Weltburgergesellschaft; Habermas 2004; Benhabib 2002) . Despite certain forms of denationalization of citizenship (dual citizenship, EU passports, the granting of regional voting rights to non-citizens, etc), states do remain important legislators and guarantors of expanded rights, especially via constitutions, new regulations of citizenship and cultural rights, and tense, commitments to transnational organizations. Most rights struggles still play out within this context. On the essays in american other hand, however, new forms of de facto statelessness have developed in the context of ap us history essay 1920s, illegal migrations, the sex trade, and other new forms of slavery and essays on determinism in american literature, indentured labor. Ap Us Questions 1920s! This is particularly pertinent in the case of literature, “third country immigrants” to the EU and of Latin American and Chinese immigrants to the US. While human rights discourse aims at universality, a concept that has had powerful enemies for a long time, discourses about collective memory have typically been limited to national or regional situations, thus blocking insight into the ways a new transnational politics of memory has spread across the world since 1989 in conjunction with rights discourse and yet separate from it (exceptions to this trend: Levy and Sznaider 2006; Rothberg 2009). The idea of collective memory, as it circulates today, mostly relies on an anthropological notion of culture as homogeneous and closed or self-contained.
With the apa research paper or present expansion of rights since WWII, such notions of essays, national cultures as distinct and coherent units not subject to international rights claims have weakened. Tendencies toward globalization of finance, economics and migrations have created new networks that subvert traditional notions of national sovereignty. Still, discourses of lived memory will remain tied to specific communities and history questions 1920s, territories, even if the concern with memory itself has become a transnational phenomenon across the world. But even at the national level, memories are always in conflict with each other, more so nowadays than at on determinism in american literature, the highpoint of the Westphalian regime that first saw the invention of national traditions (Hobsbawm 1983). Memories clash just as rights claims confront each other.
The notion of collective memory only makes sense if we acknowledge that in any collectivity, there will inevitably be conflict and ap us history essay, struggle over memories. Such tensions and on determinism in american literature, conflicts are a key constituent of the public sphere in open societies and must ideally be subject to political recognition, democratic deliberation and negotiation. Key conflict areas today concern the rights of indigenous peoples, language rights, the inequality of gender, sexual rights, citizenship rights and political rights for immigrants. Hannah Arendt’s fundamental claim that there is a right to have rights (1951), a claim that goes back to the period between the two World Wars in which whole populations were denaturalized and deprived of individual and citizenship rights, has become a shaping political force in the contemporary world. Humanities debates about memory have been especially robust in their interpretive focus on cultural memory (Assmann 1995), trauma, testimony, and witnessing. Some have asked to what extent such a focus on apa research paper past, subjectivities, legitimate as it is, doesn’t risk losing sight of the political dimensions of rights discourse in the present and its implications for the future (Sarlo 2005). While this objection does have some force in relation to an overplaying of trauma in a poststructuralist and on determinism, psychoanalytic vein, I would argue that it is photo essays precisely the focus on the force of individual memories of rights violations that can keep human rights discourse from slipping too fast into abstraction and essays in american, ahistoricity. Human and cultural rights discourse must be supported by concrete cases of apa research paper past, rights violations read in the context of systemic conditions and essays on determinism in american literature, deep histories, and it can be supported by works of art that train our imagination to recognize what Susan Sontag (2003) called the pain of photo essays of americans, others and what classical Greek tragedy first articulated: Antigone not as a play about obligations to the dead, but about the rights of the living. Much of my own past work has been concerned with issues of essays literature, cultural memory in political context—memory articulations in the visual arts, architecture, and paper or present tense, literature which articulate the memory problematic aesthetically in all its fragility and complexity. The rootedness of memory studies in essays on determinism in american, the local may help counter the reproach that human rights, if not the concern with memory itself, is nothing but a Western imposition and imperial ploy.
At the same time, I feel that memory studies in the humanities have reached an impasse—too much of a good thing will eventually diminish the cognitive gain the field can provide. Therefore my argument: If memory studies in the humanities want to have a future, they need to forge a much more robust link with human rights, cultural rights and transitional justice discourse. Such a shift in focus will allow us to move away from an all too exclusive privileging of the past as subject of investigation (a natural for tips for writing cover, humanists) and to reclaim memory for present and future struggles about rights. Where rights have already merged with memory concerns via testimony and witnessing, a variety of practices of redress have emerged around different types of Truth Commissions that acknowledge local factors and are thus far from making universalist claims. Maybe the essays literature ongoing critique of persuasive speech, universalism has itself become a straw-man. Speaking from my field as a Europeanist, I would argue that such a shift from memory to rights is important in the European Union, but I believe it is essays on determinism literature pertinent in the Americas as well. Essays Of Americans! While the political reorganization of Europe into a partly post-national federal union certainly requires recognition of past injuries and histories, such concerns all too often veil human rights issues of today which have to do with immigration from literature, outside the EU, especially from the former colonies. Apa Research Or Present! It blocks out the troublesome systemic bifurcation of political and social rights, which separates EU citizens from so-called third country migrants. Thus I do not find it productive to claim, as some have done (Diner 2000), that a new European identity is being constructed around Holocaust memory. The dominance of the Holocaust in European memory debates actually hinders recognition of Europe’s colonial heritage, a moral and political necessity when dealing with immigration especially from Africa and Asia. It is indeed striking to see how within memory discourse itself, there has developed a debilitating conflict between Holocaust memory and the memory of colonialism.
Given the centuries-long trajectory of literature, colonial domination, the georgetown privileged focus on Holocaust memory in Europe results in a form of short-sightedness that carries with it an apologetic register of forgetting. Memories in contest with each other may well prolong grievances rather than overcoming them. This is the downside of memory competitions where one set of memories tries to displace or delegitimize another. Recognizing certain inherent limitations of both human rights and memory discourse may then indeed represent a first step toward overcoming the gap between them. The individual strengths of both fields must be mobilized to supplement each other in order to on determinism in american mitigate the deficiencies of either. Both are concerned with the photo of americans violation and protection of basic human rights and both must draw on history to do so. Both want to acknowledge, if not right wrongs committed in essays, the past, and both project and imagine a better future.
Both grew to a large degree out of legal, moral, and philosophical discourses about genocide and rights violations after World War II. Both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the UN’s Genocide Convention of 1948 were the rubric political result of remembrance (though not about memory as such since in their phrasing they both circumvented the ethnic and particularist dimension of the Holocaust)-- remembrance not only of the unspeakable genocides and forced population transfers of the first half of the 20th-century. But remembrance also of the on determinism legacies of the natural law tradition which predates democracy and was influential in the shaping of these UN documents. History of writing, human rights and on determinism in american literature, memory discourses. In my last book, Present Pasts (2003), I attempted to explain the rise of memory discourses since the 1980s in transnational context. There I argued that memory discourses of order, a new kind first emerged in the 1960s in the wake of decolonization and the new social movements with their search for alternative and revisionist histories. Walter Benjamin’s (1969) reflections on history and memory provided a theoretical screen for the long trajectory of an emergent focus on the politics of memory. The search for other traditions in literature, the postcolonial world and for the traditions of “others”, of minorities and ethnic groups in the West, radically challenged the idee recue of a homogeneous modernity, exemplified for order online, instance in ideas of universal progress and modernization, the essays on determinism North-American notion of the “melting pot,” or in the European understanding of national cultures as unitary, based on questions 1920s, language and in american, ethnic identity. Memory discourses accelerated in the early 1980s in the US and in Europe, energized then by the ever broadening debate about the Holocaust. Georgetown Resume! Historical anniversaries of Nazi rule, World War II and the victory of the allies were widely covered in on determinism literature, the international media, and they helped stir up post-World War II re-codifications of national history in Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and Central Europe after 1989.
But soon enough resonances of Holocaust and Third Reich memories spread beyond the Northern Transatlantic, attaching themselves to politically and historically very different events and situations in tips letter, post-dictatorship Latin America or in post-apartheid South Africa. Indeed, one can now observe something like a “globalization” of Holocaust memory, and it certainly has had an effect on the international human rights movement. The recurrence of genocidal politics in essays on determinism in american literature, Rwanda, Bosnia, and Kosovo in the allegedly posthistorical 1990s made Holocaust memory discourse pertinent for evaluating present-day events. It seemed as if the “never again” slogan was put to apa research or present the lie at a time when public Holocaust awareness had reached a peak. In the case of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and the organized massacres of Rwanda, comparisons with the Holocaust were at first fiercely resisted by on determinism in american politicians, the media, and much of the public, not because of the undeniable historical differences, but rather because of a basic unwillingness to intervene.
Public opinion changed in the late 1990s with Kosovo. Streams of refugees across borders, women and children packed into trains for deportation, stories of atrocities, systematic rape, and wanton destruction all mobilized a politics of guilt in Europe and the US associated with the appeasement politics of the 1930s. Holocaust memory helped legitimize NATO’s military intervention in Kosovo, but only years after the failure to intervene in a timely fashion in the Bosnian genocide of 1992. Srebenica and Rwanda marked an absolute nadir of the UN’s ability to prevent mass violence perpetrated by one ethnic group on another. The Kosovo intervention thus confirms the increasing power of public memory culture since the questions 1920s late 1990s, but it also raises difficult theoretical and political issues. How legitimate or even useful is it to use the Holocaust as universal trope for historical trauma, organized massacres, and ethnic cleansing?
What about the sanctity or limits of state sovereignty? And how justified is international humanitarian intervention on essays, the basis of Holocaust memory and post-Holocaust human rights politics? At any rate, it was in these specific political situations that rights and memory discourse intersected in reality itself in paper past or present tense, powerful ways, even if in literature, academic discourse they still went their separate ways. If the rise of memory discourse must be made intelligible by historical and political contextualization, we also need to understand the contemporary HR movement in its historical evolution and politically changing complexion. Thus political theorist Jean Cohen (2008) has talked about essays of americans three phases since the 1940s. A first wave developed after WWII in in american, recognition of the atrocities and tips an effective letter, massive human rights violations committed against civilians before and during the essays in american war; it was based on the revival of theories of online, natural law and moral rights in the face of the largely discredited legal positivism of an earlier time. It resulted in the Genocide convention and the UDHR. In a second wave, Cohen argues, HR discourse played a central role in anti-colonial projects of on determinism in american literature, liberation from the late 1940s on, in the internal weakening of the Soviet Empire in the 1970s, when the Soviet Union first accepted certain claims of HR discourse (the Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and ap us history essay questions 1920s, Cooperation in Europe, 1975), and with domestically led democratic transitions in Latin America in the 70s and 80s. Cohen writes: “Despite being largely exhortatory, the human rights declarations and covenants were an important normative referent for domestic civil society and social movement activists.” (2008; 580) The end of the Soviet Empire and the end of apartheid in South Africa shortly thereafter were major markers for the renewal and spread of civil society debates and rights implementations in many countries (esp. in Eastern Europe and Latin America). The third wave differs dramatically.
Since the on determinism in american literature end of the Cold War, human rights violations have been selectively invoked as a justification for the imposition of debilitating sanctions, military invasions and authoritarian occupation administrations by multilateral organizations and/or states acting unilaterally under the rubric of “humanitarian” intervention. Such interventions were typically justified as enforcement of international human rights law. The break-up of writing rubric, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and essays in american literature, Iraq are the pertinent though politically very different cases. Cohen thus distinguishes a traditional from paper, a more current political notion of on determinism literature, human rights. At stake here is the georgetown resume conflict between human rights and national sovereignty and the recognition that the essays on determinism in american literature nation state may no longer remain the persuasive rubric main and only guarantor of rights in a globalizing world at a time that has seen many new UN conventions regarding rights, the creation of a European Criminal Court and of the International Criminal Court. On Determinism Literature! The International Commission on paper online, Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) has perhaps gone furthest in limiting state sovereignty in its report of 2001, The Responsibility to essays on determinism Protect. While this report clearly came out order paper, of the failures of the UN in the 1990s, it is not clear to me whether the shift from humanitarian intervention (“military humanism” as some have called it) to R2P is actually more than a semantic shift, given that the potential protectors will inevitably still be the major powers that also led humanitarian interventions. In today’s situation, it seems to me, key dimensions of on determinism literature, each of these three waves are intermingled to different degrees, depending on differing constellations on the ground. Taken together, genocide, civil society, and humanitarian intervention shape a dense cluster of political and legal issues that call for specific analysis in each and every case. We should not let the abuse of “humanitarian intervention” blind us to the deeper histories of the online canada struggles for rights.
To Cohen’s account, one might even add a fourth dimension, which has emerged in recent years. It concerns the transformation of human rights discourse to highlight cultural rights claims pertaining to indigenous populations or descendants of slaves in essays, Latin America, Canada, or Australia. And it also arises around civil and social rights in the wake of new forms of writing rubric, immigration and diaspora. On Determinism! While Cohen’s third phase challenges traditional notions of state sovereignty by allowing for tips an effective cover letter, cross-border interventions, this fourth dimension claims cultural group rights within sovereign nations, but enters into conflict with the traditional notion of human rights as the rights of individuals and with a homogeneous self-understanding of nationhood. Essays On Determinism Literature! Thus it further destabilizes notions of national identity, especially when civil and social, sometimes even limited political rights are reasonably granted to non-citizen immigrants. Given the tensions between memory and the contemporary human rights regime, I am particularly interested in georgetown, the ways in which the human rights declaration of the post-WWII period derived its strength from an earlier natural law tradition.
In the 18th century, nature was a revolutionary battle cry in Europe and natural rights as rooted in natural law were claimed both by in american the American and photo essays of americans, French revolutions. They made it into the Declaration of Independence (1776) as “the unalienable rights” of essays in american literature, “life, liberty, and order online, the pursuit of essays, happiness.” And into the French Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen (1789) as “liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppression” (Article II). Of course it is well-known how the universal equality of men excluded slaves, women, and essay, colonial subjects and how property was considered sacred. But once articulated as a normative horizon such universal rights claims developed their own momentum against their limited application, not despite but because of their universal claims. With Hegel, one could speak of the cunning of on determinism literature, reason. And so it goes for recent decades. Photo Essays! Despite the fact that the UDHR lacks even a minimal enforcement mechanism such as a binding convention, and genocides have not ceased to happen, human rights and genocide discourses have gone global in essays in american literature, recent decades, and time and again they are tenuously linked with debates about memory and justice. The rise of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions is only one outward sign of the past or present linkage between memory and rights discourse. On Determinism In American Literature! At the same time, TRCs also reveal the paper or present tense inherent tensions between memory and justice regimes.
No rights are ever easily implemented or guaranteed. They can only result from always conflictual political deliberation and will rarely if ever offer easy solutions to conflicts and social problems. In some parts of the world human rights are disparaged as a Western imposition of essays, a culturally specific individualism serving imperial economic interests. While this reproach is not without merits, the radical critique of HR has been just as politically self-serving in non-democratic societies (think of the Asian values debate promoted by developmental authoritarian states such as Singapore or Malaysia in the early 1990s). I would argue that international human rights standards are legitimized less by the cultural background of European civilization than by resume the attempt to respond to the challenges of a social and economic modernity which has become global. Against a tendency to romanticize so-called non-Western forms of cultural diversity and to freeze-dry them in terms of cultural rights and traditional values, we must recognize that modernization affects all cultures and societies today. Essays In American Literature! The attempts to create a global human rights regime represent a response to a situation which does not permit an escape from modernity. The rise of modernity, however, was intimately linked to the emergence of natural law. Therefore I would suggest that we draw on the legacies of natural law which do have a European origin, but can map on to ideas about human dignity, liberty, and freedom from georgetown, oppression present in all cultures of the world. After all, it is no coincidence that the UDHR, passed by the international body of the newly founded UN, drew on the legacies of natural law rather than on culturally specific positive laws.
Then and essays in american literature, today natural law has certain conceptual advantages as ground for human rights debates even if, as Habermas has argued (2009) it must be recoded and put into the context of a deliberative reciprocal negotiation of rights within a given political community. At a time when human rights has been recoded as the ap us history questions right to humanitarian intervention and many aspects of the current human rights regime have come under suspicion of abuse, I want to suggest that, however limited in reach, a shift in discourse from human rights to natural law might help us rethink some basic propositions. Clearly there is no such thing as inborn natural law. The issue for me is not to resurrect the natural law tradition per se, but to mobilize some of essays on determinism, its parameters in order to critique abuses that sail today under the flag of human rights. I would suggest that there are five dimensions that make the natural law tradition still pertinent and highly suggestive in a philosophical sense: 1. Universal standards of essays, freedom from oppression, freedom from fear, and human dignity are not culture specific or per se Western, but found in all major cultures of the world. On Determinism In American! Precisely because it operates at a level of generality in its appeal to nature, natural law may be a better basis for cross-cultural negotiation than specific legal regimes that always carry the stench of domination and oppression with them.
As a concept, “Natural law” may thus restore an aspirational horizon of justice to human rights talk not despite, but precisely because of its ontological dimension. 2. Natural law, as framed in different European countries and at different times by Grotius, Hobbes, Thomasius, Pufendorf, and Locke, evolved out of new economic realities of an emerging capitalism and the struggle of a merchant bourgeoisie against paper canada the absolutist state, mercantilism, and a confining guild system. On Determinism! Remembering this grounding in political economy, natural law today can be linked to very differently structured issues of economic justice and resume, wealth creation of which class and racialized poverty remain important components. We can tactically use this tradition against the absence of economic rights in most HR discussions. Against the danger of essentializing “nature” as permanent and literature, unchanging, we may remember that the notion of nature is itself not fixed, but subject to historical and history essay questions 1920s, cultural change which may provide natural law with a welcome openness toward the future, especially at essays on determinism literature, a time when the rights of nature itself are increasingly part of the debate. 3. Natural law, as it has been interpreted by apa research tense philosophers such as Ernst Bloch (1975), is fundamentally political and attuned in a deep sense to specific historical conditions which are often ignored by on determinism in american contemporary human rights discourse in its apolitical humanitarian incarnation.
Its transformative politics today lie in challenging notions of sovereign nationhood and cultural homogeneity under the photo of americans pressures of globalization, migrations, climate change, and essays in american, new transnational cultural imaginaries. 4. The Natural law tradition encapsulates the right to one’s culture, language, and traditions, all of which ground human identities in historical flux. Apa Research Tense! Thus it sidesteps the conflict between individual and group rights so prominent today, and in american literature, it allows us to seek a mediation between them. Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried Herder has written compellingly about ap us essay this dimension in the 18th century when dominant identity patterns shifted from transnational and non-ethnic aristocratic identities to middle-class, ethnic, and national identities. In this recognition of the flows of essays on determinism, deep cultural histories, natural law may also help to online link memory to rights discourse. On Determinism In American! After all, the fact of history questions 1920s, memory as a human characteristic is as unalienable as the rights stipulated in democratic constitutions. Essays In American! 5. Natural law is sufficiently different from culturally diverse and often irreconcilable legal positivisms that it can be used to essays of americans criticize specific legal practices and refer us to some universal standard of on determinism, what is right. Order Paper Online Canada! This remains a major legacy of the natural law tradition and it can be used to criticize certain limited applications and political abuses of HR. Taken together, these five points show that philosophically and conceptually, there is a clear trajectory from natural law not only to human rights, but also to memory studies. The tactical advantage of mobilizing natural law for current debates is on determinism twofold: it might mediate the conflict between individual and group rights and, on history questions, another front, diminish the on determinism in american tensions between memory and rights discourse. This of course raises the question: can there be a legally enforceable right to memory just as there is a right to free speech?
It does not seem to make much sense to speak of a legal right to memory except perhaps in a context in which human beings might be technologically or genetically manipulated to forget. SciFi films like Blade Runner (1982) and Total Recall (1990) have addressed such issues. Only in such a situation would it make sense to speak of georgetown, a legal right to one’s own memory. Of course in on determinism, a certain dark view of global historical developments as articulated in Horkheimer and Adorno’s Dialectic of Enlightenment (2002) on the threshold between total war and the Cold war and long before genetic engineering, this kind of manipulation and the resulting destruction of georgetown, memory was compellingly though reductively analyzed as the project of the capitalist culture industry and its consumerist ideology. The threat to memory would indeed be a threat to essays in american human identity itself—identity always shaped by order a given time and space. Even if media of memory and the very place of memory in on determinism literature, a culture will differ greatly over time and space, Luis Bunuel was right when he said: “You have to begin to lose your memory, if only in bits and pieces, to realize that memory is what makes our lives. […] Our memory is our coherence, our reason, our feeling, even out apa research paper past or present, action. Without it we are nothing…” As an anthropological and historical given, memory, especially collective memory can therefore be related to what has come to be known as cultural rights. The notion of cultural rights, however, poses serious problems.
Following rights theorists like Seyla Benhabib (2004), I first want to essays on determinism in american reject the notion that cultural rights can be separated from paper past tense, individual rights. Certain cultural rights are already reflected in several provisions of international human rights law (freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, Art 18; freedom of expression, Art 19 of the UDHR). Cultural rights are also implicitly recognized in the Genocide Convention of 1948 in light of the fact that genocidal policies often are preceded by attacks on essays on determinism literature, an out-group’s culture. To make the paper online point that cultural and individual rights cannot be separated, it helps to recognize that individual autonomy is not given by nature, but emerges in reciprocal recognition of citizens embedded in a culture and engaged in social and essays on determinism in american, political relations. All individuality is inherently social. Past Or Present! Yet individual autonomy is often attacked in the name of community. So why do some insist on a separate category of communal cultural rights? The cultural rights movement has arisen recently around issues of minority and essays on determinism, first nations’ rights within nation states such as Canada or Australia, Colombia, Brazil and other Latin American countries. It can be seen as an expression of the growing emphasis on cultural diversity in an increasingly interconnected world, and persuasive speech writing, it is itself a transformation of earlier struggles, especially struggles for on determinism in american, land rights formerly often couched in Marxist terms. It is fundamentally tied to group identity politics and order paper online, often displays skepticism or even hostility toward individual rights discourse. On Determinism In American Literature! A major problem here is of americans that cultural rights discourse usually grounds itself in traditions of what colonialists called customary law.
Its claims thus go back more to lineal descent rather than responding to current needs. It can, of course, be seen as a legitimate reaction formation against globalization and the fearful prospect of cultural homogenization by financial capital, developmentalism, rampant consumerism and global English. Essays On Determinism Literature! By invariably siding with the local against the global, however, cultural rights discourse produces its own set of limitations. These become especially visible when cultural rights are mobilized not to make claims on behalf of marginalized groups (First Nations of Canada, indigenous peoples in the Amazon), but on behalf of states and state power. This happens in the international arena in attempts to counter alien influence, whether Western influence in Islamic societies or the effects of Islamic presence in Western societies.
And it happens within nations when cultural rights are called on paper, for conservative purposes on essays literature, behalf of a national culture vis-a-vis its immigrant communities. The German example of the Leitkultur debate is a good example of the latter and the European cultural claims against Turkish membership in the EU an example of the order paper online former. In both cases recognition of on determinism in american literature, cultural diversity is turned against diversity itself in photo essays of americans, order to favor the dominant culture. Essays! These politically very different claims of cultural rights operate on the basis of an obsolete unitary notion of culture. All cultures affected by modernity are invariably split, whether such splits operate in vertical ways (high vs. low culture) or in terms of privileging different media (print vs. music). Such stratifications will always be a site for struggle over meanings. They make palpable that you cannot have a meaningful discussion of cultural rights without considering individual social and political rights. Culture is not to be separated from the rights of the for writing an effective letter person, or the rights of citizenship.
If it is, it inevitably becomes constrictive, unitary, homogenizing, and exclusionary whether at on determinism literature, the national or the subnational level. Rather than overcoming the power problems inherent in tips for writing cover, national majority cultures, cultural rights claims as articulated by subnational groups may just reproduce these problems at another level. And yet, with Benhabib (2002) I recognize the claims of in american, culture, especially of language and photo essays of americans, the expressive values embedded in it, but I argue that cultural rights must be reconciled with the broader category of human rights or natural law. Anything else will lead to cultural oppression and legal relativism or worse. To construct an irreconcilable binary between universal human rights as rights of individuals only and cultural rights as the essays on determinism in american rights of ethnic or racial groups risks overruling the individual rights of group members in the name of culture. Photo Essays! Such arguments are always in danger of simply reproducing the problems of national cultures at the subnational level. It would be equally unacceptable, however, to ignore all cultural group claims by literature limiting rights to autonomous individuals only, as if autonomy could exist outside of social relations. Apa Research! Positing such a binary also reproduces the unproductive rift between liberal and communitarian or republican political theory rather than seeing the two as interrelated and in need of on determinism literature, mediation. Let me highlight the problem by a simple example: just as human rights include the right of exit from a nation or state, cultural rights must preserve the prerogative of an order paper individual born into a culture to leave it and to chose another. This dimension, not sufficiently addressed by the proponents of cultural group rights, is especially pertinent to women and other disenfranchised people in societies or ethnic religious groups that ascribe inferior legal status to them. Cultural rights discourse shares a problematic dimension with memory discourse, for it inevitably tends to pit the rights of one group against those of another, most interestingly today in the claims of indigenous peoples against essays on determinism literature the dominant culture of the nation within which they live where it may even lead to order paper a bifurcation between civil law and customary law as in some Latin American countries (e.g., Colombia).
This constellation finds its analogy in memory debates in competitive discussions of traumatic memories of pogroms, organized state massacres, and genocide. Here it is not a question of one group making legal claims against another that could be adjudicated in a court of law or in a deliberative political process. Memory culture is rather characterized by often vicious and resentful memory competitions that claim priority of one kind of traumatic memory over another, thus creating insidious hierarchies of suffering. Essays On Determinism! The most difficult and persuasive writing, contested of such memory competitions is the one between Holocaust memory and the memories of colonialism which seem separated today by what W.E. Dubois in essays on determinism in american, another context once called the color line.
In debates about the politics of memory, we must avoid such vertical hierarchy of past sufferings in which one kind of memory tries to supplant another. Order Paper Online! Here memory discourse can learn from legal developments. The negotiation of essays literature, indigenous rights within the framework of nation and photo, constitution, as it has slowly evolved in Canada or Colombia, may indeed provide a theoretical model for essays in american literature, reconciliation as opposed to ap us history essay irreconcilability and fierce competition. The task is to recognize a universal (and un-natural) dimension in systemic oppression and essays on determinism literature, human suffering rather than pitting one kind of memory against another. There is no doubt that in our time memory politics and human rights can be more intimately connected than ever. Persuasive Speech Writing! Indeed, it is a mark of human rights discourse today that it feeds on memory discourse while often disparaging it. The continuing strength of essays in american literature, memory politics remains essential for securing human rights in the future.
But as much as its presence is essential for establishing human rights regimes where they do not yet exist, we know that memory may also nurture human rights violations just as HR in some forms is open to political abuse. Mythic and imagined pasts are mobilized to support aggressively nationalist, fundamentalist, or religion-based politics (post-communist Yugoslavia, India). But even when memory does support human rights, we may want to paper online canada probe further. With the fading of the social and political utopias of the 20th century—the imagined futures of fascism, communism, and global capitalist modernization—and the mountains of corpses the dictatorships of this dark century have bequeathed to on determinism our remembrance, it sometimes seems as if too much of the struggle for human rights focuses on righting past wrongs via redress or restitution claims. Securing the past may be as perilous an undertaking as trying to secure the paper online future via utopian projections. If human rights activism were to become a prisoner of the past and of memory politics, it would only mean that it will always have come too late. But if it becomes prisoner of globalization the outcome will be equally problematic. Let me conclude with a note on immigration, a rights issue that concerns me greatly as a dual citizen of Germany and essays, the US.
I have argued elsewhere that Holocaust and colonialism discourse should be considered as related to essay 1920s each other rather than remaining reciprocally hostile. But the linkage of Holocaust and colonialism should also be extended to the contemporary problem of immigration politics in the leading Western nations. Algeria and Morocco are for essays in american, France, what India and Pakistan are for England; Indonesia for Holland; the Muslim countries formed out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire for Europe and for the US. Immigration politics displaces the for writing problem of on determinism, colonial rule in postcolonial times to the former colonial powers themselves. This creates new constellations which are articulated and used in for writing an effective, the contexts of pasts that refuse to disappear: the Turks as the new Jews of Germany; neo-colonial rule in the banlieue of Paris; little Guantanamos in the dispersed for-profit detention centers for “illegal,” mostly Latin American immigrants in the US. In both Europe and the US, the color line does not only exist in on determinism in american literature, certain discourses antagonistic to each other, but in social reality itself.
Given the urgency of such problems, we need artistic works that challenge the lingering of racialized and displaced colonial practices in for writing an effective cover, the metropole itself, works that in their aesthetic figuration can do justice to the complexity of the situation. Let me conclude with one recent example, local in one way here in Latin America, but global in essays on determinism in american, a more important dimension: Doris Salcedo’s Shibboleth , a 2008 installation in London’s Tate Modern. In this work, the theme of immigration as exclusion and denial of rights is articulated in relation to language and visuality as a widening crack in the floor all along the Tate’s old turbine hall. The concrete walls of the crevice are ruptured by a steel mesh fence, not the barbed wire of the persuasive speech writing rubric Nazi camps, but the steel mesh of today’s border fortifications and the concrete of the essays literature walls intended to tense keep the barbarians outside—whether in Israel or at the Mexican-American border. Shibboleth is the essays on determinism in american biblical word that cannot be pronounced correctly by the foreigners and that divides the world into friend and foe with deadly consequence.
Biblical past and the contemporary present clash in this work which reflects in powerful visual and architectural language on the continuities between colonialism, racism, and essays of americans, immigration. The arc does not only lead from the Holocaust and colonialism to on determinism literature Bosnia, Rwanda and Darfur, but also to history questions 1920s migration and the practices of a denial of rights and of fundamental asymmetries of power among human beings that will perhaps one day become part of a politics of memory. One wishes it were that already now. Andreas Huyssen is the essays on determinism in american literature Villard Professor of German and Comparative Literature at Columbia University. For Writing An Effective! He is founding director of Columbia’s Institute for Comparative Literature and Society (1998-2003) and one of the essays in american founding editors of New German Critique (since 1974), the persuasive speech writing rubric leading journal of German studies in the U.S. His books include After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism (1986), Postmoderne—Zeichen eines kulturellen Wandels , co-edited with Klaus Scherpe (1986), Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995), and Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of Memory (2003). He is the editor, most recently, of Other Cities, Other Worlds: Urban Imaginaries in a Globalizing Age (2008). His work has been translated into many languages worldwide. Arendt, Hannah.
1973. The Origins of Totalitarianism . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Assman, Jan. 1995. Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. New German Critique 65: 125-134. Benhabib, Seyla. 2002. The Claims of Culture . Princeton: Princeton UP. Benhabib, Seyla. 2004.
The Rights of Others . New York: Cambridge UP. Benjamin, Walter. 1969. “Theses on the Philosophy of on determinism in american literature, History,” in Ill uminations . New York: Schocken Books. Bloch, Ernest. 1975. Naturrecht und menschliche Wurde . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Cohen, Jean L. 2008. Rethinking Human Rights, Democracy, and Sovereignty in the Age of speech writing rubric, Globalization. Political Theory 36 (4): 578- 606. Diner, Dan. Essays Literature! 2000.
Beyond the Conceivable: Studies on Germany, Nazism, and the Holocaust . Essays Of Americans! Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Habermas, Jurgen. 2004. Der gespaltene Westen . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Habermas, Jurgen. 2009. “Zur Legitimation durch Menschenrechte,” in Die Politische Theorie . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Hobsbawm, Eric J. and Terence O. Ranger, eds.
1983. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Horkheimer, Max. 1993. “Beginnings of the Bourgeois Philosophy of History,” in Between Philosophy and Social Science. Massachusetts: First MIT Press Paperback edition. Horkheimer, Max and Theodor W. Essays On Determinism Literature! Adorno. 2002. Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Huyssen, Andreas.
2003. Present Pasts: Urban Palimpsests and the Politics of essays, Memory . Essays On Determinism Literature! Stanford: Stanford University Press. Levy, Daniel and speech rubric, Nathan Sznaider. Essays In American Literature! 2006. Holocaust Memory in the Global Age . Philadelphia: Temple University. Rothberg, Michael. 2009. Multidirectional Memory . Tense! Stanford: Stanford UP. Sarlo, Beatriz. 2005.
Tiempo pasado: cultura de la memoria y giro subjetivo: una discusion . Argentina: Siglo XXI Ediciones. Sontag, Susan. Essays In American Literature! 2003. Regarding the Pain of resume, Others . New York: Picador. Ugresic, Dubravka. 1998.
The Culture of essays literature, Lies: Antipolitical Essays . University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press. Copyright © 1998–2017 Hemispheric Institute of tips cover, Performance and Politics.
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What Does Research Say About Assessment? R.J. Dietel, J.L. Herman, and R.A. Knuth. NCREL, Oak Brook, 1991 Assessment may be defined as any method used to better understand the current knowledge that a student possesses. Essays On Determinism In American? This implies that assessment can be as simple as a teacher's subjective judgment based on a single observation of student performance, or as complex as a five-hour standardized test.
The idea of georgetown, current knowledge implies that what a student knows is always changing and essays on determinism literature that we can make judgments about student achievement through comparisons over a period of time. Assessment may affect decisions about grades, advancement, placement, instructional needs, and curriculum. The reasons why we assess vary considerably across many groups of people within the educational community. * Monitor the quality of education. * Reward/sanction various practices. * Direct resources including personnel and money. * Determine effects of tests. * Identify program strengths and ap us history weaknesses. * Designate program priorities. * Plan and improve programs.
* Perform individual diagnosis and prescription. * Monitor student progress. * Carry out curriculum evaluation and refinement. * Provide mastery/promotion/grading and essays on determinism in american other feedback. * Assess student strengths and georgetown resume weaknesses.
* Determine school accountability. * Make informed educational and career decisions. Billions of dollars are spent each year on education, yet there is widespread dissatisfaction with our educational system among educators, parents, policymakers, and the business community. Efforts to reform and restructure schools have focused attention on the role of in american, assessment in school improvement. Apa Research Paper Past Or Present Tense? After years of increases in essays on determinism literature the quantity of formalized testing and the consequences of poor test scores, many educators have begun to strongly criticize the measures used to online canada monitor student performance and essays on determinism in american literature evaluate programs.
They claim that traditional measures fail to assess significant learning outcomes and georgetown thereby undermine curriculum, instruction, and policy decisions. The higher the stakes, the greater the pressure that is placed on teachers and administrators to devote more and more time to essays on determinism in american prepare students to do well on the tests. Ap Us Essay? As a consequence, narrowly focused tests that emphasize recall have led to a similar narrowing of the essays on determinism in american curriculum and emphasis on rote memorization of facts with little opportunity to practice higher-order thinking skills. The timed nature of the tests and their format of one right answer has led teachers to give students practice in responding to artificially short texts and selecting the best answer rather than inventing their own questions or answers. When teachers teach to traditional tests by ap us history providing daily skill instruction in formats that closely resemble tests, their instructional practices are both ineffective and potentially detrimental due to on determinism their reliance on outmoded theories of learning and instruction. Characteristics of rubric, Good Assessment. Good assessment information provides accurate estimates of student performance and on determinism in american literature enables teachers or other decisionmakers to make appropriate decisions. The concept of resume, test validity captures these essential characteristics and the extent that an assessment actually measures what it is essays on determinism, intended to georgetown resume measure, and permits appropriate generalizations about students' skills and abilities. For example, a ten-item addition/subtraction test might be administered to essays literature a student who answers nine items correctly. If the test is valid, we can safely generalize that the student will likely do as well on similar items not included on the test.
The results of a good test or assessment, in short, represent something beyond how students perform on a certain task or a particular set of for writing cover, items; they represent how a student performs on the objective which those items were intended to assess. Measurement experts agree that test validity is tied to essays in american literature the purposes for which an assessment is used. Thus, a test might be valid for one purpose but inappropriate for other purposes. For example, our mathematics test might be appropriate for assessing students' mastery of addition and subtraction facts but inappropriate for identifying students who are gifted in mathematics. Evidence of validity needs to be gathered for each purpose for paper online canada, which an on determinism in american assessment is used. A second important characteristic of good assessment information is its consistency, or reliability.
Will the assessment results for cover, this person or class be similar if they are gathered at some other time or under different circumstances or if they are scored by different raters? For example, if you ask someone what his/her age is on three separate occasions and in three different locations and the answer is the same each time, then that information is considered reliable. In the context of performance-based and essays on determinism in american literature open-ended assessment, inter-rater reliability also is essential; it requires that independent raters give the same scores to a given student response. Other characteristics of good assessment for classroom purposes: *The content of the tests (the knowledge and skills assessed) should match the teacher's educational objectives and instructional emphases. *The test items should represent the full range of knowledge and skills that are the primary targets of instruction. *Expectations for student performance should be clear. *The assessment should be free of extraneous factors which unnecessarily confuse or inadvertently cue student responses. (For example, unclear directions and contorted questions may confuse a student and confound his/her ability to demonstrate the skills which are intended for assessment.
A math item that requires reading skill will inhibit the performance of speech writing rubric, students who lack adequate skills for comprehension.) Researchers at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) are developing an on determinism in american literature expanded set of ap us, validity criteria for in american literature, performance-based, large-scale assessments. Assessment researchers Bob Linn, Eva Baker, and Steve Dunbar have identified eight criteria that performance-based assessments should meet in order to paper or present tense be considered valid. Criteria for Valid Performance-Based Assessments. Multiple-choice measures have provided a reliable and essays in american literature easy-to-score means of georgetown, assessing student outcomes. In addition, considerable test theory and on determinism statistical techniques were developed to support their development and use.
Although there is now great excitement about performance-based assessment, we still know relatively little about methods for designing and validating such assessments. CRESST is one of many organizations and schools researching the promises and order paper canada realities of such assessments. Findings from Cognitive Psychology. Analysis of Traditional Views. Methods of assessment are determined by our beliefs about learning. According to on determinism in american literature early theories of learning, complex higher-order skills had to be acquired bit-by-bit by breaking learning down into a series of prerequisite skill, a building-blocks-of-knowledge approach. It was assumed incorrectly that after basic skills had been learned by rote, they could be assembled into ap us history questions 1920s complex understandings and insight. However, evidence from contemporary cognitive psychology indicates that all learning requires that the learner think and actively construct evolving mental models. From today's cognitive perspective, meaningful learning is reflective, constructive, and self-regulated. People are seen not as mere recorders of factual information but as creators of their own unique knowledge structures.
To know something is essays on determinism in american literature, not just to have received information but to have interpreted it and related it to other knowledge one already has. In addition, we now recognize the persuasive rubric importance of knowing not just how to perform, but also when to perform and how to adapt that performance to new situations. Thus, the presence or absence of discrete bits of information-which is typically the focus of traditional multiple-choice tests-is not of primary importance in the assessment of meaningful learning. Rather, what is essays on determinism literature, important is how and whether students organize, structure, and use that information in order online context to solve complex problems. Contrary to past views of learning, cognitive psychology suggests that learning is not linear, but that it proceeds in many directions at once and at essays on determinism an uneven pace. Conceptual learning is not something to be delayed until a particular age or until all the basic facts have been mastered.
People of all ages and ability levels constantly use and refine concepts. Furthermore, there is tremendous variety in the modes and speed with which people acquire knowledge, in the attention and memory capabilities they can apply to knowledge acquisition and performance, and in the ways in which they can demonstrate the personal meaning they have created. Current evidence about the nature of learning makes it apparent that instruction which strongly emphasizes structured drill and practice on discrete, factual knowledge does students a major disservice. Learning isolated facts and skills is more difficult without meaningful ways to resume organize the information and make it easy to remember. Also, applying those skills later to solve real-world problems becomes a separate and more difficult task. Because some students have had such trouble mastering decontextualized basics, they are rarely given the opportunity to essays on determinism in american literature use and develop higher-order thinking skills. Recent studies of the integration of learning and motivation also have highlighted the importance of affective and metacognitive skills in learning. For example, recent research suggests that poor thinkers and persuasive speech writing problem solvers differ from good ones not so much in the particular skills they possess as in their failure to use them in essays in american certain tasks. Acquisition of knowledge skills is not sufficient to speech rubric make one into essays on determinism in american a competent thinker or problem solver.
People also need to acquire the disposition to use the skills and strategies, as well as the knowledge of when and how to apply them. These are appropriate targets of assessment. The role of the social context of learning in shaping higher-order cognitive abilities and dispositions has also received attention over the past several years. It has been noted that real-life problems often require people to work together as a group in problem-solving situations, yet most traditional instruction and assessment have involved independent rather than small group work. Now, however, it is postulated that groups facilitate learning in several ways: modeling effective thinking strategies, scaffolding complicated performances, providing mutual constructive feedback, and valuing the elements of critical thought. Group assessments, thus, can be important. Since the georgetown resume influence of essays, testing on curriculum and instruction is now widely acknowledged, educators, policymakers, and others are turning to alternative assessment methods as a tool for educational reform. The movement away from traditional, multiple-choice tests to georgetown resume alternative assessments-variously called authentic assessment or performance assessment-has included a wide variety of strategies such as open-ended questions, exhibits, demonstrations, hands-on execution of experiments, computer simulations, writing in many disciplines, and portfolios of student work over time.
These terms and assessment strategies have led the quest for more meaningful assessments which better capture the significant outcomes we want students to on determinism in american achieve and better match the kinds of tasks which they will need to accomplish in order to assure their future success. Trends Stemming from the Behavioral to Cognitive Shift. *Students are involved in setting goals and rubric criteria for assessment. *Students perform, create, produce, or do something. *Tasks require students to use higher-level thinking and/or problem solving skills. *Tasks often provide measures of metacognitive skills and attitudes, collaborative skills and intrapersonal skills as well as the more usual intellectual products.
*Assessment tasks measure meaningful instructional activities. *Tasks often are contextualized in real-world applications. *Student responses are scored according to specified criteria, known in advance, which define standards for good performance. While assessment has the potential to improve learning for all students, historically it has acted as a barrier rather than a bridge to educational opportunity. Assessments have been used to label students and put them in dead end tracks. Traditional tests have been soundly criticized as biased and unfair to minority students. And, the assessment of language minority students has been particularly problematic.
A key point regarding equity as applied to on determinism performance-based assessment is made by georgetown Yale Professor Emeritus Edmund Gordon. We begin with the conviction that it is desirable that attention be given to questions of equity early in the development of an assessment process rather than as an add-on near the end of essays on determinism, such work. The task then is to find assessment probes (test items) which measure the same criterion from contexts and perspectives which reflect the life space and values of the persuasive speech learner. Robert Linn says, The criterion of in american literature, equity needs to be applied to resume any assessment. It is a mistake to assume that shifting from standardized tests to performance-based assessments will eliminate concerns about biases against racial/ethnic minorities or that such a shift will necessarily lead to equality of performance. Although many at-risk students come to school deficient in prior knowledge that is important to school achievement, teachers and schools can make a substantial difference through the construction of assessments that take into account the vast diversity of today's student populations. Gaps in performance among groups exist because of differences in in american literature familiarity, exposure, and motivation of the rubric subjects being assessed. Substantial changes in instructional strategy and resource allocation are required to give students adequate preparation for complex, time-consuming, open-ended assessments. Providing training and support for teachers to essays literature move in essays these directions is essential. Questions of essays, fairness arise not only in the selection of performance tasks but in essay the scoring of in american literature, responses.
As Stiggins has stated, it is critical that the scoring procedures are designed to assure that `performance ratings reflect the order paper online canada examinee's true capabilities and essays on determinism in american literature are not a function of the perceptions and biases of the paper past or present tense persons evaluating the performance.' The same could be said regarding the perceptions and biases of the persons creating the test. The training and calibrating of raters is critical in this regard. Social Organization and Assessment. What we know about performance-based assessment is limited and there are many issues yet to be resolved. We do know that approaches which encourage new assessment methods need the broad-based support of the community and school administration. Like any change in schools, changes in assessment practices will require:
* Strong leadership support. * Staff development and training. * Continuing follow-up and support for change through coaching and mentoring. * Environments that support experimentation and risk-taking. As schools move toward more performance-based assessment, they also will need to come to some resolution on on determinism in american a number of issues, among them that performance-based assessments: *Require more time to develop. *May limit content coverage. *Require a shift in teaching practices. *Require substantial time for essay questions 1920s, administration. *Lack a network of colleagues for sharing and developing.
*Require new methods of aggregating and reporting data. *Require new viewpoints about essays on determinism in american literature, how to history essay 1920s use for comparative purposes. The examples of excellence in this program clearly show that in successful. schools, teaching is a multidimensional activity. One of the most powerful. of these dimensions is that of teacher as researcher.
Not only do teachers. need to use research in their practice, they need to essays participate in action research in which they are always engaging in investigation and striving for improved learning. Canada? The key to action research is to literature pose a question or goal, and then design actions and evaluate progress in a systematic, cyclical fashion as the means are carried out. Below are four major ways that you can become involved as an action researcher. 1. Use the checklist found at the end of this section to evaluate your school and. 2. Implement the models of excellence presented in this program. Ask yourself: *What outcomes do the teachers in this program accomplish that I want my students to achieve?
*How can I find out more about their classrooms and schools? *Which ideas can I most easily implement in my classroom and school? *What will I need from my school and community? *How can I evaluate progress? 3. Form a team and writing initiate a research project. A research project can be. designed to generate working solutions to a problem.
The issues for your. research group to address are: *What is the problem or question we wish to solve? *What will be our approach? *How will we assess the effectiveness of our approach? *What is the time frame for working on this project? *What resources do we have available? *What outcomes do we expect to achieve?
4. Investigate community needs and essays on determinism in american literature integrate solutions within your class. activities. Relevant questions include: *How can the community assist in student assessment? *What is the community's vision of learning that defines what should be assessed?
*How will the community benefit from improved assessment techniques? *What kind of relationships can my class forge with the community? 5. Establish support groups consisting of school personnel and community. members. Resume? The goals of these groups are to: *Share teaching and learning experiences both in and out of school. *Discuss research and theory related to on determinism in american learning. *Act as mentors and coaches for one another.
*Connect goals of the community with goals of the school. Activities for Schools, Parents, and order online Community Members. The following are activities that groups such as your PTA, church, and local Chamber of Commerce can do together with your schools. 1. Visit your school informally for discussions using the checklist on page 23. 2. Consider ways that schools and community members can work together to. *Materials for a rich learning environment (e.g., real literature in in american literature print and audio form, computers) in which authentic assessment can occur. *Opportunities for students and teachers to learn out of school. *Opportunities for students to access adults as role models, tutors, aides, and experts as they engage in self assessment. *Opportunities for students to provide community services such as surveys, newsletters, plays, and apa research past tutoring.
*Opportunities for students to participate in community affairs. *Opportunities for administrators, teachers, or students to visit managers and company executives to learn how assessment occurs in in american literature the `real' world. 3. Promote school and community forums to debate the photo essays national education goals: *Invite your local television and radio stations to essays host school and community forums. *Have revolving school/community breakfasts (community members visit schools for breakfast once or twice a month, changing the staff and photo essays of americans community members each time). *Gather information on the national education goals and their assessment. *Gather information on alternative models of schooling. *Gather information on best practices and research in the classroom. * Examine the vision of performance assessment set forth by CRESST. *Invite teachers who are involved in performance-based assessment in your area to discuss the changes being recommended by CRESST. Some of the important questions and essays issues to discuss in your forums are:
*Have we reviewed the national education goals documents to arrive at a common understanding of each goal? *What will students be like who learn in georgetown schools that achieve the goals? *What must schools be like to achieve the goals? *Do we agree with the goals, and how high do we rate each? *What is the reason for national pessimism about their achievement? *How are our schools doing now in terms of achieving each? *Why is it important for us to achieve the goals? * What are the consequences for our community if we don't achieve them?
*What assumptions are we making about the future in essays literature terms of Knowledge, Technology and order online Science, Humanities, Family, Change, Population, Minority Groups, Ecology, Jobs, Global Society, and Social Responsibility? Discuss in terms of on determinism literature, each of the goal areas. 4. Consider ways to writing use this program guidebook, Alternatives for Measuring. Performance, to promote understanding and on determinism commitment from school staff, parents, and speech writing community members.
Checklist for Excellence in Assessment. The items below are based on best practices of the teachers and researchers in. Program 4. The checklist can be used to look at current practices in your. school and to essays in american literature jointly set new goals with parents and community groups. *Meaningful learning experiences for students and school staff. *Students encouraged to make decisions about their learning and to assess their own performance. *Restructuring to promote learning in and out of school. *High expectations for learning for all students. *A community of problem solvers in ap us history questions 1920s the classroom and in the school.
*Teachers and essays in american administrators committed to achieving the national education goals. Curriculum and Instruction. *Identification of core concepts. *Curriculum that calls for a comprehensive repertoire of learning and assessment strategies. *Collaborative teaching and learning involving student-generated questioning and sustained dialogue among students and between students and photo teachers. *Teachers assessing to build new information on student strengths. *Authentic tasks in the classroom such as solving everyday problems, collecting and essays in american literature analyzing data, investigating patterns, and keeping journals. *Opportunities for students to engage in learning and essays of americans assessment out of school with community members. *Homework that is challenging enough to be interesting but not so difficult as to cause failure. *Assessments that respect multiple cultures and perspectives.
*A rich learning environment with places for children to engage in sustained problem solving and on determinism in american literature self assessment. *Instruction that enables children to develop an understanding of the purposes and methods of assessment. *Opportunities for children to decide performance criteria and method. *Assessment that informs and is integral to georgetown resume instruction. *Assessment sessions that involve the essays on determinism literature teacher, student, and parents.
*Performance-based assessment such as portfolios that include drafts, journals, projects, and problem-solving logs. *Multiple opportunities to be involved in heterogeneous groupings, especially for students at risk. *Public displays of student work and rewards. *Methods of resume, assessing group performance. *Group assessments of teacher, class, and school. *Opportunities for teachers to attend conferences and meetings on assessment. *Teachers as researchers, working on literature research projects.
*Teacher or school partnerships/projects with colleges and tips for writing universities. *Opportunities for teachers to observe and coach other teachers. *Opportunities for teachers to try new practices in a risk-free environment. Involvement of the Community. *Community members' and essays in american literature parents' participation in assessing performance as experts, aides, guides, or tutors. *Active involvement of community members on task forces for curriculum, staff development, assessment, and other areas vital to learning. *Opportunities for teachers and photo essays of americans other school staff to visit informally with community members to discuss the life of the school, resources, and greater involvement of the community. Policies for Students at Risk.
*Students at risk integrated into the social and academic life of the school. *Policies/practices to display respect for multiple cultures and role models. *A culture of fair assessment practices. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Videotapes on Assessment (ten videotapes available separately or as a set of essays on determinism literature, ten). Order Paper Canada? Contact IOX Assessment Associates, 5420 McConnell Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90066, (213) 822-3275. Airasian, P. W. On Determinism In American? (1991). Ap Us History Essay 1920s? Classroom Assessment.
New York: McGraw-Hill. Easy-to-read book on basic assessment theory and practice. Includes information on performance-based assessments that will be of special interest to teachers. Perrone, V. (Ed.). (1991). Expanding Student Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Major emphasis on better ways to assess student learning. Wittrock, M. Essays On Determinism? C., Baker, E. L. (Eds.). (1991). Testing and Cognition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Series of photo, articles from distinguished assessment researchers focusing on current assessment issues and the learning process.
The following reports on assessment are available from the National Center for Research on essays on determinism in american literature Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Contact Kim Hurst (310) 206-1512 to order reports. For other dissemination assistance, contact Ronald Dietel, CRESST Director of Communications at (310) 825-5282. Or write to: CRESST/UCLA Graduate School of Education, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1522. Analytic Scales for paper, Assessing Students' Expository and Narrative Writing Skills CSE Resource Paper 5 ($3.00). These rating scales have been developed to essays on determinism literature meet the need for sound, instructionally relevant methods for assessing students' writing competence. Knowledge of students' performance utilizing these scales can provide valuable information for assessing achievement and facilitating instructional planning at the classroom, school, and essays of americans district levels. Effects of Standardized Testing on on determinism Teachers and Learning - Another Look. CSE Technical Report 334, 1991 ($5.50).
This study asks what are the effects of standardized testing on georgetown resume schools, and the teaching and learning processes within them? Specifically, are increasing test scores a reflection of a school's test preparation practices, its emphasis on basic skills, and/or its efforts toward instructional renewal? The report investigates how testing effects instruction and what test scores mean between schools serving lower socioeconomic status (SES) students and those serving more advantaged students. Complex, Performance-Based Assessments: Expectations and Validation Criteria. CSE Technical Report 331, 1991 ($3.00). This report suggests that just because performance-based measures are derived from actual student performance, it is on determinism in american literature, wrong to past or present assume that such measures are any more indicative of student achievement than are multiple-choice tests.
Therefore performance-based measures need to meet validity criteria. The authors recommend eight important criteria by in american literature which to judge the validity of new students assessments, including open-ended problem-solving, portfolio assessments, and computer simulations. Guidelines For Effective Score Reporting. CSE Technical Report 326, 1991 ($3.00). According to this report: Despite growing national interest in testing and assessment, many states present their data in such a dry, uninteresting way that they fail to generate any attention. The authors examined current practices and recommendations of state reporting of resume, assessment results, answering the question how can we be sure that the vast collection of test information is properly collected, analyzed, and implemented? The report provides samples of a typical state assessment report and a checklist that can be used for essays, effective reporting of test scores. State Activity and Interest Concerning Performance-Based Assessments. CSE Technical Report 322, 1990 ($2.50). This report found that half the history essay 1920s states had tried some form of essays literature, alternative assessment by the close of order paper canada, 1990. Testing directors from various states with no alternative assessments cited costs as the most frequent obstacle to establishing alternative assessment programs.
This report suggests that getting around the financial problem may involve spreading the cost over other budgets, such as staff development and curriculum development; testing only a sample of students; sharing costs with local education agencies; or rotating the subjects tested across years. Achievement test An examination that measures educationally relevant skills or knowledge about such subjects as reading, spelling, or mathematics. Age norms Values representing typical or average performance of essays on determinism, people of certain age groups. Authentic task A task performed by students that has a high degree of similarity to tasks performed in the real world. Average A statistic that indicates the central tendency or most typical score of a group of scores. Most often average refers to persuasive writing the sum of a set of essays on determinism in american, scores divided by apa research past or present tense the number of scores in the set. Battery A group of carefully selected tests that are administered to a given population, the results of which are of value individually, in essays on determinism combination, and totally. Ceiling The upper limit of ability that can be measured by a particular test. Criterion-referenced test A measurement of achievement of specific criteria or skills in terms of absolute levels of mastery. The focus is on performance of an individual as measured against a standard or criteria rather than against performance of others who take the same test, as with norm-referenced tests. Diagnostic test An intensive, in-depth evaluation process with a relatively detailed and narrow coverage of a specific area.
The purpose of apa research paper or present tense, this test is to essays determine the specific learning needs of individual students and to be able to meet those needs through regular or remedial classroom instruction. Dimensions, traits, or subscales The sub-categories used in evaluating a performance or portfolio product (e.g., in evaluating students writing one might rate student performance on subscales such as organization, quality of content, mechanics, style). Domain-referenced test A test in ap us history essay which performance is measured against a well-defined set of tasks or body of knowledge (domain). Domain-referenced tests are a specific set of on determinism, criterion-referenced tests and have a similar purpose. Grade equivalent The estimated grade level that corresponds to paper past a given score. Holistic scoring Scoring based upon an overall impression (as opposed to traditional test scoring which counts up specific errors and subtracts points on the basis of them). In holistic scoring the essays on determinism in american literature rater matches his or her overall impression to history essay questions the point scale to see how the portfolio product or performance should be scored. Raters usually are directed to pay attention to particular aspects of a performance in assigning the overall score. Informal test A non-standardized test that is designed to give an approximate index of an individual's level of ability or learning style; often teacher-constructed.
Inventory A catalog or list for assessing the absence or presence of certain attitudes, interests, behaviors, or other items regarded as relevant to a given purpose. Item An individual question or exercise in on determinism literature a test or evaluative instrument. Norm Performance standard that is established by a reference group and that describes average or typical performance. Usually norms are determined by testing a representative group and then calculating the group's test performance. Normal curve equivalent Standard scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of approximately 21. Norm-referenced test An objective test that is standardized on a group of individuals whose performance is evaluated in relation to photo of americans the performance of essays in american literature, others; contrasted with criterion-referenced test. Objective percent correct The percent of the order items measuring a single objective that a student answers correctly. Percentile The percent of people in the norming sample whose scores were below a given score.
Percent score The percent of items that are answered correctly. Performance assessment An evaluation in which students are asked to engage in essays in american literature a complex task, often involving the creation of a product. Student performance is rated based on the process the student engages in and/or based on the product of his/her task. Many performance assessments emulate actual workplace activities or real-life skill applications that require higher order processing skills. Performance assessments can be individual or group-oriented. Performance criteria A predetermined list of observable standards used to rate performance assessments. Effective performance criteria include considerations for validity and reliability. Performance standards The levels of achievement pupils must reach to receive particular grades in a criterion-referenced grading system (e.g., higher than 90 receives an A, between 80 and 89 receives a B, etc.) or to be certified at particular levels of tips for writing an effective cover letter, proficiency. Portfolio A collection of representative student work over a period of time. A portfolio often documents a student's best work, and may include a variety of other kinds of process information (e.g., drafts of student work, student's self assessment of in american literature, their work, parents' assessments). Portfolios may be used for evaluation of a student's abilities and improvement.
Process The intermediate steps a student takes in reaching the final performance or end-product specified by of americans the prompt. Process includes all strategies, decisions, rough drafts, and rehearsels-whether deliberate or not-used in completing the given task. Prompt An assignment or directions asking the student to undertake a task or series of tasks. A prompt presents the context of the situation, the problem or problems to be solved, and criteria or standards by which students will be evaluated. Published test A test that is essays in american, publicly available because it has been copyrighted and order paper online published commercially. Rating scales A written list of performance criteria associated with a particular activity or product which an essays on determinism in american observer or rater uses to assess the pupil's performance on each criterion in terms of its quality.
Raw score The number of items that are answered correctly. Reliability The extent to paper past or present which a test is essays in american, dependable, stable, and consistent when administered to the same individuals on different occasions. Technically, this is a statistical term that defines the extent to which errors of measurement are absent from a measurement instrument. Rubric A set of guidelines for giving scores. A typical rubric states all the dimensions being assessed, contains a scale, and helps the rater place the given work properly on paper the scale. Screening A fast, efficient measurement for a large population to identify individuals who may deviate in essays a specified area, such as the georgetown incidence of maladjustment or readiness for academic work. Specimen set A sample set of testing materials that is available from a commercial test publisher. The sample may include a complete individual test without multiple copies or a copy of the in american basic test and administration procedures.
Standardized test A form of tips an effective cover, measurement that has been normed against a specific population. On Determinism Literature? Standardization is obtained by administering the test to a given population and then calculating means, standard deviations, standardized scores, and percentiles. Equivalent scores are then produced for comparisons of an individual score to the norm group's performance. Standard scores A score that is expressed as a deviation from a population mean. Stanine One of the steps in a nine-point scale of standard scores. Task A goal-directed assessment activity, demanding that the student use their background of knowledge and an effective cover letter skill in essays a continuous way to solve a complex problem or question. Validity The extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure. Validity indicates the degree of accuracy of either predictions or inferences based upon a test score.
Airaisian, P.W. (1991). Classroom assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill. Baker, E. Persuasive Speech Rubric? L. (1991, September). On Determinism? Alternative assessment and national education policy. Paper presented at the symposium on Limited English Proficient Students, Washington, D.C. Charles, R., Lester, F., O'Daffer, P. (1987). How to evaluate progress in problem solving. Rubric? Reston, VA: National Council of on determinism in american literature, Teachers of history essay, Mathematics. Daves, C.W. (Ed.). (1984).
The uses and essays in american misuses of tests. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. Diamond, E. E., Tuttle, C. Order Paper? K. (1985). Sex equity in testing. In S. S. Klein (Ed.), Handbook for achieving sex equity through education.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Ebel, R. L., Frisbie, D. A. (1991). Essentials of essays on determinism, educational measurement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Flavell, J. H. (1985). Persuasive Speech Writing? Cognitive development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Gardner, H. (1987, May). Developing the spectrum of human intelligence. Harvard Educational Review, 76-82. Gould, S. J. (1981). The mismeasure of man. New York: Norton and Co. Illinois State Board of Education. (1988). An assessment handbook for Illinois schools. Springfield, IL: Author. Lindheim, E., Morris, L.L., Fitz-Gibbon, C.T. Essays On Determinism In American? (1987).
How to measure performance and persuasive speech writing rubric use tests. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Linn, R. L., Baker, E. L., Dunbar, S. B. (1991). Complex, performance-based assessment: Expectations and essays literature validation criteria. (SCE Report 331). Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST). Nenerson, M. E., Morris, L. L., Fitz-Gibbon, C. Writing? T. (1987). How to essays on determinism in american measure attitudes. History Essay 1920s? Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Paris, S. G., Lawton, T. A., Turner, J., Roth, J. (1991). A developmental perspective on standardized achievement testing. Educational Researcher, 20 (5).
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in essays on determinism in american literature children. New York: Norton and Co. Popham, W.J. (1981). Modern educational measurement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Myers, M. Paper Canada? (1985). The teacher researcher: How to study writing in the classroom. Urbana, Illinois: National Council of Teachers of English. Smith, M. L. (1991).
Put to the test: The effects of external testing on teachers. Educational Researcher, 20 (5). Stiggins, R. J. (1991, March). Assessment literacy. Phi Delta Kappan. 72 (7). Tierney, R.J., Carter, M.A., Desai, L.E. (1991). Portfolio assessment in the reading-writing classroom. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. Wiggins, G. (May 1989).
A true test: Toward more authentic and equitable assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 703-713. Wise, S. Essays Literature? L., Plake, B. S., Mitchell, J. V. (Eds.). (1988). Applied measurement in education. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Wolf, D., Bixby, J., Glenn, J. Order Canada? G., Gardner, H. (1991). To use their minds well: Investigating new forms of student assessment. In G. Grant (Ed.), Review of essays in american, research in education (No.
17). Apa Research Paper Past Or Present? Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association. Content and general comments: email@example.com Technical information: firstname.lastname@example.org. Copyright © North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. All rights reserved.
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10 tips to beat writer’s block with your resume. If you are writing your own resume, it can be a frustrating task, to say the least. Even if you are confident in your writing abilities and how you want to sell yourself in essays on determinism in american literature, print, sometimes writer’s block looms like an unwelcomed cloud on an otherwise bright day. Here are 10 tips to get those writing juices flowing! Writer’s block happens to even seasoned writers. There are simply times when the words just don’t seem to come together. Times when a writer feels stuck and tips for writing cover can’t think of anything to write. Times when the writer knows what is intended, but can’t articulate in words that intention in a succinct, clear and on determinism compelling manner. And of course when writing your resume, you want to ap us sell—not tell. You want to do so in as few words as possible.
You want to strategically format and wordsmith so less says more. And you want to convey a clear focus to a targeted audience. And—sometimes this is the most daunting of all—you have to sell YOU! So, it’s natural to feel blocked. On Determinism In American? Over 20-plus years as a career coach and writer, I’ve had it happen … well, more times than I count. I have found some useful ways of dealing with the challenge. I hope you find them helpful! Follow a routine – Follow a routine to get in the writing mood. Try activities like wearing comfortable clothing, having fresh flowers on your desk, or listening to a particular type of music.
Take a break. Speech Writing Rubric? Get a snack or drink, talk to on determinism in american literature someone, pet the dog, or just relax for resume, five minutes before starting to write again. In American Literature? Physically move around, stretch, or walk. Experiment. Try to write in different places, at different times, and with different writing instruments (yes, I know most of apa research paper, us are at essays literature, the keyboards these days). Tips For Writing Cover Letter? Switch projects. If you’re burned out and can’t finish one piece of work, switch to another. Often putting the work in progress to the back of your mind helps. The subconscious mulls it over while you are consciously working on something else.
Free-write. Choose one sentence in the resume and write a paragraph about it. Essays On Determinism? Then choose one sentence from that paragraph and do it again. You can also freewrite about questions something non-related to the resume. Simply write whatever comes to your head. If you can’t think of anything, write that you can’t think of essays on determinism in american literature, anything. Ap Us 1920s? A good recommendation is if all else fails, describe what is around you. Cluster – Choose key words and ideas; then write associated ideas and words in clusters around them. This process often forms new ideas.
Be flexible. Be willing to essays in american throw out order online canada sections of text or design aspects that are causing problems or just don’t work. Essays Literature? Give up perfectionism – It is paralyzing . . . and totally self-inflicted. If you want to write – just write. Much of what you write, you’ll edit out anyway, so just write! And as hard as it may be, relax. Breathe deeply. The more you worry, the harder it gets to think clearly.
Write your way out ap us questions 1920s of the block – Write the on determinism in american, parts you know how to write first. You may gain an insight that will help you work out cover letter your problem area. At the same time, you’ll avoid compounding your problems and extending the “block” with frustration. Re-read Read a print draft of the resume and on determinism in american jot down ideas while reading. One of the most frustrating things about writer’s block is that it’s not like a bacterial infection that you can just cure. You can get writer’s block again and again.
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Descriptive Essay About A Person Essays and Research Papers. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . Essays In American? essays strive to create a deeply involved and vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and descriptions. What do you want to describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for you to identify exactly what you want to describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of. Adjective , Creative writing , Essay 2299 Words | 7 Pages.
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? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the on determinism in american, descriptive essay “Homeless” because the 1920s, narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. you. Are there any specific details that stand out in your mind?
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Cynthia Morris – Descriptive Essay There is a quote that says: Mothers are angels who teach their children how to paper online canada fly. Essays On Determinism Literature? . Indeed my mother was an angel who in my younger years I thought was sent here to torture me especially when I wanted to paper hang out on determinism in american, with my friends instead of doing chores or homework. My mother was the pillar of strength, love, and rubric, compassion. Mothers may be misunderstood but that doesn’t mean they don’t care or know better. My earliest memories of my mother, was her pretty. Anxiety , Family , Father 861 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast Essay: Narrative and Descriptive Essays.
Compare and literature, Contrast Essay Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction Academicians argue that, a powerful reader paints a picture . on a reader’s mind. Writing effective different types of essays is increasingly becoming a critical organ of academic success (Feng Checkett, 2014, p. 152). Speech Rubric? There are two major types of essays , narrative and descriptive . While the two might be appropriate in academic writing, one is arguably effective that the on determinism literature, other. Narrative essays tells a story from personal. Essay , I Know Why the online canada, Caged Bird Sings , Maya Angelou 1036 Words | 6 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book “Les Essais”. In French term “essais” means “try” or “experience”. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to on determinism literature each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides.
Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. How to Write a Descriptive Essay More than many other types of essays , descriptive . essays strive to create a deeply involved and rubric, vivid experience for the reader. Great descriptive essays achieve this affect not through facts and statistics but by using detailed observations and essays in american literature, descriptions. Paper? What do you want to in american describe? As you get started on your descriptive essay , it's important for history 1920s, you to in american identify exactly what you want to tips for writing cover describe. Often, a descriptive essay will focus on portraying one of.
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115 date Essay 1 Do You Want to Build a Snowman? Is incredible all that a piece of paper can reflect about someone life, . these pieces of paper illustrated by essays of americans, characters or passages can be meaningful for us, all the essays in american, memories this brought to people minds, those wonderful papers are called pictures. When we thought of pictures we just take those for granted. The images shown in pictures tell us more than one thing at once, it depends on everyone perceptions about it and the feeling about speech others to. 2008 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 935 Words | 3 Pages. PREDRAFTING: In June of 2009 right after father’s day I found out that I was pregnant with my first and on determinism literature, only child, which brought so much joy to my life.
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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the in american, salaries they do? The answer is essays, that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. Essays In American Literature! A lot of history questions people assume that companies recruit MBAs for on determinism their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. Order! While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out there in on determinism absolute (there are a myriad of grad and PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in essay questions the MBA classroom. I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. Literature! In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an photo, MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA.
Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. In American Literature! I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the order paper online, incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will. Kellogg wants to in american interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. For Writing Cover Letter! That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the on determinism in american literature, same thing via their Personal Expression Essay.
Chicago Booth and speech writing rubric, MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for in american the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to paper past see what you, the essays in american, unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation. As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and tips an effective letter, recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to every question the on determinism in american literature, Adcom could possibly put to him during an interview. He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question. He spoke rapidly and incessantly in a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of coaching from me was able to ‘undo’ the for writing cover, damage and it resulted in some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools.
He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in in american literature the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an paper online, additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. Essays On Determinism In American Literature! The questions are designed to bring to life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to tips for writing cover complete two Video Essay Questions.
One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to know about Kellogg’s video essay: After you submit your application to Kellogg, the video essay will become available to you in essays on determinism in american your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to cover letter complete the video essay. If you submit in Round 1 you need to complete the essay by October 2nd, if you submit in Round 2 you need to submit by on determinism, January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you.
Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to speech writing 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface. When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the question and then one minute to respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the essays in american literature, first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in order paper pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you?
This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to prepare the question prior to their video interview. Here is on determinism, how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to an effective interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Essays On Determinism In American! Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about history questions 1920s what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on on determinism, them.
Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. For Writing Cover! Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is on determinism in american, where you really want to bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Georgetown Resume! Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years.
III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence. Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. The goal of literature practicing should be to improve your ability to think and paper canada, speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of on determinism in american yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry. Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of paper canada them at first glance.
There are 2 questions in every section. Essays On Determinism In American Literature! Take some time to actually practice looking at a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to essays prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to essays in american literature answer. Then go back and watch the video of paper yourself. What path are you interested in in american literature pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience?
For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to ap us history essay questions work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is essays on determinism in american literature, where you really want to bring the charm and speech writing rubric, your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute.
2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle. 4. If you could keep one of essays in american literature your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you? 8. History Essay! When you leave your job for essays on determinism in american literature b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Essay! Tell us about on determinism literature someone you admire, and why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and apa research paper past or present tense, how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about a time when you were on essays in american, a team and online, there was disagreement among team members.
What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10. Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. In American! Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the apa research or present tense, world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of floor lights and on determinism literature, perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. You’ll need two key lights and one fill light.
The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from both the photo essays of americans, left and the right). Essays On Determinism Literature! The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the of americans, top of your head and shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on on determinism literature, film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at history questions BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is essays in american, more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to stay away from persuasive speech writing windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Notice how the right side of this person’s face is lit up and essays on determinism in american, the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the history essay questions, window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in on determinism literature the office, look for a small space without a lot going on in the background.
The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the ap us essay questions 1920s, entire office. Essays On Determinism! Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and persuasive speech rubric, other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by essays in american literature, a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. Persuasive Speech Writing Rubric! The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and stenciling on the wall. The shot is from too far away – ideally you want just your head and essays on determinism literature, shoulders visible. Finally the candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/
I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Personally I use Thunder Gray for paper canada my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in essays on determinism in american mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to an effective look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for any shade of in american literature gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of some of the colors Savage offers. Paper Canada! If you want to achieve the effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. So you’ll have to essays on determinism literature add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to your ring light set-up. Georgetown Resume! The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine.
In general you want to avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to on determinism dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to have one focal color in essays the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and women are going to essays literature want to tips letter choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to your neck or collar bone.
The video essay is essays on determinism literature, supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in persuasive writing the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to essays literature look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to wear to cover an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Essays On Determinism In American Literature! I’d ditch the for writing letter, suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix.
Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Essays In American Literature! Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to georgetown give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of essays literature your head and shoulders. Thin and georgetown resume, flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in literature a head and apa research paper past or present, shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck.
You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. Essays Literature! While that might seem too casual to georgetown wear to an interview, on literature, camera it will look clean and tips for writing, the solid material will make you pop. Cashmere is essays on determinism in american, another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and ap us essay questions, I am so excited to be going to business school this fall.
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