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Phd Thesis On Multimodal Biometrics

Biometric phd thesis

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Multimodal Biometrics Phd Thesis On …

Are Malay Graduates And Job Seekers Being Discriminated In Malaysia? Yes, They Are. The high number of unemployed graduates, especially Malay graduates is biometric not news in this country. We hear them blaming everything but themselves. But what if the testing Malays are indeed being discriminated against? #8220;Yeah right,#8221; I muttered at phd thesis, first as someone who is sometimes ashamed by my own race. How could I not, when I’m assumed to be ‘easily swayed and confused’ half the time?

Trying to keep an open mind, I read this study, and was quite puzzled by the findings. It was entitled ‘Discrimination in high degrees: Race and graduate hiring in Malaysia‘ and was published in the Journal of Asia Pacific Economy by UM and thesis usa, UKM researchers. Biometric Phd Thesis? Here’s the paper abstract (bold is my own): This paper investigates racial discrimination in essay war era, hiring fresh degree graduates in Malaysia through a field experiment . We send fictitious Malay and Chinese resumes to job advertisements, then analyse differentials in callback for interview attributable to racial identity, while controlling for biometric phd thesis, applicant characteristics, employer profile and job requirements. We find that race matters much more than resume quality, with Malays, Malaysia’s majority group significantly less likely to testing research title be called for interview. Other factors, particularly language proficiency of employees, language requirements of jobs and profile of employers, influence employer biases. Applicants fluent in Chinese fare better, and phd thesis, Chinese-controlled and foreign-controlled companies are more likely to annie dillard essays seeing favour Chinese resumes, indicating that cultural compatibility explains part of the discrimination. Phd Thesis? Malay resumes tend to be perceived and prejudged adversely, and with, employers’ attitudes towards public policy outcomes, particularly pertaining to education quality and employment opportunity in the public sector, also account for the observed racial disparities . Let me simplify that for you: When researchers sent fake resumes of Malay and Chinese fresh graduates, the Malay applicants are much less likely to be called back for phd thesis, an interview.

Employers perceive Malays negatively, think that they have lower-quality education and always have the safety net in the form of government jobs to fall back on. Huh. Dillard Essays? I’ve never been pro-Malay, but I hate discrimination more. Biometric? How was the research conducted to come to this conclusion? Sent over 3000 fake resumes, divided into 4 categories: AA Malay, AA Chinese, BA Malay and BA Chinese (AA = Above average; BA = Below average). CGPA, university, language and technical skills were randomly assigned.

Sent the resumes to water essay job vacancies in finance and engineering sector. Did not include other races. Found that in general, AA applicants get more callbacks than BA applicants. Interestingly, AA Malay have lower callback rate than BA Chinese. Showed that Chinese resumes received a 22.1% callback rate on biometric phd thesis average while Malay resumes received 4.2% callback rate on average. Malay applicants for engineering jobs get the lowest callback rate at 2.9%. With? Malay graduates from private universities get the lowest callback. Showed that UTAR graduates get higher callback rates, but there is no penalty for UiTM degrees. Malay resumes stating proficiency in Chinese get higher callback rates. English and Malay proficiency and good English in cover letter have ‘negligible impact on call rates’.

Calculated callback rates among Chinese, foreign and biometric phd thesis, Malay-controlled companies. Malays get lower callback rates in food gcse coursework, ALL of biometric them. Even Malay-controlled companies favour Chinese applicants 1.6 times more than Malays. As I read, it dawned to me the long-forgotten early struggles in my career, where I struggled to hear back from potential employers despite sending job applications after job applications. I thought it happened to thesis usa everyone. I thought all job seekers faced the same problem. Was it… caused by my (very Malay-sounding) name instead? The research said that the data generated cannot give conclusive reasons.

But some important points to biometric phd thesis highlight: Cultural compatibility and annie dillard seeing, language ability matters. Employers with predominantly Chinese employees perceive that Malays are less likely to take jobs offered anyway (or quit within a few months), as Malays have the tendency to feel uncomfortable in these settings. Phd Thesis? The researchers theorise that Malays prefer environments where their religious customs and spoken language in work environment are catered to. Malay applicants are negatively prejudged. This explains why BA Chinese get higher callback rates than AA Malays. No conclusive reasons are given, except that the negative stereotypes may be reinforced by past experience and lack of contact between these two groups to prove otherwise.

Appears to be the result of pro-Malay affirmative actions. People tend to think that Malays have lower-quality education and higher opportunities in on cold, the public sector anyway. Biometric? This is a very complex issue, and research title, further research are needed, but the researchers suggest that pro-Malay policies may in phd thesis, fact hurt Malay graduates’ job prospects. For the longest time, I thought, #8220;Man, Malays are complainers,#8221; when they say they can’t get jobs or get high pay or have limited opportunities. I thought: ‘The PM is thesis usa Malay, the Parliament is majority Malay, the Kings are Malay, the policies are pro-Malay… what more do you want?’ There’s substantive proof now to back up this discrimination claim.

22.1% callback rate vs 4.2% callback rate is a big difference . 1 in 5 Chinese applicants get called for biometric, interview, while less than 1 in 20 Malay applicants get the same. Remember that the quality of resumes were already factored in. Tech Coursework? Less callbacks means less opportunities, more likelihood to take lower-salary but stable jobs, and being stuck in lower-economic power for longer time. Biometric Phd Thesis? This is testing research paper title only one research though, and I’m happy to be pointed to biometric phd thesis other studies to coursework disprove this or question the methodology of this research (for example, I didn’t like that it only compared Malay and biometric, Chinese resumes). But until then, won’t you agree that discrimination is discrimination?

I hate the blame game, so I’m going to end this with a few suggestions on how can we level the playing field a bit more, so deserving Malay candidates get equal and fair chance in thesis usa, the job market, too. Employers (of ALL races): If your employees are predominantly composed of phd thesis a single race, get more diversified. Diversified workplaces earn more profits. It’s literally to your advantage to research paper have a racially-balanced workforce. Know that you (even Malay employers) have negative bias against Malays, and biometric phd thesis, that potentially makes you lose out on with those good Malay candidates. Malay graduates and job seekers: If you have Chinese proficiency, put it in your resume.

If you don’t and biometric phd thesis, have difficulty getting callbacks, take Mandarin classes at the same time. This research proved that Chinese proficiency increased callback rates. Make more friends outside of your race. Make more friends outside of tech your race. Make more friends outside of your race. You’re the majority. It’s up to you to reach out to others, not the other way around.

Actively attend and network in events, not just Malay-organised events. Be a good friend, be a respectful person. Even though you believe in your faith and race 100%, stop making remarks that make you sound stupid, non-accommodating and even violent. Phd Thesis? Be easy to work with . HXSM does this best so I’m just going to leave these examples of Malay-spewed absurdity to end this. If you’re gonna comment, be nice. This piece was written by Suraya Zainudin. Suraya is a freelance writer specialising in personal finance, investing, non-profits, women#8217;s empowerment, and FinTech. An aspiring digital nomad, she blogs at ringgitohringgit.com. Follow the author on Twitter @surayaror. Conserve? The article was first published here with the original title “Are Malay Graduates and biometric phd thesis, Job Seekers being Discriminated in Malaysia? Yes, finds this study.” It is republished with permission.

10 M’sian SMEs Are In The Running To Bag RM250k, But Here Are Their REAL Desires. Feature Image Credit: Study Malaysia. Vulcan Post is all about military living life with a digital edge, up and biometric phd thesis, coming startups, and people who inspire conversations.

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Phd Thesis On Multimodal Biometrics

Hire the top 3% of freelance Ruby on phd thesis, Rails developers . As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and then there’s really knowing Rails. This guide offers a sampling of questions that are key to evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the framework. Just as France’s Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV) (traveling at coursework, speeds of up to 320 km/h) dramatically reduces travel time for modern day rail passengers, Ruby on Rails (a.k.a. “Rails”) substantially reduces the time and biometric, effort required to food tech, build powerful web applications. Biometric Phd Thesis? Tim O’Reilly (founder of O’Reilly Media) refers to Rails as breakthrough technology and Gartner Research noted in a recent study that many high-profile companies are using Rails to build agile, scalable web applications. The rate at which Rails has gained popularity is noteworthy, with estimates of over dillard essays seeing 200,000 web sites currently built with the technology. Biometric Phd Thesis? Today, many high-profile companies are using Rails to build agile, scalable web applications. Animal Testing Title? Examples include Twitter, GitHub, Yammer, Scribd, Groupon, Shopify, and Basecamp, to biometric phd thesis, name but a few. Rails is a framework for web application development, written in Ruby, that also features its own routing system independent of the web server. The goal of Rails is to significantly simplify the gcse, development of biometric phd thesis web applications, requiring less code and time than would otherwise be required to essay on cold war era, accomplish the same tasks. To achieve this, Rails makes certain assumptions about how things “should” be done and is then designed and structured accordingly. While imbibing this “Rails view of the world” can sometimes be a bit of a culture shock for developers strongly grounded in other languages and phd thesis, frameworks, over time most come to greatly appreciate the Rails approach and the productivity that it engenders.

From a recruiting standpoint, the explosive growth in Rails popularity is both the good and the bad news. Resume With? While on the one hand it makes Rails developers easier to locate, it also makes finding the jewels among them that much more elusive. Finding true Rails experts requires a highly-effective recruiting process, as described in our post In Search of the phd thesis, Elite Few – Finding and Hiring the Best Developers in the Industry. Such a process can then be augmented with questions –- such as those presented herein –- to identify the sparsely distributed candidates across the globe who are truly Rails experts. The manifold benefits of finding them will likely be realized in the productivity and resume, results that they will be able to achieve. The extent to which Rails streamlines and simplifies the development of web applications can mislead neophyte developers into biometric phd thesis, underestimating its capabilities and oversimplifying its conceptual underpinnings. Tech Gcse Coursework? While Rails is relatively easy to biometric phd thesis, use, it is thesis usa anything but simplistic. As with any technology, there’s knowing Rails and then there’s really knowing Rails.

In our search for phd thesis, true masters of the essay, language, we require an interview process that can accurately quantify a candidate’s position on the Rails expertise continuum. Toward that goal, this guide offers a sampling of questions that are key to evaluating the breadth and depth of a candidate’s mastery of the language. It is important to bear in mind, though, that these sample questions are intended merely as a guide. Not every “A” candidate worth hiring will be able to properly answer them all, nor does answering them all guarantee an “A” candidate. At the end of the day, hiring remains as much of an art as it does a science. It is not uncommon to encounter Ruby on Rails developers whose grasp of the fundamentals and key paradigms of Rails are either weak or somewhat confused. Questions that can help assess a developer’s grasp of the Rails foundation, including some of its more subtle nuances, are therefore an phd thesis important component of the interview process.

Here are some examples: Q: Explain the processing flow of a Rails request. At the essay on cold, highest level, Rails requests are served through an biometric application server, which is resume military responsible for directing an incoming request into a Ruby process. Popular application servers that use the Rack web request interface include Phusion Passenger, Mongrel, Thin, and phd thesis, Unicorn. Rack parses all request parameters (as well as posted data, CGI parameters, and water, other potentially useful bits of information) and transforms them into a big Hash (Ruby’s record / dictionary type). This is sometimes called the phd thesis, env hash, as it contains data about the resume military, environment of the biometric, web request. In addition to this request parsing, Rack is configurable, allowing for gcse, certain requests to be directed to biometric, specific Rack apps. If you want, for example, to redirect requests for anything in your admin section to thesis usa, another Rails app, you can do so at the Rack level. You can also declare middleware here, in addition to being able to declare it in Rails.

Those requests that are not directed elsewhere (by you in biometric Rack) are directed to your Rails app where it begins interacting with the Rails ActionDispatcher, which examines the route. Rails apps can be spit into separate Rails Engines, and the router sends the request off to the right engine. (You can also redirect requests to animal, other Rack compatible web frameworks here.) Once in your app, Rails middleware – or your custom middleware – is executed. The router determines what Rails controller / action method should be called to process the biometric phd thesis, request, instantiates the proper controller object, executes all the filters involved, and finally calls the appropriate the essay war era, action method. Further detail is available in the Rails documentation. Q: Describe the Rails Asset Pipeline and how it handles assets (such as JavaScript and biometric, CSS files).

Rails 3.1 introduced the Asset Pipeline, a way to organize and process front-end assets. It provides an essay import/require mechanism (to load dependent files) that provides many features. While the Asset Pipeline does have its rough edges, it does solve and provide many of the modern best practices in serving these files under HTTP 1.1. Most significantly, the Asset Pipeline will: Collect, concatenate, and minify all assets of each type into one big file Version files using fingerprinting to bust old versions of the file in browser caches. The Asset Pipeline automatically brings with it Rails’ selection of Coffeescript as its JavaScript pre-processed / transpiled language of choice and SASS as its CSS transpiled language. However, being an extensible framework, it does allow for additional transpiled languages or additional file sources. For example, Rails Assets brings the power of Bower to your Rails apps, allowing you to manage third-party JavaScript and CSS assets very easily. Q: What is Active Record and what is Arel?

Describe the biometric, capabilities of each. Active Record was described by thesis usa, Martin Fowler in his book Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture as “an object that wraps a row in a database table or view, encapsulates the biometric phd thesis, database access, and animal, adds domain logic on that data”. ActiveRecord is phd thesis both an Object Relational Mapping (ORM) design pattern, and Rails’ implementation of that design pattern. This means that fetching, querying, and storing your objects in resume with the database is as much a part of the API of your objects as your custom business logic. A developer may see this as an undesired side effect, or as a welcome convention, depending on biometric phd thesis, their preference and level of testing research paper experience.

Arel provides a query API for ActiveRecord, allowing Rails developers to phd thesis, perform database queries without having to hand-write SQL. Arel creates lazily-executed SQL whereby Rails waits until the testing research title, last possible second to send the SQL to biometric, the server for execution. This allows you to take an Arel query and annie dillard essays, add another SQL condition or sort to biometric phd thesis, the query, right up to the point where Rails actually executes the query. Arel returns ActiveRecord objects from its queries, unless told otherwise. Q: What is the Convention over Configuration pattern? Provide examples of how it is applied in Rails. Convention over annie dillard essays Configuration (CoC) is a software design pattern by which only the unconventional aspects of an application need to be specified by biometric, a developer. Dillard Essays Seeing? When the biometric phd thesis, default convention matches the desired behavior, the default behavior is followed without any configuration being required. The goal is to simplify software development, without sacrificing flexibility and customizability in the process. Here are some examples of how CoC principles are applied in Rails: Model and database table naming.

Rails automatically pluralizes class names to find the respective database tables. Dillard Essays? For a class Book, for example, it will expect a database table named books. For class names composed of multiple words, the model class name should employ CamelCase (e.g., BookClub and book_clubs ). Primary and foreign keys. By default, Rails uses an integer column named id as the table’s primary key. Biometric? Foreign key names by default follow the annie dillard, pattern of appending _id to the singularized tablename (e.g., item_id for phd thesis, a foreign key into the items table).

Reserved words for conserve, automatic functionality. There are also some optional column names which, if used, automatically add features and functionality to biometric, Rails database tables. created_at , for example, will automatically be set to conserve essay, the date and time when the record was created. Similarly, updated_at will automatically be set to the date and time whenever the phd thesis, record was last updated. Animal Research Paper Title? Auto-loading of biometric class definitions. Auto-loading is the “magic” by which classes appear to be accessible from anywhere, without the need to explicitly require them. Here’s how it works: When you reference a class in gcse your code, Rails takes the biometric, class name (with namespace) as a string, calls underscore on it, and looks for a file with that name (in all directories specified in your config.autoload_paths ). For example, if you reference a class named FileHandling::ZipHandler , Rails will automatically search for annie dillard essays seeing, file_handling/zip_handler.rb in your config.autoload_paths . This feature often results in novice Rails programmers thinking that they don’t need to biometric phd thesis, explicitly require referenced classes and that Rails will just auto-magically find them anyway. They then become baffled when they don’t follow this convention and with military, are suddenly being told by Rails that their classes can’t be found. It is important to biometric phd thesis, note that CoC specifies a default –- but not immutable –- convention.

Accordingly, Rails does provide mechanisms for overriding these default conventions. As an example, the default database table naming scheme mentioned above can be overridden by specifying the ActiveRecord::Base.table_name as shown here: Q: What is the “fat model, skinny controller” approach? Discuss some of its advantages and pitfalls, as well as some alternatives. “Fat model skinny controller” is an MVC-based Rails design pattern. MVC is thesis usa itself a software design pattern that separates a system into biometric, three separate and distinct layers; namely, Model, View, and Controller. MVC strives to ensure a clean separation between each of its layers through clearly defined APIs. In a well-designed MVC system, these APIs serve as firm boundaries that help avoid implementation “tentacles” extending between MVC’s logically distinct subsystems. The “Fat model skinny controller” design pattern advocates placing as much logic as possible in the Model for with, (a) maximum reuse and (b) code that is easier to test. That said, a common pitfall for Rails developers is to end up with “overly bloated” models by phd thesis, adhering too blindly to annie seeing, the “fat model, skinny controller” paradigm. The infamous User model is phd thesis a prime example of this.

Since many Rails apps are about the user entering data into the system, or sharing information with their friends socially, the user model will often gain more and more methods, eventually reaching the point where the conserve water essay, user.rb model becomes bulky and unmanageable in size. A few key alternatives worth considering include: Use of other objects: Extract functionality out of biometric models into other objects (such as Decorators or Service objects) Hexagonal architecture for Rails: Employ a hexagonal architecture that views the application as a hexagon, each side of which represents some sort of essay on cold war era external interaction the application needs to have. DCI (Data Context Interaction): Instead of focusing on individual objects, focus on biometric phd thesis, the communication and interactions between data and its context. Q: Describe the resume military, Rails testing philosophy. Rails built testing support in from the beginning of the framework, and it became a part of the culture. As a result, there are a plethora of tools available for testing in the Rails environment. By default, Rails 4.0+ uses the phd thesis, MiniTest Ruby standard library testing framework under-the-hood. There are well defined locations in a Rails project for tests for each layer (model, controller, routing, view, model), as well as integration tests. Because of the MVC foundation of Rails, often these layers (with the exception of integration tests) can be tested without reliance on the other layers. For example, we can create a database record, before the test runs, that contains the attributes we expect the thesis usa, test to return.

Our test can focus on making sure our show post controller action retrieves the biometric phd thesis, post we want it to by checking to see if it returns the object we created above as expected. If not, something went wrong or our code must have a bug. Gcse? Here’s an example of biometric such a test: Integration tests (often called Feature tests) will usually drive the application as if a user is clicking buttons, using testing tools like Capybara (which can simulate user actions in a variety of manners, including driving embedded WebKit, or using Selenium). While MiniTest is dillard seeing a Rails out-of-the-box standard, you’ll often see the RSpec gem used instead. This provides a Domain Specific Language for biometric phd thesis, testing that may make it more natural to read than MiniTest. Some Rails projects use the Cucumber testing framework to describe software behavior in plain English sentences.

This is often useful when collaborating with onsite clients, or with dedicated QA resources. Essay War Era? In the phd thesis, ideal world, these non-developers can write automated integration tests without having to title, see a line of Ruby code. Someone who has worked extensively with Rails can be expected to possess a great deal of familiarity with its capabilities, constructs, and idiosyncrasies. These questions demonstrate ways of gauging the extent and depth of this expertise. Q: Explain the use of biometric phd thesis yield and content_for in layouts. Provide examples. yield identifies where content from the essay on cold war era, view should be inserted.

The simplest approach is to have a single yield , into which the entire contents of the view currently being rendered is inserted, as follows: You can also create a layout with multiple yielding regions: The main body of the view will always render into phd thesis, the unnamed yield . To render content into a named yield , use the on cold war era, content_for method. content_for allows for insertion of content into a named yield block in a layout. This can be helpful with layouts that contain distinct regions, such as sidebars and footers, into which distinct blocks of content are to be inserted. Biometric? It can also be useful for inserting tags that load page-specific JavaScript or CSS files into the header of an dillard essays seeing otherwise generic layout. Incidentally, a good follow-up question to ask is: What happens if you call content_for :head multiple times? The answer is phd thesis that all of the values get concatenated. Q: What are N+1 queries, and conserve essay, how can you avoid them?

Consider the following code, which finds 10 clients and biometric, prints their postal codes: This code actually executes 11 queries; 1 (to find 10 clients) and tech gcse coursework, then 10 more (one per each client to load its address). This is referred to as an “N+1 query” (where in phd thesis the case of this example, N is 10). Eager loading is the mechanism for loading the associated records of the objects returned by Model.find using as few queries as possible. Active Record’s eager loading capability makes it possible to significantly reduce the number of conserve water queries by letting you specify in advance all the associations that are going to be loaded. This is done by calling the includes (or preload ) method on the Arel ( ActiveRecord::Relation ) object being built. With includes, Active Record ensures that all of the specified associations are loaded using the phd thesis, minimum possible number of queries. We could therefore rewrite the above code to use the includes method as follows: This revised version of this code will execute just 2 queries, thanks to eager loading, as opposed to 11 queries in the original version. Q: What are “filters” in Rails?

Describe the three types of food filters, including how and biometric phd thesis, why each might be used, and conserve water, the order in phd thesis which they are executed. Provide examples. Filters are essentially callback methods that are run before, after, or “around” a controller action: Before filter methods are run before a controller action and therefore may halt the request cycle. A common before filter is one which requires a user to be logged in for an action to be performed. After filter methods are run after a controller action and therefore cannot stop the action from being performed but do have access to the response data that is with military about to biometric, be sent to the client. Around filter methods are “wrapped around” a controller action. They can therefore control the execution of an action as well as execute code before and/or after the military, action is performed. For example, in a website where changes have an approval workflow, an administrator could be able to preview them easily with an around filter as follows:

Note that an around filter also wraps rendering. In particular, in the example above, if the view reads from the database (e.g., via a scope), it will do so within the transaction and thus present the data to preview. Phd Thesis? You can also choose not to yield and build the response yourself, in food coursework which case the action will not be run. The order of execution is biometric phd thesis a bit tricky and gcse, is important to understand clearly. Filter methods execute in the following order: Before filter methods, in order of definition. Around filter methods, in order of biometric phd thesis definition.

After filter methods, in tech gcse coursework reverse order. Also, because of the way Ruby instantiates classes, the biometric phd thesis, filter methods of a parent class’ before will be run before those of animal research its child classes. Q: What is Rack middleware? How does it compare to controller filters/actions? In 2007 Christian Neukirchen released Rack, a modular standard interface for serving web requests in phd thesis Ruby.

Rack is similar to other similar mechanisms in other languages, such as WSGI on the Python side, or Java Servlets, or Microsoft’s Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI). Before requests are processed by your Rails action method, they go through various Rack middleware functions declared by war era, Rails or by the developer. Biometric Phd Thesis? Rack middleware is typically used to perform functions such as request cleaning, security measures, user authorization or profiling. You can see a list of available middleware components (both developer defined and those defined by Rails) by running rake middleware on the command line. A key distinction between Rack middleware and food, filters is that Rack middleware is called before Rails does its routing and dispatching, whereas filters are invoked after this routing has occurred (i.e., when Rails is about to call your controller action method). As such, its is advantageous to biometric, filter out requests to be ignored in middleware whenever possible, such as requests from common attack URLs ( phpadmin.php requests, for example, can be discarded in middleware, as they will never resolve in a Rails app and dillard seeing, is probably just some attempt to hack the site.) Q: Explain what Rails’ mass-assignment vulnerability is and Rails’ method to biometric phd thesis, control field access.

When the user performs a post (such as, for thesis usa, example, creating a new User ) Rails needs to save all that new data into the database. This data is accessible from your Rails action via the biometric, params Hash. Because web apps involve updating / saving every field the user changed, Rails has some convenience methods to handle this, called mass assignment helpers. For example, prior to Rails 4, creating a new User object with parameters from a submitted form looked like: params[:user] will contain keys for the elements the user entered on the form. For example, if the form contained a name field, params[:user][:name] would contain the name entered on the form (e.g., “Jeff Smith”). Convention vs. configuration strikes again here: name is the animal research paper, name of both the input element in biometric phd thesis the form and the name of the water, column in the database. In addition to the create method, you can update a record the same way: But what happens when a hacker goes in and edits your HTML form to add new fields? They may, for example, guess that you have an is_admin field, and add it to the HTML form field themselves. Which now means that – even though you didn’t include it on the form that’s served to users – your hacker has gone in biometric and made themselves an admin on your site! This is referred to as mass assignment vulnerability ; i.e., assigning all these fields with no filtering en masse, just trusting that the essays seeing, only field names and values will be those that were legitimately on the HTML form.

Rails 3 and Rails 4 each have different ways of attempting to address this issue. Rails 3 attempted to address it via attr_protected / attr_accessible controls at biometric phd thesis, the model level, while Rails 4 addresses it via strong parameters and a filtering mechanism at animal testing research title, the controller level. Both ways allow you to restrict what keys are mapped to database columns and phd thesis, which columns are ignored. Using these mechanisms, in the prior is_admin example, you can set the is_admin field to only change when code explicitly modifies the field value, or only resume with, allow it to be changed in certain situations. An expert knowledge of Rails extends well beyond the technical minutia of the language. A Rails expert will have an in-depth understanding and appreciation of its benefits as well as its limitations. Accordingly, here are some sample questions that can help assess this dimension of a candidate’s expertise. Q: Why do some people say “Rails can’t scale”?

Twitter was one of the first extremely high profile sites to use Rails. In roughly the 2006-2008 timeframe, the growth rate of Twitter made server errors (“fail whale”) appearances a very common occurrence for phd thesis, users, prompting users and tech pundits to on cold, lay blame at biometric, Rails’ feet. Conserve? As is true with any software, the causes of scalability issues can be complex and phd thesis, multi-faceted. Water? Accordingly, not all of Twitter’s scaling issues can be claimed to be Rails-specific. Biometric? But that said, it is animal research important to understand where Rails has faced scalability issues and how they have been, or can be, addressed. The Ruby ecosystem has improved since Twitter’s Rails scaling problem, with better memory management techniques in MRI Ruby (the core, and main, Ruby implementation) for example. Modern Rails applications typically mitigate scaling problems in one or more of the following ways: Implementing caching solutions (Rails 4 introduces good advances here) Leveraging (or implementing) server or platform solutions with automatic scaling built in Profiling costly operations and moving them out of Ruby or out of one monolithic Rails app Placing some operations in a background / worker queue to be completed at a later time (e.g., perform an export operation asynchronously, notifying the user by email with a download link when the biometric phd thesis, export is completed)

While there has traditionally been a one-to-one mapping between websites and Rails app (i.e., one website = one Rails app), there’s been an increasing movement towards more of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach whereby performance critical parts of the app are split off into new/separate apps which the conserve, main app usually talks to biometric phd thesis, via web service calls. There are numerous advantages to this approach. Perhaps most noteworthy is the food coursework, fact that these independent services can employ alternate technologies as appropriate; this might be a lightweight / more responsive solution in Ruby, or services written in Scala (as in Twitter’s case), or Node.js, Clojure, or Go. But writing separate services isn’t the biometric phd thesis, only way to resume, speed up a Rails app. For example, Github has an interesting article on how it profiled Rails and ended up implementing a set of C apis for performing text escaping on the web. Q: When is Rails a good choice for a project? Rails is an opinionated framework, which is either one of biometric phd thesis its most charming or frustrating attributes, depending who you ask. Rails has already made a (default, but configurable) choice about your view templating engine, your Object Role Model (ORM), and how your routes translate to actions. As a result of these choices, Rails is military a great choice for a project where your application has total control over its own database, mostly returns HTML (or at least doesn’t solely return JSON), and for the most part displays data back to the users consistently with the way it is stored. Because Rails is configurable, if you want to diverge from biometric, Rails norms you can, but this often comes at resume military, an engineering cost. Want to hook into an existing MS SQL database?

You can do that, but you’ll hit some bumps along the biometric phd thesis, way. Want to build a single page app with Rails, returning mostly JSON object? You’ll find Rails not helping you out as much as if you had been accepting / responding with an HTML format. Q: What are some of the drawbacks of Rails? Rails is generally meant for codebases of greater than a few hundred lines of code, and essay war era, that primarily work with its own database objects. If you’re writing a web service that simply performs calculations (“give me the biometric phd thesis, temperature right now in Fahrenheit”) Rails will add a lot of supporting structure “overkill” that you may not need.

Additionally, Rail’s convention over configuration approach makes it sometimes not ideal for situations where you have to interact with a database schema another party controls, for example. Also, a Ruby-based solution can be a hard sell in Windows enterprise environments, as Ruby’s Windows support is not as robust as its Unix support. Like Python, the concurrency story in thesis usa the default Ruby implementation (MRI; a.k.a. CRuby) is phd thesis somewhat hobbled by a Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which in broad strokes means only one thread can execute Ruby code at a time. (JRuby and Rubinius, other implementations of Ruby, have no GIL. A Ruby-based implementation may also not be the war era, best fit for biometric, problems that want an asynchronous solution (such as fetching data from thesis usa, multiple APIs to perform aggregate calculations, interacting with social media APIs, or responding to situations where you could get thousands of small requests a minute). Having said that, there are tools to either implement asynchronous callback based patterns in Ruby (like EventMachine), or use the Actor model of concurrency (Celluloid).

And of course there are a number of background worker mechanisms if your problem fits in biometric phd thesis that space. And finally… Ruby Rookie or Gemologist? Excelling as a Rails developer requires one to be an expert in the Ruby programming language as well. Accordingly, here are some questions to help evaluate this dimension of a candidate’s expertise. Q: What are Ruby mixins, how do they work, and how would you use them?

What are some advantages of using them and what are some potential problems? Give examples to support your answers. A “mixin” is the term used in Ruby for a module included in another class. When a class includes a module, it thereby “mixes in” (i.e., incorporates) all of its methods and constants. If a class includes multiple modules, it incorporates the methods and constants of all of those modules. Thus, although Ruby does not formally support multiple inheritance, mixins provide a mechanism by which multiple inheritance can largely be achieved, or at least approximated. (A knowledgeable candidate can be expected to mention multiple inheritance in their discussion of Ruby mixins.) Internally, Ruby implements mixins by essays seeing, inserting modules into a class’ inheritance chain (so mixins do actually work through inheritance in Ruby). Consider this simple example: In this example, the biometric, methods of the Student class are incorporated into coursework, DoctoralStudent class, so the phd object supports the gpa method. It is biometric important to note that, in Ruby, the require statement is the logical equivalent of the include statement in other languages.

In contrast to other languages (wherein the include statement references the contents of another file), the thesis usa, Ruby include statement references a named module. Therefore: The module referenced by an include statement may either be in biometric the same file (as the water essay, class that is including it) or in a different file. If in a different file, a require statement must also be used to properly incorporate the contents of that file. A Ruby include makes a reference from the class to the included module.

As a result, if the definition of a method in phd thesis the included module is modified, even at runtime, all classes that include that module will exhibit the new behavior when that method is invoked. The advantages of testing research paper mixins not withstanding, they are also not without downsides and should therefore be used with care. Some potential pitfalls include: Instance variable name collisions. Different mixins may use instance variables with the same name and, if included in the same class, could create unresolvable collisions at runtime. Silent overriding of methods. In other languages, defining something twice results in an error message. In Ruby, if a method is biometric phd thesis defined twice, the testing research paper title, second definition simply (and silently!) overwrites the first definition. Biometric Phd Thesis? Method name clashes across multiple mixins in annie Ruby are therefore not simple errors, but instead can introduce elusive and gnarly bugs.

Class bloat. The ease-of-use of phd thesis mixins can also lead to their “abuse”. A prime example is a class with way too many mixins that therefore has an overly large public footprint. The rules of coupling and cohesion start to come into play, and you can end up with a system where changes to a module that’s frequently included can have disastrous effects. Traditional inheritance or composition is much less prone to this type of paper bloat. Quite often extracting parts of a class into modules that are mixed in is akin to cleaning your room by putting the mess into large bins. Biometric Phd Thesis? It looks clean until you start opening the bins. Q: Compare and contrast Symbols and resume, Strings in Ruby?

Why use one vs. the other? Symbols are singleton based on value, and biometric, immutable objects. Seeing? Unlike strings, not all symbols may be garbage collected. Strings, on the other hand, create multiple objects even if they share a value, are mutable, and biometric, are garbage collected when the system is food tech gcse done with the object. Since symbols are singleton based on value (there is only one symbol object for a value, even if it appears multiple times in a program), this makes it trivial to compare whether two symbols are the same (Ruby basically just needs to compare their object_id values).

Symbols are therefore most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting options hashes with specific symbols for biometric, keys. Strings can be made immutable (“frozen”) via the freeze method. However, while this changes one behavior of a string, create two frozen strings with the same value still results in two string objects. When you use a Symbol, Ruby will check the dictionary first and, if found, will use that Symbol. Dillard Essays? If the Symbol is biometric not found in the dictionary, only then will the interpreter instantiate a new Symbol and put it in thesis usa the heap. As stated in biometric The Ruby Programming Language O’Reilly book (by Matz and Flanigan): A typical implementation of war era a Ruby interpreter maintains a symbol table in which it stores the names of biometric phd thesis all the classes, methods, and variables it knows about. This allows such an interpreter to avoid most string comparisons: it refers to method names (for example) by essay, their position in this symbol table. This turns a relatively expensive string operation into a relatively cheap integer operation. Symbols are also fairly ubiquitous in Ruby (predominantly a hash keys and method names; in pre Ruby 2.1 they were also used as quasi keyword arguments, and poor man’s constants).

Because of their performance, memory and usage considerations, Symbols are most often used as Hash keys, with many libraries expecting option hashes with specific symbols for keys. Symbols are never garbage collected during program execution, unlike strings (which, like any other variable, are garbage collected). Because strings and symbols are different objects, here’s an example of something that often catches less experienced Ruby programmers unaware. Consider the following hash, for example: You may be expecting to biometric, see 1 printed here, especially if a was defined elsewhere in your program. But, as strings and symbols are different; i.e., key (the symbol) and 'key' (the string) are not equivalent.

Accordingly, Ruby correctly returns nil for war era, a['key'] (even though this is annoying for biometric phd thesis, the unsuspecting programmer wondering where her value is!) Rails has a class, HashWithIndifferentAccess , which acts like a Hash object, except it treats strings and symbols with the same values as equivalent when used as key names, thereby avoiding the above issue: There is with one important caveat. Consider this controller action: This innocent looking code is actually a denial-of-service (DOS) attack vulnerability. Since symbols can never be garbage collected (and since here we cast user input into phd thesis, a symbol), a user can keep feeding this endpoint with unique values and it will eventually eat up enough memory to crash the animal testing title, server, or at least bring it to a grinding halt.

Q: Describe multiple ways to biometric, define an instance method in Ruby. Instance methods can of coursework course be defined as part of biometric phd thesis a class definition. But since Ruby supports metaprogramming (which means that Ruby code can be self-modifying), Ruby programs can also add methods to existing classes at runtime. Accordingly, there are multiple techniques for defining methods in Ruby, as follows: (1) Within a class definition, using def (The simplest answer) This is the standard way to define instance methods of a class.

(2) Within a class definition, without using def. Since define_method is executed when Ruby instantiates the MyObject class object, you can do any kind of dynamic code running here. Resume With Military? For example, here’s some code that only phd thesis, creates our method if it’s being run on a Monday: Executing MyObject.new.my_method on any other day of the week will give us an exception about no such method existing. Which is true: it’ll only exist on Mondays!

(It’s important to note that classes are objects too in Ruby, so our MyObject class is an testing paper title instantiation of a Class object, just like in a = MyObject.new , a is an biometric instance of MyObject .) (3) Extending an existing class definition. Ruby also allows class definitions to be extended. Essay? For example: The above code will result in the MyObject class having both the say_hello and the say_goodbye methods defined. Note that this technique can also be used to phd thesis, extend standard Ruby classes or those defined in war era other Ruby libraries we are using.

For example, here we add a squawk method to the standard Ruby string class: class_eval dynamically evaluates the specified string or block of code and can therefore be used to add methods to a class. For example, we can define the class MyObject : … and then come back at a later time and run some code to dynamically add my_method to the MyObject class: Ruby also provides a hook to check for biometric phd thesis, undefined methods. This can be used to dynamically add a method if it has not already been defined. On Cold? For example: Ruby on Rails is phd thesis a powerful framework for rapid development of research title web applications. Biometric? While all developers can benefit from annie essays, its ease-of-use and flexibility, as with any technology, those who have truly mastered it will realize the biometric phd thesis, greatest potential and productivity in coursework its use.

While no brief guide such as this can entirely cover the breadth and depth of technical topics to cover in a Rails interview, the phd thesis, questions provided herein offer an resume with military effective basis for identifying those who possess a sound and principled foundation in the Rails framework and its paradigms. My team is going to personally help you find the best candidate to join your team.

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Donald Trump: A One-Man Constitutional Crisis. By Anthony D. Romero, ACLU Executive Director. L ast June, Donald Trump rode down the escalator of his Trump Tower to the tune of Neil Young’s “Rockin’ in the Free World” to deliver a message: He, Donald J. Trump, was announcing his candidacy to become the biometric Republican Party’s 2016 nominee for president of the United States of essays seeing America. During his speech, Trump basked in the crowd — which included paid actors cheering his name and wearing t-shirts with his campaign slogan, “Make America Great Again” — before uttering some of the statements that would make him such a polarizing force in American politics. “When Mexico sends its people, they’re not sending their best,” he said. Biometric Phd Thesis! “They’re sending people that have lots of problems, and thesis usa, they’re bringing those problems with us. They’re bringing drugs. They’re bringing crime. They’re rapists.” Towards the end of his speech, Trump double downed on phd thesis his Mexican fear-mongering, promising to “build a great, great wall on our southern border” at Mexico’s expense if he were elected president. One year later, Donald Trump has all but clinched the Republican nomination for the president of the United States.

Throughout his presidential campaign, Trump has sparked controversy after controversy with his stated positions on immigration, American Muslims, torture, and the core First Amendment protections that define America. Taken together, his statements and policy proposals would blatantly violate the inalienable rights guaranteed by the Constitution, federal and international law, and the basic norms of a free and decent society. In the event of a Trump presidency, we have undertaken a constitutional analysis of his most controversial policy proposals. These include his pledges to deport over 11 million undocumented immigrants, to ban Muslims from entering the United States, to testing paper surveil American Muslims and their houses of worship, to phd thesis torture again, and to with revise libel laws. We have found them all wanting, to say the phd thesis least. Tech Coursework! According to our analysis, Trump’s proposals taken together would violate the First, Fourth, Fifth, and biometric phd thesis, Eighth Amendments to the Constitution. If Donald Trump is elected president and tries to gcse coursework implement any of these proposed policies, he and the U.S. government will spark legal and constitutional challenges that will require all hands on deck at the ACLU. The ACLU and its more than 300 attorneys in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and Washington, D.C., stand ready to biometric phd thesis challenge and impede implementation of his proposals, should he see them through. (Donald Trump, after all, changes his positions all of the time.) Have no doubt about it: Donald Trump’s policies, if implemented, would trigger a constitutional crisis. But you can also be certain that the ACLU will fight in the courts, in essays, Congress, and in the public square to preserve the rights guaranteed to biometric phd thesis all people by the Constitution and our Bill of Rights. Donald Trump may believe the president is above the law, but he is mistaken.

As always, we are standing guard to ensure that the rule of law always remains stronger than the rule of one man. “We’re rounding them up in a very human way, a very nice way.” D onald Trump has repeatedly pledged to deport within two years every undocumented person in animal research paper, the United States, a population of over 11 million people, according to the Pew Research Center. Trump told 60 Minutes’ Scott Pelley that this massive round-up of undocumented immigrants would be carried out “in a very humane way, a very nice way.” This, however, is impossible. Trump’s mass deportation scheme would mean arresting more than 15,000 people a day on biometric immigration charges, seven days a week, 365 days a year. From a civil liberties standpoint, there is no conceivable mechanism to accomplish the roundup that Trump has promised while respecting basic constitutional rights. The reason is simple: Undocumented immigrants are not readily identifiable as such, unless they come to the attention of the authorities. Thus, the vast majority of noncitizens eventually removed are identified either through contact with the criminal justice system or are found and arrested in resume with, the process of biometric attempting to enter the United States.

To carry out his mass deportation scheme, Trump would have to conserve water cast his dragnet far deeper into American communities. Even if massive taxpayer dollars could be diverted to do so as a practical matter, the effort will erode the biometric civil liberties of all. Trump’s plan would undoubtedly violate the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition “against unreasonable searches and seizures.” As the ACLU has argued in its opposition to state immigration enforcement laws like Arizona’s “show me your papers” law, interior immigration enforcement relies on tactics like suspicionless interrogations and arrests, unjustified traffic stops, warrantless searches of food tech coursework workplaces and homes, and door-to-door raids of immigrant neighborhoods. And since immigration officers inevitably resort to racial and ethnic profiling to carry out phd thesis, their orders, they violate the Fifth and animal testing paper, 14th Amendment guarantees of equal protection under the law. But the constitutional problems with his plan don’t stop there. The Constitution requires that the government provide due process to individuals in deportation proceedings.

Simply put: An immigrant facing deportation gets to biometric phd thesis go before an immigration judge and make her case against removal, and the Constitution requires federal court review of the resume military legality of a removal order. Congress has also created a variety of humanitarian grounds for relief from deportation, such as to provide trafficking victims and survivors of biometric domestic abuse protection from harm. Our immigration courts are also presently weighed down by paper staggering funding problems and backlogs — immigrants facing removal already have to wait an average of 635 days for biometric phd thesis, an immigration hearing. If Trump were to try and make good on his promise to on cold speedily deport more than 11 million people, he could only do so by trampling on the Fifth Amendment’s due process protections. To compound the problems with Trump’s undocumented immigrant removal plan even more, the candidate has pledged to detain all undocumented immigrants crossing the border “until they are sent home.” This “no-catch-and-release” policy would once again violate undocumented immigrants’ right not to phd thesis be deprived of their liberty without due process of law under the Fifth Amendment. These due process principles, according to longstanding Supreme Court precedents, apply “to all persons within the United States, including aliens, whether their presence is lawful, unlawful, temporary, or permanent.” Immigration detention can only be applied constitutionally when it is thesis usa necessary to carry out deportation — for biometric phd thesis, example, to deal with an individual who presents a flight risk. On Cold! And the only way to assess these risks is at a bond hearing presided over by an immigration judge. Undocumented immigrants who have done nothing wrong, however, need not worry because President Trump will create an “expedited process” to biometric allow “the good ones” to reenter the country.

But this, like the rest of Trump’s deportation proposal, is fantasy. The wait for a U.S. visa can already stretch into the decades. And regardless, under current law, the vast majority of undocumented immigrants deported by a Trump administration would be subject to a 10-year bar from annie seeing re-entering the country. Thus Trump’s proposal that “the good ones” may return is an empty promise, as preposterous and legally unsound as the rest of his mass deportation scheme. Last November, Trump provided an example of what his deportation plan would look like. During a Republican presidential debate in Milwaukee, Trump said that the model for his plan was an aggressive immigration enforcement campaign undertaken by biometric the Eisenhower administration in animal research title, 1954 and 1955. “‘I like Ike, right? The expression. ‘I like Ike,’” Trump told the crowd. “Moved a 1.5 million illegal immigrants out of this country, moved them just beyond the border. They came back.

Moved them again beyond the border, they came back. Phd Thesis! Didn’t like it. Moved them way south. They never came back.” While experts differ over how many people were in fact deported during Eisenhower’s campaign, the conditions they experienced during their deportation by land, sea, and air were often cruel and dehumanizing, according to historian Mae Ngai. She writes in seeing, her book, “Impossible Subjects,” that in one instance, 88 undocumented immigrants died of heat stroke after they were rounded up in 112-degree heat and dumped in biometric phd thesis, the Mexican desert. In another episode, a Mexican labor leader described undocumented immigrants being brought into Mexico “like cows” on trucks and then dropped off 15 miles away from the border in the desert. One congressional investigation compared a deportation vessel packed with undocumented immigrants to water essay an “eighteenth century slave ship” and a “penal hell ship.”

This spectacular act of government cruelty that Trump wants to use as a model was known as “Operation Wetback” — an ethnic slur for undocumented Mexicans living in the United States. There is biometric phd thesis no way around it: Donald Trump’s deportation policy would be an unconstitutional apparatus of human misery, which would effectively turn large areas around the Southwest border into resume with military a police state. “Donald J. Trump is calling for a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States …” D onald Trump’s immigration policy, however, isn’t just about biometric phd thesis, deportation, but exclusion, too. In the aftermath of the thesis usa San Bernardino shooting in December 2015, Trump called for “a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country’s representatives can figure out what is going on.” He reiterated this call after the latest mass shooting at an LGBT nightclub in biometric phd thesis, Orlando. Trump then went even further, arguing that the immigration system itself was to blame because the shooter’s parents emigrated from Afghanistan to the United States. “The bottom line,” he said in a speech last month, “is that the only reason the killer was in America in the first place was because we allowed his family to food coursework come here.”

Trump’s message couldn’t be any clearer: Immigrants and biometric phd thesis, their American-born descendants, particularly Muslims, aren’t really Americans. Worse, they’re a potential fifth column subverting the nation from within. In a nation of immigrants, this sentiment is as un-American as it gets. To carry out his proposed Muslim ban, Trump has pointed toward executive authority under immigration law “to suspend entry into the country of any class of persons that the dillard essays seeing President deems detrimental to the interests or security of the United States.” But his temporary ban of all Muslims entering the country would violate the Constitution for many reasons. By singling out Muslims, his entry ban would violate the establishment clause of the biometric First Amendment by explicitly disapproving of one religion and implicitly favoring other faiths. In attempting to defend Trump’s religious ban, some commenters have noted that there is a long history of race discrimination in essay, U.S. Biometric! immigration policy. Essays Seeing! But there has never been an immigration ban on the basis of religion. In part, this likely reflects the priority of biometric phd thesis religious neutrality since the annie seeing founding of the nation. Were Trump to apply his ban to Muslim U.S. citizens or lawful permanent residents who left and tried to biometric phd thesis reenter the conserve country, he would be proposing a blatant violation of the phd thesis Constitution in two more areas.

First the government is essay forbidden under the Fifth and 14th Amendments from revoking an American’s citizenship and biometric phd thesis, banishing him based on tech the person’s creed. Trump’s Muslim ban could also run afoul of international law, such as the Refugee Convention and the Convention Against Torture, by refusing asylum to phd thesis people fleeing persecution and food tech gcse coursework, violence. And aside from the constitutional and international law problems, there’s another solid reason for Trump to phd thesis reconsider his discriminatory proposal. “It would make the United States a virtual pariah among nations,” constitutional scholar Jonathan Turley told The Washington Post. “And so we’re going to have to do certain things that were frankly unthinkable a year ago.” D onald Trump’s Muslim problem isn’t restricted to people traveling to the United States. Resume Military! It includes about 3.3 million American Muslims. In the aftermath of high-profile attacks in Europe and the United States, Trump has put forth counterterrorism proposals that wrongly stigmatize American Muslim communities as suspect and biometric phd thesis, are grounded in discrimination.

Trump told NBC News last November that “we should have a lot of systems” to track American Muslims. They would be obligated, for example, to register with a special database for Muslims in the country. When asked by gcse coursework Yahoo News whether he would support requiring Muslims to carry a special ID card, he didn’t rule it out, noting “we’re going to have to biometric have to do certain things that were frankly unthinkable a year ago.” To that end, Trump would monitor mosques and American Muslim communities across the country. “We’re going to have to look at conserve essay mosques,” he told the reporter. “We’re going to have to phd thesis look very, very carefully.” In response to the Brussels attack in March, Trump agreed “100 percent” with Sen. Ted Cruz’s statement that U.S. law enforcement must have the power “to patrol and secure Muslim neighborhoods before they become radicalized.” If a President Trump acted unilaterally — or somehow convinced Congress — to implement a surveillance program explicitly targeting Muslims because of their faith, he would face an impossible task of defending such a policy as constitutional in court. This is because the discriminatory profiling and annie dillard essays seeing, surveillance of American Muslims would violate the First and Fifth Amendments to the Constitution. Thanks to the right to equal protection under the law guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment, courts are rightly very suspicious of any law or government policy that singles out groups of people united by a core characteristic, like race or religion. Therefore any law passed or policy pursued by a Trump administration that specifically subjects Muslims to heightened suspicion, surveillance, or special registration because of their religion would be met by biometric the courts with a heightened degree of scrutiny.

Judges do so with good reason. It’s worth remembering that the New York City Police Department program didn’t just alienate people from law enforcement — it also made for bad policing. Dillard Essays Seeing! In fact, NYPD Police Commissioner Bill Bratton has admitted that no actionable intelligence came out of a core component of the Muslim surveillance program. Biometric! In its settlement of an ACLU lawsuit against the program, the military city of New York explicitly recognized that law enforcement can do its job without resorting to discriminatory practices. Targeting Muslims for law enforcement scrutiny based on biometric phd thesis their faith would also make a mockery of the First Amendment, which bars government action that singles out particular faiths for disfavored treatment or restricts or interferes with religious practices. The NYPD case makes the reasons for this foundational protection abundantly clear. The police department’s practice of infiltrating houses of worship with informants and undercover cops resulted in diminished attendance at mosques, pervasive mistrust among congregants, and thesis usa, community-wide self-censorship. Some community members went so far as to change their dress and trim the length of their beards out of biometric fear of unwarranted surveillance. Trump’s proposals are precisely the types of assaults on religious communities that the military First Amendment was designed to prevent. The Supreme Court has warned that “a law targeting religious beliefs as such is never permissible.” This apparently doesn’t give Trump pause when he calls for unmerited law enforcement attention devoted to American Muslim communities across the biometric phd thesis country. Trump’s proposed Muslim database would also violate the Fifth Amendment’s due process clause if it were used by resume with military the government to restrict the ability of an American Muslim to fly or if it triggered more unjustified attention at biometric border crossings.

No one in America should be treated like a criminal and animal research title, deprived of their liberty and dignity when they have done nothing wrong. Beyond the constitutional problems with a Muslim database, the policy would almost certainly violate federal law. The Privacy Act of 1974 bars the biometric federal government from maintaining records “describing how any individual exercises rights guaranteed by food gcse coursework the First Amendment.” That, of course, includes records on expressions of biometric faith. When considered fully, the effect of Trump’s anti-Muslim policies would be to conserve essay reproduce the same stigma and discrimination that Muslim New Yorkers suffered, only this time it would be national in scope. Entire Muslim communities would be gripped by biometric phd thesis fear of their own government. By continuing to push these policies, Trump demonstrates that he will try and turn religious bigotry into government policy in flagrant violation of one of this country’s bedrock principles. War Era! As the Third Circuit Court of Appeals has recognized, “Religious discrimination, ‘by [its] very nature,’ has long been thought ‘odious to a free people whose institutions are founded upon a doctrine of equality.’” The belief in religious freedom has made America a beacon to the world for phd thesis, more than two centuries. Donald Trump, it seems, is not so impressed. “He may be talking, but he’ll talk faster with the torture.” D onald Trump wants to make America torture again.

“I love it. I love it, I think it’s great,” Donald Trump said earlier this year, describing his enthusiasm for waterboarding, otherwise known as simulated drowning. In addition to declaring his affection for the barbaric practice, which he has referred to military as “minimal torture,” Donald Trump has vowed to “absolutely authorize something beyond waterboarding.” He has also said he would authorize torture in phd thesis, a manner that would comply with controlling “laws and treaties.” And if that doesn’t work — and annie seeing, it couldn’t — a President Trump would seek to change the biometric laws to permit torture. In other words, Trump wants to take the United States back to the darkest days of the Bush administration, when our country flouted more than three centuries of Anglo-American jurisprudence, which rejected the use of torture and cruelty as a means of extracting information or inflicting punishment. This rejection is seeing firmly enshrined in biometric, the Constitution, domestic law, and international law. That torturing people again is even on the agenda is nothing short of an abomination. Conserve Water! It’s important to remember the brutality of the Bush administration’s euphemistically named “enhanced interrogation techniques” that Trump wants to resurrect. These were a set of techniques designed and phd thesis, implemented with the goal of psychologically destroying detainees in CIA custody. Interrogators in CIA prisons kept detainees awake and annie dillard, standing in painful positions for days at a time, doused them with ice water, slammed them into walls, waterboarded them, and more. The techniques were used together in rapid succession, interspersed with aggressive interrogation sessions, in biometric, the name of an invented and unscientific theory positing that reducing detainees to a state of utter passivity could result in resume with, useful intelligence — which it didn’t.

Imagining Trump attempting to reinstate torture as policy is a nightmarish proposition. Thankfully, a web of domestic and international laws — compounded by the lessons of biometric phd thesis our recent, and catastrophic, experiment with state torture — ensures he would fail. Torture is a clear violation of our Constitution. Courts have recognized that the Fifth Amendment’s due process clause bars treatment that “shocks the conserve water conscience,” including interrogation by phd thesis torture. And the conserve infliction of biometric phd thesis torture as punishment violates the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on “cruel and unusual punishment” and conserve, has been explicitly prohibited since the 19th century. The torturer, a U.S. appeals court recognized in phd thesis, 1980, is “like the thesis usa pirate and phd thesis, slave trader before him . . Thesis Usa! . an phd thesis enemy of all mankind.” Congress has also registered its collective disgust at torture and demonstrated the need for tech, accountability. Phd Thesis! The international legal prohibition of the practice was enshrined in domestic law when the United States signed and ratified the animal Convention Against Torture decades ago. When President Ronald Reagan sent the convention to the Senate, he wrote that the Senate’s consent to ratify would “demonstrate unequivocally our desire to bring an end to the abhorrent practice of torture.” Federal statutes barring or criminalizing torture and phd thesis, cruel treatment include the food gcse coursework Torture Convention Implementation Act, the Torture Victim Protection Act, the War Crimes Act, the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005, and the 2016 National Defense Authorization Act. International law is explicit that the absolute ban on torture also applies in wartime. Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions bars torture and also requires that detainees “shall in all circumstances be treated humanely” and prohibits “outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment.”

The Convention Against Torture likewise provides that “[n]o exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of biometric war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture.” The Supreme Court’s recognition in water essay, 2006 that these protections apply to detainees held by biometric the United States played a critical role in reining in abuses at with military Guantanamo and at CIA and military prisons abroad. To evade these many prohibitions, the Bush administration performed a complex set of now-notorious legal gymnastics to redefine torture and sidestep the ban. In a series of secret memos that have since been widely denounced, the U.S. government employed deceptive interpretations of the biometric phd thesis law to tech gcse coursework unmoor the phd thesis country from its domestic and animal, international commitments. It would take years for the American public to learn the contours of what the CIA and military did in secret. Once they did, the program began to biometric phd thesis contract — as it happens when illegality emerges from the annie essays seeing darkness in a democracy. Bipartisan laws have passed to prevent a return to torture and the shame it wrought on our country. The memos were withdrawn and widely disavowed. When Barack Obama took office, he officially put an biometric phd thesis end to the program. Trump, however, wants to embrace the dark side once again. When asked about how he would have treated one of the suspects in the Paris attacks of gcse coursework November 2015, Trump told CNN, “He may be talking, but he’ll talk faster with the torture.” This ignores the biometric fact that the only things torture guarantees are pain and false information. The landmark Senate torture report released in December 2014 made clear that no actionable intelligence resulted from the resume torture of more than 100 men in phd thesis, CIA custody.

While the Bush administration relied on on cold secret legal interpretations in order to biometric phd thesis torture, Donald Trump is seeing far more upfront about his intentions. Thankfully, the ban on torture is phd thesis built to withstand both sophisticated contortions and explicit, brutish disregard. It’s not up for animal testing, debate, no matter how much Trump talks about his love for waterboarding. “We’re going to open up those libel laws.” D uring a February campaign stop in Texas, Trump had news for The New York Times and The Washington Post: If he wins the phd thesis presidency, the Times and the Post will “have problems.” “One of the things I’m going to do if I win, and I hope we do and thesis usa, we’re certainly leading. I’m going to open up our libel laws so when they write purposely negative and horrible and false articles, we can sue them and biometric phd thesis, win lots of money,” Trump said in Fort Worth. “We’re going to open up those libel laws,” he continued. “So when The New York Times writes a hit piece which is a total disgrace or when The Washington Post, which is there for other reasons, writes a hit piece, we can sue them and thesis usa, win money instead of having no chance of biometric winning because they’re totally protected.” Thankfully, the First Amendment — and freedom of the press in particular — would be safe under a Trump administration. That’s because there are no federal libel laws to “open up.” Legal claims for libel arise under state laws, which a President Trump could do nothing about. The president of the resume United States only has the power to sign and veto federal law passed by the U.S. Biometric Phd Thesis! Congress.

That said, if Donald Trump does win the White House, he could use his bully pulpit to encourage state legislatures to essay war era liberalize state-law restrictions on defamatory speech or persuade members of his party to introduce and phd thesis, pass a federal libel statute. Neither legislative horizon appears even remotely likely, partially because the scope of such laws is still limited by the First Amendment, which protects, among other things, the freedoms of speech and essay on cold, of the biometric phd thesis press. The Constitution imposes a high barrier for libel suits brought by public officials, like Mr. Trump, by the very virtue of the war era power they wield in society. For a public official to win a libel suit, the plaintiff must not only show that the biometric defendant published a false and defamatory statement — but that the essays seeing defendant did so maliciously. These robust protections are in place for a very good reason. Biometric Phd Thesis! In a democracy, public discourse is often heated. If the gcse courts were to punish all false statements regardless of motive, observed a majority of the Supreme Court, it could “lead to intolerable self-censorship” by the media. In other words, a journalist who published erroneous information about a public figure without knowing it was wrong is biometric phd thesis constitutionally protected. This critical limitation on libel laws, according to an earlier Supreme Court ruling, reflects our “profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhib­ited, robust, and food tech gcse, wide?open, and that it may well include vehe­ment, caustic, and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public officials.” Despite his lack of legal authority to biometric phd thesis “open up our libel laws,” a President Trump would almost certainly limit the individual rights enshrined in the First Amendment.

Regularly on the campaign trail, he has shown contempt not only for free speech but also the freedom of the press and the right to protest. A month ago, Trump took to resume military Facebook to denounce The Washington Post and make it harder for its reporters to cover his campaign. “Based on the incredibly inaccurate coverage and reporting of the record setting Trump campaign,” he wrote, “we are hereby revoking the press credentials of the phony and dishonest Washington Post.” The Post now joins The Huffington Post, The Daily Beast, Politico, BuzzFeed News, Mother Jones, Gawker, Univision, and The Des Moines Register on Trump’s media blacklist. Kathleen Culver, associate director of the Center for phd thesis, Journalism Ethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said the billionaire’s actions are making it harder and harder for reporters to do their jobs. “I think the on cold war era Trump candidacy has challenged journalism more than virtually anything in my memory,” she told the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Beyond revoking press credentials from some of the biometric phd thesis country’s most prestigious and popular media outlets, members of the research paper media have been mocked and phd thesis, assaulted while covering his campaign . Last year, Trump mimicked the mannerisms of thesis usa a reporter from phd thesis The New York Times who has arthrogryposis, a rare disease that affects how a person’s limbs move. In March, Trump’s then-campaign manager grabbed the arm of Michelle Fields — a reporter from the conservative news site Breitbart — and yanked her away from Trump. None of conserve this should be surprising considering Trump’s open hostility toward the media. “I would never kill them, but I do hate them,” he said. “And some of them are such lying, disgusting people.” Trump’s rhetoric and aggressive policing of his events also call into question how a Trump administration would respond to nonviolent protest.

There have been at biometric phd thesis least 20 incidents of violence at water Trump events since last October, according to the online news magazine Slate. In one of the earliest ones, a Black protester at phd thesis a Trump rally was pummeled by the candidate’s supporters before being ejected. Trump’s response : “Maybe he should have been roughed up, because it was absolutely disgusting what he was doing.” Some months later, Trump told a crowd at one of his rallies that he would “like to punch” a protester in the face who was thrown out of the event. When another Black protester was sucker-punched in the face by a Trump supporter, the candidate went so far as to float the idea of paying the man’s legal bills, who Trump said “obviously loves his country.” While presidential candidates have every right under the First Amendment to control the message at their events and eject disruptive protesters, this behavior does not instill confidence in Trump’s reverence for the freedoms of speech, expression, and assembly. His words and actions on the campaign trail call into animal testing research question how he would act if confronted with widespread and sustained protests. The First Amendment is arguably the most important amendment of the Bill of biometric Rights because it protects the means by which a nation governs itself. There is cause for concern that protected First Amendment freedoms would come under assault by a Trump administration, even if its proposed policies don’t stand a chance of surviving a legal challenge. T he constitutional government of the United States of military America has survived the War of 1812, the Civil War, and biometric phd thesis, the great rights revolutions of the 20th century.

It will no doubt survive Donald Trump should he become our 45th president. But it is important to thesis usa remember those dark times when the U.S. government — often with public support — conspired against the nation’s most cherished ideals of liberty and equality for all. Among the more unsavory chapters of U.S. history are the Alien and Sedition Acts, Japanese-American imprisonment during World War II, and the long dark night of phd thesis Jim Crow. Many Americans today rightfully look back at these injustices with horror and with military, shame. Under a Trump presidency, whole categories of people — Latinos and Hispanics, American Muslims, and reporters and vocal critics of Trump — could potentially be deprived of their constitutional rights because of their immigration status, their religion, their political beliefs, or their livelihoods. Biometric Phd Thesis! This is to say nothing of millions of women who might face prosecution for conserve water essay, seeking an abortion if Trump once again changes his mind on this issue.

Our analysis shows that Trump’s policies, if implemented, would lead to a heavy edit of the Constitution. The First, Fourth, Fifth, and Eighth Amendments to the Constitution would no longer protect certain people. The fundamental creed of this nation, that people have natural rights that cannot be violated by government, would be cast aside by its most powerful leader: the president of the United State of America. There is only so much damage a Trump administration can do, however. Phd Thesis! Our tradition of protest protects the rights of Americans and immigrants to organize and speak out against animal testing research Trump, before Election Day and in the event he is elected president.

Our system of checks and biometric phd thesis, balances would withstand his contempt for constitutional order. Anthony Romero is the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union. A report on Hillary Clinton’s proposed policies and their civil liberties implications is military forthcoming. Clapping shows how much you appreciated ACLU National’s story.

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