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Bertoly Brechts Mother Courage Drama Essay. Bertolt Brecht's view on the function of essay, theatre was that it should provoke its audience to change. The epic theatre, Karl Marx and German directors Max Reinhardt and how do you start Erwin Piscator were all inspiration for Brecht's theory on essay philosophy, the social function of degree important me, theatre. (. 2004: 709) Brecht's essays 'Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction' and 'The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre' clearly outline his understanding of what epic theatre is and how it should be used in practice. In both essays, Brecht explains what makes the essay, epic theatre different from modern and dramatic theatre and discusses the techniques available with epic theatre and the effects they can have on the audience. When comparing his play Mother Courage and Her Children to the two essays, it is clear that Brecht has used the essays almost as guidelines to write the play and put his theories on epic theatre into practice. Mother Courage and Her Children is an extremely typical Brechtian play as it contains all the elements that Brecht wanted to include in his plays in order to present his new form of theatre which he believed had a greater social function. One of the most obvious examples of Brecht's essays being put into practice in Mother Courage and Her Children is Brecht's use of narrative instead of the plot. Each scene begins with a narrative description of what will happen in that scene, and the play itself starts with a prologue which introduces the central character (Mother Courage) and reveals what the play is about. Literary Analysis Essay Of A Good! Despite the fact that there is a storyline running through the play, the narrative style ties in with Brecht's aim of not giving the audience the chance to become emotionally attached to the characters. The way in which the play jumps with each scene keeps the storyline general and tied more to the greater social events running throughout the play rather than single, individual events in a particular scene. Having spent much of his life in Germany and experiencing two world wars, it should come as no surprise that many of Brecht's plays, including Mother Courage and Her Children, feature war as the overriding theme of the play.
Brecht believed that war was 'a continuation of business by essay other means.' Brecht's theory on theatre meant that he did not want his audience to alfred essay, emotionally empathise with the characters on stage. In fact, Brecht deliberately created characters which would be subject to criticism from the audience. In order to invite this active rather than passive response from the audience, to provoke a reaction, Brecht instils traits in his characters which tend to make the audience not identify with them, but criticise them. Mother Courage is portrayed as a strong, witty, formidable woman whose sole purpose is to on functionalism philosophy, provide a living for both herself and her children.
She is essay a sacrificial character and essay on functionalism philosophy her love for her children draws an audience to like her. What prevents the you start, audience from essay on functionalism philosophy, empathising with her is her extremely contradictory nature. Whilst pulling out a knife at the Sergeant and Recruiting Officer to protect her children, Courage calls refers to king essay, herself and on functionalism her children as 'peaceable sorts'. The Sergeant's cool reply of literary analysis good hard to find, 'your knife shows the sort you are' further displays Courage's contradictions. (Brecht 2004: 715) When sending her daughter Kattrin into town with the Clerk, Courage tells her not to essay on functionalism philosophy, worry and that 'nothing will happen', but upon Kattrin's return where she is wounded, Courage claims she should never have let her go. When arguing with the resume, Cook over a possible move to Utrecht, Courage tries to end the conversation with 'that's enough', only to continue it herself moments later. In the same scene, Courage encourages Kattrin for the two to go with the Cook to essay on functionalism, run his pub in Utrecht because 'life on the road is no sort of life', but after she sees Kattrin trying to run away she quickly turns on the Cook and questions what she and Kattrin would ever do in a pub. Of course the greatest contradiction of all throughout the play is Courage's constant criticism of the war off of which she makes her living. Resume! It is this contradictory nature of Courage's which constantly reminds the audience to view the character from a distance, analyse her so to essay on functionalism philosophy, speak, and not empathise with her situation. Had Mother Courage been presented as a fully-rounded character, the audience would have been tempted to empathise; but her presentation as a paradoxical character helps to 'jolt the audience into some kind of reaction.' (Leach 1994: 136) Mother Courage is not the only character in the play that is mla citations given a specific trait to philosophy, keep the audience empathising and becoming emotionally involved with her. Resume! Her sons - Eilif and Swiss Cheese - are both killed in the play, and it is because of their flaws that they are killed. Her eldest son, Eilif, is strong and intelligent, but his boldness costs him his life.
Her younger son, Swiss Cheese, is simple and honest, but he too is led to his death because of his stupidity. The audience are constantly reminded throughout the on functionalism, play by resume Mother Courage that her children have these traits. 'I have another who is foolish but honest' is just one example of Brecht giving Mother Courage a specific line for philosophy, two reasons: both to remind the audience of the paradoxes each character possesses, to stop them from being empathised with, and to support the alfred, epic idea of the play that each scene should be its own. It is frequently seen in Brecht's plays for philosophy, an off-stage character's absence to be explained through an on-stage character's dialogue. (ref) Robert Leach argues that for Brecht, 'character is only of king alfred, interest in so far as it illuminates the fleeting event which provides the writer, or the actor, with a usable gesture.' What Leach is saying is on functionalism philosophy that for Brecht, the psg zagreb resume, character is only a function to the greater social and economical forces which control and shape the world (within the constructed reality that are his plays), and that the actors, whilst portraying characters, can use them as tools to essay on functionalism philosophy, show the effect of mla citations within essay, these greater social implications. This can be linked to Brecht's observation in the essay 'Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction' that 'actors too refrained from going over wholly into their role. ' in the sense that not only did actors do so to invite criticism from the audience of their characters, not only to draw attention away from the individual and place it on the social, but to also show that the characters are simply functional to the social. Essay! Another one of internship essay, Brecht's main aims was to on functionalism philosophy, not focus on the individual emotions of the character, but to explore and show the importance of the greater social implications. In Mother Courage and Her Children, emphasis is not put on the decisions the characters make but the social events which dictate the action of the play. War, religion and resume family are three main themes which run through Mother Courage and on functionalism Her Children, and ultimately the fate of each character is determined by these themes. Unlike naturalistic plays where emphasis is usually placed on the individual, in psg zagreb Mother Courage and Her Children Brecht focuses on the relationship between the social implications and the characters of the play. All of the characters in the play are linked together by these themes, and their inability to change their individual (or in essay the case of Courage and her children, combined) situations. (Examples) Brecht has created Mother Courage as the central character of the play, but because it is not only her, but all the characters that are affected by the war, the spectator's focus is literary analysis good man is hard to find neither on the central character Mother Courage nor any of the on functionalism philosophy, character. The spectator's focus is drawn, by linking the characters and making them unable to change their situations, to the superseding social themes presented in the play.
Brecht liked the notion that epic theatre allowed for jumps in time, and this is mla citations reflected in Mother Courage and Her Children. There is a jump in time between each scene of the philosophy, play, usually a year or two, and the constant curves and jumps in essay the play - the dialectic approach - allow for Brecht to on functionalism philosophy, show a process and effects over time rather than one particular point of time and its individual effect on characters. (Brooker 1994: 189) These jumps in time also allow the play to mla citations, be 'epic' in the sense that they allow each scene to stand independently. The jumps in on functionalism philosophy time also go hand-in-hand with Brecht's idea that with epic theatre, the audience should be looking with 'eyes on the course' rather than 'eyes on the finish'. Swiss Cheese's death and Mother Courage's refusal to admit the mla citations within essay, body is his is on functionalism philosophy one of the heading, most intense moments of the entire play, but it comes as early as Scene Three. Also, the jumps in time show 'man as a process' rather than 'man as a fixed point'.
Rather than focusing on the central character (Mother Courage) at one particular point, Brecht draws out the play so that the audience view Courage's 'process' and development as a character subject to philosophy, the social and political circumstances. The end of the play sees Mother Courage, now completely alone; walk with soldiers who are singing the same song that is sung in the prologue, reminding the audience of the process that has begun from the mla citations within essay, very beginning of the essay on functionalism, play and the effect it has had throughout. The jumps in time between each scene of Mother Courage and Her Children are typical of Brecht's aim to get the audience to look at the events that have taken place from a more general period of time rather than a specific point. One of the key parts of essay, Brecht's theory on theatre was that the audience should constantly know that what they are watching is on functionalism not reality but a construction being presented on stage. By doing so, Brecht could show to his audience that what they were watching was not reality but a presented image of reality, and that could inspire change. To this end Brecht used several techniques in many of literary of a good man is hard to find, his plays (including Mother Courage and Her Children) which allowed him to reveal that the play was indeed a construction. A typical Brechtian technique used in the play is the use of stage directions at the start of each scene, which then reveal what is going to happen in that scene.
By using these stage directions (either spoken aloud or displayed with placards on stage) Brecht is able to both remind his audience that what they are watching is a construction. Also, by telling the audience what will happen before it happens, Brecht can eliminate the shock factor, thus keeping the audience away from having an experience and focused on learning from the action on stage. Openly revealing that the essay philosophy, play is not real allows Brecht to prevent any sense of emotional attachment to the piece. This can be linked to Brecht's essay 'The Modern Theatre is essay important me The Epic Theatre' where he says: 'once illusion is essay philosophy sacrificed to free discussion, and once the spectator, instead of how do you start an essay, being enabled to have an experience, is forced as it were to cast his vote; then a change has been launched which goes far beyond formal matters and begins for the first time to affect the theatre's social function.' Brecht states in his essay 'The Modern Theatre is Epic Theatre' that 'words, music and setting must become more independent of one another.' (reference) This statement is echoed in Mother Courage and Her Children as Brecht uses not only dialogue and stage directions but songs and music in the play, and essay on functionalism makes sure that the songs used are seen on an equal level to the other elements such as words. In fact, Scene Ten of the play is constructed entirely of only a few stage directions and song. By giving the internship, songs such importance in the play, on the same level as stage directions and dialogue, Brecht implements his idea into practice, showing that he has used his two essays almost as guidelines for writing Mother Courage and Her Children. Songs are also used in the play to fit in with Brecht's theory that plays should not be presented to the audience as reality, but as a construction. The direct delivery of a song from a character to the audience, thus breaking the fourth wall, is one of the ways in which the audience is reminded that they are indeed watching a play. The songs also tend to reflect the essay on functionalism, social and political themes of the play and inspire the audience to think about what they are watching.
Looking at 'Theatre for Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction' and 'The Modern Theatre is the Epic Theatre' in comparison with Mother Courage and Her Children, it is clear to see that the play falls into all of the categories that Brecht lists in his two essays for his theory on the function of theatre. Throughout the play the focus is taken away from the mla citations essay, characters' individual emotions and essay philosophy drawn to the greater social and political forces which affect the characters. The play is resume used as a discussion forum of sorts for essay philosophy, some of the common Brechtian themes such as war, religion and family. An Essay! The use of non-naturalist techniques such as placards and songs helps to break the illusion that the audience creates and prevents them from developing empathy for and emotional attachment to essay philosophy, the characters. The jumps in time between each scene of the play keep the audience's focus on the process over time and not at a fixed point.
Mother Courage and Her Children is literary analysis essay of a hard without question of Brecht's most typical plays and it is clear to see his essays 'Theatre for on functionalism, Pleasure or Theatre for Instruction' and 'The Modern Theatre is the psg zagreb resume, Epic Theatre' have been put into practice to create the play and inspire the audience to change, rather than experience.
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Literature survey on epidemiology and pathology of gangliocytic paraganglioma. © Okubo et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. Received: 24 September 2010. Although gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) has generally been regarded as a neuroendocrine tumor, its origin remains unclear. We therefore aimed to essay, investigate the details of this disease by psg zagreb resume, carefully analyzing and philosophy extracting common features of the disease as presented in selected publications.
We searched for English and Japanese cases of GP using the PubMed and IgakuChuoZasshi databases on August 2010. We then extracted and sampled raw data from the selected publications and degree me performed appropriate statistical analyses. Essay Philosophy? Additionally, we evaluated the expression of hormone receptors based on our previously reported case. 192 patients with GP were retrieved from the databases. Patient ages ranged from essay, 15 y to essay on functionalism, 84 y (mean: 52.3 y). Degree Important Me? The gender ratio was 114:76 (male to female, 2 not reported).
Maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from on functionalism, 5.5 mm to 100 mm (mean: 25.0 mm). The duodenum (90.1%, 173/192) was found to be the most common site of the disease. In 173 patients with duodenal GP, gastrointestinal bleeding (45.1%, 78/173) was found to be the most common symptom of the disease, followed by abdominal pain (42.8%, 74/173), and heading anemia (14.5%, 25/173). Rate of on functionalism philosophy, lymph node metastasis was 6.9% (12/173). Degree? Our statistical analysis indicated that significant differences were found for gender between GP within the essay submucosal layer and essay exceeding the submucosal layer. Furthermore, our immunohistochemical evaluation showed that both epithelioid and essay pancreatic islet cells showed positive reactivity for progesterone receptors. Our literature survey revealed that there were many more cases of analysis essay of a hard to find, GP exceeding the submucosal layer than were expected.
Meanwhile, our statistical analyses and immunohistochemical evaluation supported the following two hypotheses. First, vertical growth of GP might be affected by progesterone exposure. Second, the origin of GP might be pancreatic islet cells. However, it is strongly suspected that our data have been affected by publication bias and to confirm these hypotheses, further investigation is required. Duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma with lymph node metastasis. Chief Clinical presentation. Follow up (months) Takabayashi et al. Essay? [ 53 ]. Additional surgical intervention.
Recurrence 11 years after first surgical intervention. Sundararajan et al. Psg Zagreb Resume? [ 54 ]. Anemia, subclinical jaundice. Witkiewicz et al. [ 36 ]. Abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss. Epigastralgia, tarry stool.
Gastrointestinal bleeding, anemia. NR: not reported, PD: pancreatoduodenectomy, PPPD: pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. NED: no evidence of disease. There were twelve cases of gangliocytic paraganglioma with lymph node metastasis. Few studies reported the epidemiology, pathology, and clinical characteristics of the disease. We then evaluated the details of the disease by carefully analyzing and extracting common features of the disease as presented in these selected publications. We searched English and Japanese cases of GP published from 1957 to essay, the early trimester of 2010 using the PubMed http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ and IgakuChuoZasshi http://www.jamas.or.jp/ databases on August 2010 by conducting a search of gangliocytic paraganglioma with case report options as an essay additional tool. As a result, 4574 English and philosophy 27 Japanese publications were retrieved. We checked the abstracts and 73 English and 24 Japanese (total 97) publications were regarded as cases of within essay, GP and 4504 publications were excluded. Since this disease entity has been reported under other names, prior to Kepes et al. naming it as a GP [ 2 ], such as ganglioneuroma, non-chromaffin paraganglioma, and paraganglioneuroma, we checked the references of 97 selected publications. The characteristic three components could be confirmed in the manuscript or a figure.
The paper was cited in essay on functionalism, other publications as a GP report. These 105 publications contained reports on 192 patients with GP. In the present study, we conducted a non-systematic literature review using 173 patients with duodenal GP. We extracted and sampled raw data from the selected publications, such as clinical findings (age, sex, clinical symptoms, operation method, and outcome), histopathological findings (site, maximum diameter of the mla citations essay tumor, diagnostic rate from biopsy before operation, the depth of the essay tumor invasion, and with or without lymph node metastasis), and immunohistochemical findings. In addition, we performed appropriate statistical analyses using the extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Chi-square test. Differences were considered significant at P 0.05.
Additionally, we evaluated gender differences based on the results of our statistical analyses. Moreover, we evaluated the essay expression of essay on functionalism, hormone receptors in relation to estrogen and progesterone based on our previously reported case [ 6 ]. Finally, we declare that our study may be affected by publication bias because it comprises a cumulating case series. 192 patients with GP were retrieved from the PubMed and you start an essay IgakuChuoZasshi databases. Patient ages ranged from on functionalism, 15 y to 84 y (mean: 52.3 y). The gender ratio was 114:76 (male to female, 2 not reported). Maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from heading, 5.5 mm to 100 mm (mean: 25.0 mm). Essay On Functionalism Philosophy? The duodenum (90.1%, 173/192) was found to you start, be the most common site of the disease, followed by the low-level spinal cord (2.1%, 4/192) [ 7 – 10 ], respiratory system (2.1%, 4/192) [ 11 – 14 ], jejunum (1.6%, 3/192) [ 5 , 15 , 16 ], and essay philosophy esophagus (1.0%, 2/192) [ 17 , 18 ]. There were individual cases involving the stomach [ 5 ], appendix [ 19 ], retromediastinum [ 20 ], pancreas [ 21 ], and mature teratoma [ 22 ] (constituent of the lesion), as well as a case of double focus in resume, the duodenum and essay on functionalism pancreas [ 23 ] (0.5%, 1/192, respectively).
In accordance with these findings, the present study focuses on the duodenal lesion, which represents the essay site for essay on functionalism philosophy the overwhelming majority of cases of the man is disease. 173 patients with duodenal GP were retrieved from the on functionalism PubMed and IgakuChuoZasshi databases. Patient ages ranged from 15 y to 84 y (mean: 52.6 y). Internship? The gender ratio was 102:69 (2 not reported). Gastrointestinal bleeding (45.1%, 78/173) was found to philosophy, be the good man is hard to find most common symptom of the disease among the symptoms reported in essay philosophy, the papers, followed by abdominal pain (42.8%, 74/173), and anemia (14.5%, 25/173). Essay? In contrast, biliary obstruction was extremely rare (4.6%, 8/173). The follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 96 months, and no death from GP was reported. With the exception of philosophy, a patient that had part of a previous tumor at the initial operation [ 24 ], no recurrence has been reported. Internship Heading? There is only one report of a patient who underwent radiotherapy after surgical intervention [ 25 ]. 15 patients underwent an endoscopic procedure for essay on functionalism philosophy removal [ 26 – 40 ], and one patient required additional surgical intervention due to essay, the presence of on functionalism philosophy, a tumor residue following her first endoscopic intervention [ 36 ]. Histopathological findings from forceps biopsies performed prior to surgical intervention were described in 35 patients.
Among these cases, 4 patients were correctly diagnosed as GP, 24 patients did not show evidence of tumor cells (specimens did not contain tumor cells), and 7 patients were diagnosed or suspected of having a different neuroendocrine tumor (3 carcinoid tumors, 2 paragangliomas, 1 ganglioneuroma, and 1 case involving atypical cells). The maximum diameter of the tumors ranged from 5.5 mm to essay good man is hard to find, 100 mm (mean: 24.2 mm). The depth of the tumor invasion was described in 108 patients, comprising 42 patients with submucosal invasion, 62 with muscularis propria invasion, and essay 4 with connective tissue beneath the muscularis propria. Internship Essay? In summary, 42 patients had GP within the submucosal layer and essay on functionalism 66 patients had GP exceeding the submucosal layer. Moreover, 12 of these patients showed lymph node metastasis that involved one submucosal lesion [Table 1 ]. Representative findings for you start an essay each of the three characteristic components of tumor cells are as follows. In epithelioid cells, neuron specific enolase (NSE) showed the highest positive rate (93.9%, 77/82), followed by synaptophysin (90.0%, 36/40), pancreatic polypeptide (PP; 89.7%, 70/78), somatostatin (81.8%, 63/77), chromogranin-A (67.4%, 60/89), cytokeratins (48.3%, 28/58), and serotonin (22.0%, 13/59). In spindle-shaped cells, S-100 protein showed the highest positive rate (94.2%, 98/104), followed by NSE (84.0%, 63/75), and synaptophysin (64.7%, 22/34). Immunohistochemical findings for philosophy each of the three characteristic components of the tumor.
Neuron specific enolase. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Positive or negative findings from immunohistochemistry in king, 173 extracted duodenal gangliocytic paraganglioma are summarized. Comparative analysis of clinicopathological findings. To determine significant factors associated with the progression of the tumor, the following comparative analyses were carried out. When we employed evidence of metastasis as an indicator of progression, a significant difference was found only for the ages of patients among the essay clinicopathological findings concerning those with and without lymph node metastasis (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.01), and patients with metastasis were significantly younger than those without metastasis. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the maximum diameter of the tumors or gender when comparing patients with and without lymph node metastasis (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.10 or Chi-square test: p = 0.55, respectively). Comparison of clinicopathological findings between patients with and alfred essay without lymph node metastasis. Patients with lymph node metastasis. Patients without lymph node metastasis. Number of essay on functionalism, patients.
17 to 67 (mean: 43.5) 15 to 84 (mean: 53.4) Significant difference was found. (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.01) Maximum diameter of the tumor (mm) 5.5 to 65 (mean: 29.8) 10 to 100 (mean: 23.5)
No significant difference was found. (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.10) Gender (male to female) 96:63 (2 not reported) No significant difference was found. (Chi-square test: p = 0.55)
A significant difference was found for the ages of patients with and without lymph node metastasis (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.01), and patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly younger than those without lymph node metastasis. In contrast, no significant differences were found for mla citations maximum diameter of the tumor or gender in patients with and on functionalism without lymph node metastasis (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.10 or Chi-square test: p = 0.55, respectively). Comparison of psg zagreb, clinicopathological findings between GP within and exceeding the submucosal layer. Gangliocytic paraganglioma within the submucosal layer. Gangliocytic paraganglioma exceeding the submucosal layer. Number of patients. 28 to 84 (mean: 54.1) 15 to 73 (mean: 50.0) No significant difference was found (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.23)
Maximum diameter of the tumor (mm) 5.5 to 65 (mean: 21.7) 10 to 100 (mean: 26.8) No significant difference was found (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.18) Gender (male to essay on functionalism, female)
Significant difference was found. (Chi-square test: p = 0.02) Rate of psg zagreb resume, lymph node metastasis. Significant difference was found. (Chi-square test: p = 0.03)
Significant differences were found for gender and the rate of lymph node metastasis between patients with GP within the essay on functionalism submucosal layer and exceeding the mla citations within essay submucosal layer (Chi-square test: p = 0.02, 0.03, respectively). However, no significant differences were found for the maximum diameter of the tumor or the age of a patient between males and females. In addition, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to philosophy, assess any potential relationship between the maximum diameter of the tumors and ages of patients, but no significant relationships were found. Immunohistochemical evaluation of heading, female sex hormone receptors. Photomicrographs showing immunohistochemistry for philosophy estrogen and psg zagreb resume progesterone receptors . On Functionalism Philosophy? (A and mla citations within B) Epithelioid cells in both primary and metastatic foci were negative for on functionalism estrogen receptors (? 400). Literary Essay Good Man Is Hard? (C) Pancreatic islet cells showed a weakly positive reactivity for estrogen receptos (? 400). Essay On Functionalism? (D and E) Epithelioid cells in both primary and of a man is metastatic foci showed a strongly positive reactivity for progesterone receptors (? 400). (F) Pancreatic islet cells showed a strongly positive reactivity for progesterone receptors (? 400).
We collected as many publications written in English or Japanese involving GP and examined them to extract characteristic features of the tumor as presented in clinical and histopathological findings. We focused on determining the essay philosophy significant factors associated with the progression of the tumor. Here we discuss the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings in reference to matters that emerged from within, our research. In the present study, we found gastrointestinal bleeding as the most common symptom, followed by essay, abdominal pain. This fact has been previously accepted and our data confirm it. All patients without autopsies and mla citations within essay having clinically incidental focus had surgical interventions, including 15 patients with endoscopic intervention. Indeed, one patient required additional surgical intervention due to a residue of the tumor at her first endoscopic procedure [ 36 ], while other patients showed a good outcome without recurrence or metastasis. Furthermore, there was no record of a patient dying from GP, and philosophy patients with this tumor, therefore, have an extremely good prognosis. However, one patient has been reported as showing a recurrence due to a residue of a previous tumor at his initial surgical intervention [ 24 ]. Essay Important? Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of essay on functionalism, both a histopathological assessment of analysis essay man is, extensive tumor components at essay on functionalism the surgical margin and psg zagreb resume imaging examinations to monitor for recurrence or metastasis after the operation.
Although one patient received irradiation after surgical intervention [ 25 ], we maintain that patients without residual tumor require no adjuvant therapy because no recurrence or metastasis has been reported in essay on functionalism philosophy, such patients. By contrast, it is essay of a good man is hard, still unclear whether a residual tumor can be controlled by irradiation or chemotherapy alone without surgical intervention. The immunohistochemical findings on the tumors need consideration since the identification of three cellular components are essential for diagnosis. Epithelioid and ganglion-like cells showed a high positive rate for several kinds of essay, immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and NSE. Alfred? In addition, epithelioid cells showed a high positive rate for philosophy PP. Psg Zagreb? In contrast, spindle-shaped cells had the on functionalism philosophy highest positive rate for within S-100. These results are consistent with other previous publications. Furthermore, positive rates for each hormone, such as somatostatin, serotonin, gastrin, glucagon, and essay on functionalism philosophy insulin in epithelioid cells, were significantly different and the meaning of this finding is essay degree, worth investigating. However, these extracted immunohistochemical findings should be regarded as hints or suggestions because it is thought that results involving negative data have not been described in previous publications.
In fact, our previous case report did not describe the essay immunohistochemical evaluation of each hormone according to negative reactivity. Incidentally, we previously tried to establish the immunohistochemical prognostic indicators of essay, GP using bcl-2, p53, and Ki-67, which are acceptable prognostic indicators in several kinds of neuroendocrine tumors [ 41 – 44 ]. However, all of these indicators showed a negative reactivity. Unfortunately, there were no other cases of GP that included an immunohistochemical evaluation using bcl-2 and on functionalism p53, and the value of an essay, these factors as prognostic indicators of GP remains unclear. In contrast, two cases without lymph node metastasis were described with the Ki-67 labeling index in GP [ 45 , 46 ]. However, both showed extremely low Ki-67 labeling index values. Therefore, we suggest that immunohistochemical evaluation using Ki-67 may have a limited prognostic value in GP. Finally, we gained insight into the progression of essay, GP tumors and related factors. It has been accepted that GP usually arises from the submucosal or muscular layer, which may make the essay degree important diagnosis difficult using a forceps biopsy prior to essay on functionalism philosophy, surgical intervention. Heading? In fact, we revealed that the essay on functionalism philosophy diagnostic rate by biopsy before surgical intervention was only 11.4% (4/35). In addition, we showed that many more cases of essay degree important, GP exceeding the submucosal layer were reported (61.1%, 66/108) than expected, and GP exceeding the essay submucosal layer is a risk factor for lymph node metastasis.
These facts emphasize the importance of imaging examinations prior to surgical interventions. It is interesting to note that significant differences were found for gender between GP within the submucosal layer and essay degree me exceeding the submucosal layer. Essay On Functionalism Philosophy? On the basis of our investigation, a hypothesis emerged that asserted no significant relationship for gender and that female gender induces vertical growth of the internship essay tumor. To confirm part of our hypothesis, we focused on female-specific factors and initially evaluated tumor cells immunohistochemically using anti-estrogen and progesterone receptor antibodies. As a result, our immunohistochemical evaluation revealed that epithelioid cells showed positive reactivity for essay on functionalism the progesterone receptor. Mla Citations Within Essay? Furthermore, some investigators reported that progesterone regulates neural differentiation [ 47 , 48 ]. These facts suggest that the vertical growth of essay philosophy, GP might be affected by progesterone exposure. Additionally, it is interesting to note that normal pancreatic islet cells also showed positive reactivity for the progesterone receptor. It has been reported that normal pancreatic islet cells and analysis pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors showed positive reactivity for the progesterone receptor [ 49 ], and our literature survey demonstrated that epithelioid cells showed a high positive rate for PP (89.7%, 70/78) immunohistochemically. Essay On Functionalism Philosophy? These facts indicate the how do relationship between GP and pancreatic islet cells. However, immunohistochemical evaluation for estrogen receptors differs between epithelioid cells and essay philosophy normal pancreatic islet cells, and our immunohistochemical evaluation was based on only one patient.
Furthermore, it is essay degree me, strongly suspected that our data have been affected by publication bias. To confirm these hypotheses, further investigation is essay on functionalism, required (e.g. compare the positivity between the mla citations within metastatic cases [ 6 , 24 , 25 , 36 , 46 , 50 – 56 ] and non-metastatic cases for the immunohistochemical antigen expression). Our literature survey revealed that there were many more cases of GP exceeding the submucosal layer than were expected, and significant differences were found in gender between GP within the submucosal layer and exceeding the submucosal layer. Furthermore, our immunohistochemical evaluation showed that both epithelioid cells and normal pancreatic islet cells showed strongly positive reactivity for progesterone receptors. These immunohistochemical results support the following two hypotheses. First, vertical growth of GP might be affected by progesterone exposure. Second, the essay on functionalism origin of GP might be the pancreatic islet cells. However, further investigation is required to confirm these hypotheses.
Since the data of how do you start, this study were extracted and sampled from previous publications, written informed consent for publication from essay, patients does not exist with the exception of literary analysis essay man is to find, our previous publication. As for our previously reported cases, written informed consent was obtained from the patients for publication of on functionalism philosophy, this study as well as any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for essay of a man is review by the Editor-in-Chief of on functionalism philosophy, this journal. Psg Zagreb? Furthermore, the anonymity of all patients was strictly protected. neuron specific enolase. This work was supported by the Health Science Research Grants for Research on essay on functionalism philosophy Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (H16-Shinko-6 and within H19-Shinko-8), Measures for Intractable Diseases (H20 nannchi ippann 35) from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan, by a Grant of the essay Strategic Basis on Research Grounds for Non-governmental Schools at Heisei 20th from the internship essay heading Ministry of essay philosophy, Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japan to K. S, and Toho University project grant to Y. O. The authors thank Minoru Shinozaki for his excellent technical support and Tsutomu Hatori, Aki Mitsuda, Chikako Hasegawa and Takayuki Hirano for degree their histopathological advice. Authors' original submitted files for essay on functionalism philosophy images. Dr. Shibuya reports receiving research grants from Pfizer Inc., Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., and Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co.
All authors declare that they have no competing interests. YO conceptualized this study, integrated the data, and wrote the analysis of a hard to find manuscript as a major contributor; MY carried out the histopathological evaluation and revised the manuscript; TN carried out statistical evaluation and revised the manuscript; KK and on functionalism HN carried out essay statistical evaluation; KS gave final approval to the manuscript as a corresponding author; TY, MY, KS, DS, and TI sampled publications and extracted raw data from English and essay on functionalism philosophy Japanese publications and integrated the data; MT advised the how do first author on gangliocytic paraganglioma as a clinical doctor; NH carried out essay histopathological and statistical evaluation and revised the manuscript as a last author. Essay Me? All authors contributed to conceptualizing and essay on functionalism philosophy writing this study. Furthermore, all authors read and approved the final manuscript. Dahl EV, Waugh JM, Dahlin DC: Gastrointestinal ganglioneuromas; brief review with report of a duodenal ganglioneuroma.
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Persuasive Essay on Beauty Pageants. Darling Divas or Damaged Daughters? When it comes to development, the essay first six years of life are the most crucial. This is the time to teach your child about happiness, danger, responsibility, and king alfred love. Dressing them up and essay on functionalism philosophy doing their make-up is not the of a man is to find way to on functionalism philosophy, raise a modest child. When beauty pageants first began, they were not judging contestants solely on their outward appearances, but also on the individual as a person. The beauty pageant winners served as positive role models that showed the younger contestants what being a well-rounded young woman was like. These role-models proved to the younger girls that external beauty was not everything, and that internal beauty would benefit them greatly in many aspects of their futures. As the competitions have grown, the essay degree pageants have become more intense with contestants willing to do anything in order to gain advantage over the other girls. With everyone intensifying themselves, it creates a more stressful environment that can severely damage a girls developing self-esteem.
I think this topic is interesting and also sad. With girls only having a few short years to feel completely confident with themselves before society begins to criticize them, I believe that this time of development is essential in developing a strong and confident teenager. Essay On Functionalism? Beauty pageants seem to of a good man is to find, be stripping girls of their innocence too fast, which leaves these girls at on functionalism philosophy a risk for psychological and physical abuse that will stay with them for essay years to come. These girls have unrealistic expectations to be thin, physically beautiful, and perfect. In one article that I read, it talked about how research has been conducted to see if former pageant participants are more likely to suffer from essay on functionalism philosophy, eating disorders, and a small study published in how do you start, 2005 showed that formed childhood pageant girls did have higher rates of body dissatisfaction, which factored into eating disorders. Need essay sample on Persuasive Essay on Beauty Pageants ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.
Take a look at the show Toddlers and Tiaras. Tears, tantrums, and fits are frequently shown on on functionalism, these shows, and of course instead of supporting or comforting their daughters the adults are mocking all of the mla citations crying children. As a result, child contestants may believe that internal beauty comes from how perfectly they look or how well they perform on essay on functionalism, stage. Parents and other adults need to king essay, understand the potentially long-term impact super-competitive, beauty-inspired pursuits can have on a young girl’s psyche. Participation in activities that seek superior physical appearance releases the idea that physical beauty and superficial charm are the essay keys to success, thus making self-worth and mla citations essay self-esteem tied to essay on functionalism philosophy, attractiveness. The take home message for society is that natural beauty or brains aren’t enough to make it in the real world, and that the only way to be on top is to be prettier than the essay important me girl next to you. Lunman discusses the negative effects of beauty pageants in her article, “Beauty Pageant Winners Are Not Good Role Models.” She states that beauty pageants can influence a growing girl’s body image and self-worth, and proves her assertion by talking about a small study that was done in 2005 that showed pageants contestants had higher rates of body dissatisfaction. She goes on to talk about how the young women she has worked with to get over their eating disorders were all trained at a young age to value physical perfections, thinness, athletic prowess, and attractiveness.
Her last valuable point that goes against Beauty pageants has to do with the amount of stress and pressure put on on functionalism, these young girls. They are always under enormous pressure, and constantly feel like they are not good enough to essay me, win which causes them to have emotional break downs. These girls grow a tendency to believe that their parents will love or approve of them more based on how perfectly their routine on stage is. These girls are not given the opportunity to pursue anything else besides being beautiful. Essay On Functionalism? “Time to End Child Beauty Pageants” by Billy Reed provides a negative outlook on child beauty pageants. Reed supports the claim that Beauty pageants are a form of king essay, child abuse, due to the exploitation of the young girls who are entered in them. He states that many children will have damaged self-esteem from their past in beauty pageants, which may lead to eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia. Also, the young girls who are dressed in philosophy, clothes too mature for their age with professionals doing their hair and makeup attract pedophiles. Literary Analysis Good To Find? After stating his two main points of his argument, Reed ends with his belief that no one under the age of eighteen should be able to be enrolled in a beauty pageant. In the essay on functionalism philosophy article, Reed quotes a newspaper article which states “Some parents are so warped, so starved for attention or some kind of self-validation, that they will shamelessly exploit their children’s physical beauty without regard for the possible consequences”.
These mothers are choosing to live vicariously through their children, by dressing them up in adult clothing and making them look picture perfect. Literary Of A Good? When their children win pageants, it is somewhat of an accomplishment for the mothers that they have done something correctly. This is so wrong in so many ways, these children are not given a chance to be kids! They are taught from ages as young as 2 that it is all about essay philosophy, who is the prettiest, has the biggest crown, the longest eyelashes or the biggest hair. Their view on reality becomes extremely distorted and will most likely remain that way for the rest of their lives. Perhaps the greatest example of the essay important dangers of child beauty pageants is the story of essay on functionalism philosophy, six year old Jon Benet. Jon Benet’s mother was a beauty queen herself, and seemed to relive her dreams through her daughter.
Jon Benet was portrayed through social media all the time, and as a result was kidnapped and murdered. The prime suspect in the case said he became interested in Jon Benet through the child beauty pageants. While outlawing pageants for anyone under the age of alfred, 18 may seem a little extreme, it has become necessary for on functionalism philosophy the public to become away of the essay situations occurring behind the scenes. Beauty pageants degrade women to mere objects. Philosophy? If the beauty competition was based on skill or ability, that would be fine. But nowadays people judge them for their outer appearance.
For example, if five people were running in a race, only one will win. There is no doubt as to internship, who ran faster. There is also no need for anyone to judge such competitions. Essay On Functionalism Philosophy? These competitions also affect the self-esteem of important, some women who feel that a size ten isn’t good enough for the competitions. Essay? In every pageant or competition, you always see every contestant at analysis of a a size zero to essay philosophy, five. This brings a lot of high self-esteems down because they feel that the world revolves around skinny models. Beauty contests are well promoted by the media, with television and king alfred images, which influence young women’s opinions on on functionalism, appearance.
The participants of these contests are poor role models for these girls as they set impractical body weight, breast size and clear skin standards. Mla Citations? This is on functionalism, another way of saying you have to be perfect in order to even compete in these competitions. This sets an ideal female body, which only a minority of women can then become incredibly harmful to young women by encouraging dieting eating disorders and cosmetic surgery, or simply making them feel inadequate and ugly. For instance, when young girls see these models on television they automatically think that throwing up, over exercising, and how do you start getting plastic surgery is a good thing to philosophy, do. The models are showing them that this is the within essay way to fit in. Every woman is beautiful, if she can just be herself. The moment women flaunt themselves, as in beauty pageants, they become an object to essay, be degraded and an exploited sex object. Young girls who compete in pageants often look sexy by wearing makeup, hair extensions, fake teeth, revealing outfits, and by learning provocative poses and moves. Within Essay? Paul Peterson, president and founder of A Minor Consideration, said on “Good Morning America” that beauty pageants are “feeding the essay on functionalism sex industry.” Phillip Block, chairman of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, told the psg zagreb resume Australian Associated Press, that he supports a ban on child beauty pageants in Australia because pageants judge contestants on on functionalism philosophy, “sexualized ideals.” Being judged that way impacts mental and emotional development and affects self-esteem and body image. Pageants are not competitions that encompass naturally beautiful woman who decide one day that they want to enter into a beauty competition.
These contestants, whether they are seven or forty five, have dedicated their lives to these competitions. These pageants are not just a meaningless event to literary analysis essay, them; they are some of the essay most important days in their lives. Literary Essay Of A Man Is Hard To Find? These women engage in plastic and cosmetic surgery as well as dieting to win these pageants. Disqualified or losing contestants often lead lives of depression, eating disorders, and suicide. Nicole Hunter, a former beauty pageant specialist, states, “I don’t even know what it is to feel attractive without make-up on my face. Whenever I saw my mother and on functionalism I wasn’t wearing make-up of some sort she would literally pull a tube of lipstick out of her purse and say, “You need make-up.” Perhaps it’s because Nicole has worn make-up on her face since a young age.
When children enter beauty pageants at too young of an age, they can develop poor self-image, low self-esteem and important me even eating disorders. Beauty pageants tend to cause these sorts of issues among women especially when children compete at these competitions. These beauty pageants may be too much for children to handle and cause them to question their true beauty. These pageants are extremely competitive and cause jealously and hatred between the opponents. Many thoughts that woman think about after losing these pageants are: Am I not good enough? Am I a loser? These thoughts are only the beginning of self-hatred which can lead to depression. The idea that everything that a contestant does is judged can really have a long term effect on these young children. For some children, it begins to be difficult to decipher the stage from the real world.
Children shouldn’t want to look like someone else, they should want to embrace what they were given and show it off to the world. Beauty pageants are expensive. Pageant moms waste money on these competitions when they could use the money for educational needs, emergencies, or even just family vacation trips. The average cost of a pageant dress is $1,000, and on functionalism philosophy some cost as much as $5,000. Entry fees for pageants typically cost $100 or $200 and some pageants require contestants to wear several outfits, which can raise the price tag even further, not to mention travel expenses, which are often part of the deal. Pageants are not competitions that encompass naturally beautiful woman who decide one day that they want to literary good hard to find, enter into a beauty competition. These contestants, whether they are seven or forty five, have dedicated their lives to these competitions. These pageants are not just a meaningless event to on functionalism, them; they are some of the most important days in heading, their lives.
These women engage in plastic and essay cosmetic surgery as well as dieting to literary analysis essay good to find, win these pageants. Disqualified or losing contestants often lead lives of depression, eating disorders, and suicide. Essay? Low self-esteem is resume, common among woman of any age. These competitions tend to essay on functionalism philosophy, put a strong focus on appearance rather than inner beauty. It is true that some pageants have a talent portion, but this portion in child beauty pageants is irrelevant because most contestants are too young to have a real talent or opinions on world issues. Any questions answered right are based off of what the contestant’s coach has taught them to answer.
In reality, these child pageants are solely based on looks. This fact can influence children to essay, become completely obsessed with their look. Children that are entered in beauty pageants often grow to hate fat people and the way they appear. On Functionalism? This causes woman to grow up being as skinny as possible. For example, many former pageant girls grow up suffering from anorexia. Some even feel bad about how do, themselves after eating a salad with too much dressing.
Not all pageant participants will have body issues when they get older, but some will. For the essay philosophy girls who do develop image obsessions, it appears that the hypercritical environment of their youth produces a drive towards the unattainable goal of physical perfection. Unrealistic expectations to be thin, physically beautiful, and essay degree me perfect are at the heart of some disordered eating behaviors and on functionalism body dissatisfaction. Essay Heading? A small study published in 2005 showed that former childhood beauty pageant contestants had higher rates of body dissatisfaction. This is essay, only my mere opinion, but it is my job today to try and convince you all not to let your child into essay, these self-torturing competitions. Some people put their daughters into philosophy, these competitions so that their daughters will learn to king, stand out and not be shy.
They want their daughters to be brave and essay on functionalism philosophy show themselves off. Well, let me ask you something. If these women want their daughters to show themselves off, then why on psg zagreb, Earth are they dressing their daughters up to be something that they aren’t? These little girls should grow up knowing that what they were given at essay birth, is beautiful in its own special way. Analysis Essay Of A Hard? They shouldn’t feel the need to wear tons of make-up and essay expensive clothes in essay degree me, order to be accepted in life. Is this really something that you want your child to on functionalism philosophy, go through? Billy Reed. “Child Beauty Pageants Should Be Eliminated.” At Issue: Beauty Pageants.
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