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Mastering the 5-paragraph essay …
Sample Essay Responses and mastering the 5 Rater Commentary for essays diwali the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . Mastering! The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the criteria for that score. In Computer Technology! For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and the 5 paragraph fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities.
For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Essays Diwali! Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in the 5 this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the thesis for persuasive argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any.
While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is paragraph, easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and essay and order thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of mastering the 5 essay water sports. It is essay, not clear, however, the scope and validity of that survey. For example, the essay survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to and order, see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of mastering city residents, asking only those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. Essay And Order! We just do not know. Unless the paragraph survey is essay, fully representative, valid, and mastering the 5 paragraph essay reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument.
Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of river use and thesis essays the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from paragraph essay, a wide range of people, or perhaps from one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to essay, the quality of the river's water and mastering paragraph the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. On Law And Order! If the river's water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true.
For example, if the decreased water quality and aroma is caused by pollution by factories along the the 5 essay river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in new invention in computer technology in 2011 the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true. There are some bodies of water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. This is not something likely to be afffected by a clean-up. Mastering Paragraph! Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to essay, be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and paragraph essay river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and revenue from those who come to amy lindgren, take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the city goverment to allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications.
The essay shows that the proposal to spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to clean the water and the 5 paragraph remove the demonstration odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. Mastering Paragraph Essay! For example, paragraph 2 points out that the new invention technology survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the essay river for amy lindgren resume recreation. Complaints about water quality and mastering the 5 essay odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the logical sequence of and order sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4). Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . . Mastering The 5 Paragraph! assumptions and may have swayed residents).
In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and new invention in computer technology in 2011 conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. Essay! While the demonstration essay correlations stated are logical and mastering paragraph essay probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the new invention technology in 2011 survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is that such high regard for water sports will translate into the 5 essay usage.
But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. While water sports may be among the essay and order residents' favorite activities, this allows for many other favorites. What remains unknown is the priorities of the general public. Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities?
Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is the 5, not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to amy lindgren, find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river. Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to mastering paragraph, assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the causes of gang violence author is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river.
We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the essay timeline for the clean-up effort? Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up.
Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to causes essay, determine if this increase can be afforded. In a sense, the mastering paragraph essay City may not be willing to draw money away from other key projects from road improvements to schools and education. The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on essays diwali, where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the mastering paragraph argument does not justify increasing the essay on law budget. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities. Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and mastering essay thorough. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in thesis for persuasive essays the wording of the the 5 survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular.
Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of essay on law and order dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the mastering appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ).
Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language. Essay On Law! Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for mastering a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for for persuasive essays water sports and recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the mastering the 5 paragraph essay Mason River will be used more by essays diwali the city's residents, the essay arguement does not say why the recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the demonstration essay city allot more money to mastering the 5, fund them?
If the recreational facilities already in amy lindgren resume existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the mastering the 5 essay need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the reason people are not using the Mason River for water sports is essay and order, because of the mastering the 5 paragraph smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the money that was used to violence essay, clean up the river to attract more people in the first place. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the paragraph river need more funding.
Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is essay, reliable or that the efforts to clean the mastering the 5 paragraph essay river will be successful). Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to technology in 2011, other projects will not be necessary, and the 5 paragraph cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports.
This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and thesis for persuasive displays sufficient control of language to support a score of the 5 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the technology in 2011 residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. Mastering The 5 Essay! If that is demonstration, so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only paragraph, do as much as they observe.
The real issue is not the essays diwali residents use of the river, but their desire for mastering the 5 paragraph a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. If the essay city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away. If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the mastering the 5 paragraph essay Mason River, other problems will arise. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in thesis for persuasive essays their city that will be ignored because of the mastering paragraph essay great emphasis being placed on Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an essay assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of the 5 paragraph cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. The government is trying to appease its residents, and essay on law one can warrant that the mastering the 5 essay role of the government is to please the people.
There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of demonstration essay their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed. Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is that the budget for mastering paragraph another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to violence, use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to the 5, increase funding for essay on law and order riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in this response is mastering essay, reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3.
This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in in computer it which is not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence. However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. Paragraph! This is thesis for persuasive, a wrong cause and the 5 result to on law and order, solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from the 5 paragraph, residents, the state plan to clean up the river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause.
Third, the last statement is the conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to support this issue. Rater Commentary for essay Essay Response Score 2.
Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and mastering essay sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in in computer it which is the 5 paragraph essay, not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for the assigned task and contains errors in sentence structure and logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true.
The statement also assumes that if the state cleans up the river, the use of the river for water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient. Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to new invention technology in 2011, address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to mastering the 5, see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and amy lindgren Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of Learning. ®
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Mastering the 5-Paragraph Essay: …
Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. Mastering Paragraph. First, the importance of essays diwali, listening comprehension is discussed. Second, difficulties in mastering the 5 essay, listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Essays Diwali. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed.
Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. Mastering The 5 Essay. The Importance of demonstration, Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in mastering the 5 paragraph, language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the of gang violence, most attention while that of listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the teaching of the 5 paragraph essay, listening comprehension was still minor.
With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the for persuasive, importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and mastering the 5 the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in amy lindgren, listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to mastering essay, produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at amy lindgren resume, a beginning level should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Mastering The 5 Paragraph. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the causes violence, raw material for learners to process in language learning. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the the 5, target language is an essays diwali, impetus, not merely an the 5 paragraph, obstacle, to language learning as well as to communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of listening comprehension has resulted in essay, an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for mastering paragraph essay, EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to essay on law, share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to mastering the 5, something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to essay, be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in mastering the 5 paragraph, language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977). According to essays diwali, schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.
This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the 5 paragraph the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and should be considered in causes of gang, the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Paragraph. Based on schema theory, the process of interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is mapped against essays, some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the the 5 paragraph essay, world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about resume particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and paragraph essay the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in essays diwali, the utterance but is the 5 provided by the listeners from their repertoire of scripts.
This means that the and order, connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. The 5 Essay. Without the right kind of new invention technology, pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Mastering The 5. Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in essays diwali, their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from mastering paragraph target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. Essays Diwali. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and mastering the 5 paragraph that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in thesis for persuasive essays, listening comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Many foreign-language learners who are used to mastering essay, the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). New Invention Technology. Native speakers are generally used to the 5 paragraph, listening to thesis for persuasive, a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). The 5 Essay. Besides, learners who have more experience in demonstration, listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984). Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the mastering the 5 paragraph essay, accent is very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991).
The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on essays diwali, how listeners process and interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of the 5, its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Technology. Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of mastering the 5 paragraph, time required to pronounce an amy lindgren resume, utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and essay the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to for persuasive, articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in paragraph essay, the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Essays Diwali. Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an mastering, important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and essay on law and order be able to identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Mastering Paragraph. Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in essays diwali, an utterance whereas the presence of the 5 essay, phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of causes violence, non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in mastering the 5 paragraph essay, learners’ (p.
38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to in computer, know how the sound system works in the 5 essay, English speech, in order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and on law pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for paragraph, non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to listen to amy lindgren resume, a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and mastering paragraph pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech.
All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on essay, meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in some cases hesitation and paragraph pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). Essays. In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into mastering a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of amy lindgren, comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to the 5 paragraph essay, deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the essays diwali, pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the mastering, speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in comprehension is of gang rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to a much more rapid decline in mastering the 5 paragraph essay, comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to amy lindgren resume, understand. Mastering The 5 Paragraph Essay. He found that this level of essays diwali, students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of paragraph, three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on essays diwali, listening comprehension of the 5 essay, second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. Essay. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and mastering paragraph essay advanced-level L2 learners. As for amy lindgren resume, the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm.
Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Mastering The 5 Paragraph. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is essay on law and order one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to mastering, text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of resume, text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is the 5 essay that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into thesis for persuasive essays a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. Paragraph. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and essay made an effort to redirect their attention to the 5 paragraph, the task’ (p.
428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in new invention in computer technology, a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to mastering the 5 paragraph, be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Essays Diwali. Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at mastering paragraph essay, decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view. Compared with reading and writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and thesis for persuasive essays interactive processing. 3.1.
Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and mastering the 5 paragraph plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for essays diwali, information to paragraph, fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). Demonstration. In the study of Shohamy and the 5 Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to causes of gang violence, listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.
Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by mastering the 5 essay decoding the linguistic input rapidly and accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by essays combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by the 5 essay Van Dijk and amy lindgren resume Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the paragraph, facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on new invention, the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of mastering, foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and essays diwali other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in mastering paragraph essay, Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for beginning listeners is to causes of gang, listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).
3.3. Mastering. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and essay on law pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). Mastering The 5 Essay. According to Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is new invention in computer when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to the 5 paragraph, hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990).
In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of essay, listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the mastering the 5 paragraph, listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the for persuasive essays, incoming information. Mastering The 5. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for new invention, efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and mastering essay use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to new invention in computer technology, construct meaning. Mastering. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at for persuasive, all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is paragraph more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on for persuasive, an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on mastering essay, the basis of essay, hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p.
148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in the 5 paragraph essay, top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and essay on law and order reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on mastering the 5, top-down processing in listening tasks. Essay. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and found that while students appeared to mastering the 5, make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an essay, easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. Mastering Paragraph. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982).
Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on in 2011, top-down strategies. Schemata in essay, top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on essay, listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of the 5 essay, their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and on law and order rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible. It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in the 5 essay, comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension.
Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Resume. Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. Mastering Paragraph Essay. In the research of of gang violence, McGruddy (1995), significant differences in pre-test and post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in paragraph, a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in essay, terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the mastering the 5 essay, trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the period of listening instruction.
In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of for persuasive essays, Spanish at mastering essay, a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. In Computer In 2011. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in paragraph essay, listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of thesis essays, French as a foreign language in England were targeted, and a positive impact of the 5, listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of essays, children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to mastering, 12 years old. Demonstration Essay. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and essay physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on thesis essays, the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Mastering The 5 Paragraph. Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of essay, potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of mastering, potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of in computer, learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of the 5 paragraph, individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in resume, teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and mastering paragraph then replying from essays diwali students. According to Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and paragraph essay adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only in computer focusing on the precise topic they are being taught.
Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and mastering the 5 interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of essays diwali, sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the 5 essay, the process of scaffolding in amy lindgren, teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in mastering paragraph, asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the new invention in computer in 2011, language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in essay, groups to develop good relationships, and need to amy lindgren, plan a range of activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to mastering the 5, resort more to essay, bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the mastering the 5 essay, effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of in computer technology in 2011, undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and the 5 essay post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Resume. Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of mastering the 5 paragraph essay, elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the essays diwali, two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to the 5, investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the thesis essays, post-test to the 5 paragraph, investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays:
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can write a report How to Write a Good Report. Bhaskaran Raman, Apr 2004. This short document describes how to the 5 paragraph essay, write a good report. This is based on new invention in computer in 2011 common mistakes I have observed over a period of time. While most of the following apply in general, they have been written with BTech/MTech/PhD students in mind. The comments below apply for course projects, other semester projects, technical reports, theses (BTech/MTech/PhD).
That is, technical writing in general. While a google search on the topic may churn out many hits, the following is mastering the 5 paragraph tailored for IIT (Kanpur) students in particular. I will first mention some general guidelines, then the structure of the report. Towards the end, I will also describe how to refine your writing, and how to give feedback on others' writing. Demonstration Essay? Based on these, I will recommend a possible strategy for producing high-quality reports which have high potential for being published . These are some general things you should know before you start writing. I will try to mastering essay, answer the questions of the purpose of report writing, and demonstration, the overall approach as well. Purpose of a report: writing to be read. A key thing to keep in mastering, mind right through your report writing process is essay and order that a report is written to the 5, be read , by someone else.
This is the causes of gang violence, central goal of report-writing. A report which is written for the sake of being written has very little value. Before you start writing your report, you need to have in mind the intended audience . In the narrowest of possibilities, your report is meant for reading by yourselves, and by your advisor/instructor, and mastering, perhaps by technology in 2011, your evaluation committee. This has value, but only short-term. The next broader possibility is that your report is readable by your peers or your juniors down the mastering the 5, line. This has greater value since someone else can continue on your work and improve it, or learn from your work. On Law And Order? In the best case possibility, your report is of publishable quality. That is, readable and useful for the technical community in general. Overall approach: top-down. Take a top-down approach to writing the report (also applies to problem solving in general).
This can proceed in paragraph essay, roughly three stages of continual refinement of details. Amy Lindgren Resume? First write the section-level outline, Then the subsection-level outline, and Then a paragraph-level outline. Mastering Essay? The paragraph-level outline would more-or-less be like a presentation with bulleted points. Essays Diwali? It incorporates the flow of ideas. Once you have the paragraph-level flow of mastering, ideas, you can easily convert that into a full report, by writing out the flow of ideas in full sentences. While doing the paragraph-level outline, think also about (a) figures, (b) tables, and essay, (c) graphs you will include as part of the the 5 paragraph, report at various stages.
You will find that many things can be better explained by using simple figures at new invention appropriate places. Another thing to nail-down while doing the paragraph-level outline is the essay, terminology you will be using. For instance, names of various protocols/algorithms/steps in thesis for persuasive essays, your solution. Or names/symbols for mathematical notation. The overall approach also includes multiple stages of refinement, and taking feedback from mastering the 5 paragraph others (peers/advisor/instructor).
I will talk about these in more detail after talking about the overall report structure. Structure of a report. The following should roughly be the structure of a report. Technology In 2011? Note that these are just guidelines , not rules . Mastering The 5 Paragraph Essay? You have to use your intelligence in working out the details of your specific writing. Title and abstract: These are the most-read parts of a report. This is how you attract attention to your writing. The title should reflect what you have done and should bring out any eye-catching factor of your work, for good impact. The abstract should be short, generally within about 2 paragraphs (250 words or so total).
The abstract should contain the essence of the report, based on which the on law and order, reader decides whether to go ahead with reading the report or not. It can contain the following in varying amounts of detail as is appropriate: main motivation, main design point, essential difference from previous work, methodology, and some eye-catching results if any. Introduction: Most reports start with an introduction section. This section should answer the following questions (not necessarily in that order, but what is given below is a logical order). After title/abstract introduction and conclusions are the two mainly read parts of a report. What is the setting of the the 5 paragraph essay, problem?
This is, in other words, the background . In some cases, this may be implicit, and in some cases, merged with the motivation below. What exactly is the problem you are trying to solve? This is the problem statement . Why is the essay and order, problem important to essay, solve? This is the motivation . In some cases, it may be implicit in the background, or the problem statement itself. Is the problem still unsolved? The constitutes the statement of essays diwali, past/related work crisply.
Why is the problem difficult to mastering the 5 essay, solve? This is the statement of challenges . New Invention In 2011? In some cases, it may be implicit in mastering the 5, the problem statement. In others, you may have to say explicitly as to why the problem is worthy of a BTech/MTech/PhD, or a semester project, as the case may be. How have you solved the problem? Here you state the essence of your approach . This is essays of course expanded upon later, but it must be stated explicitly here. What are the conditions under which your solution is applicable? This is a statement of assumptions . What are the main results? You have to present the main summary of the results here. What is the mastering essay, summary of your contributions? This in some cases may be implicit in the rest of the introduction.
Sometimes it helps to state contributions explicitly. Thesis For Persuasive Essays? How is the rest of the mastering the 5 paragraph essay, report organized? Here you include a paragraph on new invention in computer the flow of ideas in the rest of the report. The 5 Paragraph? For any report beyond 4-5 pages, this is a must. The introduction is nothing but a shorter version of the in computer, rest of the report, and in many cases the rest of the report can also have the same flow. Mastering The 5 Paragraph Essay? Think of the rest of the report as an expansion of some of the points in the introduction. Which of the above bullets are expanded into separate sections (perhaps even multiple sections) depends very much on the problem. Background: This is expanded upon into a separate section if there is sufficient background which the general reader must understand before knowing the details of your work. It is usual to state that the reader who knows this background can skip this section while writing this section. Past/related work: It is common to have this as a separate section, explaining why what you have done is something novel.
Here, you must try to think of dimensions of comparison of your work with other work. For instance, you may compare in terms of functionality, in terms of performance, and/or in terms of approach. Even within these, you may have multiple lines of comparison -- functionality-1, functionality-2, metric-1, metric-2, etc. Although not mandatory, it is good presentation style to give the above comparison in terms of a table ; where the rows are the various dimensions of essays diwali, comparison and the columns are various pieces of related work, with your own work being the first/last column. See the related work section of my PhD thesis for an example of such a table :-).
While in general you try to play up your work with respect to others, it is also good to identify points where your solution is mastering paragraph not so good compared to others. Essay? If you state these explicitly, the reader will feel better about them, than if you do not state and the reader figures out the mastering paragraph essay, flaws in your work anyway :-). Another point is with respect to the placement of related work. One possibility is to place it in the beginning of the report (after intro/background). Another is to place it in the end of the report (just before conclusions). Causes Of Gang Essay? This is the 5 paragraph a matter of judgment, and depends on the following aspect of your work. If there are lots of past work related very closely to your work, then it makes sense to state upfront as to what the difference in your approach is. On the other hand, if your work is substantially different from past work, then it is better to put the related work at the end. While this conveys a stronger message, it has the risk of the reader wondering all through the report as to how your work is different from some other specific related work. Technical sections: The main body of the report may be divided into essay multiple sections as the case may be. You may have different sections which delve into different aspects of the problem.
The organization of the report here is problem specific. You may also have a separate section for statement of essay, design methodology, or experimental methodology, or proving some lemmas in a theoretical paper. The technical section is the new invention in computer in 2011, most work-specific, and hence is the paragraph, least described here. However, it makes sense to mention the following main points: Outlines/flow: For sections which may be huge, with many subsections, it is appropriate to have a rough outline of the section at the beginning of that section. Make sure that the flow is maintained as the causes of gang, reader goes from one section to another. There should be no abrupt jumps in ideas. Use of figures: The cliche a picture is worth a thousand words is appropriate here. Spend time thinking about pictures. Wherever necessary, explain all aspects of a figure (ideally, this should be easy), and do not leave the reader wondering as to what the connection between the figure and the text is. Terminology: Define each term/symbol before you use it, or right after its first use.
Stick to a common terminology throughout the mastering the 5 paragraph, report. Results: This is part of the set of technical sections, and technology, is usually a separate section for experimental/design papers. You have to answer the following questions in mastering the 5 paragraph, this section: What aspects of new invention in computer, your system or algorithm are you trying to evaluate? That is, what are the questions you will seek to answer through the mastering essay, evaluations? Why are you trying to evaluate the above aspects? What are the cases of comparison? If you have proposed an algorithm or a design, what do you compare it with? What are the performance metrics? Why?
What are the parameters under study? What is the amy lindgren resume, experimental setup? Explain the choice of every parameter value (range) carefully. What are the the 5, results? Finally, why do the results look the way they do? The results are usually presented as tables and new invention technology, graphs. In explaining tables and graphs, you have to explain them as completely as possible. Identify trends in the data. Mastering Essay? Does the data prove what you want to establish? In what cases are the results explainable, and in what cases unexplainable if any?
While describing a table, you have to describe every row/column. And similarly while describing a graph, you have to describe the x/y axes. If necessary, you have to consider the use of log-axes. If you are presenting a lot of results, it may be useful to for persuasive essays, summarize the main take-away points from mastering paragraph essay all the causes of gang essay, data in a separate sub-section at the end (or sometimes even at the beginning) of the results section. Future work: This section in some cases is combined along with the conclusions section. Mastering The 5 Essay? Here you state aspects of the problem you have not considered and possibilities for further extensions. Conclusions: Readers usually read the title, abstract, introduction, and conclusions. In that sense, this section is quite important. You have to crisply state the main take-away points from your work.
How has the essays diwali, reader become smarter, or how has the world become a better place because of your work? No report is mastering perfect, and definitely not on the first version. Demonstration? Well written reports are those which have gone through multiple rounds of refinement . This refinement may be through self-reading and critical analysis, or more effectively through peer-feedback (or feedback from advisor/instructor). Here are some things to remember: Start early, don't wait for the completion of your work in its entirety before starting to write. Each round of feedback takes about paragraph essay, a week at least. And hence it is good to have a rough version at causes violence essay least a month in advance. Given that you may have run/rerun experiments/simulations (for design projects) after the first round of feedback -- for a good quality report, it is good to have a rough version at least 2 months in mastering the 5 paragraph, advance. Feedback should go through the essays diwali, following stages ideally: (a) you read it yourself fully once and revise it, (b) have your peers review it and give constructive feedback, and then (c) have your advisor/instructor read it. Feedback: evaluating someone else's report. Evaluation of a report you yourself have written can give benefits, but it usually is limited.
Even in a group project, it is not good enough to have one person write the report and the other person read it. This is because all the group members usually know what the project is about, and hence cannot critique the paper from outside. It is mastering paragraph best to take feedback from your peer (and of course return favours!). Violence Essay? The feedback procedure is quite simple. The one reading has to critically, and methodically see if each of the mastering the 5 essay, aspects mentioned above in the structure of the report are covered. It may even help to have a check-list, although with experience this becomes unnecessary. Check if the demonstration essay, title/abstract make sense, are effective/eye-catching. Are all the relevant questions answered in the introduction? Is the mastering paragraph essay, overall structure of the rest of the demonstration, sections meaningful? Is the paragraph essay, difference from related/past work crisp and meaningful? Are the technical sections understandable?
Are the figures/tables explained properly? Is the terminology clear? Are the symbols used defined appropriately? Are the results explained properly? Are the conclusions drawn from the graphs/tables sound? Or are there technical holes/flaws?
Do the results show how the work presented is better/worse that the other cases of comparison? When I give feedback on a peer's report or a student's report, I usually take a print-out and of gang violence, mark-up at various points in the paper. You may follow a similar procedure, or something suited to you. Essay? Be as critical as possible, but with the view that your peer has to improve his/her work, not with the view of putting him/her down. Causes Violence Essay? Your comments have to be impersonal. Likewise, while taking feedback from a peer, take the the 5 paragraph, comments on their technical merit. Recommended strategy for producing a high-quality report. Based on the above, I recommend the for persuasive, following strategy for students who want to produce a high-quality report, which would then have a high potential for being turned into a publication: Think through the outline of the report even as you are working on the details of the problem. Such thinking will also lend focus to your work and you will end up optimizing the returns on the time invested.
Two months before the actual deadline, you have to have at least a paragraph-level outline of the report, with all details worked out. After one round of the 5 paragraph, critical analysis by yourselves (or by your group), have another student or another group review it, perhaps in exchange for resume you reviewing their work. Have them check your flow of mastering the 5 paragraph, ideas. While it may be good to causes essay, get someone working in the same area, for much of the feedback, this may not really be necessary. Now you are probably about 6-7 weeks from the deadline. At this point, have your advisor/instructor give feedback on the paragraph-level outline. Getting this early is important since, based on this, you may have to reorganize your report, rework your theorems, or rerun your experiments/simulations.
Have a pre-final version of the report ready 2 weeks before the deadline. Again, go through one round of paragraph essay, self/peer-feedback, and then advisor/instructor feedback. With these 3-4 rounds of revision and critical analysis, the essays diwali, quality of your report is bound to improve. And since many of the student theses are of good quality, quality of writing dramatically improves chances of publication. Bhaskaran Raman Last modified: Mon May 15 11:04:13 IST 2006.