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Addiction definition essay

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arabic essay think of beautiful flowing phrases to use from addiction definition, her native language that did not translate well into English. Thus, when she wrote, she was not able to convey the thesis for persuasive feelings she wanted to deliver. The same instance happens when people who are native Arabic speakers try to write in English and express themselves clearly. The first problem that many non-native speakers have is that they think in their native language and essay, this causes problems in conversion (Connor 3). The need is for the writer to think. Heterotopias and Their Application in Arabic Literature and Cinema. ” As the lovemaking begins, the woman he sleeps with, knows from experience that Mohamed has never been with a woman before, and complains constantly about his ignorance. When the two are finished the woman matter-of-factly states: There you are. You’ve slept with your first woman. Isn’t that true?

I’m the dissertation first, no? I nodded my head. You’ll always remember me, she told me. I smiled at her, feeling like she liked me. In this case, the brothel acts as a heterotopia, as Mohamed’s coming. Addiction Definition. me more and essay invention telephone, more interested in addiction definition essay the Arabic culture and learning some Arabic recipes will be very nice. My family and I also love Arabic food. Invention Telephone. My family also loves Arabic food so learning how to cook some Arabic recipes would be good for the whole family! 3. Where do you normally eat Arabic food? We only eat Arabic food at Arabic restaurants as I cant prepare it.

4. Have you ever tried following an Arabic cuisine cookbook? I have but the Arabic cuisine cookbooks I have viewed, professors to addiction definition improve my research skills. I also presented two of my works in two conferences; a sociolinguistics paper titled Saudi Arabic diglossia in TV interviews at Illinois Symposium on essay telephone Semitic Linguistics and a syntax paper titled restrictions to wh-in-situ in Najdi Arabic at Illinois Languages and Linguistics Society. I also published a paper about addiction, wh-questions in Najdi Arabic in a working papers journal. I am eager to advance my research experience and move forward to a higher level of research. the voiceless / p / will be replaced by the voiced / b / , / v / by / f / , / n / by / g / and / / by / d /. Another difficulty Arab learners of English encounter lies in the area of prepositions.

There are more prepositions in English than in Arabic On top of that, they are used differently in the two languages, and therefore a lot of confusion occur when an Arab learner uses the prepositions inappropriately. For example, in an answer to the question, How long have you been living in Colorado. The Education System in Saudi Arabi Essay. Essay. subjects, students take Arabic, chemistry, English, mathematics, physical education, physics and religious studies Commercial: Arabic, bookkeeping and accounting, commercial correspondence, economics, English, financial mathematics, general mathematics, geography, management and secretarial and religious studies. Agriculture (partial listing): agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry, applied biology, applied chemistry, applied mathematics, applied physics, Arabic, English, farm management. Addiction Essay. Word Repetition in the Qur#x27;an: Translating Form or Meaning?

Essay. Each surah, which means degree or step, consists of a number of verse divisions, which are called ayat (singular: ayah) which are usually determined by the rhythm and cadence in the Arabic text. Sometimes, an ayah, meaning a sign, contains many sentences. Sometimes, a sentence is divided by a break in an ayah; but, usually, there is a pause in meaning at the end. The ayah is the true unit of the Qur’an, since it is a verse of revelation as a sign of God’s wisdom and goodness, just as much as God’s. The Significance of Islamic Calligraphy in the Muslim Culture. (12). Ancient Arabic scripts were eventually fused into one type called Kufic.

It was once the most commonly used form, but has evolved into six basic scripts now considered the most commonly used among Arabic handwritten texts (Piotrovsky 28). The many different styles and types of handwriting contribute to the innumerable designs and artistic decorations that have been created through calligraphy. Counter Argument For many western civilizations and religions, handwriting as an essay tv or reading books art form is. give page ranges on the Table of Contents. Just list the page each element starts on. page Correct: 3 Incorrect: 3 - 5 The first page of the Introduction gets the Arabic number 1. Follow on with Arabic numbers for all the addiction definition pages that come after that, right through to the end of the Appendices. How to Treat Headings You will probably have at least three levels of headings in the thesis.

Level 1 headings will include: Centers; however, the cases of profiling have seemed to heighten after 9-11 as opposed to hearing of African-American discrimination it has now turned to essay tv or reading those of addiction definition essay, Arabic decent. Essay Invention Telephone. Different individuals hold different opinions of racial profiling, many believe it is a useful tool using the definition essay rationale that most African-Americans or Arabic individuals that they stop have warrants out for their arrest or are currently involved in. of the music. It was amazing that all generations were getting along so well and enjoying each other. Although most of the guests were of Arabic descent, there were a few white folks there who were intimidated by the celebration, particularly the on watching dancing. Secretly we were laughing at addiction definition essay them behind their backs, and corporate essays, we were making fun of addiction definition, them in Arabic. Suddenly my brother and I decided to get them up and participating.

We forced them to dance the Dabke and to thesis for persuasive drink more of the definition wonderful red. greatly defines the Muslim identity. Style. Additionally, the Qur’an has been kept in essay its original language of Arabic, as to preserve the word of conserve water, Allah and make sure that it is not compromised in any way. Addiction Definition. The use of symbols and art are frowned upon corporate responsibility essays, within the religion as subjects of addiction definition essay, idolatry, and conserve water essay, therefore, the most expressive way to evoke an definition essay artistic sense of dissertation of writing, appreciation for Islam and addiction essay, Allah is dissertation, through Arabic calligraphy. The objective is to create beauty within the words of definition essay, Allah, therefore. Kalki Avtar of Hindu Religion(Very Interesting Article) Essay. If we examine the invention meaning of addiction, these names we shall come to some very interesting conclusion. VISHNU (meaning God) + BHAGAT (meaning Slave). Slave of God = ABDULLAH (in Arabic) is the name of Prophet's (PBUH) Father.

SUMAANI (meaning peace or calmness).Aamenah (in Arabic means peace) is the name of Prophet's (PBUH) Mother. 4. In the religious books of Hindus, it is mentioned that the staple food of telephone, Kalki Avatar would be dates and olives and he would be the most honest and truthful person in. Addiction. SUBMISSION Islam is an invention Arabic word derived from the same Semitic three-letter root -- s-l-m -- as the Hebrew word for peace, shalom, often used as a greeting. The meaning of Islam encompasses the concepts of essay, peace, greeting and submission. Thus, a Muslim -- the word is derived from the same root -- is one who submits to conserve water God, a stance enunciated in the traditional profession of faith: There is no deity but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. Allah is simply Arabic for God, the same supreme. Native Americans in the United States and Include In-text Citation. • Consider the readings from this week as well as last week. What is the difference between Arab Americans and Muslim Americans? Why are the two often thought to be interchangeable?

Explain your response. Arab Americans are Americans of Arabic heritage, which have either immigrated to the United States or have been born here and can trace their lineage back to the Middle East. (The Prejudice Institute , 2012) However not all people from the Middle East are Arab. Muslim Americans. easy or difficult. You choose. Addiction Essay. Giselle's heart raced as she spotted Daniel stepping down the stairs with boy aiming a shotgun at his back. The boy continued nudging Daniel down the stairs, even with Daniel's hands over his head. The boy spoke in Arabic to his Bandit brothers, He hid upstairs. Like a coward. Found him in the closet.

The two Bandits snickered. The boy yelled to Daniel in English, Go! The boy poked at Daniel making him stumble and grab hold of the fragmented railing. Daniel. Alphanumeric Outlines This is the most common type of outline and usually instantly recognizable to most people. The formatting follows these characters, in this order: Roman Numerals Capitalized Letters Arabic Numerals Lowercase Letters If the outline needs to subdivide beyond these divisions, use Arabic numerals inside parentheses and then lowercase letters inside parentheses. Select the Sample Outlines PDF in the Media Box above to download the sample of this outline. The sample PDF in the Media. Essay on The Rise and Fall of Emprires During the Middle Age Europe.

truthfulness as mentioned in the twenty third verse of the book’s second chapter. Despite the Arabs’ mastery of the Arabic language, they could not match its eloquence which was believed to be a miracle for Prophet Muhammad since he was never taught to neither read nor write. Essay Tv Or Reading. Some of the Arabs used to cover their ears upon hearing its recitation. (Holy Quran). Their knowledge of the Arabic language testified to the eloquence of the Quran. Many of them were convinced that it was not the word of any man. ay Filipino at hanggat’t walang ibang itinadhana ang batas, Ingles. Ang wikang panrehiyon ay pantulong ng mga wikang panturo.

Dapat itaguyod nang kusa at opisyal ang Kastila at Arabic. Addiction Definition. Sek. 8, ang konstitusyong ito ay dapat ipahayag sa Filipino at Ingles at dapat isalin sa mga pangunahing wikang panrehiyon, Kastila at Arabic. Sek. 9, dapat matatag ang kongreso sa isang komisyon ng wikang pambansa na binubuo ng mga kinatawan ng iba’t ibang rehiyon at mga disiplina ng mga pananaliksik para sa pagpapaunlad. words from thesis for persuasive, other languages and making them part of English words. Definition. In English, there are so many words that are borrowed from other languages such as French, Latin, Greek and thesis essays, Arabic language. English take words from addiction essay, certain languages and formed their own permanent words.

Words like ‘candy’ and ‘coffee’ are originated from Arabic words and become English words. Other than that, some examples of conserve water, English words borrowed from French words are ‘ballet’, ‘entrepreneur’ and addiction definition, also ‘fiance’. Morphology can help. As chess resided in Europe, it became a game tailored to Europeans. The names of the pieces changed from the old Arabic names to the more modern ones. Rules such as castling and the pawn's ability to move two spaces were added. Some changes did not last such as Courier chess which was a German game played on a 12 x 8 board. During the corporate first few centuries of chess in Europe, rules were made to outlaw the addiction clergy playing chess. As time went on, everyone ignored those laws. Dissertation Of Writing. Playing chess became. Bangladesh-Muslim World Relations Essay.

recognized Bangladesh yet, it donated $10 million in the UN fund for the flood-effected peoples in Bangladesh. Despite Article 12 of Bangladesh Constitution has provided secular policies for the state, the addiction government retained the study of Islamist and Arabic in the school syllabus. An. are up to Western standards. Many Israeli pharmaceuticals are even licensed directly by the American FDA. Essays. Except in some Arab areas, hospitals in Israel are all up to Western standards.

Israel has two official languages and they are Hebrew and Arabic. However, the country only addiction definition, practices two languages, which are Hebrew and English. Most signs in resume Israel are in Hebrew and English. Also, most Israelis speak Hebrew as their mother tongue, and English is the most popular second language. Israel's. Essay about Gender as a Social Construct. that is heavily linked to every social aspect of everyday life. Language and communication play a critical role in addiction definition essay constructing gender and it is not limited to the English language. Within a sample of ten different languages, ranging from French, Arabic, English and essay tv or reading books, more, male-specific nouns comprised of sixty-five percent while the essay remaining thirty-five percent were female-specific nouns. Feminists view language as a form of patriarchy and believe language is essential for men maintaining power. Difference Between Sephardic And Ashkenazi Jews In Modern Times. The Sephardic communities tend to concentrate mostly around a few areas.

Today most of the Sephardic Jews reside within Israel, amost other Middle-Eastern communities having been reduced to virtual nonexistance by the migration of Jews out of Arabic countries after the creation of essay, Israel. Addiction Definition Essay. A substantial community is still maintained in Turkey, where historically Jews have received good. Noble Truths Dharma Patronage Boddhisatva Punjab Chandragupta Maurya Ganges River Patiliputra Kushan Empire White Huns Indonesia Caste System Jati Jainism Buddha Noble Eightfold Path Stupas Ceylon “Arabic” Numerals CHAPTER 10: Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase IDENTITIES: Homer Mycenaeans King Minos Minoans Polis Pericles Antigonius Selecus Socrates Plato Spatan Persian Wars Peloponnesian War. Essay about English as an International Language. 1. Defining an international language By definition, an on watching tv or reading international language is a language that has a large number of native speakers. If this definition is sustained, then Mandarin, English, Spanish, Hindi, and Arabic are five most widely spoken languages in the world today. Even so, unless these languages are spoken by a large number of native speakers of other languages, the language is not considered a language of wider communication. English, in this sense. Democracy and Political Development in Pakistan Essay. their lives in compliance with Islam . He started by creating an Islamic Parliament to be the definition essay Pakistani parliament instead of the General Assembly, in addition to georgetown imposing other islamization programs such as making the teachings of Islamic studies and Arabic compulsory He eradicated non Islamic practices and he helped needy people through a welfare program called “Zakat” except for the Shiites who did not benefit from any help due to their own and different religious beliefs . Eventually, the number. Natural Philosophy in Islam Essay. Definition. neighbouring Islamic empire because of the constant wars between the empires and kingdoms in the region. The representatives and scholars of Islamic empire have accumulated mass resources of information and responsibility, books on natural philosophy and translated to addiction definition essay Arabic and Latin to be studied by philosophers and scholars.

Islamic philosophers are contributing much to the. Beowulf vs. The 13th Warrior Essay. by Antonio Banderas’ character Ahmed Ibn Fadlan, coming from his point of view. But Beowulf had told his story from a third person point of georgetown resume, view. Also, the religious aspects of the two are very different; being that Beowulf is Swedish and definition, Ahmed is Arabic.

Also Ahmed and his group of men fight the evil, which is in the form of corporate, cannibals dressed up as bears. In “The 13th Warrior” the men are to fight the addiction essay evil because the barbarians are selfish minded, and overruling; and want to take over dissertation style all the cities. Origins of Literature in Ancient India and Ancient China Essay examples. the addiction dominant form of written language for classical literature, administration, and all forms of intellectual endeavor (881). A series of conquering Muslim dynasties brought to Indian literature, the sensibility of Islam but also the heritage of Arabic and Persian languages (881). Invention Telephone. This series of influences united different people by providing a common structure for communication, thought and addiction essay, historical identity. This same action can be seen today in Java, Thailand and Malaysia (883). The idea. The Tigrinya of Eritrea and Their Impact on the Horn of Africa. strongly by the United States, caused over 40 years of war in the region. Essay On Watching Reading Books. From 1952 to 1962 the Eritreans endured all manner of oppression and corrupt unilateral Ethiopian political decisions; The Ethiopian government banned the essay use of Tigrinya and Arabic in education, censored Eritrean media, relocated Eritrean industry to Ethiopia, and installed Ethiopian loyalists to the highest positions in Eritrean government (Splinter and Tzehaie, 2011).

With its newly acquired Eritrean puppet government, Ethiopia. brought tea seeds from Zhejiang Province to Japan. - Later in thesis for persuasive essays the Southern Song Dynasty, Zen masters brought tea procedures and wares from China to Japan, promoting the definition initiation of the Japanese tea ceremony. - In the Song Dynasty, Arabic merchants exported tea from Quanzhou, Fujian Province. - In the for persuasive essays Ming Dynasty, tea was sold to Southeast Asian and South African. The following books are planned to be on the following languages: Mandarin, English, French, German, Russian, Spanish and Arabic. Definition. These languages are the on watching books most spoken in the world that’s why books on the following languages will have demand not only in the countries, where this language is the mother language, but also in the whole world. Also with an expansion of the e-bookstore’s offers the company plans to widen the range of the languages to 17 languages. In addition, the company will be able to. Essay on How to Tame a Wild Tongue. cultures in essay which they are sandwiched between. That led to the formation of another language through which they were able to identify and protect themselves from others. English and other dominant cultures such as Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Arabic etc. have instilled in the societies that they conquered, and that the belief in any other language whether indigenous or coined from two languages is essay tv or, inferior. This brings out a fear within the recessive culture that they are inadequate for speaking. Essay about Culture of Gandhara Civilization. alphabet.

During the Persian rule, the Aramaic script was used to write the Iranian languages of the empire. Semitic scripts were not used to write South Asian languages again until the arrival of Islam and subsequent adoption of the Persian-style Arabic alphabet for new indo-aryan languages like Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Kashmiri. The Greeks introduced their language, art and religion in the country of Gandhara, where thirteen Greek. New Revenue Streams for the National Maritime Museum Essay. the essay museum. Without an additional language audio guides’ foreign visitors are not fully exploring the museum message. As this maritime museum is corporate, one of the largest in the world customer expectations are not achieved. Although Spanish, Russian, Arabic and other foreign languages can be found at the official website. For the museum to survive, their need to think of new sources of the revenue streams to obtain income. The National Maritime Museum has many activities based on educational and informational. quality stone #61607; Up until the 18th century, buried up to its chin in sand #61607; Excavated in definition the 1790's by Napoleon #61607; Stone tablet located between paws ? Says that it was already dug out once before #61607; Probably damaged by Arabic wars and Napoleon's drunken soldiers #61607; Door found in side of essays, structure leading down a flight of addiction, stairs to essay another door ? Believed to be a tool shed o Pg.

56 ? Khafre Statue #61607; Builder of Middle Giza Pyramid #61607; Engaged Sculpture. Chapter 4 Notes Ap World History Essay. introduced new ides including math and science. Addiction. They had a major impact in mathematical achievements. They also contributed to resume the areas of astronomy within the Islamic culture. Hinduism society also introduced scholars and essay, more educational ideas. Resume. Arabic numerals were introduced. Definition. They say that they originally came from the Europeans.

Medicine was also a huge accomplishment throughout the society. Music and corporate responsibility essays, entertainment improved and revolutionized the way of addiction essay, enjoyment. Tv Or. 3. What motivated the crusades. Essay. A Comparison of Two Scholarly Journals Essay. academic/scholarly format using APA style guidelines. Conserve. The article should include a 250-500 word structured abstract, be single-spaced, with a 12-point font, use italics instead of underlining, and incorporate all illustrations, figures, and tables—numbered using Arabic numbers--within the definition text. The body of the responsibility essays article should include the following headings: introduction, literature review, aims, methods, results, discussion, and conclusions. Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect are the acceptable submission formats. understand the concept of Islam.

Islam is faith of divine guidance for humanity, based on peace, spirituality and the oneness with Allah. Islam has also falsely been characterized as promoting violence. Addiction Definition. The name of the religion, Islam, comes from an Arabic root word meaning peace and submission. Islam teaches that by submitting to water Allah in heart, soul and deed is the only way one can find peace in addiction one's life. “In broad terms, Islam generally regards religion as a more pervasive presence in daily. They have been created to protect against an evil eye, harm and evil. The word was originally created from an Arabic word, “Tilasm.” The evil eye talismans are usually formed in blue and while circles in the shape of an eye, from oval to round. Many people will have these talismans displayed in their homes and vehicles, and even worn as a type of georgetown resume, jewelry to prevent bad luck. Aside from just a standard eye shaped talisman, there are also the hamsas.

The hamsa is addiction definition, a palm shaped talisman with an eye. These differences go back to the death of Muhammad and who would then take over leadership of the Muslim community. Sunni believe that the new leader should be elected from people competent of doing the work. Sunni means in Arabic “one who follows the traditions of the prophet”. On the other hand, Shi’a believes that the leadership should stay within the Prophet Muhammad’s family. Corporate Responsibility. Shi’a Muslims do not respect the definition leadership of thesis essays, elected Muslim leaders and instead they follow the addiction definition essay family of Muhammad. Advantages of telephone, Social Mass Media Essay examples. the have part.

Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and it begins with TO. For example: to definition have, to eat, to go, to on watching books live, to speak etc. Examples of Negative Sentences with Don't and Doesn't: * You don't speak Arabic. * John doesn't speak Italian. * We don't have. Addiction Definition. Essay on tv or How Something Can Come from “Nothing” in definition essay the blank, your choice of deity” is essay tv or, responsible for it. No science can say they are wrong, but this explanation does nothing for the advancement of science, nor does it make any plausible predictions. This is the definition exact reason for the collapse of thesis for persuasive essays, Arabic science around 1100 AD. In this time, Baghdad was the central hub for addiction definition all science of its time, until the fear of religious. but it is recommended that the format example shown in this guide be utilized.) All pages of the for persuasive essays paper, including the title page, abstract, body, and reference page, A Guide 5 will be numbered successively. All page numbering should be in addiction definition Arabic numerals. The Running Head The running head is typed in all capital letters, one inch from the top of the paper and one inch from the left edge of the paper (see page one of this guide for an example). The running head is an abbreviated title that. system, place value, and the operations and properties for the number system.

Our base ten number system derives from Hindu (Indian) number notation and includes ten symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and conserve water, 9. These numerals are often called the Arabic number system because Persian mathematicians transmitted the system to the Western world. It can be helpful to examine a concept chart of the real number system and to manipulate number charts to better understand numerical relationships and definition essay, patterns. Essay on Studying MSC in Speech and Language Processing. AppTek, Sakhr, Coltec, ATA and other companies were the first which started their work in the field of machine translation in Arabic language. However, with all these research efforts, machine translation did not reach the level required because of the difficulties faced researchers. There are two types of Automation Tradeoffs: Fully Automated (cheap, fast and low quality( and Human-Assisted (more expensive, slow and higher quality). Corporate Essays. Approaches to machine translation system According to Alade. Liber abaci by Leonardo Fibonacci Essay. significant to future studies of the addiction definition essay subject. In ithe uses algebraic methods to solve many arithmetical andgeometrical problems. He also published Flos (flowers) in 1224.In this work he combined Euclidean methodology with techniques ofChinese and Arabic origin in solving. demonstrates importance as it is one of the “finest [mosques] of its kind” (page 59).

The location is essays, sacred as it correlates with not only Islam but also Judaism and addiction, Christianity. In order to glorify the word’s of God and through the use of the corporate responsibility Arabic writing and incorporating geometric and addiction definition essay, floral designs, Islamic Religious Art has created its own category. Corporate Essays. Some of the Religious Art forms include calligraphy, books, manuscripts, and the carving of platforms and definition, sermons in the mosque. Secular Art.

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I. Exploitation of Migrant Workers. Many countries rely on migrant workers to fill labor shortages in sectors that are low-paying, dangerous, and poorly-regulated. Addiction Definition? Migrants are concentrated in sectors such as agriculture, construction, and domestic work, and water essay, are often at high risk of workplace abuse. Their migration status, language barriers, isolation, and limited access to definition services can compound these abuses and further limit access to redress. While many governments are beginning to engage in a process of georgetown reform, the most promising initiatives and commitments have arisen from the private sector rather than governments. These include commitments from addiction essay, New York University and the Guggenheim regarding labor contracts for workers involved in constructing their buildings in the United Arab Emirates, and improved work contracts for workers producing tobacco for Philip Morris Kazakhstan, a subsidiary of dissertation style of writing Philip Morris International, one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Large numbers of complaints from migrant domestic workers regarding nonpayment of wages and a series of high-profile abuse cases led Indonesia to suspend migration of domestic workers to addiction Malaysia in June 2009 until new protections could be put in place. The two governments have indicated their intent to revise a 2006 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to allow domestic workers to keep their passports and have a weekly day of rest, but after several bilateral meetings and corporate responsibility, missed deadlines, negotiations have stalled on addiction a minimum wage and the recruitment fee structure. Approximately 300,000 domestic workers, mostly from Indonesia, work in Malaysia. The labor laws exclude domestic workers from core protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of work. Many domestic workers labor up to 18 hours a day, seven days a week, for wages of 400 to 600 ringgit (US$118-177) a month.

Domestic workers must typically turn over the first six to seven months of their salary to repay exorbitant recruitment fees charged by private labor brokers for placing them in dissertation of writing their jobs. Definition Essay? When such salary deductions are taken into resume, account, Indonesian domestic workers only earn an average of 300 to 450 ringgit (US$89-133) a month over a two-year contract. Domestic workers, many from poor households and with financial pressures at addiction essay home, have little choice but to georgetown accept these conditions. This system contributes to domestic workers being trapped in abusive situations and to forced labor since some employers may restrict employees’ freedom of movement to addiction definition prevent them leaving before the debt is repaid. In other cases, employment agencies may pressure domestic workers to stay with abusive employers until the debt is repaid, or workers endure such conditions so that they can ultimately send money home. In the absence of corporate responsibility essays government regulations, employment agencies and employers typically set domestic workers' salaries based on their country of origin instead of their education and experience. Filipina domestic workers in Malaysia earn the highest salary at US$400 a month because of requirements imposed by the Philippines government. Malaysia has no national minimum wage, but the Human Resources Ministry is conducting a study to addiction definition essay consider introducing one for private sector workers. The Malaysian Trades Union Congress advocates a minimum wage of 900 ringgit (US$266), and the Malaysian government considers that earnings less than 750 ringgit (US$222) fall below the dissertation, national poverty line.

Human Rights Watch recommends that the governments of Indonesia and Malaysia revise the definition, 2006 Memorandum of essays Understanding to include: A commitment to extend equal protection under Malaysia's labor laws to domestic workers, specifically Section XII of the Employment Act of 1955 and the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1952. Addiction? Provision for a standard contract that ensures minimum labor protections, including a 24-hour rest period each week, a fair minimum wage, a limitation on weekly hours of work, and benefits. Essays? Mechanisms for timely remedies for migrant domestic workers in cases of abuse, and sanctions for employers and labor agents who commit these abuses. Stronger regulations governing recruitment agencies, including eliminating the practice of deducting salaries to repay excessive recruitment fees, and mechanisms to monitor and enforce these standards. Tens of thousands of migrant workers travel each year to the Central Asian economic powerhouse of Kazakhstan in search of employment. Thousands of addiction essay these migrant workers, often together with their children, find work in tobacco farming. Thesis For Persuasive Essays? As documented in the report,“Hellish Work: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan,” Human Rights Watch research in 2009 found abuse and exploitation of many migrant workers by tobacco farm owners who employ them for seasonal work. Definition Essay? Tobacco farm owners in Kazakhstan contract with, and supply tobacco to, Philip Morris Kazakhstan (PMK), a subsidiary of Philip Morris International (PMI), one of the world’s largest tobacco companies. Migrant tobacco workers variously told Human Rights Watch how some employers confiscated their passports, failed to provide them with written employment contracts, did not pay regular wages, arbitrarily deducted their earnings, and forced them to work excessively long hours.

Some employers also failed to provide migrant workers with potable water, adequate hand-washing and for persuasive, other sanitary facilities, or adequate living conditions. Essay? In the worst cases, workers carried out forced labor, or were subject to situations analogous to forced labor, in corporate responsibility which employers confiscated migrant workers’ passports and in some cases required them to perform other work without pay, in addition to definition tobacco farming. Human Rights Watch documented 72 cases of children working in tobacco farming in 2009, the youngest of whom was 10. International and thesis essays, Kazakhstani law prohibits employing children under 18-years-old in addiction harmful or hazardous work. Experts agree that the essay on watching, difficulty of the work, the addiction essay, risks associated with handling tobacco leaves, and exposure to pesticides, renders tobacco farming one of the worst forms of child labor, or labor from resume, which children under 18 are categorically prohibited. Children who worked with their families on tobacco farms typically missed several months of school each year, or even entire academic years.

Human Rights Watch first brought to PMI its concerns about the treatment of migrant workers on tobacco farms producing tobacco for definition, PMK in October 2009. In response, PMI and PMK have committed to implement measures to expand and strengthen their labor and other rights protection for migrant workers, including: strengthening the contracts PMK signs with tobacco farm owners as well as requiring landowners to conclude contracts with each worker guaranteeing minimum labor standards and for persuasive essays, other conditions. Other commitments include improving training of agronomists, farmers, and workers, as well as the addiction definition, safe-handling instructions and safety of application of responsibility pesticides and fertilizers. Addiction Definition? PMI and water essay, PMK have also stated that they will engage with the Kazakhstani government to address the ability of children of addiction migrant workers to attend local schools and to have alternatives to work during the summer months. PMI also is working with a third-party organization to conduct monitoring of telephone its implementation of these initiatives, and is undertaking reforms to better address labor rights violations in its supply chains in definition its global markets beyond Kazakhstan. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kazakhstan: Establish accessible complaint mechanisms and rigorously investigate complaints of abuse, irrespective of a migrant workers’ contractual status or migration status. Ensure children of migrant workers have access to local schools and other social services, and increase training for essay tv or reading books, parents, children, employers, and others regarding the hazards of child labor in tobacco. The Human Rights Watch report, “Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of addiction Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait's Sponsorship System” describes how workers become trapped in exploitative or abusive employment, only to face criminal penalties for leaving a job without the employer's permission.

Government authorities arrest workers reported as absconding and generally deport them from Kuwait, even if they have been abused and responsibility, seek redress. The country's more than 660,000 migrant domestic workers constitute nearly a third of the work force in this Gulf country of only addiction definition essay 1.3 million citizens. However, domestic workers are excluded from the labor laws that protect other workers and guarantee protections such as a weekly rest day and limits to hours of work. Kuwaiti lawmakers reinforced this exclusion as recently as February 2010, when they passed a new labor law for the private sector that failed to cover domestic work. A proposed new labor law specifically aimed at domestic workers would ensure greater protections.

However, the draft law has remained under parliamentary review for the past seven months, and did not appear on the agenda for the October 2010 parliamentary session. Data compiled by Human Rights Watch shows that in 2009, domestic workers from Sri Lanka, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Ethiopia filed over 10,000 complaints about their treatment with their embassies in Kuwait. The domestic workers interviewed cited a variety of abuses by their employers, including nonpayment of wages, refusal to essays grant days off, and physical or sexual assault. They found they could only pursue a legal claim if they were willing to wait weeks or months in a crowded embassy shelter while negotiations with their sponsor, or a protracted legal case, proceeded. Sponsorship regulations prohibit domestic workers from changing jobs without their sponsoring employers’ consent, leaving them dependent on individual employers for their livelihood. An absconding report by the employer immediately invalidates a migrant worker's legal residency status. Under this system, a worker who has faced abuse must choose between waiting for addiction, months or years with no legal means of earning income or foregoing claims to legal redress. Kuwait provides no expedited labor courts despite the country's huge population of migrant workers and the fact that wage complaints top the dissertation style of writing, list of definition workers' grievances. Long waits, poor information about their rights and options, and slim chances of achieving justice mean that many workers give up on redress. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Kuwait: Reform the current sponsorship system, including taking immediate steps to remove absconding as a legal violation and permitting workers to change jobs without an employer's consent.

Cease arresting and deporting workers for leaving jobs where employers violated their rights, and instead provide domestic workers with emergency shelter and on watching tv or books, expedited complaint mechanisms. Ensure that a proposed labor law for domestic work does not create weaker or unequal protections to addiction essay those in corporate responsibility essays the main labor laws. Lebanese families employ an estimated 200,000 migrant domestic workers, primarily from Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, the Philippines, and Nepal. In its “Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers” report, Human Rights Watch reviewed 114 Lebanese judicial decisions affecting migrant domestic workers and found that lack of accessible complaint mechanisms, lengthy judicial procedures, and definition, restrictive visa policies dissuade many workers from filing or pursuing complaints against their employers. Even when workers file complaints, the police and judicial authorities regularly fail to treat certain abuses against domestic workers as crimes. Human Rights Watch did not find a single example among the 114 cases it reviewed in which an employer faced charges for locking workers inside homes, confiscating their passports, or denying them food, even though these violations of the law are commonplace. Complaints that workers file against employers often languish in court for months, and sometimes years. This poses an added burden on resume the workers because Lebanon's restrictive visa policies make it hard for them to remain in the country to pursue the essay, case. Cases of water essay physical violence against migrant domestic workers often fail to garner sufficient attention from police and prosecutors. For example, a review of police reports in numerous cases of violence against these workers shows that police investigating these cases regularly ask employers only general questions and definition essay, accept their statements as truthful without cross-checking their statements with other potential witnesses.

While authorities have prosecuted certain cases of severe beatings against migrant domestic workers, these cases remain rare and have resulted in responsibility only light sentences. The most severe sentence for physical abuse of which Human Rights Watch is aware was one month in prison imposed by addiction essay a criminal court on June 26, 2010, against water essay an employer who repeatedly beat a Sri Lankan domestic worker while forcibly confining her to the house. Human Rights Watch documented numerous violations of due process and the right to a fair trial in cases in which migrant domestic workers were accused of a crime, usually theft. Of the addiction definition, 84 criminal cases against essays domestic workers reviewed by Human Rights Watch, 37 of the workers (44 percent) lacked a defense lawyer. Essay? Most—at least 57 of 84 cases reviewed—also faced police and court proceedings without the help of certified translators, even though many do not speak fluent Arabic.

Researchers also found that workers were detained before trial in 64 out of the 84 cases. Most who were eventually found not guilty had been detained during trial for an average of three months before being released, although at essay invention least four had been jailed for more than eight months before a court found them not guilty. In June, the Ministry of Labor instituted a hotline to receive workers' complaints, but its effectiveness remains unproven. Most migrant domestic workers do not know about the hotline, whose operators do not have language support for any of the languages migrant workers commonly speak, such as Amharic, Hindi, Tagalog, Tamil, Malagasy, or Nepali. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Lebanon: Develop a national plan to addiction increase the likelihood that complaints against resume employers for crimes committed against migrant domestic workers lead to prosecution, including training programs for police officers, immigration officials, prosecutors, and addiction definition essay, judges. Responsibility Essays? Enact legislation to create a simplified dispute resolution mechanism to settle salary disputes between employers and migrant workers in addiction essay a timely manner. Provide access to legal aid and certified interpreters for migrant domestic workers who are victims of abuse or are accused of water essay a crime. Reform the visa sponsorship system so that workers' visas are no longer tied to definition essay individual sponsors, and dissertation, so that workers can file complaints without fear of detention and deportation.

In 2010, Human Rights Watch monitored several cases in which Saudi Arabia’s justice system failed migrant workers, highlighting broader problems of definition essay access to redress and fair treatment. Several aspects of Saudi Arabia’s labor laws and essay reading books, immigration sponsorship system put migrants at high risk of abuse. Migrant workers’ residency is tied to their immigration sponsor (a company or an individual employer), who must provide consent for the worker to change jobs or to get an exit visa from the Interior Ministry to leave the country. This system gives employers inordinate control over workers and can trap them in abusive situations. Saudi Arabia has also failed to finalize reforms to the labor law to extend protections to essay the country’s approximately 1.5 million migrant domestic workers, who are currently excluded from basic guarantees such as a weekly day of rest or limits to hours of work. Several migrant domestic workers were only able to report complaints of telephone grave physical abuse after returning to their home countries because complaint mechanisms in Saudi Arabia remained inaccessible. For example, in late August, Lahadapurage Daneris Ariyawathie, a domestic worker from Sri Lanka returned home and needed an operation to remove dozens of essay nails and metal objects she said her Saudi employers had hammered into her body after she complained of being overworked. A Kenyan newspaper, The Nation, reported that in January, Saudi authorities summarily deported Fatma Athman, a domestic worker from Mombasa, a week after she suffered injuries she said resulted from water essay, her employer pushing her off a third-floor balcony. In the past, Saudi authorities have been slow to investigate or prosecute abusers in similar cases.

The criminal case against the employers of definition essay Keni binti Carda, an Indonesian domestic worker who says she was burned by her employers in September 2008 before they put her on a plane back home, was only investigated following international pressure and has been subject to protracted delays. Human Rights Watch also documented several cases in 2010 in which workers complaining of unpaid wages were unable to obtain redress and were effectively trapped in the country once their residency permits expired. Thesis Essays? In one example, Jadawel International, a Saudi company, failed to pay workers more than six months of salaries that they owed them. Managers told workers they were working toward a solution for definition, paying the back salaries and renewing their residency permits, without which workers could not leave the compound for fear of arrest, access medical treatment, or leave the country. Following Human Rights Watch communication with the company’s chairman, Jadawel renewed most residency permits, issued exit visas, and paid six months outstanding salaries in August, although workers stated on October 24, 2010, that salary payments were three months in thesis for persuasive arrears. Addiction? Saudi Arabia’s labor courts are notoriously slow, often taking years to hear and decide a case, which can then be appealed, further delaying a final decision. Migrant workers on low incomes of a few hundred dollars a month, most of which they send home, cannot afford to wait that long. Migrant workers also lack the georgetown resume, resources that companies have to hire lawyers to present their case. In other cases, migrant workers accused of addiction definition crimes may face harsh penalties such as the death sentence and several obstacles to a fair trial including limited access to lawyers and translators.

In a prominent case, Saudi Arabia's Supreme Court upheld the death penalty for Rizana Nafeek, a Sri Lankan domestic worker. For Persuasive? Nafeek had been in Saudi Arabia for two weeks in May 2005 when her employers’ 4-month-old baby died in her care. A recruitment agency in definition essay Sri Lanka had altered the birth date on her passport to suggest she was 23, but her birth certificate later confirmed she was 17 at the time. Though she was arrested in 2005, she did not have access to thesis essays legal counsel until after a court in Dawadmi sentenced her to death in 2007. As of November 2010, the death sentence had not been carried out. Human Right Watch recommends that the government of Saudi Arabia: Create effective mechanisms to monitor migrant workers' working conditions, including accessible complaints mechanisms such as hotlines, and take steps to resolve labor disputes in a timely manner. Definition Essay? Rigorously prosecute employers and employment agents who abuse migrant domestic workers and corporate, ensure that migrants have access to addiction definition essay competent translators and a lawyer during legal proceedings. Adopt comprehensive immigration and labor reforms so that workers do not require the consent of their first employer to transfer jobs or leave the country, and so that domestic workers receive equal protection under labor laws. Human Rights Watch's report, “From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of georgetown resume Migrant Workers in Thailand,” describes the addiction definition, widespread and severe human rights abuses that migrant workers—who originate from dissertation of writing, Burma, Cambodia, and Laos—face in Thailand, including torture in addiction essay detention, extortion, sexual abuse, trafficking, forced labor, restrictions on organizing, violent retaliation against conserve complainants, and even death.

Eighty percent of these migrant workers are from Burma, many of whom are fleeing ethnic and political conflict back home. Local police and officials often ignore or fail to effectively investigate migrants’ complaints. National laws and policies and provincial decrees prohibit migrants from establishing their own organizations, such as trade unions, and asserting their rights. Policy restrictions on addiction definition changing employers, moving outside designated areas, and convening meetings with more than a handful of persons leave migrants vulnerable to exploitation and ill-treatment. Migrants reported constant fear of detention and extortion by police, who demand money or valuables from georgetown, migrants in their custody in return for addiction, their release. Of Writing? It is not uncommon for a migrant to lose the equivalent of one to several months pay in a single extortion incident. Human Rights Watch found that a number of provinces continue to restrict migrants’ use of definition essay mobile phones and motorcycles, severely limit freedom of movement, prohibit migrant gatherings, and enforce nighttime curfews. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Thailand: Revoke laws and national and provincial policies that bar migrants from forming labor unions, changing employers, organizing assemblies, and exercising their rights to freedom of expression, association, and movement. Establish an independent and impartial commission to investigate allegations of abuse by police and other authorities against corporate essays migrants. Such a commission should be empowered to subpoena, require presentation of evidence, and recommend criminal and civil charges against abusers.

It should make reports public periodically. In 2010, New York University (NYU), the addiction definition essay, Guggenheim Foundation, and essays, their government-owned partners announced new contractual safeguards for workers employed in building an NYU campus and definition, a branch of the corporate, Guggenheim on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi. As of November, Le Louvre Abu Dhabi, another major international construction project on Saadiyat Island, had not made any specific public commitments on labor standards for its workers. A May 2009 Human Rights Watch report, “The Island of Happiness: Exploitation of Migrant Workers on Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi,” documented how the UAE government and development authorities had failed to tackle worker abuse, including unlawful recruiting fees, unpaid wages, and definition essay, a sponsorship system that gives employers inordinate power over workers. These contribute to a cycle of abuse that leaves migrant workers deeply indebted and often unable to leave their jobs.

In repeat visits to the island in 2010, Human Rights Watch interviewed workers who, consistent with earlier findings, had paid exorbitant recruitment fees that took months or years to recover, and whose employers had confiscated their passports. In early 2010, NYU and for persuasive, its partner, the addiction, Executive Affairs Authority of Abu Dhabi, announced it would require all companies involved in resume building and essay, operating the NYU Abu Dhabi campus to reimburse workers for style, recruiting or other employment-related fees they are found to addiction have paid. The new terms also bar companies from confiscating worker passports, and telephone, require them to provide 30 days annual leave, health insurance, and premium rates for addiction definition essay, overtime work, among other benefits. In September 2010, the Guggenheim and its government-owned partner, the georgetown resume, Tourism Development Investment Company (TDIC), said all companies involved in building and operating the museum's Abu Dhabi branch would be required to definition provide workers with electronic wage payment, overtime provisions, annual leave, a weekly day off, and health insurance. Companies would also have to give workers contracts in local languages before they enter the UAE, and give them access to a complaints body at TDIC. Unlike NYU, the Guggenheim did not include explicit provisions to require companies to reimburse workers for any recruitment or other employment-related fees, although it reaffirmed an employer's responsibility for such fees. Indebtedness for essays, recruitment fees remains the primary factor that creates conditions of forced labor, with workers required to use their wages to pay off the fees, and pressured into remaining in their jobs regardless of abusive conditions. Every single worker interviewed for the 2009 report, as well as all workers interviewed in addiction 2010, had paid such fees before coming to work in the UAE.

The new measures announced by georgetown resume NYU and essay, the Guggenheim lack clear provisions for essay invention telephone, enforcement or for independent, third-party monitoring of addiction definition essay employer compliance. Nor did they address workers’ rights to collective bargaining, strike, and thesis for persuasive essays, have a fair minimum wage. They did not specify what penalties, if any, will be imposed on contractors that violate the terms. It is also unclear what legal recourse NYU Abu Dhabi or the Guggenheim have in the event of a breach by a contractor employing workers on its project, with which it will have no direct contractual relationship. Human Rights Watch calls upon definition essay, NYU, the Guggenheim, the resume, Louvre, and the government of the UAE to: Establish a mechanism to monitor labor practices within the operations of the new branch, as well as those of any subcontractors and addiction, their affiliates (including those who provide construction and maintenance services). This monitoring mechanism should oversee how migrant workers are hired and treated during their employment with the Abu Dhabi branches, as well as subcontractors and affiliates. Thesis For Persuasive Essays? Penalize and terminate relationships with any contractors that continue to work with labor agencies or sub-agencies that charge workers fees and/ or mislead workers regarding conditions of employment upon arrival in the UAE. Create mechanisms that would encourage compliance by subcontractors (i.e. retain experienced and reputable labor and construction lawyers and give them a mandate to ensure that all construction and maintenance related contracts require meaningful compliance with labor laws).

Hundreds of thousands of children work on US farms, but are less protected than all other working children in the United States. The 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act specifically exempts farm worker youth from minimum age and maximum hour requirements, exposing them to work at far younger ages, for far longer hours, and essay, under more hazardous conditions than children in other jobs. Federal protections that do exist are often not enforced, and state child labor laws vary in strength and georgetown, enforcement. As a result, child farm workers, most of whom are Latino and include both domestic and international migrants, often work 12 to 14 hour days, and addiction, risk pesticide poisoning, heat illness, injuries, and lifelong disabilities. Dissertation Style Of Writing? Many, especially migrant children, drop out of school; girls are sometimes sexually harassed. While federal legislation that would close the loophole and protect child farm workers remains pending, some government agencies have moved to improve conditions: the Department of addiction definition Labor added more than 250 new field investigators since early 2009 and plans to add more; the Environmental Protection Agency has pledged to on watching reading books strengthen its assessment of pesticide health risks, and to propose amendments to federal worker protection standards by 2012. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of the United States: Via the US Congress should amend the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) to apply the same age and hour requirements to addiction essay children working for hire in agriculture as already apply to all other working children.

Congress should also raise the minimum age for particularly hazardous work in thesis essays agriculture to addiction 18, in line with existing standards in all other industries. Via the US Department of Labor should increase agricultural workplace inspections targeting child labor and minimum wage violations and significantly increase civil money and criminal penalties within the limits allowed by law to improve compliance. It should also press for much-needed amendments to the list of jobs in agriculture that are deemed to be “particularly hazardous” for children. II. Abuse and Detention at Borders. Men, women, and thesis essays, children often risk their lives to addiction definition essay cross borders and are frequently subject to abusive treatment while in grey areas: no-man’s lands between border checkpoints, on the high seas, and at georgetown resume international zones of airports.

Many countries have border control policies that are hostile, discriminatory, and addiction essay, flout international standards, particularly along frontiers at the margins of territories that often lie beyond the georgetown resume, sight of addiction essay media and other witnesses. Water Essay? Governments—often in the form of border and coast guards—may fail to screen migrants to identify asylum seekers, trafficking victims, unaccompanied children, and other members of vulnerable groups, or subject them to addiction violence, extortion, poor conditions in detention, and essay, refoulement (forced return to torture or persecution). As of November 2010, Egyptian border guards in 2010 had shot dead at least 28 migrants attempting to addiction essay cross the essay on watching tv or reading books, Sinai border into Israel. Addiction Essay? A government official said in March that security forces had “only” killed 4 percent of essays those attempting to cross in 2009. Egypt continues to detain refugees and migrants and charge them with illegal entry before military courts that do not meet international fair trial standards. Many of those trying to cross into Israel at or near the Sinai border come from refugee-producing countries such as Eritrea and addiction definition, Sudan. Israel's policy of forcibly returning to Egypt some of those who do make it across, without adequately considering possible asylum claims, also violates international law. Migrants and refugees who Israel forcibly returns to Egypt face arbitrary arrest and detention, unfair trials before military courts, and conserve, forcible deportation without the chance to addiction make asylum claims. Egypt denied UNHCR access to detained refugees and migrants, preventing them from making asylum claims. In January, Egyptian security officials arrested at least 25 Sudanese refugees and asylum seekers and detained many incommunicado for up to three months.

Many are vulnerable to deportation even though they hold refugee documentation from the UNHCR. On January 25, Egyptian authorities returned Muhammad al-Haj, a recognized Sudanese refugee, to his home country, in violation of the prohibition of refoulement. Human Rights Watch recommends that the for persuasive essays, Egyptian government: Order border police to use lethal force only addiction essay as a proportional and necessary response to a threat to telephone life, and conduct a thorough and impartial investigation into the killings of African migrants, make the results public, and prosecute responsible border police officers and officials with oversight responsibility. Cease using military tribunals to try civilian migrants, refugees, and addiction essay, asylum seekers detained in the Sinai. Guarantee UNHCR access to responsibility essays all migrants who have international protection needs in essay official custody. Human Rights Watch recommends that the Israeli government: Conduct no additional coordinated returns to Egypt of persons who cross the Sinai border until: Israel institutes a system that ensures border-crossers the ability to present asylum claims, and Egypt credibly guarantees that it will respect returnees' rights under international human rights and refugee law and not to return them to countries where they could face persecution. Since May 2009, Italy has joined forces with Libya to patrol the on watching tv or reading books, waters from the addiction definition essay, coast of Libya to Italy’s Mediterranean territories, principally the island of Lampedusa. Libya in 2010 operated patrol boats provided by essay on watching reading books Italy with Italian personnel on board to interdict boat migrants on the high seas and in Libyan waters and return them summarily to addiction essay Libya with no screening to identify refugees, the sick or injured, pregnant women, unaccompanied children, victims of trafficking, or victims of violence against women.

All interdicted boat migrants are detained upon arrival in Libya in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Libya is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and has no asylum law or procedure. In April, Libyan Foreign Secretary Moussa Koussa said his country “does not have any refugees but only illegal migrants who break the laws.” In July the government said that there were 3 million irregular migrants in Libya. A new law on “Illegal Migration” criminalizes trafficking of migrants but does not mention protections for refugees. In June, Libya closed the office of the essay, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tripoli and expelled its representative. Addiction? It later allowed the office nominally to reopen but only corporate responsibility essays with highly restricted permission to work on behalf of refugees and asylum seekers whom it had registered prior to closing, and without access to newly detained migrants and asylum seekers. On June 28, a group of detained Eritrean migrants tried to escape from a migrant detention center after Libyan officials allowed Eritrean embassy officials to take their photos and forced them to complete forms raising fear of deportation. In response, Libyan authorities transported 245 Eritrean detainees from the Misrata detention on Libya’s northern coast to another detention center at al-Biraq, north of Sabha, in an apparent attempt to deport them. Some of these Eritreans were among those whom Italy had forcibly returned to Libya without giving them an opportunity to claim asylum. After an international outcry, Libya released this group but did not provide them with any support or protection. Addiction Definition Essay? They remain in Libya.

Human Rights Watch recommends that the Libyan government: Sign and ratify the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and establish asylum procedures in conformity with international refugee standards. Improve the deplorable conditions of detention in georgetown resume Libya, and prosecute officials responsible for abusing migrants in and out of detention. Human Rights Watch recommends that EU institutions and essay, member states: Refrain from concluding multilateral or bilateral readmission agreements with Libya until Libyan policies and practices with regard to migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers fully meet international standards. Georgetown? Pressure Italy to stop cooperating with Libya to forcibly return migrants—including apparent asylum seekers—to Libya where they are routinely subjected to inhuman and degrading treatment and where potential refugees are not effectively protected. Ensure that the EU external border control agency, Frontex, is not involved in activities that result in refoulement.

On January 1, 2010, a readmission agreement between the European Union and Ukraine came into force that provides for the return of third-country nationals who enter the EU from Ukraine. Definition? Readmission agreements are a cornerstone of the EU’s so-called externalization strategy for asylum and migration, the core of which is to stop the flow of migrants and asylum seekers into the EU by shifting the burden and responsibility for migrants and refugees onto countries that neighbor the Union, in conserve water this case Ukraine. Ukraine has a dysfunctional asylum system, and from August 2009 through August 2010, no government body had the mandate to recognize or provide protection to refugees. Ukraine is struggling to manage the addiction, backlog of claims that were not processed during that time. Not only has Ukraine been unable or unwilling to provide effective protection to refugees and asylum seekers, it has also subjected some migrants who returned from essay, neighboring EU countries to torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment.

Out of 161 interviews of refugees, migrants, and asylum seekers in Ukraine, Slovakia, and Hungary whom Human Rights Watch interviewed in June 2010, 48 said they had been returned from addiction definition essay, Slovakia or Hungary. Most of those 48 said they had asked for asylum upon arrival in those countries, but that their pleas had been ignored and they had been swiftly expelled. These practices breach the right to seek asylum contained in the binding EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Both Slovakia and thesis, Hungary also returned unaccompanied children to addiction definition Ukraine in violation of essays their international obligations to protect them. Human Rights Watch recommends that Slovakia, Hungary, and other EU member states: Suspend the return of third-country nationals to Ukraine under the EU-Ukraine readmission agreement or bilateral readmission agreements until Ukraine meets international standards with respect to the human rights of returned migrants, particularly with regard to addiction definition the practice of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, and essay telephone, arbitrary detention and until Ukraine demonstrates willingness and the capacity to provide a fair hearing to addiction asylum seekers and effective protection to refugees. Human Rights Watch recommends that Ukraine: Ensure that all migrant detainees in state custody are treated in a humane and thesis, dignified manner and that their detention fully complies with Ukraine’s international obligations governing the administrative detention of migrants. Immediately investigate allegations of torture and abuse of migrants in State Border Guard Service custody, including at the time of apprehension and in all phases of detention and transfer. Ensure that border guards quickly forward all requests for asylum to the regional migration service and discipline any personnel who obstruct access to asylum. In 2010, Greece was faced with 10,000 requests by addiction other EU member states to return migrants and asylum seekers there under the Dublin II regulation, the instrument that assigns responsibility among EU states for examining asylum claims.

Dublin II generally holds that the country of first entry is responsible for examining the claim. Greece was the entry point for about 75 percent of the 106,200 irregular migrants entering the EU in georgetown resume 2009; that percentage rose to 80 percent in the early months of definition 2010, according to invention telephone The Economist . In September 2010, UNHCR described the situation for migrants and definition essay, asylum seekers in Greece as a “humanitarian crisis.” Despite the government’s repeated commitments to overhaul its broken asylum system, restore appeal rights, ensure humane treatment for migrants, and police accountability for ill-treatment, it had made no progress in any of those areas by year’s end. A Presidential Decree containing modest reforms, including addressing a backlog of more than 46,000 cases, remained stalled partly because of the country’s budget crisis, while only 11 of 30,000 applicants (0.04 percent) were granted asylum at first instance in 2009. Migrants and asylum seekers continued to be detained in substandard conditions, with little or no assistance to unaccompanied migrant children and other vulnerable groups, many of whom live in georgetown destitution or on definition essay the streets, at risk of exploitation and trafficking. During an October visit, the UN special rapporteur on conserve water essay torture investigated ill-treatment of migrants, as well as the detention of asylum seekers, women, and children.

On October 20, he called on the EU not to transfer asylum seekers to Greece under the addiction definition essay, Dublin II regulation. Human Rights Watch recommends that other EU member states: Suspend all Dublin II transfers to Greece. Human Rights Watch recommends that Greece: Invite UNHCR to take over its asylum system as long as it is incapable of doing so. Completely reform its asylum system to provide access to the procedure for all asylum seekers and fair and timely adjudication of claims. Improve conditions of conserve water detention in all places of migration detention to meet international standards. The Canary Islands government's decision to keep 200 unaccompanied migrant children in emergency shelters, which are not subject to normal care regulations, puts the children at addiction risk and threatens their well-being. While some conditions have improved in recent years, the essay invention, centers fail to comply with the Canary Islands government's minimum care standards for addiction definition essay, migrant children and have no occupancy limits.

The approximately 100 children in the biggest and most secluded emergency center, La Esperanza, receive low-quality food, lack adequate heating, hot water, and blankets, and report exposure to on watching tv or frequent violence from essay, other children. The emergency centers were established in 2006 as a temporary measure in dissertation style response to an unprecedented number of unaccompanied migrant children arriving on the islands. Some conditions have improved since 2007, including access to education, training opportunities outside their residences, and more frequent monitoring visits. Other serious concerns also persist in definition essay emergency centers. These include the absence of a functioning mechanism to file confidential complaints, mixing of younger children with older peers in one emergency center, insufficient access to dissertation style the asylum procedure, absence of occupancy limits, and limited opportunities to become integrated in the community. Addiction Definition? In addition, the substandard conditions at La Esperanza center threaten children's well-being. The Canary Islands government informed Human Rights Watch orally on June 15 that it plans to close down La Esperanza emergency center by December 2010 and move children to other centers, including the emergency centers at Tegueste and essays, Arinaga. It has not committed to making those centers subject to its own established minimum standards of care. Human Rights Watch recommends that the addiction, government of the Canary Islands:

Close La Esperanza emergency center as a matter of priority and essay on watching reading books, transfer all children to adequate care arrangements. End the definition, emergency regime as a whole and bring all centers for unaccompanied minors in line with Canary Islands minimum standards and occupancy limits for centers accommodating unaccompanied migrant children. III. Tv Or Reading Books? Inadequate Health Care for Migrants in Detention. We are sweating at night on the floor; we don’t know what illnesses we have, but we pass them back and forth…. I asked the officer to go to the clinic, but he said, “You just need to wait for deportation.” Especially when they know you are a foreigner, they don’t take you serious. —Jean Marie, 28, immigration detainee, Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia, October 3, 2009. Migrants frequently face barriers in accessing health care. Migrant populations in detention can be particularly vulnerable, as they are entirely reliant on addiction definition the government to provide or facilitate their access to services.

Under international law, states have an obligation to resume ensure medical care for all prisoners at least equivalent to that available to the general population; human rights law also requires that a core minimum of health care services be provided without discrimination on addiction essay the basis of style of writing citizenship or social origin. Yet despite these protections, prisoners in Zambia and Malawi are often held in life-threatening conditions. Human Rights Watch researchers have found that migrant detainees held in prisons—sometimes inappropriately or unnecessarily—also experience discrimination, and faced conditions or health care inferior to those provided to non-migrant prison populations. In August 2010, Human Rights Watch became aware of serious health and justice concerns in the cases of addiction essay approximately 230 Ethiopian migrants imprisoned in Malawi. The migrants had recently been convicted of illegal entry and sentenced to various terms of imprisonment, with an average sentence of 10 months. Dissertation Of Writing? Reports from addiction essay, these prisoners suggested that their trials were conducted in a language they were unable to understand, with no translation provided, raising concerns that the trials may not have met international fair trial standards.

While many, if not all, prisoners in Malawi face poor prison conditions, reports suggest those experienced by Ethiopian detainees in some Malawian prisons are significantly worse than the norm, and could have serious health implications. For example, in one prison some 85 non-Malawian inmates were housed in responsibility a small, smoke-filled kitchen, measuring 3.4 by 3.9 meters. Some of the inmates were forced to addiction definition essay stand for 16 hours a day while the cell was locked: one or more were forced to crouch in the chimney. Inmates reported respiratory ailments and dissertation style, symptoms consistent with malnutrition-related disorders, but often could not report serious health problems because they did not speak the essay, officers’ language. Human Rights Watch has recommended that the government of georgetown resume Malawi: Improve conditions of detention and in addiction essay particular overcrowding in for persuasive essays Malawi’s prisons, ensuring that non-Malawian prisoners are held under conditions of addiction essay detention equivalent to Malawian prisoners. Provide migrant detainees with a designated interpreter through whom they can request medical assistance and through whom they may make complaints to prison authorities empowered to address prison conditions. In Zambia, immigration detainees—including administrative detainees held pending deportation—are frequently held in prisons, made to await deportation without due process, and thesis, mixed with convicted and pre-trial criminal prisoners. Human Rights Watch, the definition essay, Prisons Care and Counselling Association (PRISCCA), and the AIDS and conserve water, Rights Alliance for Southern Africa (ARASA) interviewed immigration detainees in Zambian prisons and found that only addiction essay 38 percent of those interviewed had ever seen a magistrate or judge, compared with 97 percent of non-immigration detainees.

Many who were detained appeared to have reasonable claims to legal status. Immigration detainees are routinely told to pay for their own deportation and are held until they pay. Being held behind bars can have life-threatening consequences for conserve, all inmates, including immigration detainees. Overcrowding, malnutrition, rampant infectious disease, grossly inadequate medical care, and routine violence at addiction the hands of prison officers and fellow inmates make Zambian prisons death traps for inmates of all nationalities. In 2010, the Zambia Prisons Service employed only 14 health staff—including one physician—to serve its 16,666 prisoners. Tuberculosis (TB) rates in Zambia’s prisons are more than ten times those in conserve essay the general population, and HIV rates almost double.

Yet despite being held under the same unhealthy conditions as Zambian inmates, immigration detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch, PRISCCA, and ARASA had been tested for both TB and HIV in detention at even lower rates than their Zambian counterparts; six percent of addiction definition essay immigration detainees had been tested for corporate responsibility, TB compared to addiction definition essay 23 percent of all detainees, and 21 percent of immigration detainees had been tested for HIV compared with 57 percent of all detainees. Such a disparity is attributable to a combination of discrimination against immigration detainees in accessing care, and the fact that immigration detainees, on average, spend less time in detention than convicted detainees. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Zambia: Boost prison-based health services to include HIV and TB testing and treatment, and ensure accessibility of such services to immigration detainees on equal terms. Amend the Immigration Act to require that any administrative detention for the purposes of deportation be explained on a case-by-case basis and shown to be proportionate and necessary, and include specific limits on the duration of georgetown resume administrative detention for the purposes of deportation. Ensure that each immigration detainee receives a hearing in a timely manner and is able to request asylum. IV. Discriminatory Treatment of Migrants. France launched a highly-publicized campaign against Roma from Eastern European in late July 2010, moving to forcibly evict Roma (and French travelers “gens du voyage”) living in unauthorized camps and to return migrant Roma (who are mostly EU citizens) to their countries of origin.

By the end of August, 128 of the camps had been destroyed, and by mid-September, over one thousand Roma from Romania and Bulgaria had been removed from France, the majority through “assisted voluntary returns” involving cash inducements and addiction definition essay, threat of deportation. There is essay books evidence that the government specifically targeted camps occupied by migrant Roma from Eastern Europe with a view to organizing expulsions, and essay, concerns remain that evictions were carried out without appropriate safeguards. At time of writing, a government-sponsored immigration reform bill, already passed by the lower chamber of parliament, is under examination in dissertation the French senate. The draft law weakens migrants’ rights and contains provisions that widen the grounds for expelling EU citizens to addiction definition include abuse of France’s welfare system, profiting from thesis for persuasive, begging by others, and “abusive” occupation of land. The last-minute introduction of the latter provisions and political rhetoric around their introduction strongly suggested they were aimed at Roma from Eastern Europe. The European Commission applied pressure on France in September for failing to implement correctly a 2004 EU directive on freedom of movement for EU citizens, which contains protections against summary and mass expulsions, neither of which appear to have been respected in the case of the expulsions of Roma to Romania and addiction, Bulgaria. While a positive move, the commission’s actions did not take France to task for telephone, discrimination against Roma, although it has said it will continue to monitor France’s compliance with its human rights obligations in this area. The commission’s actions prompted France to indicate it will take steps to remedy the shortcomings in national legislation. The immigration reform currently being debated also includes limiting the rights of appeal of migrants held in deportation detention, and withdrawing acquired citizenship from persons convicted of killing a public official, such as law enforcement officers, firefighters and judges.

Human Rights Watch recommends that the French government: Ensure all camp evictions are conducted lawfully and in compliance with international standards on evictions, including with necessary safeguards, such as appropriate advance notice, compensation for lost or damaged belongings, and alternative accommodation. Conduct an independent review of its “voluntary assisted return” program and the policy of expulsion of definition migrant Roma. Ensure that any expulsion measures are based on individual review and do not discriminate on essay tv or the grounds of definition essay ethnicity or nationality. Withdraw problematic provisions of the immigration reform bill, including those targeting Roma, weakening the essay reading, rights of definition migrants in detention, and withdrawing citizenship from naturalized French convicted of certain crimes. Racist and xenophobic violence, including against essay telephone migrants, remains a serious problem, with the government not only definition slow to acknowledge the problem and responsibility essays, adopt appropriate legal and policy responses, but exacerbating a climate of definition essay intolerance with anti-immigrant and anti-Roma discourse. The plight of seasonal agricultural migrant workers was laid bare in January 2010, when 11 African seasonal migrant workers were seriously injured in drive-by shootings and there were mob attacks over a three-day period in Rosarno, Calabria, in south Italy. Every winter, thousands of seasonal migrant workers go to Rosarno to harvest citrus fruits. Most are hired without legal employment contracts, and thesis for persuasive essays, work in conditions that are often exploitative, involving low pay, failure to pay, and abusive treatment. Following two drive-by shootings of African migrant workers on the same day, migrants organized protests, some of which resulted in violence and criminal damage of property. In the most serious episode attributed to migrants, a woman and her children were forced out of their car, the woman was hit in addiction essay the face with a rock, and the car set ablaze.

More shootings and conserve, mob beatings targeting migrants followed, there were two attempts to addiction run over migrants (including with a bulldozer), and an arson attack on a house occupied by migrants. In addition to invention telephone the 11 seriously injured migrants, at addiction definition least 10 other migrants, 10 law enforcement officers, and 14 local residents required first aid treatment. Over one thousand migrants left the dissertation, town after the violence, most of them evacuated by definition law enforcement personnel. To date, three Italians have been convicted of violence against migrants during the Rosarno unrest, although none of those responsible for the targeted shootings or mob attacks have been brought to justice. Resume? Five African migrants were convicted and sentenced in late January in expedited trials for incidents during the addiction essay, riot after the essay telephone, first two drive-by shootings. Anti-migrant discourse has become a staple of Italian politics, with elected officials making statements linking migrants to crime. Addiction? This has exacerbated an thesis for persuasive essays, existing climate of hostility, prompted in part by several high profile murders and rapes attributed to foreigners. Addiction Definition Essay? Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said in essay January 2010 that fewer foreigners in addiction definition essay Italy “means fewer people to corporate responsibility essays swell the ranks of criminals,” while the mayor of Milan said in May 2010 that “illegal immigrants who don’t have regular work usually commit crimes.” Elected officials at the local and addiction definition essay, national level have engaged in essay on watching reading books derogatory rhetoric about addiction Roma (many of whom are Italian citizens) and Romanians, blaming them for crime and corporate, urban blight. Human Rights Watch recommends that the definition, Italian government: Ensure existing criminal provisions that provide for essay tv or reading, penalty enhancement in racially-motivated crimes are utilized and fully implemented. Ensure that attacks on migrants, Roma, and definition essay, other ethnic minorities are promptly investigated by law enforcement and those responsible are brought to justice.

Condemn forcefully and consistently all racist and xenophobic statements, especially by public and elected officials, and make clear that racist discourse has no place in Italian society. Since 2005, up to 3 million Zimbabweans have fled political persecution and essays, economic collapse in their country and sought refuge and economic opportunities in neighboring South Africa. Definition? In 2008 and responsibility, 2009, 261,000 claimed asylum, overwhelming an asylum system which already faced a backlog of just over 100,000 cases. Responding to international calls to definition grant Zimbabweans in South Africa temporary special protection, South African authorities in April 2009 announced a “special dispensation” policy under which Zimbabweans would receive special permission to remain and work in South Africa. Reading Books? While the policy was never implemented, South Africa stopped deporting Zimbabweans that same month, ending a practice that had seen over essay, an estimated half-a-million Zimbabweans forced back to their country since early 2007. On September 2, 2010, due to perceived improvements in the situation in Zimbabwe, South African authorities announced an end to the special dispensation policy, and confirmed deportations would resume on corporate essays January 1, 2011. However, the September 2 decision allows Zimbabweans (asylum seekers, the undocumented, and addiction essay, those with fraudulent South African identity papers) currently working, studying, or operating a business in dissertation style South Africa to regularize their status by December 31, 2010. To qualify, applicants must hold a Zimbabwean passport, which they can obtain from Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa, and prove they have been in the country since at least May 31, 2010. Human Rights Watch and other organizations have voiced concern that four months is addiction definition essay insufficient time to ensure that all Zimbabweans wishing to apply can do so, and that those who miss the deadline will be caught up in South Africa’s likely resumption of mass deportations of Zimbabweans in early 2011. Impact on water Asylum System and Genuine Refugees. Human Rights Watch is also concerned that lack of additional resources for addiction essay, the asylum system and inadequate safeguards against police abuses means resumed deportations of Zimbabweans will lead to more violations of asylum seekers’ rights.

Once deportations have resumed, Zimbabweans will have only two options to lawfully enter and remain in South Africa: apply for asylum, or apply for a temporary residence permit under the Immigration Rules’ work, study, and on watching tv or reading books, business provisions. Essay? The majority who wish to enter or remain in South Africa will be unable to apply for such a residency permit due to a combination of permit fees, lack of skills, lack of Zimbabwean identity documents, and lack of sponsorship by South African employers or educational institutions. Conserve? For most Zimbabweans, the only way to remain legally in South Africa will be to addiction essay claim asylum, which guarantees them a right to water remain in the country until the claim has been resolved. In 2011, therefore, there is likely to be a significant rise in essay Zimbabwean asylum applications. Dissertation Style Of Writing? South Africa’s asylum system—already buckling under the definition essay, strain of corporate responsibility essays hundreds of thousands of Zimbabweans’ claims and tens of definition thousands of claims by other nationalities—will be under further pressure. As documented in our June 2008 report, “Neighbors in Need,” this will almost certainly lead to invention even less access to the asylum system, resulting in police arrests, prolonged detention, unlawful deportation of genuine refugees, and a drop in essay the quality and timeliness of decisions for asylum seekers in genuine need of international protection. Recommendations to the South African government: Extend the on watching tv or reading books, deadline for Zimbabweans to addiction definition register in South Africa until at essay telephone least June 1, 2011, to ensure that those wishing to apply have enough time to do so; support the Zimbabwean authorities in South Africa to rapidly issue passports to all Zimbabweans wishing to register.

In light of the addiction, likely dramatic increase in Zimbabwean asylum applications following resumed deportations, take all necessary steps to ensure that anyone wishing to claim asylum in South Africa can easily lodge their claim and is guaranteed protection from police arrest, detention, and deportation. Federal reforms to responsibility the laws that regulate which migrants may enter and addiction definition, remain in georgetown resume the US mostly stalled in definition essay 2010. Instead, constituent states considered problematic immigration laws. An Arizona law, SB 1070, authorized police to interrogate anyone who they reasonably suspect to be undocumented. Human Rights Watch opposed SB 1070, concerned that it would lead to racial profiling. In July a federal court enjoined enforcement of the most controversial sections of SB 1070, including the thesis essays, “reasonable suspicion” interrogations. The court’s decision is under appeal.

October 2010 marked one year since the US Immigration and addiction, Customs Enforcement agency (ICE) published a report calling for replacing the current punitive approach to detaining immigrants with a “civil detention model.” The agency has been working on programmatic steps to style achieve that goal. Essay? In 2010, it took the positive step of establishing a computerized detainee locator system, enabling attorneys, government officials, and responsibility essays, family members to locate an immigrant held in one of around 300 detention facilities throughout the country. However, several other key reforms that Human Rights Watch has called for based on its research are stalled or need additional effort by the agency. Aspects of immigration detention procedures needing prompt reform include: While the ICE detainee locator system is an important first step, much more needs to be done to ensure that ICE uses its detention facilities only as necessary.

In 2009, ICE held between 380,000 and 442,000 people in approximately 300 facilities, at an annual cost of US$1.7 billion. These people are not imprisoned as punishment for criminal offenses, but rather are detained for civil immigration violations. Essay? Many are deprived of their liberty for months, and even years. Treatment of Detainees with Mental Disabilities. Immigrants with mental disabilities are often unjustifiably detained for years, sometimes indefinitely. They also must undergo deportation hearings without the right to a government-appointed attorney, which means approximately 60 percent go through court hearings without a lawyer. Human Rights Watch has documented numerous cases in which people with mental disabilities were prevented from conserve water essay, making claims against deportation—including claims of US citizenship—because they were unable to represent themselves. Some people interviewed by Human Rights Watch did not know their own names, were delusional, could not tell the time, or did not know that deportation meant removal from the United States. Sexual Violence against Female Detainees.

Human Rights Watch has compiled documented incidents and definition essay, allegations of sexual assault, abuse, and harassment in immigration detention since the formation of ICE in 2003. In one such incident, five women detained at the Port Isabel Service Processing Center in Texas were assaulted by a guard in 2008 when he entered each of their rooms in the detention center infirmary where they were patients. He ordered them to undress and touched intimate parts of their bodies. While ICE has taken some steps to address the problem of sexual assault, including proposing new requirements for how detention facilities must prevent and respond to for persuasive essays sexual abuse, the agency should act swiftly to improve oversight of the addiction, entire detention system and resume, ensure accountability. On February 22, ICE wrote to Human Rights Watch, announcing the agency's intention to “minimize the number of detainee transfers to the greatest extent possible.” This important commitment came after Human Rights Watch raised serious concerns about ICE's policy of addiction essay transferring large numbers of immigrant detainees to facilities far from where they lived.

The transfers impede and sometimes completely bar detainees from accessing an attorney and interfere with detainees' ability to present key witnesses and evidence in immigration court. Sometimes transfers completely alter the law applied to their deportation or asylum case, for example, the act of sending a detainee from one jurisdiction to another can determine whether she may ask an immigration judge to allow her to remain in the United States. In light of the thesis essays, 1.6 million detainee transfers recorded between 1997 and 2006, and data from addiction essay, 2008 that show that a majority of detainees were transferred two or more times, ICE’s statement of intention is a positive step. However, it needs to make specific changes to its internal policies to address this serious problem. Human Rights Watch recommends that the US government: Ensure that immigrants are not detained unnecessarily, with particular attention to preventing the detention of essay persons with mental disabilities without justification, and provide appointed counsel for non-citizens with mental disabilities in immigration proceedings. Establish legally enforceable standards to govern conditions of addiction essay detention, including access to medical care; reform policies to limit the transfer of detainees away from georgetown resume, counsel and family; and improve accountability and oversight mechanisms in the detention system to prevent and respond to addiction abuses.

Reform federal immigration law to essay books ensure that all migrants’ human rights are protected even while their presence in the United States is definition strictly regulated. In Cote d'Ivoire, as elsewhere in West Africa, women and girls are trafficked from Nigeria for essay invention telephone, forced prostitution. Most appear to come from Delta and Edo states in Nigeria and are lured into addiction essay, migrating with promises of gainful employment in West Africa or Europe. Instead, they are forced to pay off an exorbitant debt through prostitution, with threats of harm by women overseeing the essay telephone, brothels should they fail to do so. The problem appears to be rising, with the Nigerian embassy repatriating scores of essay victims this year alone. Cote d’Ivoire has failed to ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol and likewise has no domestic legislation against trafficking, resulting in serious legislative deficiencies to essay books tackle the problem.

Human Rights Watch recommends that the definition, government of resume Cote d’Ivoire: Sign and ratify the UN Trafficking Protocol, and definition essay, pass a domestic anti-trafficking law that provides a framework for essay invention telephone, combating trafficking, including trafficking for definition, the purpose of prostitution, in accordance with international standards. Conduct a thorough and invention, comprehensive national investigation into addiction definition essay, the trafficking of West African women and girls for the purposes of prostitution, in order to determine the scale of the resume, problem, the addiction, main trafficking routes, and the conditions and threats under which the women and girls live. Under the current domestic legal framework, arrest and prosecute those engaged in recruiting children for prostitution and those who force women and girls into prostitution. More than two million migrant domestic workers are employed in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait and are at high risk of abuse and exploitation due to gaps in labor laws and restrictive immigration practices. The combination of deceptive recruitment practices in home countries, indebtedness due to invention telephone placement fees, confinement to the workplace upon employment, withholding of passports, and addiction essay, abuses summarized earlier in this report, can contribute to situations of forced labor, trafficking, and slavery-like conditions. In May 2010, the Nepalese embassy in Riyadh confirmed several cases in which Kuwaiti employers hired Nepalese domestic workers, illegally transported them to Saudi Arabia against their will, and forced them to work for Saudi families.

The Saudi families typically paid the essay, Kuwaitis fees for addiction essay, trafficking the thesis, workers, and when finished employing them, often abandoned them at the Nepalese embassy to avoid paying fines for addiction definition essay, illegal hiring. Thesis Essays? Although many of the Nepalese women arriving at the embassy appeared to have suffered abuse, including sexual abuse, diplomats said that Saudi authorities, while typically facilitating repatriation of addiction definition essay these domestic workers, did not provide them with specialized services or investigate the Saudi employers who illegally employed or abused them. Saudi Arabia passed an anti-trafficking law in July 2009. Conserve Water? The law prohibits all forms of trafficking, and includes specific provisions addressing migrant workers, including prohibiting sale of addiction essay work permits, receiving commissions in return for employment, and stiffer penalties if the essay invention telephone, crime was committed across national borders. Definition? The Kuwaiti parliament is georgetown considering a draft of an anti-trafficking law, first proposed in July 2008, that would also punish trafficking across borders. Human Rights Watch recommends that the addiction definition, governments of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia: Cooperate to prevent, monitor, and prosecute cases of cross-border trafficking of migrants. Institute and enforce comprehensive legal frameworks to combat human trafficking, including implementation of Saudi Arabia’s anti-trafficking law, adoption of such a law by Kuwait, and reading, reforms to labor and immigration laws. Provide specialized services to victims of trafficking including appropriate health and counseling services. In Senegal, at least 50,000 young boys live in conditions that amount to addiction a modern form of slavery.

They generally come from small villages and are sent by parents to cities around Senegal to study the Quran. However, many of the dissertation style of writing, men who operate these residential schools offer little education and instead force the boys to beg for up to ten hours a day. The boys must return a daily demanded sum or face severe physical abuse. While the boys suffer from malnutrition and frequent diseases, many of the teachers live in relative affluence. Many boys are trafficked internally within Senegal or from neighboring Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, the Gambia, Mali, and Mauritania. In 2005, Senegal passed a law that criminalized trafficking and forcing another person to beg for essay, financial gain; in responsibility September 2010, one month after President Abdoulaye Wade announced a ban on definition essay all forms of begging, the country applied the law for the first time, arresting and prosecuting nine men who were exploiting young boys under their de facto guardianship through forced begging.

It was considered a landmark case by local and international organizations working on the issue, and the number of boys on the streets in Dakar clearly reduced given the legitimate threat of prosecution. However, only a month later President Wade reversed course and announced that the ban on begging would no longer be applied—and the number of boys forced to beg on the street appeared to return to its previous ubiquity. As of invention telephone October 2010, Guinea-Bissau, the neighboring country that sends the greatest number of these young boys to Senegal, had no law against essay trafficking. However, a draft law that would bring the country's legislation in line with international obligations is set to appear before the National Assembly in early 2011. Border officials, children's rights workers, and police said the law was essential to essay invention stem the essay, flood of boys who are taken across the thesis for persuasive, border each year to be exploited in Senegal. Guinea-Bissau’s National Assembly should act quickly to pass a law criminalizing human trafficking. The draft law, which the Assembly recently placed on its agenda for addiction, its October-November session, would empower police, judicial officials, and civil society to improve protection of the country’s children, thousands of whom are trafficked from Guinea-Bissau to Senegal and other countries each year. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Senegal: Resume prosecutions of those who traffic and corporate responsibility, abuse boys through forced begging. In particular, undertake proactive police work to target the most exploitative teachers, and extend the state's crackdown on forced begging to other cities in Senegal. Addiction Essay? Strengthen and on watching tv or books, expand the mechanisms in place to temporarily house, clothe, and feed boys recovered from addiction definition, abusive Quranic schools, and to return them to their families.

Establish minimum standards in Quranic schools that protect a child's right to education, health, and resume, physical and addiction definition, mental development, and require all such schools to be registered and periodically inspected by state officials to georgetown resume ensure they conform to such standards. Human Rights Watch recommends that the government of Guinea-Bissau: Immediately enact the draft legislation that criminalizes child trafficking, and enforce its provisions through the arrest and prosecution of individuals who traffic boys to addiction essay Senegal under the guise of religious education. Increase the capacity of civil and border police units, particularly in the Bafata and Gabu regions, to deter child trafficking and other illegal cross-border movements of of writing children. Nisha Varia, senior researcher in the women’s rights division, coordinated the compilation and publication of this report.

The contents are based on definition the field research and writing of several Human Rights Watch staff: Jane Buchanan, Zama Coursen-Neff, Corinne Dufka, Bill Frelick, Nadim Houry, Megan McLemore, Sarah Mehta, Heba Morayef, Priyanka Motaparthy, Samer Muscati, Alison Parker, Meghan Rhoad, Phil Robertson, Rebecca Shaeffer, Gerry Simpson, Judith Sunderland, Katherine Todrys, Simone Troller, Nisha Varia, Matt Wells, and Christoph Wilcke. The findings on Zambia are based on joint field research by Human Rights Watch and Nyaradzo Chari-Imbayago of the AIDS and essay on watching tv or, Rights Alliance for Southern Africa, Chris Mumba of the Treatment Advocacy and essay, Literacy Campaign, and Godfrey Malembeka of the Prisons Care and essay invention, Counselling Association. Janet Walsh, deputy director in the women’s rights division, Bill Frelick, director of the refugee program, and Danielle Haas in addiction essay the program office reviewed the report. Clive Baldwin, Aisling Reidy, and James Ross, all from the legal and policy office, provided legal review. Daniela Ramirez provided editing and production assistance, and Grace Choi and Fitzroy Hepkins provided production assistance. Human Rights Watch Reports on Migrants in 2010. Human Rights Watch, From the Tiger to the Crocodile: Abuse of Migrant Workers in Thailand , February 23, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/02/23/tiger-crocodile-0.

Human Rights Watch, “Off the Backs of the Children”: Forced Begging and essays, Other Abuses against Talibes in Senegal , April 15, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/15/backs-children-0. Human Rights Watch,Prisons Care and Counselling Association, AIDS and Rights Alliance for essay, Southern Africa, and Human Rights Watch, Unjust and Unhealthy: HIV, TB, and Abuse in Zambian Prisons , April 27, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/27/unjust-and-unhealthy-0. Human Rights Watch, Slow Reform: Protection of Migrant Domestic Workers in essay on watching tv or Asia and the Middle East , April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/04/28/slow-reform-0. Human Rights Watch, Eternal Emergency: No End to addiction Unaccompanied Migrant Children’s Institutionalization in Canary Islands Emergency Centers , June 22, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/node/90993. Human Rights Watch, “Tough, Fair, and Practical”: A Human Rights Framework for Immigration Reform in the United States , July 9, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/09/tough-fair-and-practical-0. Human Rights Watch, “Hellish Work”: Exploitation of Migrant Tobacco Workers in Kazakhstan , July 14, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/07/14/hellish-work-0. Human Rights Watch, Deportation by Default: Mental Disability, Unfair Hearings, and Indefinite Detention in the US Immigration System , July, 26 2010, Human Rights Watch, Without Protection: How the Lebanese Justice System Fails Migrant Domestic Workers , September 16, 2010, Human Rights Watch, Walls at Every Turn: Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers Through Kuwait's Sponsorship System , October 6, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/10/06/walls-every-turn-0. Human Rights Watch, Ukraine: Buffeted in the Borderland: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers and Migrants in Ukraine (forthcoming December 2010).

Other Human Rights Watch Materials on Migrants in 2010. “Human Rights Watch Interviews with African Migrants Seriously Injured in conserve water essay Individual Attacks,” Human Rights Watch interviews, February 4, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Abhisit Vejjajiva, “ Open Letter of essay Concern for the Safety and essay telephone, Security Of Migrant Workers in essay Thailand,” February 16, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/02/16/open-letter-concern-safety-and-security-migrant-workers-thailand. “Thailand: Migrant Workers Face Killings, Extortion, Labor Rights Abuses,” Human Rights Watch news release, February 23, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Lebanese government voicing concern over migrant and refugee arbitrary detentions, February 24, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System, April 28, 2010, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/04/28/letter-mr-michalis-chryssochoidis-ministry-citizen-protection-greece.

“Kuwait: Deliver Promised Rights Reform,” Human Rights Watch news release, May 12, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “US/Mexico: Investigate Border Killings,” Human Rights Watch news release, June 11, 2010, “Libya: Do Not Deport Eritreans,” Human Rights Watch news release, July 2, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch to The Honorable Prime Minister, Mr. Dissertation Style Of Writing? Abhisit Vejjajiva, “Open Letter Requesting Investigation of Claims Migrants Deported from Thailand Facing Human Rights Abuses by DKBA,” July 19, 2010, Letter from Human Rights Watch, to Mr. Michalis Chryssochoidis, Minister of Citizen Protection, “ Open Letter to the Government of Greece on Reform of the Asylum and Immigration System,” July 28, 2010, Letter from addiction definition, Human Rights Watch to water H.E. Dr. Khalid al-Karaki, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education, “ Undocumented Migrant Children’s Right to Education, Human Rights Watch Letter to Jordanian Minister of addiction definition Education,” September 9, 2010. Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka, “Prevent Abuses Against Migrant Domestic Workers, Human Rights Watch Letter to the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and conserve water essay, Sri Lanka,” November 23, 2010, “Greece: End Inhumane Detention Conditions for Migrants,” Human Rights Watch news release, December 6, 2010 , http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/06/greece-end-inhumane-detention-conditions-migrants.

Global: Flawed Policies Expose Migrants to Abuse. Iran: Afghan Children Recruited to Fight in Syria. Jordan: Syrian Refugees Being Summarily Deported. Syria: First Atrocities Trials Held in Europe. Saudi Arabia: Domestic Worker Brutalized. UN Human Rights Council Confronts Venezuela. Witness to definition Carnage in Burma’s Rakhine State. Burma: Military Commits Crimes Against Humanity. Burma: Satellite Imagery Shows Mass Destruction. Burma: Targeted Sanctions, Arms Embargo Needed.

Crimes against Humanity by Burmese Security Forces Against the Rohingya Muslim Population in Northern Rakhine State since August 25, 2017. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of essays people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and addiction essay, bringing perpetrators to resume justice.

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14 Skills and Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in addiction essay a responsible and fair manner in all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of georgetown resume maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to describe this skill on definition essay, your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to essay, professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to definition essay, working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is open to style, new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and addiction definition essay, will keep at georgetown, it until they solve the definition, problem and get the job done. How to responsibility, describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility.

There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for addiction definition essay, their actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to the company? even at responsibility, times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on definition essay, your resume: Loyal and style, dedicated manager with an excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. Definition Essay? The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and corporate, who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions. How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Addiction Essay? Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in essay on watching your unique mix of skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in yourself and what you can offer employers.

How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to work independently, with minimal supervision. How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to addiction, learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and of writing, you must show an openness to addiction definition essay, grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to style of writing, meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts.

While there is some debate about whether leadership is definition something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers. How to describe this skill on on watching reading, your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on addiction definition, your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of detail orientation.

Because so many jobs involve working in style of writing one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. Addiction Essay? How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and thesis, traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime. Once you have identified the sought-after skills and values and assessed the addiction definition essay, degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of employers to determine the top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from invention Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

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Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and definition, hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Essay Invention? Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Definition Essay? Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at randall@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and essays, associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for addiction definition essay, Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career.

Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into georgetown the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Definition Essay? Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at kathy@quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is for persuasive your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources.

Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and addiction essay, scoops for essays, job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and addiction definition essay, Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and dissertation style, employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to definition, the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to dissertation of writing, the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the addiction, [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.

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Friendship in an Age of Economics. The Stone is addiction essay a forum for contemporary philosophers and for persuasive essays other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. When I was 17 years old, I had the honor of definition, being the youngest person in the history of New York Hospital to georgetown resume undergo surgery for a herniated disc. This was at a time in which operations like this kept people in the hospital for over a week. The day after my surgery, I awoke to find a friend of mine sitting in a chair across from my bed. I don’t remember much about his visit. I am sure I was too sedated to say much. But I will not forget that he visited me on addiction definition essay that day, and sat there for on watching reading books, I know not how long, while my humanity was in the care of a morphine drip. The official discourses of our relations with one another do not have much to say about the afternoon my friend spent with me. Our age, what we might call the age of economics, is in thrall to two types of relationships which reflect the lives we are encouraged to lead.

There are consumer relationships, those that we participate in for the pleasure they bring us. And there are entrepreneurial relationships, those that we invest in hoping they will bring us some return. In a time in which the discourse of economics seeks to hold us in its grip, this should come as no surprise. The encouragement toward relationships of addiction essay, consumption is nowhere more prominently on display than in reality television. Jon and Kate, the cast of “Real World,” the Kardashians, and their kin across the spectrum conduct their lives for our entertainment.

It is available to us in turn to responsibility essays respond in a minor key by displaying our own relationships on YouTube. Or, barring that, we can collect friends like shoes or baseball cards on Facebook. Entrepreneurial relationships have, in definition, some sense, always been with us. On Watching Books! Using people for one’s ends is addiction definition essay not a novel practice. It has gained momentum, however, as the reduction of governmental support has diminished social solidarity and the rise of finance capitalism has stressed investment over production. The economic fruits of the latter have lately been with us, but the water essay interpersonal ones, while more persistent, remain veiled. Addiction Essay! Where nothing is produced except personal gain, relationships come loose from their social moorings. Aristotle thought that there were three types of friendship: those of pleasure, those of usefulness, and true friendship. In friendships of pleasure, “it is not for their character that men love ready-witted people, but because they find them pleasant.” In the latter, “those who love each other for their utility do not love each other for themselves but in virtue of some good which they get from each other.” For him, the first is characteristic of the young, who are focused on momentary enjoyment, while the second is often the province of the essays old, who need assistance to cope with their frailty. What the rise of essay, recent public rhetoric and essay tv or reading practice has accomplished is to definition essay cast the first two in essay tv or, economic terms while forgetting about the third. In our lives, however, few of us have entirely forgotten about the third — true friendship.

We may not define it as Aristotle did — friendship among the already virtuous — but we live it in our own way nonetheless. Essay! Our close friendships stand as a challenge to the tenor of our times. Conversely, our times challenge those friendships. This is why we must reflect on conserve essay friendship; so that it doesn’t slip away from us under the pressure of a dominant economic discourse. We are all, and addiction essay always, creatures of our time. Telephone! In the case of addiction, friendship, we must push back against that time if we are to style of writing sustain what, for many of us, are among the most important elements of addiction, our lives.

It is invention those elements that allow us to sit by the bedside of a friend: not because we know it is worth it, but because the question of worth does not even arise. There is much that might be said about friendships. They allow us to see ourselves from the perspective of another. They open up new interests or deepen current ones. They offer us support during difficult periods in our lives.

The aspect of friendship that I would like to focus on is its non-economic character. Although we benefit from our close friendships, these friendships are not a matter of calculable gain and loss. While we draw pleasure from them, they are not a matter solely of consuming pleasure. And while the time we spend with our friends and the favors we do for them are often reciprocated in an informal way, we do not spend that time or offer those favors in view of the reciprocation that might ensue. Friendships follow a rhythm that is distinct from that of either consumer or entrepreneurial relationships. This is at once their deepest and most fragile characteristic. Consumer pleasures are transient. They engulf us for addiction, a short period and then they fade, like a drug. That is on watching books why they often need to be renewed periodically.

Entrepreneurship, when successful, leads to the victory of personal gain. We cultivate a colleague in the field or a contact outside of it in the hope that it will advance our career or enhance our status. When it does, we feel a sense of essay, personal success. Conserve Essay! In both cases, there is the enjoyment of what comes to us through the medium of other human beings. Friendships worthy of the addiction definition essay name are different. Their rhythm lies not in what they bring to us, but rather in what we immerse ourselves in. Invention! To be a friend is to step into definition essay, the stream of another’s life. It is, while not neglecting my own life, to take pleasure in another’s pleasure, and to share their pain as partly my own. The borders of my life, while not entirely erased, become less clear than they might be. Invention Telephone! Rather than the rhythm of pleasure followed by emptiness, or that of investment and essay then profit, friendships follow a rhythm that is at once subtler and thesis essays more persistent.

This rhythm is subtler because it often (although not always) lacks the mark of a consumed pleasure or a successful investment. Addiction Definition! But even so, it remains there, part of the ground of essay tv or books, our lives that lies both within us and addiction definition essay without. To be this ground, friendships have a relation to responsibility time that is foreign to an economic orientation. Consumer relationships are focused on the momentary present. Essay! It is essays what brings immediate pleasure that matters.

Entrepreneurial relationships have more to do with the future. How I act toward others is determined by definition essay what they might do for me down the road. Friendships, although lived in the present and assumed to thesis continue into the future, also have a deeper tie to the past than either of addiction definition, these. Past time is sedimented in georgetown resume, a friendship. It accretes over the hours and days friends spend together, forming the foundation upon which the character of a relationship is built. This sedimentation need not be a happy one. Shared experience, not just common amusement or advancement, is the ground of friendship. Of course, to essay have friendships like this, one must be prepared to dissertation style of writing take up the addiction past as a ground for friendship.

This ground does not come to us, ready-made. Responsibility! We must make it our own. And this, perhaps, is the contemporary lesson we can draw from Aristotle’s view that true friendship requires virtuous partners, that “perfect friendship is the friendship of men who are good.” If we are to have friends, then we must be willing to approach some among our relationships as offering an invitation to build something outside the scope of our own desires. We must be willing to forgo pleasure or usefulness for addiction essay, something that emerges not within but between one of us and another. Read previous contributions to this series. We might say of georgetown resume, friendships that they are a matter not of diversion or of return but of addiction definition, meaning. They render us vulnerable, and in doing so they add dimensions of significance to our lives that can only arise from being, in essay on watching reading books, each case, friends with this or that particular individual, a party to this or that particular life.

It is precisely this non-economic character that is threatened in a society in addiction definition essay, which each of dissertation, us is thrown upon his or her resources and offered only the bywords of ownership, shopping, competition, and growth. It is threatened when we are encouraged to definition essay look upon those around us as the stuff of our current enjoyment or our future advantage. Dissertation Style Of Writing! It is threatened when we are led to believe that friendships without a recognizable gain are, in the economic sense, irrational. Friendships are not without why, perhaps, but they are certainly without that particular why. In turn, however, it is friendship that allows us to see that there is more than what the prevalent neoliberal discourse places before us as our possibilities. In a world often ruled by addiction the dollar and what it can buy, friendship, like love, opens other vistas. Essay! The critic John Berger once said of one of his friendships, “We were not somewhere between success and essay failure; we were elsewhere.” To be able to sit by the bed of another, watching him sleep, waiting for nothing else, is to understand where else we might be. Todd May is a professor of philosophy at Clemson University. He is the author 10 books, including “The Philosophy of Foucault” and “Death,” and is at work on a book about friendship in the contemporary period. The Stone features the writing of contemporary philosophers and invention telephone other thinkers on addiction essay issues both timely and timeless.

The series moderator is Simon Critchley. He teaches philosophy at The New School for Social Research in New York. To contact the editors of The Stone, send an e-mail to opinionator@nytimes.com. Water Essay! Please include “The Stone” in the subject field. Addiction Definition Essay! The Stone RSS. Guiding a First Generation to College. Students who are new to America or lack college-educated parents often don’t know their options.

Read more… How Dwindling Fish Stocks Got a Reprieve. Giving fishermen a business incentive to fish sustainably can “unleash their creative capacity” to help solve the problem, says one expert. Read more… Steph Curry, the georgetown Prophet of Basketball. What desperate, humiliating steps would I take in order to watch him play?

Read more… Should Therapists Write About Patients? Even when we disguise their identities, we risk betraying them. Read more… It isn’t unusual for therapists to get emotionally attached to people we’ve never met. Read more… The Perils of Being a Black Philosopher. After reading so many hateful messages I began to feel sick, literally. Read more… What this language trend says about us. Read more…

Bruni and addiction Douthat Agree: #OscarsSoPolitical. The Moviegoers pick who should and who will win at the Academy Awards — and pick apart Hollywood’s diversity problem. Read more… Escaping to a Galaxy Far, Far, Far Away. The “Force” holds great appeal compared with our anxieties here on earth, as seen in other films this season.

Read more… Not Just a Death, a System Failure. My mother’s death was so wrenching that I applied to medical school to help change the dissertation style way people die in America. Read more… Had I prolonged my Indian grandmother’s suffering with my stubborn belief in the power of medicine to fix things? Read more… What I learned about writing from doing crossword puzzles. Read more…

When a family commissions a work, they’re more interested in stories, lessons and addiction values, rather than in sensation. Read more… 10 Things I’d Tell My Former (Medicated) Self. I’ve been drug-free for nearly a month. Here is what I learned about my own seven-month weaning process. Read more… As I decrease my medications, the urgency I feel around men and relationships subsides. Read more… Every Creeping Thing That Creepeth. Composing with orchestral instruments was fine.

But I found a richer palette of melody, counterpoint and rhythm already in the air. Essay Telephone! Read more… Four years ago, Disunion convened a panel of experts to discuss the outbreak of the Civil War. Now, those experts are back to discuss the war’s end, and its legacy. Read more… What Do You Know?

A Civil War Pop Quiz. If you read the series (or if you’re just a huge Civil War nerd), what have you learned? Read more… Should convicted felons receive free health care? Read more… When It’s the Doctor Who Can’t Let Go.

Too many physicians think palliative care means giving up. Definition Essay! Read more… Brooks and invention Collins on the full extent of the Election Day devastation of Democrats, including some who weren’t on the ballot. Read more… Brooks and Collins on conflicting responses to Ebola, the meaning of the definition midterms and the pleasure of voting for effective crooks. Essay! Read more… Inexorable laws of economics aren’t tearing us apart. Our policies are.

Read more… Modern slot machine parlors have sophisticated methods of milking less affluent gamblers. Addiction Definition Essay! Read more… The Certainty of essay tv or reading, Donald Rumsfeld (Part 4) The absence of addiction, evidence, the for persuasive evidence of absence, and the Iraq War. Addiction Definition Essay! Read more… The Certainty of Donald Rumsfeld (Part 3) Could Pearl Harbor be called a “failure of essay, imagination,” and in that sense was it similar to the attacks of 9/11?

Read more… Guiding a First Generation to College. Students who are new to America or lack college-educated parents often don’t know their options.Readmore… How Dwindling Fish Stocks Got a Reprieve. Giving fishermen a business incentive to fish sustainably can “unleash their creative capacity” to help solve the problem, says one expert. Readmore…