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Unique college essay

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Appearance vs Reality and the Theme of Deception in unique Othello. Good Introduction Essay! Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Appearance vs Reality and the Theme of Deception in Othello. Appearance vs Reality in Othello. About the Character. • Is a very important symbol that portrays the key ideas of these themes. Unique Essay! • Is known to be deceptive, as with Othello. • Hides behind a facade of truth and honesty while being the complete opposite in reality. • Many people only help notice that his biggest deception happens with Othello, but as the story progresses, we see that his character is really never truthful to anyone else either.

For ex., his false friendship with Roderigo and Cassio whilst he is unique merely using them, him hiding important facts from Emilia, his care towards Desdemona. ? “I am not what I am” (I . i . 67) Talking to Roderigo about his hatred for Othello. Tells Roderigo that he is not who he appears to be, in essay white terms of Othello. Strong belief that those who decieve go forward in life. Only with Othello for his own selfish reasons; does not actually care for him. “Thus do I ever make my fool my purse.” Here Iago is talking about how he feels Roderigo is a fool, and how he can use that to his advantage. Manipulates Roderigo into thinking that if he sells his land and makes money out of it, Desdemona will fall for him. In reality, he just wants to steal Roderigo#39;s money. What are you hurt, lieutenant? (II . College Essay! iii . 247) Here, we see that Iago is acting like he is concerned for Cassio, when in reality, it is an act. He is the one who instigated Cassio to get drunk and start a fight in order to make him look like a fool in front of columbia university creative writing contest, Othello. Unique College Essay! Is deceiving him so that he may steal his title. Secondary Source Analysis. About the performing arts coursework help Character. Unique Essay! • A character who is believed to be deceptive by others, when in reality she is ignorant to what is happening around her. • It is not just Othello who believes she is deceitful; it is believed by Iago and Cassio, who believe it is in bibliography a woman’s nature to be deceitful, and by her own father, Brabantio, who feels that because she has deceived him, she will go on to deceive others as well.

? “Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see, She has deceived her father, and may thee” (I . iii . 94-95) Brabantio believes that because Desdemona cheated him, she will do the same to Othello. He again alludes to the fact that women are the cause of evil and because of this, it is essay certain that Desdemona will be deceitful. Columbia Creative Writing! We know this to be untrue because she did not really cheat her father. College! ? “She must change for youth. When she is sated with his body she will find the errors of columbia university writing contest, her choice. Therefore, put money in thy purse.” (I . iii . 347-349) Iago believes women are shallow and only marry for sex. Therefore, Desdemona will soon lose interest in Othello and look for someone else. We as readers know Desdemona is faithful, and unique college is only perceived to be deceitful by the males in this play. ? “She did deceive her father, marrying you, And when she seemed to do annotated shake and fear your looks, She loved them the most.” (III . iii . 210-212) Iago is reinforcing Brabantio#39;s view of women; if she deceives one, she is liable to deceive everyone. He also states that when she acted like she feared Othello, thats when her love for him grew the most, accentuating the theme of appearance vs reality. Again untrue because we know it is not in her nature to college essay be unfaithful.

Secondary Source Analysis. About the Character. Throughout the play, it is seen that Cassio is loyal to his general, Othello. Cassio is a young, handsome, and friendly man. Do Annotated Research Paper! Consequently it makes him a target of Iago’s master plan, as Iago uses Cassio to play with the emotions of essay, Othello. He does this by getting both Cassio and Desdemona close together, so Othello can think they are having an affair. Do Annotated Research Paper! “Iago: she gives it out college, that you shall marry her. Do you intend it? Cassio: Ha, ha, ha!

Othello: Do ye triumph, roman? Do you triumph? Cassio: I marry her! What? A customer? Prithee bear some charity to my wit. Do not think it so unwholesome. Ha, ha, ha!” (IV. i . 200) To Cassio, he is talking to Iago about Bianca the prostitue. TO Othello, Cassio is talking about Desdemona. Again highlights the theme of appearance vs. Columbia University! reality.

Secondary Source Analysis. “The most conspicuous irony is Othello thinking Iago is college essay “honest” and Desdemona is not “honest”” (Heilman 46). Arts Coursework Help! It appeared to Othello that Iago was honest but in essay reality he was trying to bring about the downfall of Othello. This is belonging essay ironic because the reader knows that Iago was never honest to anyone and just manipulated them to college essay achieve what he wanted. Do Annotated Research! Iago was never telling the truth. In the end Iago’s deception caused Othello to destroy himself. When Brabantio tells Othello to keep an eye on Desdemona he thinks nothing of it until he later when he thinks that Desdemona is unique cheating on him. “Othello’s growing intentions of contest, keeping an eye on Desdemona is in effect commented on when he complains of” a pain upon my forehead” and she replies, “faith, that’s with watching” (3.3 284-285) what he says has two meanings while what Desdemona is not”(Heilman 258). It is shown that Desdemona is appeared to Othello of being guilty of cheating on him while in reality she is unaware of what Othello means.

Cassio is the target of Iago because he stole his position as lieutenant “Being passed over for promotion to the lieutenancy in favour of unique essay, Cassio” (Wood). It is apparent that Iago is using Cassio to get at Othello where he is most vulnerable. Cassio is the second in command which means Othello will trust him with everything. Although Othello’s trust in Cassio is broken when he gets drunk, he is fired as according to Iago’s plan and then eventually Othello wants Cassio killed .Cassio is deceived by Iago in a way that he is good essay being accused of having an affair with Othello’s wife, Desdemona. Thus, it is evident that William Shakespeare uses the characters of Iago, Desdemona, and Cassio to portray the themes of appearance vs. reality and deception. Heilman, Robert Bechtold. Magic in the Web; Action Language in Othello. College! Lexington: U of Kentucky, 1956.

Print. 12 July 2015. Appearance vs. Reality is a common theme used in novels today, in which some characters are not what they seem to be. University Creative! Similarly, one of the most prominent themes in Othello is the theme of appearance vs. reality, which goes alongside the topic of deception.

Thesis Mapping Statement. William Shakespeare showcases the themes of deception and appearance vs reality through the characters of Iago, Desdemona, and essay Cassio. We will be analyzing each of order paper, these characters and how they relate to these themes.

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Hardware and Firmware Issues in Using Ultra-Low Power MCUs. Rev 2: May 2015 - Added link to Low Power Design article. Rev 4: March 2016 - Added section 12 about college essay, watchdog timers. Today many of us are building ultra-low power embedded systems that must run for columbia university creative contest, years off a battery. The idea is that these systems are nearly always in a deep sleep mode, waking from time to unique college essay time to do something before going back to bibliography research paper sleep. Unique College? Many vendors of columbia university creative contest, microcontrollers (MCUs) claim their products can run like this for decades from a coin cell.

These claims are mostly bogus. This report describes the hardware and firmware issues one must consider when designing very low-power coin-cell products. There are a lot of nuances; even decoupling capacitor selection can hugely influence battery life. You'll also find data from which one can predict what sort of unique essay, battery lifetimes are achievable here. Because the report is very long and covers a number of writing, related subjects, not everyone may need to read the college, entire thing. Here's a roadmap so you can get to the sections important for your design efforts: Background -- Do read this.

It gives a bit of information about coin cells, and then shows how the metathesis reactions recent in cross-metathesis, basic assumptions made by MCU vendors are completely off-base. They talk about college essay, how long a system can sleep; we care about how much work can be done when it is awake. Three critical points are made in this section: first, coin cells aren't good for more than ten years , second, MCU sleep currents are almost irrelevant , and third, a system running for ten years off a CR2032 battery can only consume 2.5 uA on average . On Typical Specifications -- Many MCU vendors make glorious claims about introduction, low current consumption and quote astonishing numbers. Dig into the datasheets and unique college essay it's not uncommon to find these as typical specifications. I investigated what typical means. Recent Highlights? The result: never, ever, use a typical specification as design guidance . CR2032 Behavior -- How does a coin cell behave in these very low-power applications? No one seems to know, so I took a ton of data. The results are surprising and bode ill for long-lived systems. You may find that less than half the unique essay, battery's advertised capacity is actually available in a real system . Leaks and Drains -- The MCU is order online canada not the only power consumer on a board.

Even the capacitors leak -- a lot. This section examines other, usually neglected, sources of leaks that may profoundly affect your design. Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd -- Pick the wrong decoupling capacitor and your system will discharge the college, battery in bibliography research paper a short time. Unique College? And, given that an ultra-low power system sleeps most of the university writing, time and wakes for only milliseconds, can we use a capacitor's time constant to keep Vdd high enough to power the system during the brief time it is awake? Hint: the answer is no. Running Fast to Save Power -- The vendors recommend running the MCU as fast as possible to get back to sleep quickly, as the total power consumption will be less than running at a slow clock rate. While that is unique college essay true, it is naïve.

There are other factors to watch out for. This section is university contest important for firmware designers. Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life -- You might get some benefits by reducing Vdd to the MCU, but there are some caveats. Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work -- Don't use the unique essay, MCU's brown-out circuit . Recent? It will not perform as you would expect in most cases. An alternative is presented. Unique Essay? Firmware people take note.

Reverse Battery Protection -- Careful design means making sure a battery installed backwards won't cause problems. Alas, the usual fixes create more problems than they solve. UL Coin Cell Requirements -- UL is very strict about using coin cells. Here are the rules, and performing arts coursework their implications. Battery Droop Over Time -- With a load on a coin cell the voltage decays for essay, a while. and then, oddly, stops. Columbia Creative Contest? Figure on unique another 10% loss of capacity due to bibliography paper droop . Watchdog timers - How does one manage a watchdog when sleeping most of the time? Summary Reviews of tools to profile low-power systems. This isn't really in this report; this is unique essay a link to my web site's reviews.

Another great resource on these issues is paper online Low Power Design by CMicrotek. It covers other important issues about these applications, and college is highly recommended. There's a sleep current war raging between MCU vendors. Marketing glitz and web pages are the arts coursework help, guns; white papers are the ammo, which is being broadsided with increasing frequency. Much of what is claimed is unique college probably true, but more than a little of it is misleading and/or irrelevant.

It's truly remarkable just how little current is needed to keep a processor alive today. Metathesis Reactions Recent? In the deepest sleep modes even some ARM parts claim just 20 nA (nanoamp) of consumption. College Essay? That's a mere 0.02 microamp, a number that boggles the mind. In the desktop world CPUs suck over 100 amps while active, so I salute the MCU community for achieving such astonishingly-low figures. First, some context. In the trenches of this war lie the lowly CR2032, a typical coin cell that's oft-quoted as the canonical battery for extremely-long-lived systems. A CR2032 has about paper canada, 225 mAh of capacity (quoted capacities vary a little depending on the vendor), which means it can source one mA for 225 hours. (Note there is some dependency on capacity vs. how fast one discharges the battery). Its nominal voltage is unique college 3.0, perfect for these 1.8 to 2V min MCUs, and the discharge curve has a sharp knee. They are considered dead at 2.0 V, which is confirmed by my experiments.

Here's data for a number of batteries, all from columbia writing, one batch from the same vendor, discharged at a 0.5 mA rate: Batteries discharging at a 0.5 mA rate . Some of the vendors claim their MCUs can run for 20-30 years from a single CR2032. That's may be true in theory, but not in practice. The first question one must ask is: are the batteries rated for college, those kinds of lifetimes? I contacted a number of introduction essay, battery vendors. None guarantee shelf lives over unique college essay ten years. Good? One vendor said: Not recommended for use after shelf life expires as the chemicals in the battery break down and it loses power a lot quicker, and there can be corrosion or leakage. It's poor engineering practice to use a component beyond its rated specifications. For this discussion I'll assume that the maximum achievable lifetime of a system powered by a CR2032 is 10 years , because that's the life guaranteed by the battery vendors.

Though the war is all about unique college essay, battery lifetime of essay e.b. white, a mostly-sleeping system, that's irrelevant for design engineers. The right question - which no one seems to be asking - is: how much useful work can the system do while awake ? Useful work translates into a lot of things (clock rate, instruction set efficiency, etc.), but is ultimately bounded by how much current the system (MCU and other components) can consume while awake. College Essay? It's is the budget a design engineer has to work with, and cannot be exceeded (on average). Doing the math, I came up with the e.b. white, following curve, which assumes a ten year battery life for college, a cell with 225 mAh capacity. It shows the number of mA available while awake, as a function of time spent sleeping and amount of current consumed while sleeping. The bottom curve is a system that uses 2 uA while sleeping; the top is one using 20 nA. mA available as a function of sleep time and sleep current. For systems that sleep the vast majority of the time, the good introduction belonging essay, following chart blows up the data at the right side of the graph above: Here's the key takeaway: Sleep currents are almost irrelevant . Take two MCUs, one that needs 20 nA while sleeping and another that consumes 200 nA. The available awake current is just about the unique college, same in both cases.

Even one that sucks a microamp while sleeping gives results not much different from an MCU needing an order of magnitude less. If the system (MCU plus everything else) draws a microamp or less when sleeping we find: If your system sleeps 99% of the in cross-metathesis, time you only have a 0.24 mA budget while awake. This means the unique, system is awake 36 seconds per creative writing, hour over college ten years before the battery is depleted. And while it's awake, you cannot, on bibliography research average, draw more than 0.24 mA. If the system sleeps 99.7% of the time you have 0.8 mA available and are awake 11 seconds per hour. And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 0.8 mA. At a 99.97% sleep time there's 8-10 mA available during wake times, and college the system is awake 1 second per hour.

And while it's awake, you cannot, on average, draw more than 8-10 mA. It's useful to think about a total system current budget. For a CR2032 with 220 mAh of capacity running for ten years the calculation is simple: x-amps is the average current consumed by the system over a decade, and works out to 2.5 uA. Essay White? Integrate the unique college, current used during sleeping and waking times; if it averages more than 2.5 uA the do annotated paper, battery won't last ten years. Unique? Another way of looking at this, as we'll see later, is that, since the system sleeps most of the time, the order paper, parasitic drains (sleep current plus other circuit drains) cannot exceed 2.5 uA . Check out the college, electrical specs of an ultra-low power MCU. Clearly we're really concerned with the current used in various modes. Surprise! Many only columbia writing contest give typical (i.e., no worst-case) specifications. It wasn't always this way. Here's an example from TI's 1976 TTL Databook for the 7447A BCD to seven segment decoder/driver: Note that all of the specs have a max or min number, and the data shows what conditions those numbers apply to (e.g., Vol is college with Vcc-MIN, Vih=2, Vil=0.8, Ioh=-200 uA).

Admittedly, in the olden days just a few pages were enough to essay white fully document a part. Today a thousand page datasheet isn't uncommon. Properly characterizing a component isn't easy. Here's another datasheet -- it's from a box of Entenmann's donuts: These are worst-case specs.

They are guarantees. Contractual terms between Entenmann's and the buyer. You know what you're getting. Here's some sleep current consumption data from an MCU datasheet: Typical (+25C): 0.01 uA.

Typical (+60C): 0.04 uA. Maximum (+85C): 2 uA. Maximum (+125C): 10 uA. What does that mean? The range covers three orders of magnitude. Decades ago one of my mentors taught me to never use a typical spec; always design for worst case. That has been good advice which I've only violated in circumstances where some other data was available or a wide distribution of values was acceptable. TI agrees. Their datasheet for the LPV521 op amp states: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm at the time of characterization.

Actual typical values may vary over time and will also depend on the application and configuration. College Essay? The typical values are not tested and are not guaranteed on shipped production material . (Emphasis added). So how does one interpret the current consumption data listed earlier? My first reaction is to use the max (+85C) number as that is, presumably, guaranteed. Online Canada? But that's 200X the room-temperature typical value. While there's really not enough data to unique college essay use for curve fits, an exponential trend line fits pretty darn well, which is hardly surprising given that much of the paper online canada, current is consumed by reverse-biased P-N junctions (think of the Shockley diode equation). Unique? But that's mixing typ and max values, a proverbial conflation of arts coursework help, apples and oranges. I have always assumed typical represents an average, or the most-likely value in college essay some probability distribution function. But does it? I contacted tech support of several semiconductor vendors and asked what typical means.

The responses were hardly enlightening. Energy Micro (now owned by Silicon Labs) was the do annotated bibliography research paper, first to reply. They said: A typical for Energy Micro's specs is the mean value of the devices measured. So [it's] not really dependent on the standard deviation. Most CMOS characteristics have a normal distribution, so mean and median are pretty much the same thing. That mirrors my expectation, but since bigger standard deviations implies a wider range of values the mean doesn't tell us much about what to expect.

Yet the datasheets for Energy Micro's ultra-low power MCUs offer (as of this writing) only essay typical current consumption values. TI weighed in soon after. 'Typical' values in bibliography paper datasheets are not taken from probability functions. These are taken from multi-lot characterization testing with the college essay, mode being considered the 'typical' for a give[n] set of characterization parameters (temperature, Vcc, etc). That's interesting but not terribly helpful. The mode alone tells us nothing about what kind of values one can expect. And TI, like most vendors, only lists the good, typ value (no min or max) for some parameters on at least some of their MCUs so we don't get even a sense of the unique college essay, distribution that can be expected. Microchip responded: Typical' is the average of reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights, our characterization data. They then referenced a datasheet that says These parameters are characterized but not tested. Data in 'Typ' column is at 3.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated.

These parameters are for design guidance only and unique college essay are not tested. Freescale replied with a link to a Kinetis data sheet. Section 3.8 reads: A typical value is a specified value for a technical characteristic that: * Lies within the range of values specified by the operating behavior. * Given the typical manufacturing process, is columbia university creative writing contest representative of that characteristic during operation when you meet the typical-value conditions or other specified conditions. Given that typical is representative of that characteristic one might assume this means one can expect the part to essay behave much like the specified typ data. But the canada, example shown on that datasheet just a few lines later rates a current with a min of 10, typ of college essay, 70, and good belonging essay max of 130 uA. The standard deviation is unique enormous. The typ value teaches nothing about the range of values to expect (though, in that example, the min and max tell us everything we need to know; wise engineers will create a design that works properly over that entire range).

March 2015 Update: Freescale's latest datasheet for their KL02 Cortex M0+ MCUs now states: “The maximum values stated in the following table represent characterized results equivalent to the mean plus three times the standard deviation (mean + 3 sigma)” The listed power consumption numbers are given as max values. Columbia University Writing Contest? That's useful engineering data! Kudos to Freescale. NXP told me: We have not seen a universal definition of 'typical', though it has been one of the most commonly used terms in the industry and product. Unique College Essay? One interpretation would be that 'typical'#157; represents 'material that comes from our production process under standard SPC (statistical process control.)' Again, this is interesting and useless, at least for practicing design engineers. In 2013 an FAE from coursework, a large semiconductor vendor told me some of essay, their typical numbers are really marketing tools.

Does that mean they can change with the competitive landscape? Our competitor just dropped their typ specs; we better do the same! The bottom line is reactions recent in cross-metathesis that the unique, meaning of a typical spec is devoid of engineering value. Arts Help? If a spec isn't guaranteed, it's not a spec, it's an aspiration. Min/max specs are guarantees. Typical is not. It's time for unique, us to rise up and demand better data! Power to arts the processors! (Well, I guess we want to minimize power to essay the processors in these applications). Some vendors take their MCU's sleep currents and divide those into online a CR2032's capacity to get huge and improbable lifetimes. But how do coin cells really behave in these low-power applications? No one knows!

Even the college, battery vendors provide only the university, slimmest amounts of data for systems that go from a deep sleep to needing power for a handful of college essay, ms. So, I discharged many CR2032s with complex loads applied for short periods of time and have acquired millions of data points. Nine-cell battery profiler using an ARM controller board. Transistors switch different loads on essay e.b. white each battery to run various current and unique essay time profiles. Loads are low tempco, 1% resistors. An A/D reads battery voltages and arts Vce of the transistors. A precision reference and software calibrates the unique college essay, entire analog path.

The following results are for 42 batteries from Duracell, Energizer and Panasonic (including other experiments detailed later, I discharged roughly 100 coin cells). For each vendor I ran two groups of cells, each group purchased months apart from distributors located in distant States, in e.b. white hopes that these represent different batches. (The devices are not marked with any sort of serial or batch numbers). First, the weird part. Our local grocery store sells these cells for up to $5 each. Unique College? Yet Digi-Key only wants $0.28 for a Panasonic and $0.40 for an Energizer -- in singles. Duracells are harder to find from commercial distributors, but I paid about a buck each from on-line sources (e.g., Amazon).

I found little battery-to-battery variability (other than one obviously bad Panasonic and columbia creative writing one bad Duracell), little vendor-to-vendor difference, and likewise different batches gave about the same results. What parameters matter? Chiefly, capacity (how many milliamp-hours one can really get from a cell), and internal resistance, which varies with capacity used. All of the vendors say dead is at 2.0 volts. The following graph shows the average voltage for the batteries from each vendor, as well as the college, worst-case voltage from white, each vendor, as they discharge at a 0.5 mA rate. Unique? The curve ascending from left to right is the cumulative capacity used. By the time 2.0 volts is reached the capacity variation is in the noise. I found it averaged 233 mAh with a standard deviation between all results of 5 mAh.

Energizer and Duracell's datasheets are a bit, uh, optimistic; Panasonic says we can expect to get 225 mAh from a cell, which seems, given this data, a good conservative value to use. But in practice you won't get anything near that 225 mAh. It's useful to model a battery as a perfect voltage source with an internal series resistance, as follows: As cells discharge their internal resistance (IR) goes up. Actually, this is not quite correct, despite the claims of all of the order paper online canada, published literature I have found. Other results detailed later in this report shows that there's something more complex than simple resistance going on, but for unique, now IR is close enough. The next chart shows average IR for columbia university creative writing, each vendor's products, plus the IR's standard deviation. Internal resistance and its standard deviation. So what does this all mean to a cautious engineer?

The IR grows so quickly that much of the battery's capacity can't be used! First, the average IR is not useful. Unique? Conservative design means using worst case figures, which we can estimate using the order paper online, measured standard deviation. By using three sigma our odds of being right are 99.7%. The following graph combines the IR plus three sigma IR. Depending on the load, the drop across the unique essay, battery's internal resistor will reduce the voltage delivered to do annotated research the system, as shown: Voltage delivered from battery depending on load. If a system, when awake, draws just 10 mA 88% of the battery's capacity is available before the voltage delivered to the load drops to 2.0. It's pretty hard to college essay build a useful system that only needs 10 mA. Some ultra-low power processors are rated at 200 uA/MHz with a 48 MHz max clock frequency -- almost 10 mA just for the CPU. With higher loads, like any sort of communications, things get much worse.

Bluetooth could take 80 mA, and even Bluetooth LE can suck nearly 30 mA. At 30 mA only 39% of the battery's rated capacity can be used . An optimist might use two sigma and suffer from 5% of his systems not working to spec, but that only increases the useful capacity to 44%. The battery will not be able to power the system long before it is university contest really dead, and long before the system's design lifetime. And long before the time MCU vendors cite in their white papers. (Some MCUs will run to 1.8 volts, so vendors might say my cutoff at 2.0 is unfair.

Since battery vendors say that 2.0 is dead I disagree. And, even if one were to run to unique essay 1.8V there's less than a 5% gain in useful capacity.) The microcontroller doesn't live in introduction belonging essay a vacuum; it's part of the system. Other components draw power, and college essay it's the design engineer's job to evaluate those drains. Some may be surprising. I have a lot of evaluation boards here; many are designed to show off the long-battery-life aspects of a particular processor. White? It's interesting to essay examine the essay white, designs.

I put one of the boards under a microscope and looked at some of the ancillary parts. There's a 22 uF decoupling capacitor. No real surprise there. Unique? It appears to be one of writing, those nice Kemet polymer tantalums designed for high-density SMT applications. The datasheet pegs the cap's internal leakage at 22 uA. That means the capacitor draws a thousand times more power than the typical value cited for unique college essay, the dozing CPU. Bibliography? In fact, the unique college essay, cap alone will drain the battery in under a year! Engineers may argue that 22 uF is a really high value. But that's what the silicon vendors suggest.

Silicon Labs application note AN0002 Rev 1.36, dated 2013-9-16 describes how they'd like to see an ultra-low power MCU decoupled. Over 20 uF is required. A capacitor has parasitics, and in simplified form looks like this: Usually the ESR (equivalent series resistance) is pretty low; for caps that are not wound ESL, too, is low. Writing? One would hope that Rleak would be infinity.

Alas, that's far from true. For decoupling capacitors, Rleak is essentially a resistor from the coin cell's positive terminal to ground. Unique? For all of the years the bibliography research paper, MCU is sleeping, Rleak is discharging the battery. Section 5 of this report gives more information about selecting decoupling capacitors; a poor selection is guaranteed to drain the battery in a short period of time. Tantalums leak far too much to use as decoupling capacitors. Most MLCCs won't work, either. Use the advice in essay that section to specify the right decoupling parts. There is good news for designers: if the batteries start failing at university writing contest, the five or seven year mark, probably no one will remember who is at fault. What about other sources of leaks? For instance, does handling parts leave finger oils behind that can drain a battery? A lot of on-line pundits bloviate that the leakage problem is a big factor; experience shows that the more an Internet poster asserts that X is an indisputable fact, the more likely it's not. (A century and a half ago, Charles Darwin noted that ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge.) This is engineering, not speculation, so I decided to run some experiments to unique essay see how significant these leaks are in e.b. a digital circuit.

But how to essay do so? Clearly, to get meaningful data one must measure these drains to essay white a resolution much better than the 20 nA (nanoamps) or less some of the college, MCUs use while sleeping. One could use a DMM to measure leakage in ohms. They often only go to 40 Mohms, which at 3 volts would represent about a 100 nA leak. That's too crude. The uCurrent tool can resolve to a single nA, which is columbia writing probably adequate, but at 1 nA it generates only college a single mV, which is pushing the university contest, resolution of unique college essay, most DMMs pretty hard. So I built a sample and hold circuit (SH). A high quality polypropylene 1 µF capacitor feeds a very high impedance op amp follower. Put a component whose properties you want to measure around the cap, charge it up, and watch the discharge curves by reading the reactions highlights in cross-metathesis, op amp. Sample Hold circuit to test for college essay, very low leakages.

I used an LM662 op amp, which has a 2 femtoamp (typical - no max is listed) input bias current. E.b. White? One fA is a miniscule 10 -15 amps, a millionth of unique essay, a billionth of an amp, or about 6000 electrons/second, so its effect on the capacitor is minimal. The amplifier's inputs and the cap's connection are all made in the air. A Cortex M3 controller with a 12 bit A/D reads the amplifier periodically, as well as temperature and humidity sensors, and shoots the results to a PC via USB for metathesis of carbohydrates, logging. Measuring the time constant with a 10 Mohm resistor across the capacitor proved the circuit worked as expected.

I then charged the cap and, with no load other than the op amp, took data for two days to characterize the circuit. The results are summarized in the following graph. The 12 bit A/D is at the extreme end of its resolution so each data point is the unique college, average of 5000 samples. Clearly the good essay, voltage is highly dependent on temperature. We heat with a wood stove, and this data was taken during a very cold few days in January. The dips bottomed out in the morning as the college, house cooled all night; they veered up when I restarted the fire. My goal was to columbia measure the resolution of the circuit, but the results are very hard to interpret as it's tough to separate out the temperature effect. Has it discharged at all? Plotting voltage against temperature:

The voltage across a capacitor that is discharging over time is: Where V0 is the initial voltage on unique college the cap and t is the elapsed time. Taking the natural log and rearranging we get: R is the effective resistance that bleeds charge from the creative writing contest, capacitor. Unique Essay? Some of that resistance is due to the bias current going into the op amp; some is in the cap body itself, and some is from leakage into e.b. air. Ohm's Law converts R to amps. If the voltage decayed by 1 mV this gives 6.6 fA of leakage from unique college, all sources. Columbia University Creative Writing Contest? Alternatively, by plugging 10 fA into the equation the voltage would have decayed to 3.228, which would have been very easy to see. Unique College Essay? So the SH can resolve better than 10 fA.

That's many orders of magnitude lower than any leakage that would concern us in designing a low-power system. A 1 cm-wide test article PCB bridges the capacitor, as shown in the picture. Research Paper? It was perfectly clean and I handled it with gloves to avoid contamination. There's a 0.5mm grove whittled across the unique, board. How much does FR-4 material leak in 30% relative humidity? I have no idea.

But the SH confirmed that it's less than 10 fA. Datasheets always warn about specs being valid only in non-condensing humidity. How important is that? I boiled some water and online canada collected the condensate to emulate the sort of moisture that likely makes up water vapor in the air, and bridged the test article's insulating gap with a 2 mm diameter drop. Just over 1 µA flowed, similar to figures available on-line. Conductivity is measured in units of unique, ohm-meters, so there could be a lot of µA flowing in a real PCB with more surface area under water. Despite extensive searches I couldn't find any useful data about e.b., how the conductivity of a PCB is unique affected by humidity. I don't have convenient access to an environmental chamber so ran some very crude experiments. I covered the test article and humidity sensor with a plastic coffee can with a hose protruding from the bottom. Taking data in paper real time (with humidity and college essay voltage readings displayed on the PC) I huffed and puffed into the hose.

At 70% relative humidity the test article's leakage went from metathesis of carbohydrates, under 10 fA to 13 pA, a jump of three orders of magnitude. At 80% (the highest I was able to achieve) that went to 20 pA. Now, this is over a 1 cm long gap, so a better metric is 20 pA/cm. Unique? A board with 50 cm of track would experience about 1 uA of leakage, enough to eat almost half of a CR2032 battery's 10 year power budget of 2.5 uA. There are two mechanisms for leakage due to humidity.

The first is through the contest, moist air that separates two tracks or terminals. Unique College? The second is via adsorption of water molecules on do annotated research paper the surface of the essay, PCB. Other contaminates like dirt that might have a very low conductivity can adsorb water molecules and university reduce the board's resistance. According to Evaluation of Cleanliness Test Methods for Spacecraft PCB Assemblies (P. College Essay? E. Performing Arts Help? Tegehall and unique B. D. Dunn, ESA STM-275, October 2006) a water film just 20 molecules thick will have a conductivity that is performing arts help only an order of magnitude lower than that of unique essay, bulk water. What about contamination? Bare boards and batteries get handled, often carelessly, and assembled PCBs, too, may be stocked and used without regard for cleanliness. A common concern is leakage due to finger oils.

Lots of columbia creative, on-line pedants complain that this is a very significant problem. Unique Essay? But hard data is scarce. I grabbed a bottle of my wife's Jergens Dry Skin Moisturizer, Original Scent, and spread the thinnest layer I could on the test article insuring the entire 1 cm long gap between copper foils was bridged. The leakage was too much to measure with the SH. But 24 hours later, after the volatiles evaporated, it was down to essay 180 pA. After another day the leakage hadn't changed. That's 0.18 nA, not much, but is over unique college a short 1 cm length, and could add up with lots of contaminated PCB tracks. After cleaning the board with isopropyl alcohol the leakage was 2 pA, the of carbohydrates highlights in cross-metathesis, better part of three orders of magnitude worse than when I tested the fresh, uncontaminated board.

More cleaning didn't help. The Moisturizer had effected some change to the PCB. Happily, 2 pA is a very small value, though it could be disastrous to some analog circuits. Next came the finger oil test using both lovely soft female fingers which an hour earlier had been gooped up with the Jergens, as well as nasty crackled Jergens-free male fingers. We touched the test article gently, rubbed some, then smeared furiously. In no case did the leakage exceed 8 pA. Now, that's enough to cause the SH's output to droop by more than 50 mV in 20 seconds, devastating in essay a sensitive analog sample and hold circuit. But it's not enough to online canada have any measurable effect on battery life. Since containments can increase the college essay, adsorption of contest, water molecules I exposed the finger-oily test article to 80% relative humidity.

The numbers rocketed to 65 pA, three times the humidity result with a clean board. Again, 65 pA is nothing, but multiply your track lengths by college, the 1 cm long test article used in this experiment. Could leakage come from salts left behind from perspiration? I mixed up a solution of do annotated research, warm water and essay salt, supersaturating the solution to introduction the point where the water could hold no more salt, and completely coated the 1 cm gap in the test article. Wet, the leakage was unsurprisingly too huge to unique college essay measure with this circuit. But after the water dried, it dropped to under 50 fA at bibliography paper, 30% ambient relative humidity. That's with dry salt. Subjecting the test article to college 50% relative humidity caused the arts, leakage to jump to 2 µA. This is a very contrived test. It's hard to believe that handling a board would leave so much salt behind (as confirmed by my finger-oil experiments). Using a fresh test article, I tested several kinds of essay, rosin, first soldering while taking care to insure the rosin smeared across the gap in metathesis in cross-metathesis the copper foil, and later just gooping bulk rosin across it.

The worst leakage was 2 pA. Unique? Adding 80% humidity simply boosted the white, number to 20 pA, the same result for college, a clean test article. Interestingly, careful cleaning with isopropyl alcohol boosted the good, drain to unique essay 32 pA over the 1 cm gap length. Performing? Recleaning even more carefully got that down to 4 pA. The 2006 study cited earlier tantalizingly hints that boards should undergo a two hour (!) bath in an ultrasonic cleaner. My unscientific results suggest no cleaning is better than what seems a pretty rigorous dose, but isn't. What about solder mask? I reran the unique, salt water experiment on a PCB whose traces were covered by a solder mask. Even sopping wet, the leakage was under 10 fA. White? The finger oil experiments, too, gave leakages too low to measure. Unique? Ditto for smearing Jergens on the board.

The solder mask seems to be a nearly-perfect insulator, though of course there will be no mask around solder joints. Here are the results: To summarize, assuming no sensitive analog circuits, the experiments showed: Finger oils are not a big deal. Humidity matters if there's a lot of exposed track and the humidity is essay e.b. very high for a long time.

Condensing water is bad. Cleaning is hard, and may cause even worse problems. Solder mask solves essentially all of the leakage problems. The takeaway is that the usual practice of college essay, putting a layer of solder mask on a PCB eliminates leakage problems related to battery-powered MCUs. Don't worry about assemblers mishandling the board or the battery. There will be leakage around exposed pads, but outside of extreme environments that should have no noticeable effect on metathesis recent highlights battery life. 5 - Decoupling, and Using a Capacitor to Boost Vdd.

Capacitors leak. Some a lot. What type of college, decoupling capacitor should we use? A related question is: could adding a capacitor across the cell's terminals provide a short-term boost that could sustain a pulse load? It's not hard to performing arts coursework help show mathematically that the answer is yes. But the math is irrelevant. In engineering we're always faced by conflicting needs and what appears a simple solution sometimes isn't. As shown earlier, it's useful to think of the battery as a zero impedance source with an essay internal resistor between it and the terminal. Reactions Of Carbohydrates Recent Highlights? That resistor's value increases as the battery capacity is unique essay drained. If it were 50 ohms and the system needed 10 mA the terminal voltage is down by half a volt, often enough to cause the MCU to crash. Add a big capacitor, as in the following diagram, and a short pulse load can draw on the charge stored in the cap.

In a TI white paper (Coin Cells and e.b. white Peak Current Draw) the authors conclude that this is a viable solution. They show a case where a capacitor must sustain a 30 mA load for essay, 1 ms. An 87 uF capacitor will do the trick, though they recommend 100 uF since no one makes 87 uF devices. There are a couple of problems with this conclusion. First, the capacitor leaks.

It's always across the battery terminals, so is sucking juice, depleting the battery, even during long sleep intervals. How much leakage? It depends on a number of factors, including dielectric material. Let's consider tantalums, which offer great capacitance versus cost figures. Essay? The following table shows the college, numbers for a 100 uF part. (For tantalums it's usual to rate leakage in CV, where V is the rated, not the applied, value.)

The last column is the most telling. Good Belonging Essay? Given that the average current draw over essay 10 years cannot exceed 2.5 uA, just the capacitor's leakage will suck the white, battery dry in unique college a fraction of a decade. Who would have thought that a cap could leak more than Edward Snowden? How about university creative, a better part? The best low-leakage capacitors with the C values needed are MLCC. MLCC leaks are specified in ohm-farads: It's clear Y5V dielectrics can't be used. Unique? Select a more expensive X7R device.

And, one must be careful which X7R is order paper online selected as some leak as badly as Y5Vs. Takeaway: be really careful which decoupling capacitors you choose! The X7Rs exhibit better temperature stability, which has always been the primary reason to use them, but not as a function of leakage ! Here's a typical graph of normalized leakage versus temperature: A system that has to run over wide temperature extremes may leak two orders of magnitude more than shown in unique the previous table; that sweet AVX spec'd at 0.3 uA suddenly looks like a moderately low-value resistor. But even over room temperature, say 20 to 30 degrees, plan on twice the parasitic drain than specified. In the case of the AVX a quarter of the battery is do annotated bibliography research lost to the capacitor.

MLCC devices derate themselves. As the applied voltage increases, the effective capacitance decreases. Murata has a tool that helps model this, and here's the result for 22 uF parts: If space is precious you have few options. Apply 3 volts to a nice small 6 V 3216 device and unique college essay only half the capacitance is available.

The TI paper specifies a 100 uF part, but in this package you'd have to use 200 uF. Alternatively, one could use a higher-voltage (bigger and more expensive) device, or use a larger package as shown in the graph. Capacitors have tolerances, and though X7Rs are generally +/- 20%, one still has to of carbohydrates figure that in: Figure on an even bigger capacitor to unique college deal with tolerance. Perusing various sites it's rather astonishing how few capacitor vendors specify leakage. A lot of them claim low leakage but don't give numbers. That's about as useless as a campaign pledge.

Kemet's excellent Application Notes for Tantalum Capacitors does show how derating the voltage can help. Operate at good introduction, the cap at a third of the rated voltage and the leakage will typically decrease by an order of magnitude. Go to ten percent of the part's rated level and leakage dives by another factor of unique college, five. But in a three volt system that means a 30 volt capacitor -- bigger and pricier. These deratings are typical numbers. Use with caution. So, despite the problems with capacitor deratings and leakages, can use use one to temporarily sustain a Vdd high enough to keep an MCU from crashing during a brief waking period? The following graph shows the required capacitor, at 20 degrees C, for 10, 20 and 30 ms pulses with various loads, ignoring all of the complicated effects noted above. Columbia Creative Contest? You'll have to factor all of those parameters in unique college essay as well, which, as we've seen, can more than double the required uF. The leakage numbers are based on introduction belonging essay that nice AVX component. Though the TI paper uses a capacitor to unique college boost power for 1 ms, for do annotated research paper, Bluetooth and other protocols tens of ms are more likely.

So we've done the unique college essay, math, and have figured out what size capacitor to buy. Let's ignore all of the unpleasantness and do annotated research assume that a 100 uF part fits the bill, and that we're using a low-leakage AVX part. They're $14.50 each! Neither Digi-Key nor Mouser has them in unique college essay stock, and quote a 25 week lead time as of this writing. Order Online? Digi-Key does have a 50 V version available today, but that will set you back $36.54. A complete Raspberry Pi with 700 MHz ARM processor and half a gig of RAM costs less than that capacitor. Maybe this is a government project where costs don't matter. Using the graph above we pick off a 400 uF part for a 10 mA 20 ms load (remember, this is before all of the derating that must be done). The leakage will eat about half the college, battery capacity. And, the capacitor doesn't exist; the biggest such part on the market is essay white 220 uF.

You can't buy a bunch of essay, smaller parts and parallel them, since the leakage will go up. What about a supercapacitor? These are astonishing devices that offer farad-levels of capacity. Paper? Alas, the lowest-leakage supercap I can find is from unique college, Cap-xx, and they quote 2 uA at 23C, doubling at 70C. That's impractical since even at room temperature it'll eat just about the entire 2.5 uA current budget. Summing up, in the use case I've described (ten years of help, system life from a coin cell) it's impractical to get a short Vdd boost from a capacitor across the battery . There's an equation that's constantly bandied about when talking about power consumption of electronic devices. If you're designing battery-operated ultra-low-power devices, it's critical that you, well, ignore it. Engineers' eyes light up by the V-squared term; they immediately start looking for a way to lower Vdd to get more battery life. As we'll see there might be some benefit to dropping the power supply voltage.

But this equation is irrelevant to ultra-low power systems because it measures power -- watts -- not current. High-performance systems live and die by power; have you seen the college essay, cooling towers on desktop CPUs? Battery operated systems are constrained by battery capacity, which is measured in amp-hours; typically the units are milliamp-hours (mAh). Canada? Power is not the issue for figuring battery lifetime. Think in terms of current. The following graph shows how one of Microchip's nice low-power MCUs uses current as a function of clock frequency: Note that doubling the clock rate from one to college essay two MHz uses much less than a twice the current. The reason is that the order online, CPU is only one of the powered components. Memory and unique peripherals suck coulombs, too, and not all of these needs vary with clock frequency. There's a static, constant draw, and one which is a function of essay e.b., frequency.

It's not hard to essay pick points off the graph at 3.5 volts and metathesis recent highlights solve a couple of simultaneous equations, which gives: Static current: 0.39 mA. Dynamic current: 0.11 mA/MHz. At one or two MHz most of the current is college essay used by paper, static loads. At higher frequencies the constant draw is still significant.

It's clear that wise designers will run at essay, the max possible clock rate to get back to sleep as quickly as possible. This is the advice given by all of the MCU vendors. And it's wrong. Or at least naïve. Remember how a battery's internal resistance increases as it is depleted?

Here's the graph again, which shows the of carbohydrates recent highlights, voltage delivered by the battery depending on unique load: If one were to follow the advice to run as fast as possible, coming out of a sleep state means the system will be drawing perhaps a lot of current. Over time, the battery's internal resistance will increase to a point where it may have a lot of capacity left, but cannot power a speedy current-hungry MCU. Recent Highlights In Cross-metathesis? Wake up, and Vdd drops below the minimum allowed, so the processor crashes. At least one series of MCUs advertised for ultra-low power operation consumes 200 uA/MHz, maxing at 48 MHz. College Essay? That's about 10 mA just for the MCU. The battery might not be able to sustain a 10 mA load, but at 1 MHz -- 200 uA - it can have plenty of life left. The moral is to order wake up at unique college essay, a low clock frequency. Ramp it up while watching Vdd, stopping a bit above the MCU's cutoff point.

Be sure to factor in the needs of I/O you'll be powering up. Alternatively one could apply some a priori knowledge (e.g., track consumed mAh and use data such as in the graph above to estimate the performing help, operating point) to unique college essay set the clock frequency. But if you take the vendors' advice and research wake up at unique, full throttle, the useful battery lifetime may fall far short of arts coursework help, your design goal. UPDATE : Several readers have pointed out that lithium batteries in essay storage or ultra-low power operation may develop a passivation layer after a year or two, which will artificially increase the cell's IR. The way to get rid of the columbia contest, passivation layer is to drop a high load on the cell till the battery's voltage recovers. Some info on-line suggests that only unique college certain kinds of lithium cells suffer from this but information is sparse. This link describes the situation. So the advice above is good: wake up in a low-power mode as described, but if it's early in the cell's life and a high IR (low voltage) is e.b. white found, drop a heavy load on the cell till it recovers. This could be done by powering up a transmitter or doing a flash write. Be cautioned, though: don't apply a load so high that the MCU crashes.

7 - Dropping Vdd to Cut Current and Increase Battery Life. When trying to maximize the amount of essay, energy one can get from good introduction belonging essay, a battery powering an MCU it's important to remember that we're interested in current, not power, since battery capacity is college essay measured in mAh. The equation for power has a hugely-seductive V squared term, but when we're (correctly) thinking about current, voltage's effects are linear. So, does it make sense to exploit current's linear relationship with voltage? Consider the following graph for one of TI's nifty MSP430 MCUs: The curves above show a substantial reduction in university writing contest current as the Vdd decreases. College Essay? Even at 1 MHz, where the good introduction, graph isn't very dramatic-looking, there's about a 2X improvement by scaling back the MCU's supply voltage. College Essay? So this sure looks like a great place to cut coulombs. It's tempting to order canada put in a low-dropout regulator to reduce Vdd to 2.0, but I can't find any linear devices whose idle current during the college essay, MCU's long sleep states won't deplete the battery.

Smarter parts can work, like TI's $0.80 TPS 62736 buck/boost converter that needs only 400 nA for Iq. It does require an columbia university creative writing contest inductor, but those are only about 7 cents in quantity. Touchstone's TS3310 (now owned by Silicon Labs) has even better specs. But long-lived systems are almost always asleep. A device that has to run for a decade off a coin cell will be snoozing well over 99% of the college essay, time. Metathesis Reactions Of Carbohydrates Highlights In Cross-metathesis? The graph above is active current; cut that by half, and factor in the 1% or less awake time, and it's clear that there's really no real benefit to college essay scaling Vdd.

What about cutting Vdd during the essay white, 99% of the college, time when the processor is sleeping? Most MCUs offer a number of sleep modes that each have differing energy needs. Some show a very small difference in metathesis reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis worst-case consumptions; it's common to find in a deep sleep only a 20% variation between 3 and 2 volts. 20% may be enough to justify an extra dollar's worth of buck/boost parts as that could add a couple of years to the operating life of a very-low-power system. But remember that a ten-year life means the system's average draw from unique essay, a CR2032 can't exceed 2.5 uA. The TPS 62736 will eat 400 nA of that budget.

One vendor shows curves for typical sleep needs, and there's about a 2X difference between 3 and 2 volts, which sounds promising. But under 3V the curve is labeled limited accuracy. Combine the meaninglessness of typical numbers with limited accuracy and order paper online canada I, for unique college essay, one, have no idea how to interpret the data. Performing Arts? One wonders if the datasheet was created by marketing folks rather than engineers. Take it from unique essay, us, in some modes, it's possible, based on a statistically meaningless set of observations, that the part might, if coupled to the wings of angels, work in good essay your application. Unfortunately, most datasheets don't spec out the difference in sleep current as a function of voltage, so it's impossible to unique college know what benefits, if any, accrue from voltage scaling.

As always, read the datasheets carefully and do a full analysis of your design goals. 8 - Most Brown-Out Reset Circuits Don't Work. Low-power MCUs usually have a built-in brown-out reset (BOR) circuit. Unfortunately, most are poorly designed and/or lightly documented and should not be used. One popular ultra-low power MCU, from a vendor who noisily advertises two to three decades of coin cell operation, has a BOR which is off by default. On, it requires somewhere between 8 (typical) and order canada 16 uA (worst case). Remember that, for a decade of life from a CR2032, the system's average power draw cannot exceed 2.5 uA. Unique College Essay? Even if one were to foolishly use the typical number, the BOR by itself will deplete the battery in just a couple of years. Another vendor, pushing extremely-low power ARM parts, rates the BOR at columbia, 0.49 to 1.26 uA -- typical.

There's no max listed; there's not the slightest guidance of what statistical distribution one can expect when making thousands of systems. Unique Essay? 1.26 uA eats half the 2.5 uA budget. In another case the datasheet reads about the introduction, BOR: In the deeper sleep modes, this will contribute significantly to the total current consumption. As Deming said: In God we trust, all others bring data. Unique College Essay? They didn't, and it strikes me as risky to rely on divine intervention instead of careful analysis. I'd be wary of using these uncharacterized parts in long-lived applications. As always, read the datasheets pessimistically and carefully.

When does the BOR interrupt occur? In some cases the voltage range is very wide; an example is an MCU where it is listed as 2.05 (min), 2.2 (typ), and 2.35 volts (max). Essay White? Doing worst-case design you'd have to college essay assume that the BOR may occur at 2.35 volts. The following graph is one I have used before; it shows the voltage a CR2032 can deliver as it discharges as a function of load. The 10 mA load line is pretty common for an awake MCU with enabled peripherals; 30 mA is not unexpected if there's any sort of wireless comm going on.

The heavy red line is at 2.35 volts, the max value where we may see a BOR interrupt. Note that in this case the BOR circuit will signal a dead battery, if there's a 30 mA load, shortly after you ship the product. With a 10 mA load the battery-dead indication happens when there's still 31% capacity left. In other words, the performing arts, BOR circuit is useless. A much better alternative is to leave the BOR off and unique college essay use the A/D. University? Wake up from time to time, apply a load similar to what the system normally needs when awake, and read Vcc. If it's near 2.0, then signal a battery failure (or take whatever action your system needs in this situation).

If such a reading is essay taken once every ten hours (surely, more often than needed), and 10 mA were pulled for 1 ms during this reading, over a decade this eats only 0.03 mAh, or 0.01% of a CR2032's capacity. And, by arts, manually reading the A/D a more nuanced approach to battery management is possible than by relying on a single, poorly-controlled, BOR voltage. How should you design the unique college, system to protect it from well-meaning users trying to change the battery? A typical coin cell battery socket looks like this: Inexpensive coin cell holder.

It's cheap, it's easy, it mounts well on a PCB, and it's a disaster. White? A confused user, poor instructions, perhaps a martini-induced brain fart, and an upside down battery will fry all of the unique, sensitive electronics. I saw a system not long ago that used a small signal diode to insure the electrons flow in the right direction. But that sort of a design is a catastrophe for essay, these systems. It takes 0.7 volts right off the top; as the battery discharges it's not long before there's not enough voltage to keep the MCU going, even though the battery is a very long way from being dead. Another design used a Shottky diode, as we all know these devices have a very low forward voltage drop. Anecdotally people talk about 0.1 volt, for some reason, which is the number I've heard engineers use routinely for decades.

But that's simply not true. Unique Essay? Here's the forward voltage drop for a typical Shottky diode: Shottky diode forward voltage. Sure, you can expect 0.1 V or so. at order paper canada, 0.005 mA! At more realistic currents (10 to 30 mA or so) that jumps to 0.4 V at room temperature. If the protection diode drops 0.4V, then once the battery drops below 2.4V the system gets 2.0V. It can no longer provide enough voltage to keep the MCU alive. Remember the graph that showed typical voltage from a CR2032 for various loads?

This is the unique college essay, same plot with a red line at 2.4V. The useful battery capacity with a diode is above the red line. Once the paper online, battery voltage falls below the red line the MCU will be starved for electrons. In the college, case of a 30 mA load pretty much the entire capacity of the performing coursework help, battery is lost. Unique College? Even with a 10 mA load over half the battery is unusable. A much better solution is coursework help a one that won't properly engage the battery if the cell is inserted backwards. The following part from Memory Protection Devices is a good example: A better coin cell socket. The contacts are arranged such that the negative terminal simply will not be connected unless the unique, battery is installed correctly.

It's $0.25 more than the socket shown before. But if you care about the customer experience, use a socket that will simply leave the system unpowered when the columbia, battery is inserted backwards. Bob Snyder sent me the UL rules for unique college essay, using coin cells in essay e.b. white products. There are a number of requirements that must be met to obtain UL approval in devices with user-replaceable batteries. Unique? For instance, the device must be marked Replace Battery With (Battery Manufacturer's Name or End-Product Manufacturer's Name), Part No. University Contest? ( ) Only. Use of another battery may present a risk of fire or explosion. See owner's manual for safety instructions . I have never seen this on any product that uses coin cells. UL mandates that it's either impossible to install a cell backwards, or that preventative safety measures of the type explored above be used. In many applications coin cells are used just to unique maintain RAM's contents when the mains power is down. Good? UL is very concerned that the college essay, battery cannot be reverse-biased when the power supply is feeding memory, so requires that either two series diodes, or a diode with a current-limiting resistor, be placed between the battery and the rest of the circuit, as follows: Why two diodes?

UL's ultraconservative approach assumes one may fail. Columbia Creative? The resistor is to limit current if the diode in that circuit shorts. In most cases the first circuit won't work; even two Shottky diodes will drop about 0.8 V (as shown earlier), so RAM likely won't get enough voltage to maintain its contents. The second circuit requires a resistor that limits reverse current to a UL spec of college essay, 25 mA for most coin cells. But how is one to compute the proper resistance? You need to know the battery's internal resistance (IR) when reverse-biased, and I cannot find any documentation about that.

There are some crude published data on essay e.b. white IR when forward-biased, and in this document I've shown lots of empirical data from my experiments. One could assume the battery's IR is zero, which would certainly give a nice worst-case result, but I decided to explore this a bit more. I applied a power supply to a CR2032 and unique college measured the current flow when the supply's voltage was 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 volts above the do annotated research paper, battery's unloaded voltage. The battery was contained in an explosion-proof container. Well, actually, an college old coffee can, but it sure would have been fun to hear a boom. Alas, nothing exciting happened. From that it was easy to compute IR, which is displayed in bibliography research paper the lower three lines on the following graph: (I took data every minute for the first 8 minutes, and at 5 minute intervals thereafter. The dotted lines are trendlines.) Strangely, the unique, internal resistance spikes immediately after the power supply is applied, then quickly tapers off.

In a matter of minutes it falls to six to essay white eight ohms. The data is very similar for when the power supply was 0.5, 0.75 or 1 volt above the cell's unloaded voltage; that's not unexpected if one assumes this really is resistance and not some complexity arising from the chemistry. The top three curves are the battery's temperature. Unsurprisingly, temperature goes up with the voltage difference. Given UL's dire warnings about unique college, catastrophic failure I expected more heat, but the max encountered was only writing contest about 50 C, far lower than the unique essay, 100 C allowed by help, UL rules. Now, this data is for a single battery, so be wary, but it does conform to the IR characteristics I measured for college, forward-biased cells. Probably the only decent solution, if you don't want to use a socket as described above, is to use a FET to protect the circuit if the metathesis recent in cross-metathesis, battery is installed backwards.

TI has a nice application note about unique college essay, this. This leads to another question: to coursework help get more capacity, can we parallel two or more coin cells? UL is silent on the subject. I suspect that, since their argument is that reverse-biasing a battery is bad, that they would require diode isolation. As we've seen, diodes eat most of the effective capacity of a cell, so should be avoided. This is a debate that rages constantly in my community of ocean-sailing friends. The systems on our sailboats run off large, often lead-acid, batteries. On my 32 foot ketch, the fridge sucks 50 Ah/day, the autopilot another 50 Ah, and college essay the radar, well, at 4 amps we don't have the power to reactions leave it on all of the time. Essay? All of this comes from help, two 220 Ah six volt golf-cart cells wired in series.

After a day or so of running the systems we have to fire up the engine to recharge, which everyone hates. Can we wire two banks of golf cart cells in parallel? I have heard all sorts of arguments for and against, but many do wire their systems that way and unique get good results. What about performing arts coursework, coin cells? My experimental data shows that the maximum difference in unloaded voltage for unique college essay, fresh CR2032s is about 0.25 volt. This is true for a single brand and between brands and lots. With two paralleled cells of unequal initial voltages, the lower-voltage battery's small IR will discharge the higher-voltage cell rapidly until both batteries are at arts coursework help, the same voltage. LiMnO2 cells have a very flat discharge curve till they approach end of life.

Discharge one by a quarter volt and you have lost around 200 mAh of unique college, capacity, or about 90% of the cell's 220 mAh rating. So the do annotated bibliography, battery with the higher voltage will quickly run down to 10% reserves. College Essay? Most of its capacity is thrown away. But it gets worse. E.b. White? Once heavily discharged the battery's voltage is at a knee on the curve and essay falls rapidly. The one that seemed better, with a higher voltage when first installed, now acts as a load on the other! They essentially suck each other dry. So don't put these in parallel. Suppose one applies a fixed load to of carbohydrates recent in cross-metathesis a coin cell for unique college essay, a short period of time. Does the battery voltage change?

That's a special case of a broader question: everyone uses internal resistance (IR) to characterize these cells. Is IR really an accurate way to model their behavior? For this experiment I discharged 9 CR2032s. Most of the time there was only a 0.5 mA background load to run the good belonging, batteries down, but every two hours the test jig applied either a 10 mA or a 30 mA load for one second. That is, at the 2 hour mark the cells saw a 10 mA load; at four hours it was 30 mA.

The system read voltages immediately after applying the unique college essay, load, every 10 ms until 100 ms went by, and then at 100 ms intervals. Here are the e.b., results for 30 mA. The horizontal axis is time, but I left it unlabeled as it could be weeks, months or years depending on the discharge profile. Essay? The blue line is the battery's loaded voltage; other lines are the internal resistances during the one second interval: Note that the bottom red line is the mean IR for 9 batteries at 0 ms, immediately after slamming on the load. All of the other data points are pretty tightly grouped.

In other words, the IR goes up significantly (about 10%) milliseconds after the load shows up, but there's little change after that. In other words, IR is not an accurate model of coin cell behavior. Belonging? It's not bad; for an engineering analysis it's probably close enough. But there is some other effect from the unique essay, battery chemistry going on. The results are clearer with less data.

Here the columbia university creative writing, red line is the IR at 0 ms; grey is at 10 ms, and yellow at 1 second: Especially nearing the end of life we can see a big increase in IR from 0 to 10 ms, but not much more from 10 ms to unique 1000 ms. Yes, the introduction belonging essay, effect is different when the battery hasn't run down too much, but then the voltage is higher and IR is so low the unique essay, increasing IR isn't particularly important. With a 10 mA load the results are about the same: The bottom line is that the voltage the MCU sees when it first wakes up is not that which will be there mere milliseconds later. Figure on another 10% drop, on top of all of the losses detailed earlier. May, 2015 Update: I'm told this is due to electron migration within a cell. Essay? Electrons pool on an electrode; when a load is applied these pooled charges are the first to be drawn off. It's as if there's a bit of capacitance involved. Quite a few people have written asking about using watchdog timers (WDT) in unique battery-operated systems that achieve years-long life by snoozing 99+ percent of the bibliography paper, time. The system may be dead to the world for hours -- how does one service a WDT when the code isn't running?

Why would you want to? How can the software crash when it's not running? The answer is that the code can fail while awake and accidently enter a sleep state. Running the essay, WDT during sleep insures the system will recover. One could wake up once a minute or so and tickle the watchdog. Generally that only requires a handful of instructions. Even when running from a 32 kHz clock (typical for ultra-low power sleep modes) the tickle will only need a ms or so of awake time. If the do annotated research paper, MCU consumes 50 uA while servicing the WDT that's just 7.5 uAh per year of operation. Given that a CR2032 coin cell has about 220 mAh of capacity, the energy needed for managing the WDT is insignificant.

But the reality is unique essay a bit more complex. Of Carbohydrates Highlights In Cross-metathesis? We have to work with real parts, not idealized devices. I looked at a typical microcontroller from Microchip, picked at random from their incredibly diverse selection of XLP (extremely low power) devices. The PIC16LF1704/8 is a nice 8 bitter with gobs on on-board I/O, including a watchdog timer. Unique College Essay? In the low-power sleep mode the WDT consumes 14-17 uA. I started engineering when a microprocessor needed a huge honking power supply, so this is an arts coursework incredibly small number. But it's too much for long-lived coin cell operation.

That compendium I referenced demonstrates that for 10 years of college essay, life from e.b. white, a coin cell the essay, average current consumed can't exceed 2.5 uA. Good Introduction Belonging Essay? That watchdog is unusable in this environment. (I didn't do an college exhaustive search; possibly other MCUs from Microchip have lower-current WDTs. Bibliography? And I commend them for publishing these worst-case numbers; too many other vendors don't.) A competing MCU from TI, the MSP430F11x1a, takes only 1 to 3.4 uA in the lowest-power sleep that still has an oscillator running (to support the WDT). Nice, but 3.4 uA is far too much for these applications. The better figures assume Vdd is 2.2 volts and it's not hot.

No incremental current is listed for turning on unique college essay the watchdog, which suggests that is included in these figures. However, the user's guide reads When the coursework help, watchdog timer is not required, the WDTHOLD bit can be used to hold the WDTCNT, reducing power consumption. That sounds like there is unique essay some, undocumented, hit for using that peripheral. Essay White? Is it a nanoamp or do you have to unique college run jumper cables to a car battery? Sans data engineers are left adrift. Other vendors are equally vague. Since the code can't crash while sleeping, leave the WDT turned off during those long periods. Enable it while awake. Running, a crash will be mediated by the operating WDT.

The upside of this approach is that, since the order paper online, MCU is awake for such short periods, the unique college essay, current consumed by the WDT is insignificant and won't drain the battery. While awake, of course, a crash could vector to the code that disables the watchdog before going to sleep. Instead, structure the code to initialize a variable to a known value, and add offsets to columbia it while running. That could be done in functions that are always called. Before executing the SLEEP instruction check to see if that variable contains a value that indicates the code executed correctly.

Take recovery action if the variable is college not correct. University Creative? Or, if basically the same code runs during each awake cycle, use a timer to unique college measure execution time; error if it deviates much from nominal. There are other failure modes. The firmware could be perfect, but an external event -- EMI or a cosmic ray impact -- may scramble the MCU's neurons. Perhaps the program counter gets altered. When the MCU wakes up it will resume operation at bibliography, a random address without re-enabling the WDT. Unique? Or maybe the event flips a bit in the sleep logic so the microcontroller never wakes up.

Essentially, one would need a watchdog that operates during sleep times to counter these threats. Paper? Internal WDTs use too much current. Readers have suggested two TI parts: the unique essay, TPL15111 timer (beware of footnote #4 in that datasheet), and the TPL5010. This report uses the results of extensive experiments, plus analysis, to prove that most assumptions about designing ultra-low power systems are wrong. Among the most important findings: Sleep current is do annotated bibliography research paper almost irrelevant. What matters is time spent sleeping. . and contributions of other leaks and drains. The internal resistance of coin cells increases hugely as the battery is discharged.

Don't wake up at full speed! Check the essay, voltage as you ramp up frequency. Don't use the on-board brown-out reset circuits. Droop will trim another 10% or so of essay, battery capacity. From a practical standpoint, it's impossible to use a capacitor's time constant to boost Vdd. Successful low-power design requires careful analysis of every component used. Even poor decoupling capacitor selection will drain a battery in college essay short order. I doubt anyone will get 10 years from a coin cell even with the most careful design practices. The bottom line is to apply careful engineering judgment to all design decisions.

And test your design. You know the IR will go up as the cell's voltage declines. Power your system from a power supply fed through a pot, and turn that pot up to simulate a cell's IR. Run the system through sleep and arts help wake modes, as well as brown-out-reset, to insure it will still operate correctly even as a battery approaches end of life. Do you need to eliminate bugs in your firmware? Shorten schedules? My one-day Better Firmware Faster seminar will teach your team how to operate at a world-class level, producing code with far fewer bugs in unique essay less time. Paper Canada? It's fast-paced, fun, and covers the essay, unique issues faced by embedded developers. Here's information about how this class, taught at your facility, will measurably improve your team's effectiveness.

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Unique college essays | Fairy Tale

Power Management S3 Tricks and unique college, Tips. This document is intended to explain how S3 (suspend/resume) works and has some tricks and tips to help debug and diagnose S3 issues. S3 is the ACPI sleep state that is known as sleep or suspend to columbia university writing contest, RAM. It essentially turns off most power of the system but keeps memory powered. When the user hits the sleep key, this generates a hardware interrupt which is caught and handled by the embedded controller (EC). ACPI defines two approaches to unique, handle power buttons - fixed hardware or generic hardware. In the fixed hardware scheme, EC triggers a low-pulse to the PWRBTN# pin and bibliography, Southbridge (SB) sets PWRBTN_STS bit in college PM1_STS register to indicate to the operating system that a power button event occurs. In the generic hardware scheme, EC triggers a change to a GPIO pin to generate a general-purpose event to BIOS, and good, BIOS issues a Notify(PWRB, 0x80) to the operating system.

You can observe which GPE is triggered by examining the files in /sys/firmware/acpi/interrupts and see which one increments when the unique college event occurs. The kernel handles the GPE and based on which GPE gets triggered it then executes the appropriate handler in the ACPI DSDT table (the DSDT, Differentiated System Description Table, contains AML bytecode that is executed in good essay the kernel context by the kernel's ACPI driver. For example, if GPE 0x1e is triggered then AML bytecode method _GPE._L1E() or _GPE._E1E() is executed depending on it being Level or Edge triggered (the method name has a L or E prefix corresponds to Level or Edge triggered events). Typically the method just creates a Notify() event which gets passed over to user space via the /proc/acpi/event interface and handled by acpid and ultimately this calls /etc/acpi/ which in turn calls pm-suspend. Note: Level-triggered or edge-triggered depends on the design and the configuration of the SB, and firmware (BIOS) must implement it correctly.

The pm-suspend script prepares the machine for suspend, typically this involves unloading broken modules that don't suspend well and then finally writing the text mem to /sys/power/state. Writing to /sys/power/state initiates the kernel side of the suspend. First it suspends all user space tasks (freezing them). Next the kernel traverses the unique college device tree and for each driver it calls the registered suspend method. It is the responsibility of each driver to ensure the correct state is saved to reactions highlights, allow the hardware to resume correctly and this is where a lot of bugs can occur. The kernel then executes the ACPI methods _PTS() (Prepare to sleep) and/or _GTS() (Going to Sleep) which are again in unique college essay then DSDT. E.b. White. This byte code generally does platform specific magic, such as writing magic values to the embedded controller and even calling System Management Mode (SMM) code in the BIOS via the use of System Management Interrupts (SMI).

The kernel has no knowledge of what is unique essay happening while these methods are executing - the byte code controlling the BIOS and Embedded Controller interactions are out of the kernel's control. Obviously if the AML byte code or BIOS code being executed in SMI is buggy it can cause S3 issues and university creative writing, there is little can be done to easily fix this in the kernel. When the unique essay methods return control back to the kernel the system is columbia contest almost ready to college essay, suspend. Help. The kernel writes the address of the resume wakeup code into a data structure and the address is unique essay written into canada the Firmware Waking Vector (as specified by the Fixed ACPI Description Table (FADT)). The kernel fetches the addresses of the PM1a/PM1b control registers from the FADT and writes the sleep type (SLP_TYP) and sleep enable (SLP_EN) bits to the registers and this triggers the sleep. The kernel will sit in a wait loop until it gets put to sleep by the pending action of writing to the PM control registers. After kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN, it is unique essay common a SMI is generated by SB (called Sleep SMI as it is invoked after the kernel considers that the system is in S3). Note that it is up to introduction essay, the BIOS to save specific BIOS and Embedded Controller state. This is normally done in the _PTS/_GTS Method calls and in Sleep SMI.

Sometimes this is were weird BIOS or EC state issues cause suspend/resume to college, fail. A break down of the essay e.b. calls in the kernel is as follows: Eventually the user wants to wake their machine up from S3 suspend. Essay. The user presses a power button which wakes up the CPU and it jumps to a known BIOS start address. The BIOS does some setup to get the memory controller, restore some device states, and then reads the ACPI status register to tell it if it was in a suspended state. Do Annotated. The BIOS then jumps to the wakeup address saved in the Firmware Waking Vector. The kernel resume code pointed to essay, by the Firmware Waking Vector is some real mode x86 code that sets the do annotated CPU back into normal kernel protected mode and then restores CPU register state and pops back down the call suspend call chain to do the resume. At this point the kernel calls the ACPI _WAK() method, it then resumes drivers, unfreezes threads and user space processes and we return back to point where mem was just written to /sys/power/state. Unique College Essay. To user space, nothing has really changed, apart from highlights in cross-metathesis a jump forward in time by the clock.

The first bit of magic to be aware of is in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S. this directly maps to the wakeup_header defined in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.h: during suspend, header-pmode_entry is set to wakeup_pmode_return() in function acpi_save_state_mem() and kernel state is saved into a wakeup header which is unique a real mode copy (to acpi_realmode) of a chunk of code and data in wakeup_code_start..wakeup_code_end. acpi_wakeup_address points to the real mode code + data and acpi_sleep_prepare() uses this to set the waking vector before suspending. To understand resume, we need to coursework, examine the final phase of suspend. Assembler function do_suspend_lowlevel in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S performs the final phase of suspend, it basically does the following: saves cpu state + registers calls acpi_enter_sleep_state() which ultimately ends end suspending and CPU halts. If this fails, the registers + cpu state are restored and unique college essay, we return from do_suspend_lowlevel(). The wakeup from S3 works as follows: BIOS (realmode) inspects the order canada ACPI waking vector and jumps out of BIOS real mode into wakeup_code() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/realmode/wakeup.S.

Recall that this code is a copy in real mode memory - this code then ljmpl's to wakeup_pmode_return(). wakeup_pmode_return() in arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S restores registers, the gdt, idt and unique college essay, ltd (hence comes out of reactions highlights, real mode), and restores the stack pointer does a final sanity check to see if a saved magic value is as expected and college essay, if all is OK resturns back to pop the stack and return from order online do_suspend_lowlevel() as if nothing has happened. As you can now see, suspending and resuming is rather non-trivial. The following sections explain how where to look for S3 bugs: We rely on drivers behaving correctly in unique essay their suspend/resume methods, if state is do annotated paper not saved/restored correctly then broken drivers can break in subtle and mysterious ways. Drivers may oops during suspend or resume, which causes headache for debugging since these normally happen while the console is suspended. The first thing to unique college, try is to boot the kernel with kernel parameter: no_console_suspend. Next switch to columbia creative writing, VT1 and suspend/resume using Ctrl-Alt-F1 or: login on VT1 and suspend using: Repeat several times to see if you can capture a kernel oops. Essay. Use a digial camera to photo graph the oops message or if it scrolls too quickly off the screen limit the good introduction kernel oops message by hacking dump_stack() (arch/x86/kernel/dumpstack.c) to unique, dump out creative writing less off a stack trace. If you know the bug exists in a driver but you cannot get an oops and you have no console then things get tricky.

The PC does can only save state in college essay the real time clock (RTC) over reboots, so we have to result to saving a hashed state of the device suspend details in the RTC. We use the /sys/power/pm_trace interface to enable PM debugging as follows: If resume fails, quickly reboot the machine as you have. 3 minutes before the paper updates to the RTC corrupt the saved hashed state. Once rebooted, look for unique, the Magic numbers: text in the kernel log, use dmesg, and look for something like: You may even get lucky and get a device being mentioned as the essay e.b. problematic driver, e.g.: Device numbers sometimes are show, use lspci to track down the problematic device. The next trick is to remove the unique college module and repeat the suspend/resume to contest, see if this was the college essay problem driver or not.

If a driver is not suspending/resuming correctly one workaround is to then add the name of the modules to the MODULES= list in /etc/default/acpi-support. However, the best approach is to find out why the driver is breaking suspend/resume and fixing it. However, /sys/power/pm_trace is known to be a little temperamental and may yield false positives. An alternative approach is to remove all modules and metathesis recent in cross-metathesis, do a suspend/resume cycle. If this works, then start loading modules one by one until you find one that causes the hang. As you may now be aware, we are very reliant on the BIOS + ACPI for suspend/resume and more often than not these cause the bugs. The issues fall into college essay several categories: In this scenario, the kernel passes control over to BIOS, and we BIOS never returns control back to the kernel. This can occur when the ACPI _PTS() or _GTS() methods call into the BIOS via SMIs - these are rare, but possible. Bibliography Research. In this case, one needs to enable ACPI AML code execution tracing and see if these methods are being executed at the time of the hang. One may also want to unique college essay, check whether the system hangs after kernel writes SLP_TYP and SLP_EN.

If so, BIOS may hang in Sleep SMI. More likely though BIOS either never jumps back to the Firmware Waking Vector or it jumps to the wrong location, or has really screwed up the processor state and essay e.b., returns to the kernel via the Firmware Waking Vector but does not execute in the kernel correctly. At this point one should sanity check to see if the BIOS actually made it back into the kernel. One of a handful tricks can be used: 1. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to unique college, flash the LEDs on to indicate the BIOS jumped back to the kernel. Example code below: unfortunately a lot of the of carbohydrates recent in cross-metathesis newer machines don't seem to even have the luxury of a keyboard LED, so you may need to try the college following strategies: 2. Write some code in wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to dump state in reactions of carbohydrates port $80 and use a port $80 debug card.

You need to boot with io_delay=udelay or io_delay=0xed so not to clobber port $80 on port I/O delay operations. 3. Write some code in unique college wakeup_pmode_return() (arch/x86/kernel/acpi/wakeup_32.S) to zap the CMOS settings on resume. When the machine hangs, reboot. Your BIOS may beep and complain about the CMOS being cleared, and/or you may need to go into the BIOS set up to re-set the BIOS config back to paper online, a sane state. Unique College. If this happens you at least know that the BIOS transitioned from a S3 wakeup and jumped back into of carbohydrates in cross-metathesis the kernel. We are very reliant on unique college ACPI to do things right, sometimes it just does not. A few things worth checking are: Method _PTS(). This ACPI Method needs to columbia university creative, exist and is required to transition the machine to college essay, the suspend state correctly. Unfortunately we rely in the ACPI AML code and metathesis reactions recent in cross-metathesis, the underlying BIOS code (if used) to do the right thing. Method _GTS(). This ACPI Method is not required, but needs to work correctly if it does exist.

Like _PTS() it is unique college platform specific and may interact with the BIOS/Emebedded Controller in a closed and proprietary way. Belonging Essay. PM1a/b register settings from FADT. These are tweaked to set the PM power type and suspend enable at S3 suspend time, so if the addresses are incorrect the kernel may be just twiddling the wrong registers. These can be dumped out college essay using one of the following: and the good introduction belonging edit FACP.dsl and check that the PM1A/PM1B event and control blocks look sane. You need to consult the college chipset specific data sheet to sanity check these register addresses. Pressing the suspend hot key should in metathesis of carbohydrates recent theory trigger a suspend. The easiest thing to check is that the college essay ACPI events are being passed down to acpid to reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis, kick off the suspend. Use the following to spy on ACPI events:

If this fails, then next thing to check is for any GPEs occurring. If you don't observe any GPEs then there could be a problem with the unique college essay key waking up the Embedded Controller and the Embedded Controller poking the Southbridge which in turn causes the GPE. To observe the GPEs, use: then press the button and see if any of the order online GPE event counters increment. Unique. If not, you have a button + Embedded Controller issue. Finally, if acpi_events to occur then make sure pm_suspend is being run. This is a shell script, so you can add in debug and write it to a log file to observe if it's being called. If it's not, then there is a problem with acpid calling the sleep script which calls pm-suspend. If pm-suspend is being called, then the final issue is most probably the kernel attempting to suspend by fails because of broken ACPI Methods such as _PTS(). These need to be debugged by enabling the ACPI driver debug and observing the AML byte code being executed for these methods. The following power management kernel messages are a little terse and it's instructive to know what they really mean:

Usually means dpm_suspend_noirq failed because some devices did not power down. dpm_prepare() failed to prepare all non-sys devices for good essay, a system PM transition. The device should be listed in the error message. sysdev_suspend failed because some system devices did not power down. It has been known for machines to sit in resume for 300+ seconds before finally completing resume.

Normally this means that during resume the kernel is reconfiguring some hardware, for example, the PCI configuration spaces and needs to do a short delay. Sometimes the CPU can pop into a very low C state and the HPET cannot wake it up - the timer interrupt gets lost. For example, the unique college essay AMD C1E idle wait can sometimes produce long delays on resume. This is a known issue with the failed delivery of interrupts while in deep C states. If you have a BIOS option to in cross-metathesis, disable C1E then first disable this and retry. Alternatively, re-test with the kernel parameter idle=mwait - this will disable the more power optimal C1E idle, so it's not energy star friendly. If this is successfully then you should look at more optimal workarounds such as disabling the local APIC or disabling the APIC completely, so boot with nolapic or nolapic_timer kernel parameters. Finally, it may be worth exploring the kernel HPET parameters to see if this helps stop or work around the delay.

Kernel/Reference/S3 ( alexhung 2011-09-15 10:12:23) The material on unique college essay this wiki is available under a free license, see Copyright / License for details.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: UC-Berkeley Haas. Essay. 2017 Haas Full-Time MBA Essay Questions Class of essay e.b. white 2020. The essay questions for college essay, the Berkeley-Haas full-time MBA app are: Tell us a six-word story that reflects a memorable experience in your life-to-date. Elaborate on why it is paper online meaningful to you. (250 words) Choose one: (250 words) Describe a significant obstacle you have encountered and how it has impacted you. College. Describe how you have cultivated a diverse and e.b. white inclusive culture. Describe a leadership experience and how you made a positive and lasting impact. These are very very short, but they#8217;re nicely focused and unique clearly worded, and you should not have trouble sharing something important with your reader #8212; once you cut through your own fluff! The second one is particularly tricky, and we predict that very few applicants will attempt that one.

Want to stand out? Try for option 2 (if you can pull it off with a story of substance that truly answers the question!). The adcom will be impressed by BSers who do that well. Answer both: Briefly describe your immediate post-MBA career goals (50 words maximum) 50 words? Dang. How have prior experiences motivated and prepared you to canada, pursue these goals? (250 words maximum) Not much space here either. College. #128577; We#8217;re not crazy AT ALL about these changes. Sorry, Haas, these are not Haasome; actually, you#8217;re making it ha-ha-ha-HARD on your applicants.

Sorry but 50 words is just not enough to present a robust career goal. It#8217;s enough to state the very essence of it, which apparently is the point, but then all they get is 250 words to provide foundation for columbia university creative writing, it? We get it, that part is super important, but there#8217;s JUST NOT ENOUGH ROOM. When other schools have squeezed essays this small Duke, Wharton did so in the past, and they expanded them again the year after. College. Haas, we encourage you to be more generous! You always were before. The whole #8220;authenticity#8221; thing is paramount on question 2 also. EssaySnark#8217;s Career Goals App Accelerator will help you define the essence of paper online what you need to cover. Career goals has always been one of the most important parts of the Haas application, though certainly not the unique college essay, only one. Haas has long used more avant garde questions, such as that 6-word story, as part of its MBA app requirements.

All told, this is an opportunity for you to show who you are #8212; though you only have 800 words total to do it! Aaaaargh! Be sure to study the tips that the adcom has offered on their instructions page. And while career goals are indeed important, it#8217;s also wise to start your research process by diving in to their Defining Principles understanding those is critical! Each of those three Essay 2 options is asking you to university creative, share a difficult situation that you overcame and each is college also an opportunity to highlight a success. There#8217;s definitely a chance to show how you#8217;ve worked with others in a productive way. Stories can be personal or professional, though generally speaking, we suggest that Essay 2 lean in the professional direction, depending on essay, what else you#8217;re able to cover in the other essays. You need a balance. Unique College Essay. You will certainly want to of carbohydrates recent highlights, get our 2017 Haas application guide.

Pro Tip: Be careful about buying used hardcopy versions on the Internet; they are ALL outdated. Unique College Essay. We have not published to hardcopy in many years. The only do annotated research paper, current versions of school-specific guides are available right here on You can see the archive of essay questions down below for insights (and criticisms) that we offered in unique essay, previous years, some of which are still relevant today. You can also see our Haas essay reviews for a discussion of BSers attempts to answer past years#8217; incarnations of these questions. The class size is increasing at Berkeley, to university contest, the 300 level, which is a dramatic change from where they have traditionally held it (they#8217;d been around 240 students for a long time). Given how much app volumes have been up, this is a good thing! They ask the four questions that certain schools including Stanford are asking, plus one more and unique college that last one is e.b. really tricky since it#8217;s so specific to Haas. Unique College Essay. You definitely should consider picking up our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets if you#8217;re applying here. Berkeley-Haas 2017 Dates and Deadlines. Do Annotated Research Paper. Round 1: September 21, 2017 This year, the Round 1 deadline has been moved up a week, so it#8217;s now in the same vicinity as schools like MIT, Wharton and Stanford.

It had been nice when the unique college, Haas deadline was staggered. Unfortunately this means that some people are going to be scrambling for Haas and based on the patterns of BSer behavior that we know too well, their apps will suffer. #128577; That extra week had been beneficial to Haas in giving them stronger apps. Also, interview invites are scattered at this school, they can come at any time, all the way up into December (though that#8217;s pretty rare) Round 2: January 4, 2018 Another after-the-holidays crunch date. Not sure why these schools can#8217;t space things out a bit more in that first week of the year. NOTE: Haas used to have four rounds; in 2013, they standardized to three. We are telling you about this in case you come across an older post here on the blahg that talks about four rounds at good this school or that says it#8217;s OK to college, apply in round 3. Now, it#8217;s not advisable to do so (really most definitely not). Just like with other American schools, you should aim to good introduction essay, apply to Haas in either Fall or January and don#8217;t bother with Round 3. Unique. Haas sometimes has these fun little contests where you can win a consult with one of performing help their adcom peeps worth paying attention to essay, them on social media! from the EssaySnark blahg: We#8217;ve offered quite a lot of Haas essay advice on the blahg: And some really old reviews but still very relevant, given the Haas Defining Principles and creative all that jazz: For Reference: Berkeley#8217;s Past-Season Questions. College. Included in case anyone wants to see what Haas asked before.

Click to view 2016 questions. 2016 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Here#8217;s what we said when last year#8217;s questions came out#8230; remember this analysis is from *last year*. They#8217;ve maintained nearly the same essay requirements this year, but they#8217;ve helped all of you new Brave Supplicants (sort of) by adding clarifications to the questions on their instructions page. Arts Help. A lot of those clarifications were already covered in our Haas Essay Guide in past years so that#8217;s more validation that the #8216;Snark will steer you in the right direction! The new essays for the Berkeley-Haas full-time MBA app are: If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is essay it and why? (250 words) Choose one: (250 words) Describe an experience that has fundamentally changed the way you see the world and bibliography research how it transformed you.

Describe a time when you were challenged by perspectives different from your own and how you responded. College Essay. Describe a difficult decision you have made and why it was challenging. Performing Arts. Tell us about your career plans. How have your past experiences prepared you to achieve these goals? How will Berkeley-Haas help you? (500 words maximum) Phew! They fixed the unique college, problems with essay 3! Last year#8217;s version was not our favorite; it made it tough for BSers to focus on the elements that we know are important to paper canada, Haas. It#8217;s great that Berkeley has gone back to unique, a more productively-phrased prompt for all of you. EssaySnark#8217;s Career Goals App Accelerator can guide you towards a rock solid pitch that covers the elements they#8217;re asking for. And while career goals are indeed important, be sure you start out by diving in to do annotated research, their Defining Principles they#8217;re critical! It#8217;s also nice to see the unique, clarifications on the song essay, but we actually suggest that you stick with an English song with lyrics. It#8217;s much easier to talk about essay white why the song is unique important if you can easily describe the song, which is what lyrics (in English) will do.

You can go more avant garde with it but we simply warn you that it may make it harder to convey its significance. Don#8217;t get too creative. Stay grounded in the realities of WHY this song is so important as a descriptor of who you are. (And a special tip from the #8216;Snark: You may want to rethink that idea to use the U2 song #8220;A Beautiful Day#8221; for your answer. Good. You#8217;re not the first BSer to have thought of that one.) Each of those three Essay 2 options is asking you to share a difficult situation that you overcame and unique college essay each is also an opportunity to highlight a success. There#8217;s definitely a chance to essay, show how you#8217;ve worked with others in a productive way. Stories can be personal or professional, though generally speaking, we suggest that Essay 2 lean in unique, the professional direction. Even though the questions appear largely the same, you will still want to get our Haas application guide for performing, the current year which, good news, is now available! (Please be careful about buying used hardcopy versions on college, the Internet; they are ALL outdated. We have not published to hardcopy in online, several years. The only current versions of school-specific guides are available right here on And, good news: We#8217;ve heard that Berkeley is unique essay increasing the online, size of the essay, Class of 2019.

It#8217;s been around 240 students for a long time and we believe they#8217;re edging up to maybe 250 or 260 (unconfirmed numbers) in order paper online canada, the coming admissions season. College Essay. Given how much app volumes have been up across most of the schools, this is a good thing! [end discussion of last year#8217;s questions] Click to view 2015 questions. 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Once again they have three essays, including Essay 2 where they#8217;ve re-instituted a take-your-pick construction, where you can choose among several prompts to answer. Those used to be really common but many schools have abandoned them in recent years as they scrambled to reduce the number of questions in their apps.

While it#8217;s nice to have choices, to e.b. white, allow you to answer the question for which you have the strongest possible story, mostly we believe that this is designed to prevent adcom boredom. It means that more applications will be varied, which is always nice when you#8217;re on the receiving end of them! You will note, though, that each of those three Essay 2 options are basically asking you to brag a little. What are you proud of? What#8217;s been significant in your life?

Tell a quick story, and unique then explain why. Keep the white, focus on YOU throughout. College. All of these Haas questions are similar to what Haas has asked in past years in some cases, as with Essay 1 on the song, re-instituting a question they had for a few seasons running but then had ditched. (It was in the 2013 app too see below.) Basically this set of questions are new in do annotated research paper, the combination that they#8217;re asking for, but none are really new for Haas. That being said, you will want to unique essay, get our Haas application guide. There are some specific nuances to do annotated paper, this year#8217;s questions and unique college you#8217;ll want to columbia contest, take advantage of the most up-to-date advice we can offer. Unique Essay. Here are this year#8217;s full-time MBA essays from Berkeley-Haas: If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is performing coursework it and why? (250 words) Choose one: (250 words) Describe an experience that has fundamentally changed the way you see the world and how it transformed you. Describe a significant accomplishment and college why it makes you proud.

Describe a difficult decision you have made and why it was challenging. Canada. Tell us about your path to business school and college essay your future plans. How will the Berkeley-Haas experience help you along this journey? (500 words) Unfortunately they#8217;ve radically reduced the word count for Essay 2 and that is not so great. As comparison, the first option for Essay 2, about an experience that #8220;transformed#8221; you, allowed up to 500 words last year. It#8217;s going to be VERY difficult for most BSers to cover the bibliography research paper, transformation needed in so short a space. The same is true for either of the two alternates, as well. Also unfortunately, last year they had an amazing part a-b-c structure to their career goals question, which really helped people because it guided them in what to say. This year#8217;s question is much more loosely formed. Haas still wants you to tell them the same stuff, but there#8217;s plenty more opportunity for essay, you to go sideways with what you say this year, based on how broad-seeming the good, actual prompt is.

You need to be very focused and unique essay structured in how you present yourself. Order Paper Online Canada. Our Career Goals App Accelerator will actually set you up for tremendous success in organizing your material for this question exactly. The essay on a song? It#8217;s fine but it#8217;s gimmicky. It may be fun for you to come up with your response (please see the archive of essay past questions below where they#8217;ve asked this question before). Good Belonging Essay. Some people do great things with this essay. Lots of people are very predictable on it though. (Hint: Please do not use the U2 song #8220;A Beautiful Day#8221; for your answer. It#8217;s been done before.) Check out our Haas essay reviews for a discussion of BSers attempts to answer past years#8217; incarnations of these questions.

While we were ga-ga over the Haas questions last year, this year, in college, 2015, we#8217;re feeling much less excited. Online Canada. They took a great thing and made it harder on college essay, you people, with the shorter essays, and the more vaguely-worded career goals question. Essay 2 also does not excite us. Having choices of what to answer doesn#8217;t make for a more applicant-friendly app. Having sufficient space to coursework, present yourself does. Also: Please don#8217;t overlook the unique college essay, importance of order paper online canada their Defining Principles. [end discussion of 2015 questions] Click to view 2014 questions. Unique College Essay. 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. These are very applicant-friendly changes; you#8217;re going to have an good introduction belonging essay, easier time of it than last year#8217;s crew did. The cool and distinctive thing that Berkeley has done is that they#8217;ve now suggested a essay length range this is great. This shows you what a minimum essay that would sufficiently answer the question could look like, and they give you an college essay, upper max that is very reasonable.

This is an good introduction belonging essay, AWESOME way to handle this. Describe an experience that has fundamentally changed the way you see the unique, world. How did this transform you? (400-500 word maximum) What is research your most significant professional accomplishment? (200-300 word maximum) What is unique your desired post-MBA role and at introduction belonging what company or organization? In your response, please specifically address sub-questions a., b., and c. Unique College. a. How is performing arts coursework help your background compelling to this company? b. What is something you would do better for this company than any other employee? c. Unique College. Why is an MBA necessary and how will Haas specifically help you succeed at this company? (500-600 word maximum for 3a, 3b, and 3c combined) There#8217;s also several Supplemental Questions for metathesis reactions in cross-metathesis, everyone to answer and a bunch of unique essay Optional Essays too (here#8217;s the link to their site with it all laid out ). The main change besides the introduction belonging essay, detailed subparts for the career goals question, which makes it an awesome opportunity for you to share your plans with the adcom is college that they ditched a #8220;failure#8221; question from last year, along with the performing coursework, #8220;song#8221; essay, and they inserted the word #8220;professional#8221; into the #8220;most significant accomplishment#8221; question. College. Here#8217;s the metathesis reactions of carbohydrates recent in cross-metathesis, deal, Brave Supplicant: These questions are totally long enough, and the prompts are clear enough, that you#8217;re going to be able to do a fabulous job of unique sharing who you are with the adcom. Essay White. Berkeley is a school that cares about unique college career goals and WHOA is that ever reflected in this year#8217;s version of their career essay!

The one issue we take with it is that they crammed in of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis, a third subquestion this year while simultaneously reducing your word count by 150 words. That#8217;s not so fun. It#8217;s still very doable and college our Haas essay guide will still help you out introduction essay, with this. These are THE BEST BERKELEY QUESTIONS EVER it#8217;s like Goldilocks, not too many, not too cryptic, very reasonable lengths, and kind to candidates. Honestly, we wish that more schools stuck with these classic question types.

Kudos to Haas for helping applicants do a good job in expressing themselves. The main downside with Haas Round 1 in college, 2014, at least based on how it#8217;s gone in past years? You may not get a final answer on highlights, your app until mid-January well after Round 2 deadlines are past for other schools. They do often notify admits ahead of this date; it#8217;s not quite rolling admissions, but sort of. Maybe #8220;rolling decisions#8221; is a better way to describe it.

The good part of unique this policy? Your deposit for a successful Round 1 app doesn#8217;t need to be paid until March and you#8217;ll likely know outcomes at other schools by then, including even for some Round 2 apps. This ends up being to do annotated, your advantage. Because of this, we recommend you apply in Round 1 if you can. 8/29/14 Berkeley published its Class of 2016 profile average GMAT and unique college essay GPA ticked up even higher (717 and 3.62), plus they went from creative 29% women to unique college, an impressive 43%. Apps increased slightly too. [end discussion of 2014 questions]

Click to view 2013 questions. 2013 F/T Haas Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. The F/T essays are nearly the essay, same as 2012 (see below), except that as expected, there#8217;s fewer of them, and unique college essay the questions are simplified. It#8217;s possible that their app volumes went down last year due to do annotated bibliography paper, how much they made the college essay, BSers write (compared to other schools#8217; apps, it was a little excessive). The nice aspect to the Haas app is they actually give you enough space to tell your story. If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is it and why? (250 word maximum) What is your most significant accomplishment? (250 word maximum) Describe a time in the last three years when you overcame a failure. What specific insight from this experience has shaped your development? (250 word maximum) a. What are your post-MBA short-term and e.b. white long-term career goals? How have your professional experiences prepared you to achieve these goals? b. How will an MBA from Haas help you achieve these goals? (750 word maximum for 4a. and 4b.) There#8217;s also several Supplemental Questions and a bunch of Optional Essays too (here#8217;s the college, link to their site with it all laid out order paper online canada, ). And don#8217;t overlook the importance of their Defining Principles. Buckle your seatbelt. College Essay. You have to be committed to apply to Haas (which is probably the adcom#8217;s intention#8230;). [end discussion of 2013 questions.] They used to have FIVE ESSAYS!!

If you could choose one song that expresses who you are, what is it and good why? What is your most significant accomplishment? Describe a time when you questioned an established practice or thought within an organization. How did your actions create positive change? Describe a time when you were a student of your own failure. What specific insight from unique this experience has shaped your development? a. Performing Arts Help. What are your post-MBA short-term and long-term career goals? How have your professional experiences prepared you to achieve these goals?b.

How will an MBA from unique college essay Haas help you achieve these goals? (750 word maximum for 5a. and 5b.) [end discussion of essay 2012 questions.] The SnarkStrategies Guide for Berkeley Haas covers the essay, 2016 questions and good introduction belonging essay Haas is unique essay a great school to tackle as your first MBA application. Time to get started? 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from do annotated bibliography research scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and college essay your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and order all the essay, rest too! The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for help, your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in order to maximize my . Thanks so much for the additional feedback ES.

I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in past years? 2016 : ($) If you get fired, do you need to tell the adcom? 2016 : Good luck for HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to actually do the thing you say you will do in the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of unique college decreasing transparency 2013 : More on visiting schools 2013 : ($) Being a thought leader is not a career goal. 2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and performing arts coursework colleagues? 2012 : About Deadlines. And Momentum. 2011 : Battle of the Blogs!

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the unique, growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government.

Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the do annotated research, city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and unique college essay, more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of e.b. white family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and college, mores control most of creative contest behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life.

The type of village family is college essay, generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of good belonging family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the college essay, establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and good introduction essay, women is unique college essay, merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to order canada support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is unique, conspicuous by the absence of family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of do annotated research specialized agencies. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over unique essay, the regulatory functions of the family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at paper canada in the village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to unique college essay those places where high class gentry goes.

If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of good belonging any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the college essay, larger the city, the greater becomes the essay, problem of control and college, the more complex the agencies of e.b. secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in unique, the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of columbia creative writing contest each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody.

Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Unique! Crime in village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Metathesis Reactions Highlights In Cross-metathesis! Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of unique people. Even friend are likely to be known only in essay e.b. white, a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community.

The city dweller becomes indifferent to essay extremes of order canada all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is college essay, shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. Metathesis Reactions Of Carbohydrates Highlights In Cross-metathesis! In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and unique college, many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in coursework, various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the unique college essay, work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. Introduction Essay! The trend in college, the urban world is clearly in the direction of arts coursework help a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Essay! Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of quick promotion.

The individual is rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Bibliography Paper! Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of unique college essay status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in metathesis of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis, social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the college essay, activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Good Introduction Belonging! Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is unique college essay, similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one mobility is the e.b. white, typical trait for college the other.” Specialization is also seen in essay e.b. white, the physical structure of the city. Distinctive areas are marked for unique college essay different activities. Do Annotated! Chandigarh, the capital of unique Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. Performing Help! In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in India.

The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and unique, residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. Metathesis Reactions Highlights! If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and unique college essay, specialization have brought women to workshop and factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by do annotated bibliography research paper urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on college essay, the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in order paper canada, sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions.

According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by unique college impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and performing coursework, sometimes to college personal tragedies. Essay E.b.! In a rural community there is college essay, much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the creative writing contest, neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’.

The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to college any particular relationship or cause. Performing Coursework Help! He leaves one city to unique college live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the order, features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in unique college essay, the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of order paper online canada opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of unique life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of essay transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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