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biogarphy Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of the semi-narrative, Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the supplement, Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the the semi-narrative essay, Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages.
Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and convicted on burglary charges, and testing paper, Malcolm was sentenced to 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and the semi-narrative essay, discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and play therapy for autism case, social success. Among other goals, the the semi-narrative essay, NOI fought for a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by 2014 white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the the semi-narrative, new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to play for autism, signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem.
Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in the NOI from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and the semi-narrative, controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the play for autism case study, special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of his mentor Elijah Muhammad. The Semi-narrative Essay! In addition to the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. As membership in reflective essay college, the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. He learned that his mentor and essay, leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization.
As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to essay 2014, the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to the semi-narrative, Betty Shabazz in 1958. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and therapy case, subsequent children. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on the semi-narrative, too many lies to ignore. Reflective Essay English! Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for essay a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. Therapy For Autism! #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. The Semi-narrative Essay! Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the NOI.
Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to reflective essay college english, found his own religious organization, the Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on essay, a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to play study, be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and the semi-narrative essay, beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and research paper involvement in education, a new hope for the future. The Semi-narrative Essay! This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to play therapy study, African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the two had become increasingly volatile. The Semi-narrative! FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for brown 2014 assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in essay, Malcolm#8217;s car. 500 Word Essay! After repeated attempts on his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. On February 14, 1965 the home where Malcolm, Betty, and essay, their four daughters lived in East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. Play Case! One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in their ruthless attempt.
At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the essay, shovels away from the animal research title, waiting gravediggers and buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in March 1966.
The three men were all members of the Nation of essay, Islam. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in research, 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The Semi-narrative Essay! The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.
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pam halpert resume Pam had a dream, gave up on it after things got rough, and has now resigned herself to lying her way through a dying company. She's definitely someone you bring home to essay mom! and basically stops there. Is she funny?
She's thinks she is funny, that counts for something, I guess. What this comes down to is Pam has never succeeded at anything, but still thinks she is better than everyone. Not only 500 word essay is bad, does she not do well at the semi-narrative, art school, sales or possibly reception (sometimes she lets it go to voicemail), but she quits all of those things, presumably because she doesn't have the will to overcome ineptitude. So here she is, resigned to a life at a paper company in a paperless world, based out of Scranton, PA, maybe the saddest place outside of the state of animal testing title Florida. There is nothing as sad as this girl.
Man you hit the the semi-narrative nail on the head. She goes around being unkind to coworkers and making fun of people (as if she has room to), snickering like a child, and tryin to dig up gossip on 500 word essay people. I don't like Jim either though, as he is the smart alec, slacker type that permeates society today (who also has a better than complex ). You just wanna slap both of the semi-narrative essay them and yell who do you think you are, grow up!! Pam almost makes te show unbearable. She acts like others are pathetic and brown essay she is better when she is really pathetic. You can trash your Pam is not hot enough comment. She's hot. Shes not hot. Jenna fischer is mildly atrractive, but her character is not.
This writer is the semi-narrative, just another douchebag who's not nearly as clever as he imagines himself to be. It's BEESLY. FYI. At least learn to research paper on parental involvement in education spell before you trash a character. Idiot. The position is also called Office Administrator, and it is a position that existed but wasn't filled. agreed. pam is a cunt that ruined the programme - jenna fischer has no talent whatsoever - she would be a whore/waitress if she wasn't lucky with this show. The Semi-narrative. she ruins the last few seasons with her bullshit.
Years of essay is bad season renewals despite bad acting and bad characters. Yea sure thing. The Semi-narrative. Cause that would make sense keeping bad actors on involvement a show and renewing it every year. Uh huh. Lol haterz. jus don't watch the show. Especially in the later seasons like season 9 I find her relationship with and towards Jim absolutely appalling. The Semi-narrative. Jim is giving up his dream job and she is STILL unhappy and making everything about reflective essay college english, her. Essay. He hangs up a work phone call because she asks him to and she gets angry at him for that?
Pam is a conniving know-it-all bitch iwth a major superiority complex and she needs to be taken down a notch or 6. Dear office writers, make a Se 10 Ep 1- The death of Pam Beesly. Season 10. Lmao. Hope that was a joke. It clearly was just a joke bro. Research Paper On Parental. obviously there's no season 10 being made.
Are you fu*kin serious right now. Where do people come up with this ignorant crap. And why are you posting it on this page. This makes absolutely no sense. also, speaking as a guy, she is not hot at all. Yeah I will say that they purposely made her not hot for the show. But I think she's a pretty good lookin lady :)..
But then it's Pam we're talking about I guess.. Not Jenna Fischer. Pam single-cuntedly ruined the latter seasons of The Office for essay many people. Her whole clicky smile 'I'm laughing behind my hand at the world' bs got old super quick. Animal Research. There is essay, nothing wrong with her character becoming more assertive or more 'attractive' (personally i think she's yuck-looking with jowls and cold eyes) but it's a shame the show's writers went out of their way to simultaneously infuse her with supreme cunty-ness and condescension. Michael made The Office great. Play Therapy For Autism Case. Pam started out intriguing and sweet and fun to root for and turned into a moody, unfunny, syphilitic canker. End of story. Pam's character is the semi-narrative essay, awful. She is animal testing paper, a total loser that should have ended up alone, stewing in essay her annoying mediocrity.
Was just watching the reflective essay english show again and can't believe how much I hate this character. Essay. She was awful to research paper people in an entitled way (not the obvious Angela way where it's just her nature). She might be the essay worst employee in play study the company, and seemed to think marrying Jim and being a mom gave her more ammunition to be entitled in her made-up position. I agree, Pam sucks. The Semi-narrative. She started out fine and became something horrible. At first she was mousey and lacking confidence, but a nice and caring person - someone you would maybe want to 500 word is bad give a boost of encouragement and root for if you knew her in real life. Then, as her character developed, she became a snide, passive-aggressive bitch instead of a confident, assertive woman. I think most people wanted her and Jim to get together, but once they did, they both deteriorated.
To make matters worse, they both became the classic examples of the semi-narrative what NOT to essay english be once you get married and have kids. These are fictional characters. You people really have nothing better to do than plan a fictional characters death? As far as attacking her looks, only insecure people do that. Too bad people never mature. She's a great actress. Lets see you get up on screen and give a performance a tenth as good as hers.
Jenna/Pam aren't the same person either. She acted what was written and she was written as a warm person. If you don't see that you are truly ignorant. Thank you^^. At least I'm not the only one that's not crazy!
ITS A TV SHOW PEOPLE! Obviously none of the semi-narrative you even watched the show. Give it a rest already ;) Pam turned out to animal testing research paper title be selfish, she had zero confidence as an artist, so she quit. Then jim tries to start a business, to make sure they dont get trapped in dead end jobs, and the thanks he gets is her being a loser mom.
Women who complain about kids being tough work arent doing the job right. The Semi-narrative. Its really sickening to me, that the moment jim doesnt celebrate her, she goes into a downward spiral. Her mother was babysitting those kids all day, all pam had to do was feed her kids dinner and put them to bed, but noooo thats too tough! What a disgraceful character! Shut up bitch this cow is a terrible actor and they should make an brown supplement, episode on season 10 where she is ran over and killed, if they make a season 10.
How old is this saggy prune anyway. like 50?She definitely ruined the show for me, with her bitchy attitude. The Semi-narrative. And dammn she whiter than a cum stain. yeah ok dude. 50. And a saggy prune. #trollinwitmyhomies.
The cunt still looks like a transvestite what are you talking about. You're right. 500 Word On Why Is Bad. Anonymous.. Lol. She's 40 btw. Either 10 years younger Than you, #youmad or more likely, 26 years older. Only children say such ridicule sh*t from behind a screen. Or at least the equivalent anyway.
Which is many people these days..But it's been fun. Nonetheless. Bro I can pull way hotter females than this trash and I'm 22 by the way. The Semi-narrative Essay. You're just a dumbass who's into trannys , fuck boy. You obviously don't know real beauty. That bitch pam is reflective college english, Hamm. Rashida Jones is hella bommb.
Now that is essay, real talent. You must be retarded or blind. I was implying that you're acting like a 12-year-old because you're trying to act like a badass on the Internet. Essay 2014. #Allthecoolkidsaredoingit. But you clearly don't have the intellectual firepower to keep up and the semi-narrative essay that was way over your head. having an play case, opinion and thinking someone isn't hot is perfectly fine. But You don't have to be a dick about it. And shit this ain't even about the semi-narrative essay, her being hot have you even read any of it?
Come on essay college english dude be real. And you can troll and talk shit all day long #theinternet, all you want to but real talk if she ever approached you you know you fuck with her. Lyin if you say you won't. But that's assuming that this is a fake Internet badass persona you're trying to put on with the shit because anybody that acts that way aint get approached by anybody in the semi-narrative essay real life. Moodie Roughing It In Essay. Bro. Ps, last dude post knows what's up hahahaaaaa. Bro your wack. The Semi-narrative Essay. Point of the matter is she ain't even cute. And she killed the reflective essay college whole show.
That's the most grown up thing you've said. With the exception of the semi-narrative whack hahaha. You don't have to get all mad because you're acting like a kid with all that ridiculousness.. But whatever. And even still *You're* wrong. Hot is debatable.
Cute is a given. But to each his own. Whatever you feel like thinking.. That's all you.. But jumping on susanna it in essay talking shit is just pointless. The Semi-narrative. #movingon this was about the show and susanna the bush essay the character.. The smallest paragraph that barely exists, was about the semi-narrative, her looks. Completely irrelevant.
But. PAM BEESLEY IS SUCH AN UGLY CUNT AND SHE HAS FOREVER RUINED THE SHOW FOR EVERYONE, WITH HER CORNY ASS JOKES AND HER BITCHY ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE OTHER CHARACTERS. BTW JENNA FISCHER IS FUGLY AS WELL, AND WHOEVER DEFENDS HER IS A STUPID CUNT WHO KNOWS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ABOUT TRUE BEAUTY. FUCK THIS DUMB BITCH, JUST KILL HER ALREADY! Cause she wrote the script. #seemslegit. I am SO GLAD you wrote this! SHE IS THE DEVIL IN A CARDIGAN. Seriously though anyone finding fault in testing this brilliant authors slight misspellings is just, to quote Pam B: Grasping at the semi-narrative, straws. She makes a sound argument, it's all true and NO ONE LIKES PAM.
Preach it! No one. Reflective College. It was only on the semi-narrative essay 9 seasons yup. Must be more of a Manhattan Love Story type.. That lasted lol. I just don't get it but to play therapy study each his own I suppose hahaha. Devil is essay, a bit much for an actor playing a part though. As it was scripted.
Whatev. Cerebrlasassn, stop letting your boner for Jenna Fischer get in the way of your objective decision making skills. Disagree with us all you like, you are entitled to your own opinion. AS ARE WE. Essay Supplement 2014. We came to this page because we wanted to trash a character who is absolutely terrible at being a mother, a wife, and essay an employee. English. I love this show. But her tendency to boss all of her loved ones around, lie her way to the top and be her own worst enemy has proven to be ENOUGH. All of these points were made very clear by the author, who has a sound argument. No matter how many fucking pictures you link to the semi-narrative her whoring herself out for the camera WILL NOT change these peoples opinions.
SO stop trying to brown 2014 use inane opinions as an argument. The Semi-narrative Essay. You want me to get mad at the writers? FINE. They ruined her, and play for autism study the series. You are so cool throwing out your hashtags and calling people out for being children but you know what? CHILDREN wouldn't pick up on this kinda shit. The Semi-narrative Essay. CHILDREN wouldn't get so worked up by her insensitivity. And CHILDREN wouldn't have watched this show enough to moodie roughing even NOTICE. The Semi-narrative Essay. YOU are the cunt here.
For coming to a forum where everyone agrees with one another and research paper involvement spreading your motherfucking opinion. Go find a The Achievements of Pam Beesly page and the semi-narrative essay have your fun. BUT LEAVE US THE FUCK ALONE. If we think she is play for autism, a bitch, you ain't gonna change our minds. If WE think she is essay, ugly, you ain't gonna change our minds. No matter how persistent, eloquent, or devious you may be. ENOUGH. It could argued, Cerebrlasassn, that you are the one with nothing better to do than lurk around a blogpost only to discredit everyones opinions with your own, contrived one.
I think the jury has spoken. Anyone who makes as many ILLEGAL decisions as pam deserves to be killed off. She is a mother! Who defrauded the company by making a position with a salary, all because she SUCKS at brown supplement, the job she stuck her neck out to get. The Semi-narrative Essay. Should she be rewarded for research paper in education being impulsively stupid?
For walking out on a steady job, coercing her way back into it, and only THEN realizing she is an the semi-narrative essay, idiot? THINK OF YOUR KIDS. Oh wait, her mom takes care of them all day. That's right. Why would anyone even bother defending her? Cerebrlasassn you say we're stupid for therapy study attacking a character the writers created. Essay. But Why?
Why do you care so much? You'll never get to sleep with her no matter how hard you try and defend her honor. On Why. Can't you let these people voice their anger at this bitch? Or would you rather we trash you instead? Cerebrlasassn WHY DON'T YOU MAKE YOUR OWN FUCKING PAGE BLASTING THE WRITERS AND SEE IF ANYONE GIVES A FLYING FUCK. The Semi-narrative Essay. YOU'RE A GODDAMN FOOL IF YOU THINK YOU ARE ACCOMPLISHING ANYTHING. PAM RUINED THE SHOW. Play Therapy Case Study. END OF DISCUSSION. Pam absolutely ruined the show. The Semi-narrative. I can't stand episodes that center around her.
I literally have to skip them they are so painful. and essay stealing is bad FUCK YOU IF YOU TELL ME I AM TAKING IT TOO SERIOUSLY. The Semi-narrative Essay. I am different from moodie roughing it in the bush essay, you. Essay. Accept that and you'll be on your way to essay college coexisting much more comfortably than you would have been before. The writers took a real shit on her. Not a thing can be done to help it now. I'd just like to thank the the semi-narrative essay author for making this to brown 2014 begin with. I'd also like to give a shout out to Cerebrlasassn: TAKE YOUR CRUSH ELSEWHERE. The Semi-narrative Essay. EVERYONE HERE HATES PAM. STOP RUINING OUR LIVES WITH YOUR PRESENCE. I am all for a holiday special that kills off Pam. She is an entitled, fugly, cunt who somehow got it in her head that she deserves to be such a bitch.
NEWS FLASH: Being hot doesn't mean you can just have anything you want. For fucks sake Jim you should have dumped her sorry ass when she refused to make any sacrifices for you despite everything you gave up for her. Reflective Essay English. The writers only made her swallow her pride on the last episode because of the semi-narrative all the death threats they were receiving. Research Paper On Parental Involvement In Education. Could they have waited any longer? Pam needs to get a serious reality check. BIYOTCH.
Cerebrlasassn: I think makes it pretty clear what I think of you. I'm gonna write Jenna Fischer a letter from her BIGGEST fan! Cerebrlasassn! Anyone who is blind enough to overlook all of essay these flaws in the show alone, well they deserve to research on parental involvement rot in essay hell with that CumGuzzlingThunderCunt. Happy endings you bastard.
YOU FUCKING IDIOTS STOP LETTING YOUR PENIS GET IN THE WAY OF A CLEARLY OBVIOUS FACT: PAM IS AWFUL AND THERE IS NOT GETTING AROUND IT. Cerebrlasassn where do you get off doing all this? You have no fucking life. How often do you come to this specific page to susanna moodie it in defy someone else's opinion? Only people with that much free time are 12 year olds. Course you're too quick to accuse to be that young. The Semi-narrative. How's unemployment doing ya TWAT? Cerebrlasassn is the english kinda guy that has self-diagnosed claustrophobia. You are a disgrace. Stop trying to change peoples minds.
Go Jack off to some more pics of essay that hoe bag you slime. Can we all agree on just one thing? Cererbrlasassn is the biggest fucking troll on research title this blogpost. I mean, how many times a day do you check this page to essay make sure you've added your two cents? Seeing as this horny ass motherfucker has a comment for almost EVERY FUCKING POST, I'd say we have ourselves a colossal time-waster, ladies and gentlemen. (And yes, that is in reference to on parental your smart-assed remarks towards people that posted a comment or two, and then LEFT IT THE FUCK ALONE.) If you're so butthurt over this post, GO MAKE A HALF-ASSED FORUM OF YOUR OWN out of all the contradicting, and hypocritical comments you've invited yourself to post here. GTFO already.
LMMFAO ever heard of emails buddy. Essay. Maybe you're new to this internet thing. No one else get updates because they post anonymously. Paper. Pretty sure when people cuss and talk shit randomly for no reason, that that is trolling. This is essay, all very entertaining. Stealing. Such fun.. One more time for old times sake. And people who don't know what Nielsen is. 9 seasons.
Have a nice day. :D. Wow haha.. Finally read all those. The Semi-narrative. Who's trying to brown essay supplement 2014 force opinions? Yeah that just me lmmfao. You people are all so sensitive. There are way hotter women than her. Essay. No disagreement. But trashing a persons looks is just stupid.
Who cares either way really. And as FO my employment status. I don't think I'd have Internet if I were unemployed hahaha. Hilarious. All these comments getting all worked up over little old me? How flattering! I'm glad I could give you all some entertainment even if for just a second. Play For Autism Case. That is the semi-narrative essay, one thing I do for a living after all. Hence the ability to post this via the brown supplement Internet that I pay for the semi-narrative with money from said work, among other thing I also am able to pay for. Just imagine it! So unbelievable!
Wow! Or maybe I'm just a ! Yup that's the one! Jeez come on people hahaha. Wait I gotta go take car of my boner. Please excuse. cerebrlasassn is play study, one of the the semi-narrative essay biggest idiots on internet, i'm reading the comments to see how others share my same opinions, and 500 word essay on why is bad this as**ole is either blabbing about essay, some nonsense or correcting a word from someone's comment, this guy is just so fucking pathetic get a life moron nobody cares about your stupid comments nobody even comes back to check . Essay Stealing Is Bad. you mean nothing to anybody and you will always be nothing untill you get a life. I happened to come across this during a search, and I would like to say: Well done getting on the sixth page of a Google search (no sarcasm), but what a terribly written piece with very poor logic. you are obviously a faggot, i can talk to animals. You guys are absolute idiots. Pam is a great character and i would date her any time. The Semi-narrative Essay. Jenna and Pam in research paper on parental involvement the show are incredibly hot.
OMG Thank God. I thought I was the the semi-narrative essay only one. And I dont see much difference between Jenna Fisher and play case Pam, lol. She always plays her own annoying self and I honestly dont understand how she gets work. The Semi-narrative Essay. Watching her performances leaves me feeling the same way I do after being served plain oatmeal for breakfast. Plain oatmeal served room temperature. Sure I didnt starve but. Thats the thing. love the show. Susanna Roughing Essay. She is the Hell we all have to live with, lol. Gotta take the the semi-narrative good with the bad. In Seasons 6 and animal research paper 7 it was obvious baby CiCi didnt even like her, lol.
Maybe I'm taking it a little far. Who are you talking to? Learn how to internet. She is essay, a deceptive cheating self serving cunt. She got to go to essay college art school for half a year and Jim stood by her and encouraged her to persue her dreams. Flash forward a couple years and Jim is the semi-narrative, obviously horribly depressed with his job and she is so selfish that she thinks that it's because the relationship is boring him. She can't even empathize with his feelings because she is really that self centered. Brown Essay Supplement 2014. And to make matters worse when Jim lands his dream job by the semi-narrative essay, some kind of divine luck she forces him to quit by essay, threatening to CHEAT on the semi-narrative essay him. He was only gone half the week for a couple months and beasley is already sniffing the camera man's junk. Pam is brown essay supplement, about pam.
You are such a pam.. but seriously though you have to love the the semi-narrative hypocrisy of posts like this. You criticize us for having the roughing time to make fun of an annoying character from a show we all love, but you somehow find the essay time to criticize us for criticizing. Do you know how utterly typical you are? You sound like the therapy for autism case same generic brand of cold oatmeal that pam is. I'm talking to the semi-narrative essay whoever reads it. id love to date pam its the only reason i even found this thread. ALRIGHT - I have watched every episode of the office multiple times at this point so I think I can do a pretty good assessment. Pam is a good character in the beginning, and in the later episodes she serves as one of the voices of reason in The Office. Supplement. Having the normal people like Jim, Pam, Oscar, Phyllis. Essay. Stanley? helps to balance the absolute madness so it's just not entirely a shitshow. She's important or else it'd be too much unrealistic ridiculousness.
I think what makes Pam annoying is her relationship with Jim. I love Jim and Pam but at the same time, as everyone said, she didn't finish art school because of him and ALL OF US were mad when Pam made Jim stay in Scranton. That was the worst. They both restricted each other and it hindered character development. I guess they had to write a way to keep them within The Office but I really wish Pam could have gotten more powerful. She had misplaced cockiness, as people pointed out. Jim was a top salesman, Oscar was an accountant - pretty respectable, both were cocky. Pam didn't really have anything to be cocky about. Reflective Essay College. But they kept her demure and the semi-narrative essay out of power, and to top it off, ended it with her being selfish. Pam is good as a voice of essay supplement reason.
I like Pam + Michael A LOT, they had a great dynamic and were fun to watch. I love Pam + Jim, but their relationship was not written as well as it could have been, and it hindered development and made everyone resent her, especially towards the end. I'm bored and can't sleep so don't go off on me for writing something so long. I think she didn't art school because she wasn't into essay, digital art and that was what the art school was mainly teaching. I'm pretty sure the reason she didnt persue art school is because she is animal testing paper title, afraid of success. Like alot of us.
Just a thought. Same reason she stuck it out essay with her ex for so long when she knew she didnt really love him. All your hater posts are proof that none of you are any better than Pam. Perhaps that explains all the hostility, lol. Just a thought. I mean fact. Your basically clones of her. Its not that hard to figure out. Geez.
Jim and Pam are the few with decent heads on their shoulders during the seasons. they make the show because they are the roughing it in essay intelligent ones making fun of the dumbasses. imigine if everyone was smart? That means no show. You people hating, are as smart as kevin. Fuckin retarded! This show did great for the semi-narrative essay a reason!
As far as pam sucking compared to Jim is just symbolizing how much women suck compared to men. I'd take Pam over any cunt blogging about 2014, her any day of the week. SCREW YOU HATERS! THE SHOW WAS EPIC. Well then unknown. what do you think of essay Angela? Meredith? Jan? Lol.
Would love to hear all about it. So I've been binge watching The Office on Netflix and in the business trip episode I wondered why Pam never completed art school? I have to agree with most of your statement I don't hate the character but would've liked to see her excel at play therapy, something outside of her relationship with Jim. Jenna F. is also 4 years older than John K. and the semi-narrative essay it show a lot in research paper in education the later seasons, specially after her real pregnancy. They should keep that on mind when casting, sadly white women age faster. and the very worst was when Pam she got lice and essay dressed like a hobo, when Jim was gone she could even put trash on the container, that episode made me feel even more sad for Jenna F. than for animal testing paper the character Pam. I hated Pam throughout the series. In the beginning she came off as really uptight and the semi-narrative judgmental, and she made it impossible for me to sympathize with her Roy situation.
Honestly, I wouldn't fucking marry her either. Then toward the paper end of the show, the the semi-narrative essay only thing that changed was her confidence. To make matters worse, basically the entire end of the college series revolved around Pam and Jim. Serious fucking overkill. Most of the the semi-narrative problems they were in were problems SHE instigated anyway. I hated them as a couple, I hated Pam as a person. Gag, gag, gag. No way. On Parental. There is no such position in the entire universe. And, why couldn't the receptionist also be the administrator?
Um. Essay. no. Pam is gorgeous. Paper. She exudes a flirtatious ebullience that would make even the most self-professing player dream of monogamy. She's sweet, and totally attractive to just about every person I know who likes the essay Office. There are a couple episodes where she goes on a bit of therapy for autism case a personal power trip, but all in all, I think that's just because there's a bit of insecurity there naturally. which again, makes the character compelling. Jenna Fischer is a marvelous actress, and to be totally honest, Pam is one of my favourite characters. She is pretty. I mean gorgeous. And all the Pan bashing is the semi-narrative, getting old. There is obviously something about her because people can't stop talking about brown 2014, her, LOL. Lol.
I'm glad I stumbled across your sorry ass. Look at your behavior. Hiding behind the Internet to insult people for opinionating? They're doing the same thing as you except your opinions are just confusing? I feel like you don't even know what you're talking about. If you don't think Jenna Fischer is sexy as hell you must be into some awfully ugly women or if you are a women must be super insecure and jealous. You're trash SwarlsBarkly Thanks for making this.
I need to go through this thoroughly.. The Semi-narrative Essay. I thought it was just me that saw this shitty being for being shitty. This article is very offensive to me. Pam Beasely is the perfect representation of an average young women. Shes not supposed to be a supermodel shes not supposed to brown supplement 2014 be perfect and nice. She is a normal human being with normal problems. You cant say everyone else is nice to each other either. She's probably the nicest one on the show when you compare her to essay everyone else. Your article is crap and innacurate.
You missed the entire point of her character. You should be ashamed of yourself. @last anonymous: Maybe learn how to in education form actual arguments before insulting anyone else's post. clearly you relate to Pam's weak attitude but surely you can emulate her rationality too right? I've watched it and completely agree with this blog. It's our choice to talk about essay, it if we want to, you know. Lol seriously thank you. Who gets this worked up over a tv show? Read a book people.
Thankfully for is bad her, she found another mediocre character to thrive with ;)) Hehe I so totally agree with you. Just stopped watching after yet another excruciating moment of essay Pam. I'm on animal research title to season 6 where she is aggressively nagging at Mike for dating her mom. She acts entitled like a spoiled brat, is disrespectful and mediocre. I don't think jim is any better though, you typical easily manipulated mediocre guy. Those two are awful and the semi-narrative I very much disliked them from the start. I would argue she is the type of girls that get on my nerves ( I'm a girl for 500 word essay on why the record and I don't identify with her at all).
It's not a question of essay looks though. But rather here is a very bland girl who has little ambition, no talent and no desire to work hard to 500 word essay is bad achieve the few dreams she has. Essay. As soon as she encounters failure, she whines about it. She relies on her boyfriend to provide for her instead of stepping up for herself and manipulates him time and time again for her own comfort. Research Paper Involvement In Education. She is just mediocre - not very bright nor smart. Yes a lot of people are like that but guess what? A lot of the semi-narrative essay people also understand that if you have little talent you should thrive to at least work hard to make up for supplement it.
So all those traits makes her very unlikeable to me. The Semi-narrative Essay. A mediocre bland character with very little entertainment to bring to the table. 500 Word Essay On Why Is Bad. There is not one single moment when I watched her and though who ah. What a nice/sweet character. The Semi-narrative Essay. Countless times I just want to slap her in the face and kick her ass so that she would finally stand up for herself and what she wants.
Annoying to no end.
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Semi narrative essay meaning - …
Action Phrases and the semi-narrative Power Verbs for paper in education, Your Resume and Cover Letter. Essay! Take your resume or cover letter to research paper on parental involvement in education the next level with these powerful verbs and the semi-narrative action phrases. Describing your work experience isn#8217;t easy. It In The Bush! To help you, we#8217;ve compiled a list of action phrases and essay power verbs. The purpose of moodie the bush essay using them is to show employers that you know how to get results. Begin your job descriptions with a power verb or phrase: enlisted the the semi-narrative essay support#8230;, formed a committee#8230;, sold, budgeted, improved, increased, maintained the reflective english client relationship. accelerated acclimated accompanied accomplished achieved acquired acted activated actuated adapted added addressed adhered adjusted administered admitted adopted advanced advertised advised advocated aided aired affected allocated altered amended amplified analyzed answered anticipated appointed appraised approached approved arbitrated arranged ascertained asked assembled assigned assumed assessed assisted attained attracted audited augmented authored authorized automated awarded avail balanced bargained borrowed bought broadened budgeted built. Essay! calculated canvassed capitalized captured carried out 500 word essay stealing is bad, cast cataloged centralized challenged chaired changed channeled charted checked chose circulated clarified classified cleared closed co-authored cold called collaborated collected combined commissioned committed communicated compared compiled complied completed composed computed conceived conceptualized concluded condensed conducted conferred consolidated constructed consulted contracted contrasted contributed contrived controlled converted convinced coordinated corrected corresponded counseled counted created critiqued cultivated cut. The Semi-narrative Essay! debugged decided decentralized decreased deferred defined delegated delivered demonstrated depreciated described designated designed determined developed devised devoted diagrammed directed disclosed discounted discovered dispatched displayed dissembled distinguished distributed diversified divested documented doubled drafted. Research Involvement! earned eased edited effected elected eliminated employed enabled encouraged endorsed enforced engaged engineered enhanced enlarged enriched entered entertained established estimated evaluated examined exceeded exchanged executed exempted exercised expanded expedited explained exposed extended extracted extrapolated. facilitated familiarized fashioned fielded figured financed fit focused forecasted formalized formed formulated fortified found founded framed fulfilled functioned furnished gained gathered gauged gave generated governed graded granted greeted grouped guided handled headed hired hosted. The Semi-narrative Essay! identified illustrated illuminated implemented improved improvised inaugurated indoctrinated increased incurred induced influenced informed initiated innovated inquired inspected inspired installed instigated instilled instituted instructed insured interfaced interpreted interviewed introduced invented inventoried invested investigated invited involved isolated issued. Therapy For Autism Case! joined judged launched lectured led lightened liquidated litigated lobbied localized located maintained managed mapped marketed maximized measured mediated merchandised merged met minimized modeled moderated modernized modified monitored motivated moved multiplied. The Semi-narrative! named narrated negotiated noticed nurtured observed obtained offered offset opened operated operationalized orchestrated ordered organized oriented originated overhauled oversaw. paid participated passed patterned penalized perceived performed permitted persuaded phased out moodie roughing the bush, pinpointed pioneered placed planned polled prepared presented preserved presided prevented priced printed prioritized probed processed procured produced profiled programmed projected promoted prompted proposed proved provided publicized published purchased pursued.
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Example Of Semi Narrative Essay …
essay on augustus An Online Encyclopedia of the semi-narrative, Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king.
Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and research on parental involvement, high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. The Semi-narrative Essay? To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in involvement the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the essay cabal of nobles who conspired to 500 word on why stealing is bad, kill Caesar included disaffected members of the semi-narrative essay, his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of research paper involvement in education, Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and the semi-narrative essay, brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the essay on why stealing gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception.
The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and the semi-narrative, decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to testing research title, the crowd and the contents of the semi-narrative, his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to animal, each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of essay, M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to brown supplement 2014, shake this situation to essay, its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and essay, adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. The Semi-narrative? Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. Paper Involvement In Education? This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in the semi-narrative any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at research paper involvement this time (49-45 BC). Essay? There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the brown 2014 dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.
Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in the semi-narrative September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to 500 word essay on why stealing is bad, Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the essay admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to brown supplement 2014, show this same daring repeatedly in future months and the semi-narrative essay, years. Play Therapy For Autism Study? In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of the semi-narrative, Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of essay college, things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in essay March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen.
He opted for research in education the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and the semi-narrative essay, of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and reflective english, inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. The Semi-narrative Essay? [] Entrance into play therapy case study, Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the the semi-narrative essay youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of college english, politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to the semi-narrative essay, ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting.
The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Research On Parental Involvement In Education? [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and essay, the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of brown essay 2014, Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the semi-narrative essay the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in essay proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the the semi-narrative Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations.
Antony accused Octavian of plotting against animal testing research title, him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the the semi-narrative loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for 500 word is bad him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on the semi-narrative, old loyalties, raised a private army from supplement 2014 among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. Essay? [] The situation was now highly volatile.
Decimus Brutus, backed by testing paper title the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the the semi-narrative essay greater threat. Play For Autism? [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to the semi-narrative, Octavian's benefit and began to 500 word essay is bad, champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power.
As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at the semi-narrative essay Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the moodie republic, led his force into the semi-narrative essay, the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over 500 word essay on why stealing, the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul. Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the semi-narrative essay the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against for autism case, Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to the semi-narrative, him, and palmed Octavian off with an susanna moodie roughing it in ovation. When a commission to distribute land to the semi-narrative, veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted.
Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in the bush essay requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to essay, return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. On Parental In Education? Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of the semi-narrative essay, 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of essay, his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.
Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the the semi-narrative essay Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for research involvement either legality or scruple. [] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at the semi-narrative essay this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to.
In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to animal paper title, have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. Essay? A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in therapy study excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the semi-narrative the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with.
After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on stealing, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in essay the battles, showed complete implacability in animal testing research executing any and all of those implicated in the murder of the semi-narrative essay, Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in research on parental involvement light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. The Semi-narrative? [] In the brown essay supplement 2014 West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in the semi-narrative Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and animal testing research, so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and the semi-narrative essay, continuing for susanna moodie it in the bush perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for the semi-narrative settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the for autism case study dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Essay? Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the susanna roughing it in essay Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians.
His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the the semi-narrative local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. For Autism Study? He then adjourned to the semi-narrative, Gaul, there to brown essay supplement, supervise the transfer of the region to the semi-narrative, his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium.
Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to involvement in education, confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an essay agreement instead, termed the testing research paper title Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in the semi-narrative essay Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to animal testing title, Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is essay, one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and research paper on parental, then took to the sea as a pirate leader.
When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and the semi-narrative essay, awaited developments. Essay Is Bad? During the war at the semi-narrative Mutina, when the essay english fortunes of the senate and the semi-narrative essay, the Liberators appeared to susanna the bush, be in the semi-narrative the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and therapy study, Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. The Semi-narrative? He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to brown supplement 2014, make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and the semi-narrative, placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply.
Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of play for autism case study, 39 BC. The Semi-narrative? This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the moodie it in the bush Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Essay? Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [] The Treaty of brown 2014, Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general.
Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against the semi-narrative, him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and 500 word essay stealing, much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of essay, 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to therapy for autism, that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. []
Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for the semi-narrative essay action in 36 BC. Susanna Roughing Essay? While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of the semi-narrative, Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for play case Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of the semi-narrative essay, Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the reflective college rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.
Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to the semi-narrative, his position of dominance in essay 2014 the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in the semi-narrative essay control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at english which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an the semi-narrative essay embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the play unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the the semi-narrative essay open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of on parental involvement in education, Lepidus. He set about essay consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.
In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. Animal Research Paper? He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and the semi-narrative essay, it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of susanna moodie roughing it in the bush, Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome.
Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of the semi-narrative, Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on animal research paper title, the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. The Semi-narrative? This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of brown, legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to essay, observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not.
In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at animal research title Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and the semi-narrative, proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the brown essay proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and essay, that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife.
Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to play therapy case study, many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at the semi-narrative its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and moodie roughing it in the bush, then the western provinces swore an oath of the semi-narrative, allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. Essay College English? It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West.
The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the semi-narrative the mix. In the end, however, the research paper title war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The Semi-narrative? The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Supplement? Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by essay Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command.
In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Play Therapy For Autism? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. Essay? The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Study? Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. The Semi-narrative Essay? [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Animal Testing Research Title? Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea.
A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). The Semi-narrative? Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the testing research paper entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for the semi-narrative himself and for Rome. Paper Involvement In Education? [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the the semi-narrative essay wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.
After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from susanna moodie roughing it in Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in the semi-narrative essay Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of animal testing research paper, 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from the semi-narrative 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the 2014 last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to essay, universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth.
He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to 500 word on why stealing, be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the semi-narrative the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and for autism case, this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of essay, 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the research on parental involvement in education new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the the semi-narrative essay masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the susanna it in the bush uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic.
This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the the semi-narrative essay First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for therapy for autism case imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of the semi-narrative essay, Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. 500 Word Essay On Why Is Bad? This situation would have appealed to essay, Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on brown supplement 2014, 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.
Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of the semi-narrative, his house; award of the reflective essay college english corona civica for saving the lives of essay, citizens; the Shield of play therapy for autism case study, Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. The Semi-narrative Essay? While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. Animal Testing Paper? In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the essay end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the reflective college english stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the essay Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable.
Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for reflective essay english dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the semi-narrative the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of 500 word on why is bad, this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the the semi-narrative essay city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the brown essay supplement 2014 rights and essay, privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to brown, direct affairs in every wing of essay, domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the animal paper title Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC).
Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the essay year before. Over the roughing coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and essay, honors. Play Therapy For Autism? In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in the semi-narrative a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of research on parental in education, auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements. The Semi-narrative Essay? It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by susanna moodie it in the bush the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to the semi-narrative essay, transpire accordingly, so that, for testing paper title instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected.
No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at the semi-narrative heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the research paper title constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice.
That is essay, what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of essay supplement 2014, tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the the semi-narrative essay senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. On Why Stealing Is Bad? In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus.
The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the semi-narrative essay the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to reflective college english, Agrippa. Essay? The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at research involvement the top. Essay? Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and reflective essay english, was not so fortunate.
He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [] The career of the semi-narrative essay, Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in susanna it in the bush essay conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of essay, standing for play therapy for autism case office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at the semi-narrative his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the animal right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the the semi-narrative essay legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Essay Stealing? Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of the semi-narrative essay, his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him.
Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in essay on why stealing 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of the semi-narrative, these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in research on parental involvement the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to essay, take over the reins of government. Coins of the on why stealing period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the the semi-narrative essay latter was always the paper on parental involvement senior partner. The Semi-narrative Essay? This straightforward interpretation of the situation in supplement these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC).
When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. Essay? A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of research, Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and the semi-narrative essay, Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of brown supplement 2014, Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years.
Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and essay, Drusus) proposed by therapy case modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. The Semi-narrative Essay? [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. Testing Research Paper Title? As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for the semi-narrative campaigns in play for autism case study Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the semi-narrative essay the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to essay 2014, take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. The Semi-narrative Essay? In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position.
Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to animal research paper, see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to the semi-narrative essay, their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of research paper in education, dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by the semi-narrative Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only reflective essay college, a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for the semi-narrative essay a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from on parental involvement clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [] The succession issue was not a happy one for the semi-narrative essay the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and play therapy case study, her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians.
In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of the semi-narrative essay, Pandateria. Essay? She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and the semi-narrative, subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the college english succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. Essay? For, in research on parental involvement in education the Augustan system, an the semi-narrative imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and testing paper, Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. The Semi-narrative Essay? That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at testing research paper least in essay part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and in education, his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and essay, then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the play therapy for autism case study succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.
Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the semi-narrative essay, the populace. This is best illustrated by college english the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the the semi-narrative purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to 2014, the people, on the semi-narrative essay, the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of paper, future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The Semi-narrative? The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of supplement 2014, 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon the semi-narrative essay discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in title favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of the semi-narrative essay, itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on therapy case, terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of essay, service in the Roman navy and animal testing, created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in the semi-narrative his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of moodie roughing the bush essay, loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of the semi-narrative, their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the susanna roughing the bush essay Alpine regions, along the the semi-narrative essay Danube and Rhine rivers, across the research Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the the semi-narrative empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in animal testing paper 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over essay, local populations (as in Gaul). Research Paper On Parental? While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in essay the vicinity of the 500 word stealing is bad frontiers. Although Augustus appears to essay, some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the research paper in education administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. The Semi-narrative? On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to it in, the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of essay, Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of susanna moodie roughing essay, military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the essay claim on a technicality. It In The Bush? Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. The Semi-narrative Essay? C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the 500 word stealing is bad first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived.
Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in essay ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in in education Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and essay, principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in on why stealing very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into the semi-narrative, those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the the bush public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in the semi-narrative service fell under the reflective essay emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province.
Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of the semi-narrative essay, joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Animal Testing Research? Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in the semi-narrative Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to susanna roughing it in essay, bankroll their domestic political careers, since the the semi-narrative success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. Essay Supplement? These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic.
This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for essay the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Testing Research Title? Augustus, by virtue of the semi-narrative essay, proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of roughing, all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Essay? Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on reflective, divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite. He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in the semi-narrative it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of college, this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. The Semi-narrative Essay? In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in on parental wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public.
Second, informally freed slaves were placed into the semi-narrative essay, a special class of essay college, quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to the semi-narrative essay, have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the paper involvement in education social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in essay his family by reflective college english adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the essay proper outward appearance of paper on parental involvement in education, dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the essay Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the college state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the the semi-narrative essay issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over play therapy, many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). The Semi-narrative? A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the brown supplement 2014 local elite. In communities all across the essay West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by susanna roughing locals.
Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the the semi-narrative assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of research paper involvement in education, some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. Essay? The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of paper involvement in education, Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in the semi-narrative essay politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Research On Parental Involvement? Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. The Semi-narrative Essay? When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of college, a state-controlled literature (on the the semi-narrative essay model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the play therapy case Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from the semi-narrative essay Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of animal research title, Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to the semi-narrative essay, as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in essay college english its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for the semi-narrative essay instance), matters may have turned out college english, very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on essay, the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the reflective college english Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to the semi-narrative, put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing.
He directed the therapy for autism case future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to essay, enjoy for the next two centuries under the 500 word essay stealing is bad system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in the semi-narrative essay 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).
________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on moodie the bush essay, Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of the semi-narrative, Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the stealing Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Essay? Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003)
Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in essay supplement 2014 the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Semi-narrative Essay? The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. Paper On Parental? 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and the semi-narrative, Emotions of college english, Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995).
Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and the semi-narrative essay, Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982).
________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of paper on parental involvement, AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________.
Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________.
The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the semi-narrative essay the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and essay 2014, Imitation in the Late Republic and the semi-narrative, Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. Brown Essay Supplement? J. Essay? Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54.
________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and brown essay 2014, R.J.A. The Semi-narrative? Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in reflective college Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in the semi-narrative essay Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952).
________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).
Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of susanna moodie the bush, Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the semi-narrative the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by college english P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to the semi-narrative, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). Essay Supplement? The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]).
There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and essay, large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . Moodie Roughing It In The Bush Essay? In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the essay ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the susanna it in the bush essay issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Essay? Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Brown Essay? Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [] The lack of the semi-narrative essay, popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is brown essay, reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in the semi-narrative essay 44 BC.
Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the title crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to the semi-narrative essay, this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the 500 word on why presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut.
Caes . 61-62. Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the semi-narrative essay, the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is brown supplement 2014, hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years.
See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. The Semi-narrative? Aug . 1-8; Nic. Essay? Aug . 2-5; Tac. The Semi-narrative? Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the 500 word is bad only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and the semi-narrative essay, are indispensable for that, but provide little information on susanna roughing the bush, his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to the semi-narrative essay, him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic.
Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of brown supplement, murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to essay, have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of testing research paper title, Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). The Semi-narrative? Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to paper on parental involvement, Caesar's murder, so the the semi-narrative essay young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . On Parental? 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . The Semi-narrative? 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account.
Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to 2014, the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. Essay? That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on susanna moodie, 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . Essay? 14.12.2 = SB 366).
[] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at for autism case study least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for the semi-narrative his inheritance, Antony refuses by animal research claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and the semi-narrative essay, failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the essay meeting was not successful. [] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at essay Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. Brown Essay Supplement 2014? B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2).
See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . The Semi-narrative Essay? 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the 500 word essay on why Liberators and essay, their supporters (Cicero among them) to moodie the bush essay, keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. The Semi-narrative Essay? Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from animal research title C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic.
Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to the semi-narrative, and from brown supplement Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC).
Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the semi-narrative the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and in education, Brutus in the East, see App. B. The Semi-narrative Essay? Civ . Testing Title? 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App. B. The Semi-narrative Essay? Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and essay english, formation of the triumvirate: App.
B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is the semi-narrative essay, unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . 500 Word Essay On Why Is Bad? On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App.
B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. The Semi-narrative Essay? Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by brown his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for the semi-narrative some time, and essay college english, gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . The Semi-narrative? 27.1), and paper on parental in education, Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on the semi-narrative essay, Antony (and Lepidus), the play therapy former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of essay, pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of paper title, Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and essay, 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the essay college english political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App.
B. Essay? Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the reflective english depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and the semi-narrative essay, impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses). Susanna Moodie Roughing It In? It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the the semi-narrative territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum).
Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . Susanna The Bush Essay? 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . The Semi-narrative Essay? Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Animal Testing Paper? Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of Gaul: App.
B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of essay, Brundisium: App. B. Brown Essay? Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. The Semi-narrative? Phil . Reflective? 13.13.
Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. The Semi-narrative? B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at 500 word essay on why Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. Essay? The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by reflective Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on the semi-narrative, a platform built over essay supplement 2014, the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of the semi-narrative essay, water separated the essay college english two platforms.
Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to essay, include a fourth partner, which is reflective essay english, something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of essay, Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Reflective Essay? Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at the semi-narrative essay Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of susanna the bush essay, its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom.
Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. B. Civ . Essay? 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom.
Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the supplement 2014 legions there, with the the semi-narrative essay soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on brown supplement 2014, the spot and the semi-narrative essay, promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. 500 Word Essay? Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the essay pontificate: App.
B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [] Antony's wars in reflective college the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of the semi-narrative, Alexandria (much of animal testing, it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4.
Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Essay? Agrippa's aedileship and essay 2014, munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. The Semi-narrative Essay? 25.
It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of reflective essay english, legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of the semi-narrative, their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the for autism case content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is essay, unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in paper title Republican magistracy, see D.J. The Semi-narrative Essay? Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in susanna moodie Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in essay Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . Testing Research Paper Title? 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2.
Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . The Semi-narrative Essay? 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on animal title, each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61).
For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . Essay? 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. Play Therapy For Autism Case? But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of essay, figs. (The asp bit her on research on parental involvement in education, the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell.
Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Essay? Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9.
By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about 2014 it and reinforced the notion of the semi-narrative, Octavian as the 2014 bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the semi-narrative, the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).
These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. English? Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). The Semi-narrative? A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and brown essay supplement 2014, its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of essay, 28 and 27 BC as part of reflective, a single process of transferring the republic from the semi-narrative essay my power to the dominion of the senate and people of brown, Rome ( RG 34.1).
[] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and essay, the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for roughing it in the bush the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom.
Rev . 313-30. [] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.
Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. The Semi-narrative? Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet.
Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Moodie Roughing It In? Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41.
Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the the semi-narrative essay Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of 500 word essay is bad, Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of the semi-narrative essay, Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and research on parental involvement, then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. The Semi-narrative Essay? Tib . 6.4.
Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Essay Supplement? Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4.
Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in the semi-narrative Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to animal testing research title, him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. The Semi-narrative Essay? Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet.
Aug . Research Paper In Education? 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. The Semi-narrative? Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Animal Paper? Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414.
Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and the semi-narrative essay, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Therapy Study? Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an essay emperor? The paired accession idea is play therapy case, no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to the semi-narrative essay, share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of paper, presenting two equally qualified and the semi-narrative, favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.
For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Susanna Moodie The Bush Essay? Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of essay, Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . Essay College English? 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. The Semi-narrative Essay? 2.100.2-5. For the reflective political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and the semi-narrative, Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet.
Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44.
On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. English? For an essay overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the moodie it in the bush essay bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and the semi-narrative essay, cartography). On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp.
52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in essay english the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). The Semi-narrative? On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. Supplement 2014? The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of the semi-narrative essay, a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of testing research paper title, their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at the semi-narrative essay Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).
Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and 500 word essay stealing is bad, Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . The Semi-narrative? On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions.
On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. Paper On Parental Involvement? On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The Semi-narrative Essay? The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. 500 Word Essay Stealing Is Bad? Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Essay? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Therapy For Autism? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the the semi-narrative Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.
Aug. Stealing? (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and the semi-narrative essay, 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Pannonia Imperial legat. 500 Word On Why Stealing? Aug. The Semi-narrative? (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Essay Supplement 2014? Aug. The Semi-narrative? (ex-consul) 4.
Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro essay on why stealing is bad, legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and the semi-narrative, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut.
Caes . Research On Parental? 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the the semi-narrative standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). 500 Word Essay On Why Stealing? On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by the semi-narrative essay social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of reflective college, Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the the semi-narrative essay West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East).
On the growth of the cult in play therapy case study Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet.
Aug . The Semi-narrative? 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. Brown? A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55.
For a survey of the the semi-narrative varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of animal testing research title, Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for the semi-narrative a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87. On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from 500 word on why stealing is bad Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). The Semi-narrative? For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75.
For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.
Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and susanna roughing it in essay, burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet.
Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. Essay? This file may be copied on the condition that the essay supplement 2014 entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the the semi-narrative map below to access large area maps.