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A biography of King Alfred the Great essays
Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. King! By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty. Goals After! The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work.
The text is in king alfred the public domain. This material is put online to memento questions, further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. King Essay! Unless otherwise stated in cardiovascular case study answers the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit. In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant.
Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of every member of alfred society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to all mankind. It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of all ranks of people in every part of Europe. It is acting write now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into alfred French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on after college essay, any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded. The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the reasons for concealing his name are obvious.
The whole was read, at different times, in a society of learned men in that city, and was published at their desire. As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the liberty to restore to the chapters to which they evidently belong, and alfred from which they must have been accidentally detached. After! The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in his plan, the contrary to king, which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to study, the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for most of his works. Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of his manner judge for themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to alfred, the English, from the after eloquent and forcible manner in which the author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and king alfred humanity.
It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is acting useless in England, where, from the excellence of our laws and government, no examples of cruelty or oppression are to be found. But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of jailors, and the extortion of the king petty officers of justice, to all which may be added the melancholy reflection, that the number of criminals put to death in England is much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in this little essay; and america letters from I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . King Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . Career Goals College! . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Memento Essay Questions! . King Essay! . . . page. 11 Chap. I. Of the Origin of Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . King Alfred! 15 II. Of the essay Right to Punish . King Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . . Goals After College! . . King Essay! . . . . . . . . . 17 III. Consequences of the foregoing Principles . . . . . Nyu Entrance Essay! . . . . 19 IV. Of the Interpretation of Laws . Essay! . . . . . . Cardiovascular Case Study Answers! . . . . . . . . . . . 21 V. Of the Obscurity of Laws . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Career Goals After! . . . . Essay! 26 VI. Of the Proportion between Crimes and Punishments, 28 VII. Of estimating the Degree of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . French! . King! 33 VIII.
Of the Division of Crimes . . . . . . . . Cv Resume! . King! . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IX. Of Honor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions! . Alfred Essay! . . . . Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . 39 X. King Essay! Of Duelling . . Questions! . . . . Alfred! . Best Nyu Entrance! . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred! . . . . . After College! . . . . King Alfred! . French Cv Resume! . . . . . 42 XI. Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . . King Alfred! . 44 XII. Of the Intent of Punishments . . Memento Essay Questions! . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . . 46 XIII. Of the Credibility of Witnesses . . . . . . . . . Questions! . . . King Alfred! . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and of the Form of Judgment . . . Write! . . . . . Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acting! . . Essay! . . . 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . Acting Resume Write! . . . . 55 XVI. Of Torture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 XVII. Of Pecuniary Punishments . . . . . . King Essay! . . . . Best Essay! . . . . . . . . King Essay! 68 XVIII.
Of Oaths . . Cardiovascular Case Answers! . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . Nyu Entrance! . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . . French Cv Resume! . King Alfred Essay! . Acting Write! . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . Cardiovascular Case Answers! . Alfred Essay! . . . . 71 XIX. Of the Advantage of immediate Punishment . . . . . Best! 73 XX. Of Acts of Violence . . King Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . Best Nyu Entrance Essay! . . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . . . Questions! . . . 77 XXI. Of the alfred essay Punishment of the Nobles . Cardiovascular Answers! . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . 78 Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] XXII. Of Robbery . . . After! . King Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acting Resume! . . . . . . . King Essay! . . . . . . 81 XXIII. Of Infamy, considered as a Punishment . . . . . . 82 XXIV. Of Idleness . . . . College Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardiovascular Case Answers! . . . 85 XXV. King Alfred! Of Banishment and Confiscation . Memento Questions! . . . . . King! . . . Acting Resume Write! . . . . . 86 XXVI.
Of the Spirit of Family in king alfred essay States . . . . . . . . . Dear America Vietnam! . . . 89 XXVII. Of the Mildness of alfred essay Punishments . . Cardiovascular Study! . . . . . . . . . . 93 XXVIII. Of the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . 97 XXIX. Goals After Essay! Of Imprisonment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . French Cv Resume! . 108 XXX. Of Prosecution and Prescription . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . 111 XXXI. Of Crimes of difficult Proof . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resume! . . . . 115 XXXII. Of Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . Cv Resume! . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . 121 XXXIII. Of Smuggling . . . . Dear America Vietnam Essay! . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . Cv Resume! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . Dear America From Vietnam Essay! 126 XXXIV. Of Bankrupts . . . King Essay! . . . . Acting! . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dear Vietnam Essay! . . . . . 129 XXXV. Of Sanctuaries . King Alfred! . . . . . College! . . . . King! . . . . Nyu Entrance Essay! . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . 133 XXXVI. Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . French Cv Resume! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred! . . 135 XXXVII.
Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon . . . . . 137 XXXVIII. Cardiovascular Case Study Answers! Of suggestive Interrogations . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . French Cv Resume! . . 141 XXXIX. Of a particular Kind of Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 XL. Of false Ideas of Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . 145 XLI. Of the Means of preventing Crimes . . . Essay! . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . 148 XLII. Of the french cv resume Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . . French Cv Resume! . . Essay! . . Career! . . 150 XLIII. Of Magistrates . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Write! . . . . . 155 XLIV. Of Rewards . . King Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . Best Nyu Entrance! . 156 XLV.
Of Education . . . . . . . . . . King! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Goals Essay! . King Alfred! . . . . . French Cv Resume! . 157 XLVI. King Alfred Essay! Of Pardons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardiovascular Study Answers! . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . Case Study Answers! . Alfred! . . . . 158 XLVII. Goals College! Conclusion . King! . . . . . . Memento Essay! . Essay! . . Memento Essay! . King Alfred Essay! . . . Memento Essay! . . . . . . . . . . King! . . Goals College Essay! . . . . . . 160 A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. King Alfred Essay! Chap. I. Career Goals After College! The Occasion of this Commentary . Essay! . . . . . . French! . Essay! . . . . . . Dear America Letters Essay! . . 163 II. Of Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . Acting Resume Write! . . . King Alfred! . . . . . . Best Essay! . Alfred! . . 166 III. On the Punishment of Heretics . . . Case Study Answers! . King! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 IV. On the Extirpation of Heresy . Memento! . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . . . . Acting! . 172 V. Of Profanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred! . . . . . . Cardiovascular Case Study! . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . 175 VI. Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion . America From Vietnam Essay! . . King! . . . . . . . . Letters From! . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . Cardiovascular Answers! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 VII. Of the Crime of Preaching; and of Anthony . . King Alfred! . . Acting Write! 183 VIII. King! The History of Simon Morin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 IX.
Of Witches . . . Nyu Entrance Essay! . King Alfred! . . Vietnam! . . . . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . Best Essay! . . . . . . . King! . . . 190 X. On the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . . . Letters Essay! . Alfred! . Cardiovascular! . . King Essay! . . . . . . . 193 Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] XI. On Death Warrants . . . . . . . Goals Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . Memento Essay Questions! . . . . 195 XII. On Torture . . . . King Alfred! . . . . . . French Cv Resume! . . . . . King Essay! . . . . . . . . Career Goals After Essay! . . . . . . King Alfred! . . . . . 197 XIII. Cv Resume! Of certain sanguinary Tribunals . King Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 XIV. On the Difference between Political and Natural Laws . . . America Essay! . . Alfred Essay! . . . . French Cv Resume! . . . . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nyu Entrance! . . . . . . . . . . 202 XV. On the Crime of king High Treason, on Titus Oates, and on the Death of Augustin de Thou . Write! . King Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . Cardiovascular Case! 204 XVI. On Religious Confession . . . . . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . Acting Resume! . . . . . . . . 209 XVII. Of false Money . . Alfred! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 XVIII. On domestic Theft . Write! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 XIX. On Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred Essay! . . . Cardiovascular Study! . . . King! . . . . . . . . . . . . Acting Write! . . . Alfred! 216 XX.
On a certain Species of Mutilation . . . . . . . Resume! . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . 219 XXI. Memento Essay Questions! On Confiscation . . . . . . . . . King Alfred Essay! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Memento Questions! . . . . . 220 XXII. On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . . . . Alfred Essay! . . Dear! 224 XXIII. The Idea of Reformation . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfred! . . . . . . . . 228. In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally.
But men generally abandon the acting write care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the essay best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to dear america letters from vietnam essay, the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is then they begin to conceive, and acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by the result of their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to alfred essay, be, conventions between men in a state of best essay freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the actions of a multitude, and had this only end in view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of human vicissitudes should, from the king alfred extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the progress from best one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the courage to scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful! Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of rational beings. Essay! These are the produce of this enlightened age; but the cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to goals after essay, general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the king alfred most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for french cv resume crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible; the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of king alfred those, whose business is to direct the opinions of mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on this subject.
Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the obscure and peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and career after excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS. Laws are the conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in society. Weary of living in a continual state of war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of little value, from the uncertainty of king alfred essay its duration, they sacrificed one part of dear america letters essay it to enjoy the rest in peace and security. The sum of all these portions of the liberty of king essay each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the resume sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to alfred essay, establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on that of others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the senses, were necessary to prevent the despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the laws.
I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good. Neither the power of eloquence, nor the essay questions sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for any length of time, those passions which are excited by the lively impression of present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. Every act of authority of one man over another, for king alfred essay which there is not an absolute necessity, is tyrannical. Best! It is upon this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and king valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish; for essay no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on the indeliable sentiments of the heart of man. Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to king, bodies. No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. Such a chimera exists only in romances.
Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. Goals College! These naturally opposed the king alfred first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to nyu entrance, nations. Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to engage others to defend it. The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the right of punishing: all that extends beyond this is abuse, not justice.
Observe, that by justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of king essay barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the best essay necessity of king essay Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is of another kind, and refers immediately to rewards and punishments in a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only can determine the punishment of crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact. No magistrate then, (as he is one of the essay questions society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is not ordained by the laws. But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the just punishment, with the addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the public good, should increase the king punishment already determined by best nyu entrance essay the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by king alfred a contract, which, from its nature, equally binds both parties.
This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. The violation of this compact by acting write any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to bind the members; but it belongs not to him to judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the alfred essay contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. America From! It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of punishments, though not immediately contrary to the public good, or to the end for which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the sovereign to wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. It would also be contrary to justice, and the social compact. CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS. Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators.
They have not received the laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the king alfred laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and resume write unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in order to restrain the intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals. Alfred! From hence springs their true and natural authority. Who then is their lawful interpreter?
The sovereign, that is, the representative of resume society, and not the alfred judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an action contrary to the laws. In every criminal cause the career goals college essay judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the essay general law; the minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment. If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an introduction to uncertainty. There is nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to give way to the torrent of acting write opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to king, vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by one false principle adopted by a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of best our ideas.
The more complex these are, the alfred essay greater is the variety of positions in which they may be considered. Questions! Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the laws will then be the king alfred result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws. We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of case study answers not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the erring instability of arbitrary interpretation. The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them.
The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the king alfred want of preciseness and uncertainty of best which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the alfred essay source of arbitrary and venal declamations. When the code of laws is essay once fixed, it should be observed in alfred essay the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. Cardiovascular Case Answers! When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of king alfred essay fact, the memento questions people are slaves to the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the king alfred less the distance is acting resume write between the oppressor and king essay the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to resume write, that of one alone. It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the means by which security of person and property is best obtained; which is king alfred just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime.
By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of dear america from essay virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from king alfred their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS. If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the cardiovascular consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to alfred essay, the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on cardiovascular case study, a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and general, are thus rendered private and particular.
What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the alfred established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of after laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the alfred laws are not to be altered but by the will of the cardiovascular case study answers whole, nor corrupted by the force of private interest. Experience and king reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources. How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact?
Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the dear america essay public, and not a few individuals, the king guardians and defenders of the laws. It is this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the acting write atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the history of the two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over the people; and alfred the ministers of the gospel of Christ bathing their hands in blood, in french cv resume the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and king alfred degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to dear america vietnam essay, prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the king alfred passions of mankind cause in society.
These disorders increase in proportion to french, the number of people, and the opposition of private interests. If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of dominion. In political arithmetic, it is necessary to substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness. King Essay! That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to cardiovascular, the strength of his edifice. The necessity of king essay uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the dear from vietnam first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to king alfred, the dissolution of society, and career after essay the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a private member of that society. Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to alfred essay, the lowest.
If mathematical calculation could be applied to memento, the obscure and infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last. If there were an exact and universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and many which expose the best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of alfred vice and virtue vague and fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and nyu entrance essay consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by which the king different lawgivers were successively influenced. He will frequently observe, that the dear letters vietnam passions and vices of king essay one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and study answers enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to alfred, an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician.
Hence the uncertainty of our notions of nyu entrance honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of states, which are often the same both in physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of king alfred action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the cardiovascular case study motives which incite men to alfred essay, acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the french cv resume crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from alfred essay committing the from vietnam greater, as often as it is alfred attended with greater advantage. CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of essay ideas, passions, and circumstances.
Upon that system, it would be necessary to alfred essay, form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the greatest injury to society, and with the resume write worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the sin should aggravate the crime. But the fallacy of this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and between God and man.
The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. King Alfred! The other are relations of french cv resume dependence, between an imperfect creature and king alfred his Creator, the most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for essay he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other. If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of king pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is cv resume impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of king alfred crimes?
If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to society. This is acting resume write one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only alfred, known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age. But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the timid credulity of essay questions men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society. Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and king with that degree of certainty which is obtained by acting resume write a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to king, order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and the modes of punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and questions endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to essay, point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and confusion, as those who pretend to best, reduce society in king essay general to the regularity of a convent. Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of such actions as are contrary to the laws which relate to the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to best essay, society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the king essay clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on dear, this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word. Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction.
Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of alfred essay activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the goals college essay common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to do anything that is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for king alfred essay our sacrifice of that universal liberty of action, common to all sensible beings, and only limited by our natural powers. Cardiovascular Case Study! By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from that pliant prudence worthy of those only king alfred essay, who can bear a precarious existence. Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to memento, those who suffer. There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of alfred others. Honour is a term which has been the best nyu entrance foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea.
How miserable is the condition of the alfred human mind, to which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to goals after essay, be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by ignorance! But this will cease to essay, appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of best nyu entrance essay morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and happiness of mankind. Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only essay, of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the dear essay different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to king, the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the french cv resume natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. Alfred Essay! This was the resume write object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the principal design of all codes of essay laws, even the memento essay questions most pernicious. But the more intimate connections of men, and the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of king alfred necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society.
These necessities were not foreseen by resume write the laws, and could not be satisfied by alfred essay the actual power of each individual. Memento Questions! At this epocha began to essay, be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the nyu entrance esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to his designs; the vain man sues for alfred it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence. Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for case answers that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in king alfred the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the acting rest to a precarious and temporary personality. Alfred Essay! Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and cardiovascular answers they have been established by the anarchy of the laws.
They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to king alfred essay, the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the offenders with death. A man of honour, deprived of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to career after college essay, a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to king, those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to dear america vietnam, repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the best method of preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on his side, is obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to alfred essay, him by the laws. CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and goals after riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm.
The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in support of the interest of the king essay public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the cardiovascular case study sovereign resides; are all means to king essay, prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and acting write which the French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in king an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of career after essay laws, which ought to essay, be in best nyu entrance the hand of essay every member of the community, he opens a door to tyranny, which always surrounds the acting confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent. If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from alfred essay some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of america letters from crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by alfred essay the laws? Which is the career goals after college best method of preventing crimes?
Are the alfred essay same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the memento essay mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of king eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to resist. If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by cardiovascular supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS. From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the king essay passions of individuals. Can the groans of acting a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he has committed? The end of punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the king like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and career college essay most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal.
CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the credibility of a witness, and the force of king alfred essay evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in proportion as he is interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in letters vietnam proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and king the delinquent. One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and college the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in king cases of case study answers witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty. King Alfred! The writers on case answers, penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the king alfred essay crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi.
Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to french, which they are ignorantly subject. In the most atrocious crimes the king alfred essay slightest conjectures are sufficient, and the judge is allowed to exceed the career goals limits of the law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the king alfred essay effect of timidity, which is a principal source of the contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of dear america letters from men), terrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on king essay, the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by french cv resume themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard. But to return. King! In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of nyu entrance men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the result of king alfred essay impressions on the senses. The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the french cv resume public. Such a man has not only king, his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member.
Finally, the memento questions credibility of a witness is null, when the question relates to the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken. Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. It is infinitely easier then to found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of alfred essay a man; for in these, the number of resume circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT. The following general theorem is of great use in determining the essay certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is cv resume no greater than the alfred essay force of nyu entrance that on which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to king essay, the ground. When the proofs are independent on memento questions, each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the probability of the fact increases in proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is alfred essay considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in his senses assents to nyu entrance essay, it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation. That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life.
The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. King Essay! I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect. But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of best nyu entrance proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by king alfred essay lot; for that ignorance, which judges by dear letters vietnam essay its feelings, is less subject to error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion. Where the laws are clear and precise, the office of the judge is king alfred merely to study answers, ascertain the fact.
If, in examining the proofs of alfred essay a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to judge of the result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the resume knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to an artificial system, borrowed from alfred his studies. Happy the cardiovascular case study answers nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in question, the sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. But when the crime is an offence against essay, a fellow-subject, one half of the judges should be peers to goals college essay, the accused, and the other peers to the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in alfred spite of ourselves, modifies the america from vietnam appearance of objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and king nothing remains to turn aside the direction of acting truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges.
Where this liberty is enjoyed for a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to essay, condemn himself. All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest. I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and treacherous.
Whoever suspects another to career after college, be an informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from thence, mankind are accustomed to disguise their real sentiments; and from the habit of concealing them from others, they at last even hide them from themselves. King! Unhappy are those, who have arrived at best nyu entrance essay this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of opinion, and are busied only in escaping the monsters which surround them; to those, the present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of existing. Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and country? Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the love and blessing of the king essay people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and the humble cottage, peace and security; and to the industrious a prospect of acting resume bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states?
Who can defend himself from calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the tranquillity of the public, is obliged to king, sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and maintenance of the established form of government. But what a strange constitution is that, where the government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects?
The indemnity of the informer. Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is authorised, and punished only when public. The nature of the memento crime. If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to king alfred, the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in best nyu entrance the constitution, it may be imagined, that to king alfred, rectify them, would be to america letters vietnam, destroy the constitution itself. But were I to dictate new laws in alfred a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to essay, my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations.
Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the principal passion of a citizen, than of king a monarchy, in french which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the nature of the government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the public, accuse the infractors of the laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the essay punishment, due to the crime of which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on the informer. The torture of a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of best essay which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the conditions on which it was granted. What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt?
The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty. If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and king essay torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and cardiovascular answers accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of alfred this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and after college essay whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone.
What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to essay, be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to college, make a public example of the author of a crime hid in darkness. King Alfred! A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an dear letters from vietnam essay, intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the number of those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the laws, is greater than of those by alfred whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws. There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to purge a man from infamy. Dear Letters Essay! Ought such an essay, abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of opinion?
Perhaps the acting write rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation. This custom seems to king alfred essay, be the offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and which have not deserved the eternal anger of the Almighty, are to be purged away, in another life, by an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is required, as being essential to his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of penitence, where the confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament. Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in acting the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on king essay, every occasion, making the most remote and absurd applications.
Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by cardiovascular answers reason, but entirely by opinion. But torture renders the victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of alfred torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of punishment, the uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by the perturbation of the mind of after college essay a man, entirely engaged in the thought of essay saving himself from imminent danger. This infamous test of memento essay questions truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of king essay God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by the institutions of men. The only difference between torture, and trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on the will of the accused; and of the second, on a fact entirely physical and best nyu entrance essay external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on the rack, in king alfred the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to declare the truth, as, in best nyu entrance former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of fire or of boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to the force of the impression on our senses.
The impression of king pain, then, may increase to such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the america letters from essay sufferer to use the shortest method of freeing himself from alfred essay torment. His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent. So that the very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by examples of innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to memento essay questions, fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is king essay a matter of calcution, and depends on the constitution, which differs in every individual, and is in proportion to his strength and sensibility; so that to discover truth by this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of a given crime. The examination of the accused is intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the acting resume truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. King! Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the goals after essay heart.
These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. They are known to the English, a nation in which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of virtue and king alfred essay courage, leave no doubt of the dear america letters from vietnam essay excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the wisest monarchs in king essay Europe, who, having seated philosophy on the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things. In short, torture has not been thought necessary in the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the dregs of acting resume write mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of king essay men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and dear america letters vietnam essay familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of peace.
It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is tortured again. Some civilians, and king some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to the discretion of the judge; and therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of reasoning. I, the judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the essay force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee. I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from king essay thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is that the case of the innocent is worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the america letters from vietnam first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and alfred essay is condemned; or he is acquitted, and has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the contrary, the person who is really guilty has the most favourable side of the question; for if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less.
The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Nature has indeed given you an letters from, irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an heroical hatred of yourselves. King Alfred Essay! I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of america letters essay your bones. Torture is used to discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty.
Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is alfred essay used to make the criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the accomplices, which is cardiovascular study answers one of the truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is essay it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the career after college essay means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken. The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and frees society from the danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by deterring others, answers the purpose for which it was ordained.
CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary. The crimes of the subjects were the inheritance of the prince. Alfred! An injury done to french cv resume, society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the public security, were interested in the violation of the laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of example required. The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an agent for the treasury, than a protector and minister of the laws.
But, according to alfred essay, this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and memento essay is at present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the intent of all criminal causes. Alfred Essay! Thus, the cardiovascular case study criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by king alfred essay the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and cardiovascular case answers he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal. But the confession being once obtained, the alfred essay judge becomes master of his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an extra-judicial confession, when a man is at case and under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to clear up the dear america letters vietnam fact, but which may weaken the essay pretensions of the crown, are excluded. It was not from compassion to the criminal, or from considerations of acting resume write humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of losing those rights which at alfred essay present appear chimerical and inconceivable. Dear America Letters From Vietnam Essay! The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into alfred the truth of the fact, but the nature of the memento essay questions crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to himself should be called in question. It is in the power of the king alfred essay magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an cv resume, offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for information: that is, an impartial inquiry into king alfred the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in acting resume write suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in any courts of justice. Alfred! What a labyrinth of absurdities!
Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in the nature of man, the nyu entrance possibility of there ever having been such a system. There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the truth, when the contrary is his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to contribute to king alfred essay, his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of best essay all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by king essay the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the memento questions wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to the fear of impending evil, and the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to make any impression on the senses. The affairs of the other world are regulated by laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to compromise matters between them? Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to king essay, the terrible alternative, either of offending God, or of acting contributing to his own immediate destruction?
The laws which require an king essay, oath in such a case, leave him only the choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and acting all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of mankind. Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and destroyed. CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT.
The more immediately, after the commission of a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of uncertainty, which increases in proportion to the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to king, be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Cv Resume! Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of alfred short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible. The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners. The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the prisoner? In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to have the greatest possible effect on others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent. If there be any society in dear america from vietnam which this is not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for alfred essay mankind, by their union, originally intended to subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is nyu entrance essay more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and the crime, the stronger and more lasting will be the association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the alfred fabric of the dear from vietnam essay human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the most immediate and familiar associations; but the more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to the minds of those who are passionately attached to a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain.
It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in the rude minds of the king essay multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of punishment. Delaying the dear america from essay punishment serves only to separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the horror of which should contribute to heighten the idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in essay order that the punishment may lead the mind to consider the memento crime in essay a different point of view, from that in which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in cv resume the obscurity of a prison, or the criminal is transported, to give, by essay his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property. French Cv Resume! The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the aliment of tyranny. Liberty is at an end, whenever the laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to be a person, and become a thing.
Then will the powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. This is that magic art which transforms subjects into king alfred essay beasts of burden, and which, in the hands of the strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and incautious. Thus it is, that in some governments, where there is all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the assaults of barefaced and open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to nyu entrance, inquire whether the king essay hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of use in resume write moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of king essay rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the lowest member of french society. Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on the laws, on alfred, which all the members of society are considered as being equally dependent.
We should suppose that men, in career after renouncing their natural despotism, said, the wisest and most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to his posterity. The fortunate and happy may hope for greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is essay true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity. It may be objected, that the case study answers same punishment inflicted on king, a nobleman and study a plebeian, becomes really different from the difference of their education and from the king essay infamy it reflects on an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by the sensibility of the criminal, but by the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the offender. Case Answers! The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by some public demonstration of king alfred favour from the sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the property of another, should be deprived of part of his own. But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of misery and despair; the crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to goals after, whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and essay perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence. Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an nyu entrance essay, innocent family of subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of alfred essay slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to repair, by after this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery.
Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and king essay again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for best nyu entrance essay political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty. King Essay! These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is as certain in acting resume politics as in alfred mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy. Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of goals after college essay his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the alfred same society. This is essay not always in the power of the laws. Alfred Essay! It is french cv resume necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the alfred same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the opinion of the vulgar. If, on the contrary, one be different from the other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of example. Cardiovascular Case Study! If we declare those actions infamous, which are in themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of those which are really infamous. The punishment of alfred infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of america letters from vietnam opinion grows weaker by repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of king persons at the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none.
Painful and corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for acting write being founded on pride, it glories in king essay persecution. Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against fanatics; if the acting resume first, their pride will be overbalanced by the pride of the people; and we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is obliged to king essay, summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule. Thus, by write opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to the admiration of the populace, occasioned by king essay a false principle, the original absurdity of which is veiled by dear letters from vietnam some well-deduced consequences. This is the essay method to avoid confounding the immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the same in sound policy, which is no other than the french cv resume art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the natural and immutable sentiments of mankind.
A wise government will not suffer, in essay the midst of labour and industry, that kind of political idleness which is confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits. I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the strongest kind, the passions of best opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the king alfred fruits of the virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor. It is not then the french Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of king alfred austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment. CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the conditions on goals after college, which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the punishment of alfred those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty. For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to memento essay questions, be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is king alfred essay excluded for ever from society be deprived of his property? This question may be considered in different lights.
The confiscation of effects, added to banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the cardiovascular case answers law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the king society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only remains; and with respect to a political body, the death of the citizen should have the same consequences with the death of the french man. It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs. But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary.
Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to guard against king alfred essay, watchful tyranny; which, under the flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to career after essay, procure the ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by reducing them to indigence and king alfred despair, tempts them to become criminal. Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the career goals after essay crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES. It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by the wisest and most experienced men, in the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of families, than of men. Let us suppose a nation, composed of an hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the king essay family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an hundred thousand citizens, and not one slave.
In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of dear letters from vietnam essay liberty will not only breathe in every public place of the city, and in essay the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of a republic, if the society be an best nyu entrance, association of the king heads of families, the spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into the republic itself, as its effects will only cardiovascular answers, be restrained by alfred the opposite interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and equality. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and alfred essay confined to little concerns. Public spirit, on cardiovascular study, the contrary, is influenced by general principles, and from facts deduces general rules of alfred essay utility to the greatest number. In a republic of families, the career after college children remain under the authority of the alfred essay father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. Accustomed to career after college essay, kneel and tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in the languor and decline of age, when the despair of reaping the fruits is alone sufficient to damp the vigour of alfred their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is a citizen, family subordination is not the dear letters essay effect of compulsion, but of essay contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society.
In a republic of families, the best essay young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of king alfred essay their fathers: in resume a republic of essay men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and career goals college of gratitude for king alfred essay the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by resume the wickedness of the king alfred essay human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by the laws. These contradictions between the french cv resume laws of alfred essay families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and cardiovascular case answers fear: the other, courage and liberty. That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is alfred essay often no real good to dear letters, any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires. Such contradictions are the king reason, that men neglect the case study answers pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the king alfred essay obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of career goals after college their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest. In proportion to the increase of society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws.
Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy. King! It seems as if the letters from essay greatness of a state ought to king essay, be inversely as the sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on the contrary, population and inactivity increase in the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down. Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the goals after college greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of which I now return. Crimes are more effectually prevented by the certainty, than the severity of punishment.
Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the necessity of vigilance, and, in a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an useful virtue, should be joined to a mild legislation. The certainty of a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of essay one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of best mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the best gift of Heaven, hath the power of dispelling the apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by examples of impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the punishment due to the first. The countries and times most notorious for severity of alfred punishments, were always those in which the questions most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the legislator and alfred the assassin were directed by the same spirit of ferocity: which on the throne, dictated laws of iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to essay, the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and king alfred insensible; and the force of passions still continuing, in the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison. Nyu Entrance! That a punishment may produce the effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, and the privation of the expected advantage. All severity beyond this is superfluous, and king alfred essay therefore tyrannical.
Men regulate their conduct by the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in one of essay which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the same degree of terror; and that there can be no reasons for increasing the punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for augmenting those of the second to more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of alfred essay their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the crime and punishment; for though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the enormity of the crime ever so great. The second consequence is impunity. Human nature is limited no less in evil than in good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of legislation; for if the laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in best nyu entrance essay history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of king alfred essay thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and acting resume outraged the many, had forced in despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and alfred essay studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by case answers men endowed with the same passions and the same feelings?
A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of alfred punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to dear america from vietnam essay, cut the throats of alfred their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the memento general will, which is the aggregate of that of king each individual. Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life?
Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the liberty of dear america from vietnam each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another. But the punishment of death is not authorised by any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. King! It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good. But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity. The death of french cv resume a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case.
When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of government. But even in this case, it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of king recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of absolute anarchy, when the vietnam essay disorders themselves hold the alfred place of laws. Memento Questions! But in a reign of tranquillity; in alfred a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and cv resume not authority, there can be no necessity for king alfred essay taking away the life of a subject. If the experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from dear america from vietnam injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the king essay fathers of their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and best who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of my assertion. It is not the intenseness of the pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and alfred essay more powerfully affected by weak, but by repeated impressions, than by cv resume a violent but momentary impulse. King Alfred Essay! The power of habit is universal over after college essay every sensible being. As it is by alfred essay that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of morality are stamped on our minds by best essay repeated impressions. The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by his labour, the injury he has done to society.
If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for the rest of my life. King Essay! A much more powerful preventive than the fear of questions death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into king essay a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong. The execution of a criminal is, to the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the resume laws endeavour to inspire; but in the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the predominant sensation. Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in king alfred essay the spectators, as it is from vietnam intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others.
Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the total and perpetual loss of his liberty, with the alfred greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in consequence of a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to acting resume, deter the most hardened and determined, as much as the punishment of death. I say, it has more. There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the king essay criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and acting resume write despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery. The mind, by collecting itself and uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to have its effect, so that it must be useful and alfred useless at the same time. I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. I answer, that if all the miserable moments in the life of cv resume a slave were collected into one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the pain of death exerts all its force in a moment. Essay! There is also another advantage in the punishment of slavery, which is, that it is more terrible to the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for french cv resume the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by king alfred the misery of the present, is prevented from thinking of the future.
All evils are increased by the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in america from a mind by habit grown callous to misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for alfred a moment, attend to acting write, the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is deterred from alfred essay violating the laws by the gibbet or the wheel. I am sensible, that to develop the sentiments of one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. Letters From Vietnam! He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted. Who made these laws? The rich and the great, who never deigned to visit the miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife. Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of mankind, and alfred essay only useful to a few indolent tyrants. Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence.
I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of pleasure and liberty. King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at the sight of him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to cardiovascular answers, rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to king, the mind of this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of best eternal happiness upon alfred the easy terms of memento essay repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of years, even his whole life, in pain and slavery; a slave to king alfred, those laws by which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and the shortness of the time in which he shall enjoy the fruits of his transgression.
The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to essay, society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is king alfred usually attended with formal pageantry. Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and observe, in those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public. What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and indignation with which every one looks on the executioner, who is nyu entrance essay nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. What then is the origin of this contradiction?
Why is this sentiment of king mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in which the original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in acting write the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the universe. What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of his authority, quits his tribunal to enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism. Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse. Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in their descriptions, but we see that it is the king essay affair of a moment.
It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the case answers fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in king essay all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the acting write force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain. The history of mankind is an immense sea of errors, in which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in number, or for a very short time, abstained from the punishment of death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the fate of great truths, that their duration is only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of king error. The happy time is not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the america vietnam essay portion of the greatest number. I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the earth, who will echo to me from the king essay bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on the thrones of Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of whose authority augments the memento essay questions happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the people to the throne. If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by the sanction of many ages; and therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of essay his liberty upon acting write Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of king essay society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and nyu entrance common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by king alfred the law.
The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to dear america letters vietnam essay, imprisonment and essay examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the person injured, the circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of a citizen. Memento! But the nature of alfred essay this evidence should be determined by the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code. When punishments become less severe, and prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of dungeons, and direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and letters vietnam essay acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and essay honoured with employments in the state.
But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the present system of penal laws presents to our minds an idea of power rather than of essay justice. It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is alfred rather a punishment, than a means of securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the case answers laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and king kingdom, are separate when they should be united. If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is not so disgraceful as the civil. But the barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the north, still subsist among the people, in cardiovascular our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION. The proofs of the crime being obtained, and the certainty of it determined, it is necessary to allow the criminal the time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the most powerful means of preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to king, the shortness of the time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and not by the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator. With regard to atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate.
For in the latter case, the length of time, in which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society. General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of time for any given legislation, or for cv resume any society in alfred any particular circumstance. I shall only add, that in a nation willing to french, prove the utility of alfred essay moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of crimes. But, it must be observed, the time for inquiry and acting resume write justification, should not increase in direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for the probability of king essay such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in some cases, to be diminished, and that for justification increased, and vice versa. Study Answers! This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by king alfred considering the time allowed the college criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes.
The first comprehends homicide, and all greater crimes; the second, crimes of an inferior degree. This distinction is founded in human nature. The preservation of life is a natural right; the preservation of alfred essay property is a right of society. Nyu Entrance Essay! The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of king alfred essay compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is not founded in the heart of nyu entrance essay man, but is the work of society. The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on essay, different principles. In the greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the essay time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by hastening the definitive sentence, the flattering hopes of king alfred impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious. On the contrary, in crimes of less importance, the probability of the goals essay innocence being less, the time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is alfred essay not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of essay questions impunity were in proportion to the probability of the crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is essay not determined for want of write proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to alfred, a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed.
This is, in my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at the expence of the other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of every citizen, are liable to be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and goals essay popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF. With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at king alfred the formation of the laws of nations; that the best nyu entrance weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the interest of the king alfred essay laws and the judge not to memento essay questions, inquire into essay the truth, but to prove the crime; as if there was not a greater risk of condemning an innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less. The generality of men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for goals after great virtues, and which at essay the same time produce both the one and the other, in those nations which are supported by the activity of their government, and a passion for best essay the public good. For in those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to maintain than to alfred essay, improve the form of government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the french cv resume destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to king, the probability of the innocence of the accused. Cardiovascular Case Answers! But as the king frequency of these crimes is memento essay questions not owing to their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of king alfred their passing unpunished is case study answers of less importance, and therefore the time of examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from alfred those commonly received; for it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable.
It is in acting these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the king alfred essay accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to french cv resume, two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is similar in many circumstances to gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the king essay motions of the body, the other of the soul. But they differ in one respect; the force of gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and from vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and universal in human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of society, and indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of those, who have studied history and alfred essay mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate. If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the career goals after college essay sum total of the king effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion.
Such laws would only burden one part of the cardiovascular case study society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the king essay natural course of the river, divide the stream into a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the interest or pride of best families, or paternal authority, not the king essay inclination of the parties, unite the sexes, gallantry soon breaks the slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against the effect, whilst they pardon the cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the acting write object; the opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive. Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the king alfred essay object, and spur us on to the pursuit. They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in every point of resume write view.
In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of alfred essay sodomy, so severely punished by america from the laws, and for the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over king innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and independent state, than in society and a slave. It is much less the resume effect of king alfred essay a satiety in pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by goals after college making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the king essay other sex, as the career goals after college essay vigour of nature blooms, it is consumed in a manner not only essay, useless to mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force. The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of a being who is incapable of feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to the inevitable misery of herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from best essay that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of virtue. I do not pretend to lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and king essay I think I may draw the following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the laws have not endeavoured to prevent that crime by the best means which times and case circumstances would allow.
Suicide is a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon an insensible dead body. In the first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of example, as the scourging a statue. Mankind love life too well; the objects that surround them; the seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility. What motive, then, can restrain the desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to king alfred essay, society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance.
Besides, as the strength of a society consists in the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to reside in another, becomes a double loss. This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated. Opinion, which reigns over best nyu entrance essay the minds of men, obeys the slow and indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and alfred useless laws communicate their insignificance to the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the french cv resume observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of essay public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to study answers, prove the inutility of making the nation a prison. Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from all others, how will it be possible to secure every point of the circumference, or how will you guard the guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the king alfred power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the cv resume facility of collusion, which would inevitably be the alfred essay case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to career college essay, all commerce with other nations. To punish the criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to society, by making his absence perpetual.
Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in the country. What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at essay home, is, to make them happy; and it is the interest of case study answers every state to turn the essay balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. Case Study Answers! The pleasures of luxury are not the alfred essay principal sources of this happiness; though, by preventing the too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society. When the populousness of a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the answers oppressed against the oppressors is least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and essay powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to french cv resume, a greater height above the alfred poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. Career Goals College! On the contrary, when the king number of people is too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is a check to despotism; because it is a spur to acting, industry, and essay because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the luxury of ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence. Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and depopulated states, the luxury of ostentation prevails over that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of ostentation. The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of french cv resume them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others.
Security and liberty, restrained by the laws, are the basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the alfred essay pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of best nyu entrance essay tyranny. As the most noble and generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of tyranny. But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is king no crime, with regard to man, because the punishment falls on Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family. If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the best crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is so weary of life as to brave the king alfred essay idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and the nation; but the punishment should not brand the offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. Best Nyu Entrance! By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the king essay same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish.
It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary. This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for answers the higher the duties, the greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by the facility of perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to king alfred, lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from it any present advantage. They only perceive the loss sustained by the prince. They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No.
There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the revenue, a part of government so essential, and managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime. For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the offence, that the produce of his labour should be applied to the use of the crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of good faith in dear america contracts and the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for the creditors, the persons of king bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to distinguish between the memento essay questions fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves.
But the bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the alfred essay fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into letters from prison, and deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty? Why is he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of king those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and case answers accepted by the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the alfred essay lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share. Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the questions interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the fear of being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of injuring others.
But to return to the honest bankrupt. Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the whole; let him be refused the liberty of leaving the country without leave of king his creditors, or of carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the questions depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of his liberty, without the king alfred essay least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of government, that the importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to career goals after, the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the alfred same punishment as for forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of liberty; and if perfectly honest, let the bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and acting resume write of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by alfred the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by the arbitrary and dangerous prudence of judges.* Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the college essay greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the misfortunes that befal the honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to every citizen; a public fund formed by a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the most simple, the easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the legislator, to king alfred essay, diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected. A restless and trifling spirit, the cv resume timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and alfred essay aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind.
Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of french cv resume sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and a spirit established contrary to that of the state. History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in alfred opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to the laws of best nyu entrance essay society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for king essay it in any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in one country, and be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in all mankind, and be the object of universal execration; as if judges were to questions, be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of particular conventions between men. The place of punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the alfred crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an individual for the general good subsists there, and there only. A villain, if he has not broke through the conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to case study, be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of king actions.
Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of dear america preventing them, I shall not pretend to determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the alfred essay arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of Asia, and Europe acknowledge the universal empire of reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to set a price on the head of from essay a criminal, and so to king alfred essay, make of every citizen an case answers, executioner. Alfred! Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to nyu entrance, commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government. He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the assistance of another. Besides, such an edict confounds all the ideas of alfred virtue and morality, already too wavering in the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by the laws, at another encouraged. With one hand the legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and friendship, and with the other rewards the violation of goals essay both. Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of men to mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart.
To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the king expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric. On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is better secured against the passions of the individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and example to more enlightened ages.
But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of morality and policy, which is the write foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. The importance of preventing even attempts to king alfred essay, commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an goals essay, interval of time between the attempt and the execution, it is proper to reserve the king alfred greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the attempt there may be a motive for resume desisting.
In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the immediate perpetrator of the crime. But this for a different reason. When a number of men unite, and run a common risk, the greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of king alfred finding a person to execute the crime, as his danger is greater by the difference of the punishment. There can be but one exception to this rule; and that is, when the cardiovascular study answers principal receives a reward from the accomplices. In that case, as the difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal. King Essay! These reflections may appear too refined to those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the french laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves. Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of king cowardice, which are much more pernicious to questions, a nation than crimes of courage.
Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and king contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of those by whom they are violated. The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to best essay, me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the alfred union of those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to danger. The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. Acting! * * * * * But it is in vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the remorse I feel in attempting to induce the sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the foundation of human morality, to essay, authorise dissimulation and perfidy. But what an example does it offer to a nation, to see the interpreters of the laws break their promise of pardon, and on the strength of learned subtleties, and to acting resume, the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation!
Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful. CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the essay crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an french, immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Interrogations, according to the law, ought to lead to the fact indirectly and obliquely, but never directly or immediately. King Alfred! The intent of this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to letters vietnam essay, the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself.
But whatever be the essay motive, the laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Cardiovascular Answers! Can there be an interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the king alfred essay present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the future. If a special interrogation be contrary to the right of career college nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually. But men are influenced more by the names than the nature of things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the example which they owe the public. But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in that case interrogation is useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. King Essay! This last case is most common, for memento essay experience shews, that in the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the crackling of their bones, and the frying of their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and alfred essay agreeable harmony to the fanatic multitude. But men of resume understanding will perceive, that the age and country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into the nature of this crime.
It were too tedious, and foreign to my subject, to prove the necessity of essay a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from america letters from vietnam essay one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and authority. It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the king essay empire of force over the opinions of mankind, from whom it only memento essay questions, obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and although it may seem contrary to the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and indispensible. We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to the true interest of essay mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of nature and case study the social contract, and essay not of sins, even the temporal punishments of essay questions which must be determined from other principles than those of a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. For example; that legislator has false ideas of essay utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for fear of being burnt, and of water for fear of case study answers their being drowned; and who know of no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the laws mean to prevent. Can it be supposed, that those who have the courage to violate the king alfred most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the code, will respect the nyu entrance essay less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the execution of this law deprive the subject of king essay that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to resume write, the wise legislator; and does it not subject the innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty?
It certainly makes the situation of the assaulted worse, and king the assailants better, and rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons. It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and order, which inanimate matter is alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the cv resume only motives that act with force and constancy on king essay, the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by memento essay questions that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is a false idea of essay utility, which, sacrificing things to names, separates the acting write public good from that of individuals. There is this difference between a state of society and a state of nature, that a savage does no more mischief to alfred, another than is necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in society is sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon him with double force, and america letters from vietnam are the cause of his torment. Fear, the more private and king domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to acting resume write, him who makes it the king essay instrument of his happiness; but the more it is public, and the greater number of people it affects, the greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the best more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the unhappy set upon their existence is king less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the career after fundamental principle of good legislation, which is the art of conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and evil of life. But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to king alfred essay, the end proposed.
It is impossible to reduce the case answers tumultuous activity of mankind to king, absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in society. Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority. To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is acting write not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at will the king ideas of virtue and vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to a crime? We must be deprived of the use of our senses. For one motive that induces a man to commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws.
If then, the goals college probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to the number of king alfred essay motives, to extend the sphere of crimes will be to increase that probability. The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to cv resume, the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the laws be clear and king simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in their defence; let them be intended rather to french cv resume, favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is a fruitful and fatal source of crimes. Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the sciences, the interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and king essay debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the goals college essay consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the alfred uncertainty of the laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of cabals and essay intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence.
In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and from slavery to liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by king alfred essay men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. When the clouds of goals college essay ignorance are dispelled by the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable.
Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the alfred essay foundation of questions public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of king alfred liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for french cv resume their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and the laws upon which it is established. It is false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. When they were so, the evil was inevitable. The multiplication of the human species on the face of the essay earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and perishing with it. Best Essay! This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from error.
But necessities increasing with the number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to prevent their frequent relapses into a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. The first religious errors, which peopled the earth with false divinities, and king essay created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to acting write, mankind. The greatest benefactors to humanity were those who dared to essay, deceive, and cardiovascular case led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to king alfred essay, the minds of the vulgar, things out of the career essay reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and attached to a single object. This was the first transition of all nations from their savage state. Such was the necessary, and perhaps the only bond of all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to essay, whom the most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the career goals college essay place of human policy.
But as it is the nature of error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the king pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in letters from vietnam essay which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and terrible passage from error to truth, from darkness to light. The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to the few and powerful, and the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on king alfred essay, that occasion, were productive of infinite evils to essay, unhappy mortals. In the study of history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the king alfred obscurity of french ignorance to alfred, the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the happiness of the next. But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations.
Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the people is more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the relations of things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation. Such a man is accustomed to behold truth, and not to fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the career college essay most elevated point of essay view, he considers the nation as his family, and college essay his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the great and the vulgar appears to him the less, as the number of mankind he has in alfred view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to essay questions, the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in public the principles he taught in obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. Alfred Essay! A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by good laws the number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an improper choice.
Another method of preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and cv resume the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by refusing to hear the complaints of the king alfred essay oppressed, accustom his subjects to essay, respect the magistrates more than the alfred essay laws, the magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of public and memento essay questions private security. Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of king all nations are silent. If the rewards, proposed by cv resume academies for the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions? The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in alfred essay the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to cardiovascular case study answers, perfect the alfred system of education. But this is an cv resume, object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an object, if I may venture to declare it, which is so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by a few wise men.
A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to whom we are indebted for many important truths, hath most amply detailed the essay principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in presenting to the mind a small number of select objects; in substituting the originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to virtue by the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and write momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and king alfred essay pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and memento essay expeditious. This truth will seem cruel to those who live in countries, where, from the king absurdity of the laws, and the severity of acting punishments, pardons, and the clemency of the prince, are necessary. It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Essay! Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in the code, and not in private judgment. To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and nyu entrance that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in king favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity.
Let, then, the executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent and humane. He is a wise architect, who erects his edifice on write, the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the king alfred public shall be the interest of each individual; who is questions not obliged by particular laws, and irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and erect the image of public felicity on alfred, the basis of fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to career goals after college essay, the good of the public. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in particular, but to society in general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of alfred essay others. I conclude with this reflection, that the dear america letters vietnam essay severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the alfred nation. Among a people hardly yet emerged from barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in dear america from essay proportion as the minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of king essay punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained. From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an memento essay, act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to the crime, and determined by the laws.
A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on essay, Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to cv resume, one of those few remedies, capable of king alfred essay alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of cardiovascular study barbarism in the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of alfred eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family. She was culpable of having suffered herself to memento, be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in alfred labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of her burden by career the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation.
She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on her seducer to repair the injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and king alfred because the dear from essay difficulty of king providing for her infant is a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is more criminal. She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and exposes it to perish. Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to kill the mother?
She did not kill the career after college essay child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and king provide for it; a sentiment so natural in acting the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. The law in the country of which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her. But is it not an unjust, inhuman, and pernicious law?
Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the king state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants. Where charity is wanting, the law is always cruel. It were much better to prevent, than to french cv resume, think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. The proper object of jurisprudence is, to hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to those who shall be tempted to do evil, and you will have less to punish. This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on essay, the criminal code of nations. Essay! The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve.
Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the king human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the inventions of tyranny than of justice. The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the belly of a man guilty of high-treason, tore out his heart, dashed it in his face, and dear america letters vietnam then threw it into the fire. And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in having spoken freely on king alfred essay, the doubtful right of the cardiovascular case answers conqueror. At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the death of the offender. The apparatus is alfred dreadful, but the acting death is king essay mild, if death can ever be mild. CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the nyu entrance essay act of tyranny. No Christian emperor, before the essay tyrant Maximus, ever thought of condemning a man to punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of controversy.
It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to death the Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to cv resume, gratify the reigning party with the blood of alfred heretics. Barbarity and justice were to cardiovascular case, him indifferent. Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the king alfred essay empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the West. Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to display the same zeal, and to attach the Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the world was then governed like Algiers at essay present. Emperors were created and dethroned by alfred essay the military power, and were often chosen from among nations that were reputed barbarous. Theodosius opposed to his competitor other barbarians from Scythia. He filled the army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of essay Rome.
In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of Theodosius, to be assassinated at Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of king essay Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and demanded of him the blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays. Case Answers! Maximus, half Pagan, and half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes.
The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death. They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the good fortune to be canonized. It is proper to observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of heresy by king the bishops, he returned to Tours, for fear of the torture at career goals after Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the halter, and by lapidation. A young lady of quality, suspected to have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death. These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in king essay the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of God in french cv resume this sublunary world.
On this principle it was, that all over alfred Europe they burnt witches and sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the acting write crime of those priests who were burnt at Orleans in alfred the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022. How indeed should it be known? there being, at questions that time, but a small number of clerks and essay monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the misfortune of cardiovascular case study answers having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by the flames. Custom becomes law; from that period to king alfred, the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an cardiovascular, error in opinion.
CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY. It seems necessary to distinguish an heresy of opinion from faction. From the first ages of essay Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of essay questions Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from king essay those of Antioch. The Achaians differed from the cv resume Asiatics.
This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the faithful in the same sentiments, did it not; and therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of king essay indulgence and charity, by essay permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from alfred essay their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only nyu entrance, dispute. If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the essay privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors. They may say to those who want privileges to the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Jacob; let us, like them, pray to God according to our conscience. Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism.
You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is quite a different thing.
It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction. The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the persecution excited in america from vietnam essay 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of king alfred essay Dioclesian. The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and too rich to be exterminated. They joined Chlorus; they fought for his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence.
Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Revolutions of a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland. When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the Jews out of Spain, where they were established not only before the reigning family, but before the Moors, the after college essay Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution. In short, no sect ever changed the government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only king, methods, in policy, to acting resume write, be taken with a new sect, are, to alfred essay, put to death the chief and all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is that of a monster; the second of a wise man. Chain your subjects to the state by their interest. Let the Quaker and after the Turk find their advantage in living under your laws.
Religion is of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the king alfred essay saints, made a law against blasphemers. He condemned them to nyu entrance, a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron. It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from king a man in a passion, from joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the essay pol and the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per Deos immortales, an expression frequently used, without the least intention of swearing by the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted.
The law by king which they are punished, seems to acting resume, be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and there is the more reason to believe them right, as the alfred essay word shave, which is translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to pay a fine, and the plebeians to be drowned.
The first part of this law seems puerile, the study latter abominable. It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and king essay his kingdom interdicted by best essay Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. Essay! A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to america letters, Pope Innocent IV. King Essay! This pontiff remonstrated to the king that the punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for mankind, if the popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of french his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for the second, third, and fourth, a double, triple, and quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for king the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed.
Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to acting resume, more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to specify. They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and king alfred yet nothing ought to be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the memento questions nature and degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man. Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour.
They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the consequences of an imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to king essay, suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against best, the unhappy youth, and you are determined to make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death?
But he had offended God! True, most grievously. King! Imitate God in your proceedings against him. If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words.
They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the dear america letters from essay preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for king essay an insect to pretend to revenge the Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the magistrate of a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of conversation among the speculative part of mankind. Doubtless the Roman senate held the supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for our saints.
Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on cardiovascular case study, the good Trajan, attests, that the king essay Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity. Cicero and Livy tell us the same thing. No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to descend to the punishment of idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on goals college essay, those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on king alfred essay, those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death. It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in cardiovascular case study the Troad to alfred, sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the dead?
They are where they were ere they were born. Essay! * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the alfred essay Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second.
It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the priesthood, by our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime. Granted. God will punish it. The part of man is, to punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the impiety hath occasioned. But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the french cv resume Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello.
CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life. In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is hanged. Is it to king essay, avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death? Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. Career Goals After! But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged. Or have they built on this passage in alfred Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the best friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee.
But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the physician Servetus to king essay, be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of write Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is one of the most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved. I read the following account in a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at Brieu in Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at Metz. Having returned to Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. Alfred! He fled for refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination.
Seeing by america letters from essay what strange fatality his life was not in king essay safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so. The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew. He now went to Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and finally what is called a minister. The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of acting resume Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and king alfred essay that of Moses, which was the only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to visit him, and endeavoured to case study answers, bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for alfred essay God to change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and write even wrote his confession of faith, to king, escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him.
The majority determined that he should be burnt, and he was burnt. This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to expiate such a deed. CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. It was midst the feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in career goals the year 1663. Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and alfred that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in a mad-house. What was very remarkable, there happened to be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the cardiovascular case study Father. Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for a time to king alfred essay, have recovered his senses.
He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St. Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor. This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent.
He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and Mirame, with a translation of the Psalms; the Romance of Ariane, and the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the holy Virgin turned into verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and Virgil. French Cv Resume! From this kind of follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature. He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to atheism, he commenced prophet. Alfred! He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the goals key to alfred essay, the treasure of the best essay Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and forty thousand men against essay, the Jansenists. Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in case study answers the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the Jesuit Annat, the king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the essay Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to turn informer, he obtained an america from essay, order to seize the king alfred essay person of his rival.
Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to memento essay questions, be burnt alive? In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for all his errors. This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to alfred essay, make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to death.
Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to return. In the cardiovascular year 1748, in the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of witchcraft and burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in alfred essay witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of this crime, and that above a hundred years after the pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the best essay devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the mark which he is wont to bestow upon his favourites. This seal of the devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the demonographical civilians of those times.
The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually. Alfred! The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the goals after college devil. Alfred! The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed. Cv Resume! Physicians were called, at least men that passed for physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the devil on the body of king alfred Michelle, which seal is called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark.
Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Blood issued from the wound, and acting write Michelle testified by her cries that the part was not insensible. The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to king alfred, be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at memento essay questions last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and king alfred essay found it in career after college essay a little black spot on one of her thighs.
Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the pain of the torture, was insensible to the needle, and king essay did not cry out. She was instantly condemned to cardiovascular answers, be burnt; but the world beginning at this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against king alfred, witchcraft as well as heresy. The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an infallible proof of the memento questions falsity of their religion.
A zealous friend to the public welfare, to king essay, humanity, and to true religion, in one of essay his writings in king alfred essay favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and memento questions victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators. CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to be useful to society. It is alfred essay evident, that a score of cv resume stout robbers, condemned for life to some public work, would serve the essay state in their punishment, and cardiovascular study that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to the colonies. This is also practised in Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the alfred autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the dear letters vietnam essay criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people. The same is observed in the English colonies. We are astonished at the change, and yet nothing can be more natural.
The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest. It is well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and consequently too much debauchery.
The Romans never condemned a citizen to death, unless for alfred crimes which concerned the safety of the state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. But for one case in which the laws permit the death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to suffer. The sword of justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to sharpen its edge. It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to dear letters vietnam essay, inform us that it ought seldom to king, be drawn.
There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in nyu entrance England, and alfred essay such in France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Essay Questions! Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to the end of the world, must we have recourse to the laws of China, to alfred, learn how frugal we ought to acting, be of human blood? It is now more than four thousand years that the alfred essay tribunals of that empire have existed; and case answers it is king essay also more than four thousand years that the Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of his tribunals; after which he signs the america from vietnam death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us.
In England, no criminal is king put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is also practised in Germany, and in most parts of the america essay north. Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to be in alfred essay all polished nations. A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by great objects. The members of the supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments. In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the victims: all desire that the college essay principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in alfred essay order to extort confession. The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to nyu entrance essay, make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is preparing for thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea?
St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the use of torture; if in that nation crimes were no more frequent than in king alfred others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the world. England alone might instruct all other nations in cardiovascular study answers this particular; but England is not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the king essay question therefore is career college essay decided. Shall not a people, who pique themselves on their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity? Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an essay, ancient custom? Reserve, at goals essay least, such cruelty for essay the punishment of french cv resume those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an king alfred essay, useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Best Essay! Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to king alfred essay, have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to humanity.
CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and french cv resume that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court. The severity, or rather cruelty, of alfred essay this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. The same law was also established in Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the goals after essay seventeenth century. In the archives of a little place called St.
Claude, situated in a remote corner of the most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629. Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on king alfred essay, a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime. Acting Resume Write! He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty. The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the alfred papers of the process, and heard the after essay opinions of the doctors learned in alfred essay the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of that town; of having caused the said flesh to be dressed, and of eating the same on Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion?
Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible. Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an executioner, the youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in order to essay questions, be safe from the assassination of alfred this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the best reign of Maximilian I. King Alfred! It ought to questions, have been dissolved in king alfred essay the blood of its members. Goals After College! The Venetian Council of Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of mercy. What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to king alfred, bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS. I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to all men, for resume write the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts.
Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to beneficent parents, perjury against king alfred essay, innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and acting resume write justly punished, though with more or less severity. I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the city, you shut the gates, and forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of death. Or, fearful of a new sect of people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and alfred essay secretly consult of best means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and essay that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by the state; you denounce death against those who, in publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the french people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the essay strongest gains the prize, and punishes with death the partizans of the goals weaker. The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the new sovereign, and the supports of his authority. When Richard the Third, the king essay murderer of cv resume his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to a friend of the king alfred Duke of Richmond, who was at that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by the name of best Henry VII. They found two ridiculous lines of king Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to condemn him to a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of reprisal is answers also a law adopted by nations. For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army.
One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into your hands; he is a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal. King Alfred Essay! You say it is the law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another. These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. They resemble the necessity which, in cases of extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to eat men as soon as bread is to be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU.
High-treason is an case, offence committed against the security of the commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Alfred Essay! Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in essay questions cases of alfred essay high-treason they are against him.
The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of case high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and king another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and america letters from essay that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the hearts of several people, and dashing them in their faces. But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to be improbable. Let us suppose that two of the most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an king, army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France. But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into the heart of man. The laws of England do not consider as guilty of conspiracy those who are privy to it, and essay questions do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform.
They suppose the informer as infamous as the conspirator is king alfred essay culpable. In France, if any one be privy to a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death. Lewis XI. against whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an honest man to divulge a crime, which, by his resolution and memento questions advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to king essay, manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction. This was exactly the case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of state, and son of the only good historian of which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the french Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of Sedan, and of the king alfred grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St.
Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to St. Mars, and endeavoured to dissuade him from the enterprize. Case Study Answers! If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the presumptive heir of a sovereign prince, of the king#x2019;s favourite, and to public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to be true. So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. King! He certainly deserved to have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue.
There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. In the dear america vietnam essay sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed. So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and eyes. All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. The letter of the law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the spirit of the law was not perverted? It is essay a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of cardiovascular study people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Prince of Orange; Clement the Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes.
Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament. Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in king essay the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of case which was engraved a heart and a cross; and that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the 20th of August, 1610, three months after the essay death of Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to sign the four following articles:
I. That the french cv resume Council is superior to the Pope. Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. King Alfred Essay! That the Pope cannot deprive the king of case study any of his rights by excommunication. III. That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by confession, is essay apprized of a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to essay, the magistrates. On the 22d, the king alfred essay parliament published an cv resume, arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles.
But the essay court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and that of France so weak, that the best nyu entrance arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of Rome, which would not suffer confession to be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the king confessors to inform the Inquisition in case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to goals college, seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV. Clement VIII. and alfred essay Gregory XV. ordered this revelation. It was a dangerous snare both for college essay the confessor and essay the penitent.
It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for memento essay questions life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of essay a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in memento essay questions cases of parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier. A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by killing his prince, consults his confessor on this case of conscience; the confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for king alfred essay so many ages, between the ecclesiastical and america letters vietnam civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of sins hath been authorised in all times and in all nations. King! The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of america from essay Orpheus, of Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace.
The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. King Essay! Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in turn, and each receives from his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to those secret consultations, under the shadow of french which fanatical penitents think to king essay, sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to wickedness. Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful. The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in memento essay questions the second degree, and alfred essay justly. To rob all the dear from vietnam essay people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into king essay good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the write punishment annexed to this crime in almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by increasing the currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the king small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into the temptation of coining bad.
Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in the royal mint, with irons to his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society? Is it not even an encouragement to career college essay, larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the whole neighbourhood hold the king essay master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is contrary to nature, and consequently that it is dear vietnam a bad law. What is the result?
Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the king alfred same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on the contrary, the write punishment be proportioned to the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of king essay a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the essay questions master will not hesitate to bring the offender to justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St. Cyran, one of the founders of alfred essay Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on french, suicide, which is become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to alfred essay, commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. The reason of man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D;
St. Cyran extends his argument to letters vietnam essay, a great length, which after all is a mere sophism. But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius. What prince would dare to punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service?
Or rather, is there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the king alfred same thing. But there was no need of either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise. St. Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for cardiovascular case study answers another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known. I do not pretend to alfred, apologise for an action which the laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable.
By the Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in dear america from essay a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the corps of the king essay offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in french cv resume our power to alfred essay, dishonour his family. We punish a son for having lost a father, and a widow because she is deprived of goals college essay her husband. We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from our canon law, which denies Christian burial to king alfred, those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is nyu entrance not lawful to inherit on earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION. We find, in the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by king castration or by bruising the testes. By the same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated.
Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the rigid interpretation of that passage in St. French Cv Resume! Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of essay Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at cardiovascular answers Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and Musico del Papa are synonimous. Alfred Essay! It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner.
It is a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in those countries where custom serves instead of career goals law. So that, as we have already observed, the children of one who puts an end to king alfred essay, his own life, are condemned to perish with hunger, equally with those of an write, assassin. Thus, in every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the father of a family is condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for essay having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread. That law which consists in depriving an orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to america, one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. It was first introduced by essay Sylla, in his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in case of high-treason.
It seems that, in the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of their subjects. Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of princes is founded on immense and certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family. In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse. It was formerly the law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in their possession. It is strange, that the career goals after college essay inhabitants of the king essay capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by accident, and without attention to the regularity of goals after college essay a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the kingdom of France, the advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in full parliament express himself, on the subject of king a young lady named Canillac, in the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein.
And thou shalt gather all the spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and french there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in essay the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king. Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects. David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to Ziba who brought him the news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the acting write paternal estate of Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to a lord of the treasury, and afterwards bequeathed by him to the testatrix. In this cause concerning a girl of Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. King! de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and son of career goals essay Jonathan, the friend and protector of David, the king alfred essay least affinity with the goals after college essay will of this lady. It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and executed, by men who acquired reputation in king essay their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the cardiovascular case laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity. Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at alfred essay the destruction of the accused.
It is the only law which is uniform throughout the french cv resume whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. King Essay! In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the cv resume misfortune to be thrown into king alfred a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against any one; and to add to resume write, his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation. Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of human justice against king alfred essay, iniquity. But there is generosity and compassion even in war. The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the law delight in essay barbarity? Let us compare the criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. With them, the evidence were heard publicly in presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. This procedure was open and king alfred essay noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity.
With us, all is conducted in secret. Memento Essay Questions! A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately. This custom, established by Francis I. was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to digest the ordinance of Lewis XIV. in 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the king alfred essay witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the chamber of the judge. Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. This part of career college essay our law therefore is founded on essay, a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases.
They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in dear from vietnam essay any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from alfred essay a principle of case answers justice, he is punished as a reprobate. The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the magistrate to confront the evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined. A man being suspected of a crime, knowing that he is essay denied the benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to which he is encouraged by every maxim of the law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not.
Strange laws! If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the answers pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned.
Do your laws then allow the privilege of alfred counsel to acting write, an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and honourable man? If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of king alfred essay a proof. For instance, an acting, hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in alfred fact are no other than an echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof. Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel.
CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. We may then possibly hope to see a regular and uniform system of laws. Shall the law of the provinces be always at variance with the acting write law in alfred the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in dear america from the same parliament, the maxims of one chamber are not the maxims of another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an king alfred essay, inhabitant during one year and a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and even his children are deprived of their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the father died. Acting! This province is called Franche, but where is king alfred essay their freedom?
Were we to attempt to cardiovascular study answers, draw a line between civil authority and ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and king alfred arbitrary power. In the present age, we seem universally aiming at perfection; let us not therefore neglect to case answers, perfect the laws, on alfred essay, which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the america vietnam end of the social compact, but the means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by king the infinite combinations which result from the actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion. I have been accused of impiety; I did not deserve it. French! I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little.
But I insulted all the rights of alfred humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc. Seneca. Spon, p. 500. Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the cv resume chronological history and laws of Germany, an. 803.
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10 mistakes that could ruin your resume. The goal of a resume is to let a potential employer know why you're the best person for the job. Here are 10 practices that impede that goal. There is king one goal for your resume: To show a potential employer why you are the best person for cv resume, the job. However, there are so many things that can get in the way of alfred what should be a clear message.
Here are ten of the french cv resume, most common mistakes made in resumes. King Essay! This may be one of the most difficult concepts for job hunters to grasp, but your resume is study not something you create for yourself . King Alfred! You create it, format it, and organize it so that it's easy for a hiring manager to french cv resume gauge your fit with the alfred, job he or she is offering. It's important to questions tailor your resume to each job you apply to. I promise you, no hiring manager is king alfred going to write study your resume for specifics that would apply to the job at hand. Your resume has to make them obvious.
For example, if you're applying for a project manager position, highlight any experience and accomplishments that show your expertise in project management, even if you have to alfred essay switch to a functional resume format to do it. While the bulk of cv resume your work experience may be in tech support, it's really not applicable to the job at hand, so don't concentrate on the day-to-day minutiae. Concentrate instead on those instances where you demonstrated leadership, ingenuity, and alfred, organizational skills. Hiring executives have a low threshold for resume bloopers. Dear Letters Essay! A study on working.com claims that one out of four executives will toss a resume into the wastebasket if they spot a typo. But sometimes even the most careful people can miss a typo or two.
Here are some tips for making sure you're sending out pristine copies of essay your resume: Enlist detail-oriented family members, friends, or mentors to proofread your resume and provide honest feedback. Dear America Letters From Vietnam Essay! Take a timeout. Before submitting your resume, take a break and come back to it with a fresh set of eyes. You might catch something you missed the first time. Print a copy. It's easy to overlook typos or formatting mistakes when reading a resume on a monitor, so print it out for king, review. Try a new perspective. Sometimes readers inadvertently skip over parts they have read previously. Review your resume backward to help avoid this problem.
You can read it from bottom to top, or from the right side of best essay a line to the left. This takes away the king alfred, mental expectation that sometimes tricks us into thinking a word is spelled correctly, etc. Read it out dear america letters vietnam loud. This can also help you find phrases that don't make sense. There are all kinds of alfred essay opinions as to how long a resume should be. Most people say to career college essay keep it to one page, but many people say that two pages are OK, particularly if you have 10 or more years of experience related to your goal or you need space to list and prove your technical knowledge. Either way, the alfred essay, goal is to keep your resume lean yet meaningful. List only your selling points that are relevant to the job at hand and let go of some details that have no bearing on your current goal. You may have become proficient in Windows NT in a previous job, but it's not something that would have a bearing on a job today.
4. Cardiovascular! Your resume is not very readable. Never underestimate resume formatting. Consider that some hiring managers have to look through hundreds of resumes for each job opening. Also consider that those employers will usually take, at most, only thirty-five seconds to look at a one-page resume before deciding whether to king alfred keep or discard it. You should design your resume so that employers can read the document easily and memento essay questions, process information quickly. To judge the formatting of your resume, ask yourself these questions: Am I using too many fonts? It's best to king stick to one or two fonts. You can vary the size and add bold if necessary to make headings stand out but don't go overboard. You don't want your resume to look like a ransom note built out of newspaper clippings. Am I overdoing the emphasis thing? As I said in the previous point, you can create emphasis by cardiovascular case using bold , italics, underlining, etc.
However, you don't want to mix methods or overuse them. You would not, for example, want to CAPITALIZE, ITALICIZE, AND UNDERLINE pieces of text. It's overkill and essay, hard on the eyes. Is there too much text on vietnam essay, the page? There's nothing more intimidating to king alfred a reviewer than blocks of dense text on acting resume, a resume. Here are some things to alfred keep in resume write, mind: Set your margins at about 1-inch all around, use bulleted points to break up paragraphs of text that list your accomplishments, and make sure your sections are distinct. Don't be afraid of white space!
If you have to choose between crammed-in text and an extra resume page, go with the latter. You can see in Figure A how much more readable the list of accomplishments are when put into bullets separated by white space. 5. Your name appears in the Word header . Your name should appear prominently at the top of your resume, but even though it looks kind of cool, avoid using Word's header feature for alfred essay, this information. (Using Word's header feature will make your name appear automatically at the top of case every page of your resume.) The problem is a lot of scanning software used by HR departments won't work on headers and footers so your resume could get lost in king alfred, the shuffle. 6. Your resume doesn't include keywords. It's an questions unfortunate fact of life that many organizations use scanning software (mentioned above) when vetting resumes. This is often done as the preliminary step in weeding out any people whose qualifications and experience don't match the job being filled. So be very sure that you pepper your resume with relevant keywords. That is to king alfred essay say, don't use one in every sentence and essay, don't use keywords that you don't have experience with just for king alfred, the sake of sneaking in case, under the radar. Sooner or later you'll have to own up. The actual job description is the best starting place for king, finding relevant keywords.
7. You list your experience instead of your accomplishments. Essay! First of all, never use expressions such as Duties included or Responsibilities included. These lists outline only what was in essay, your job description; they don't say whether you did them well or not. And they don't show how you stood out from the other people in your company who were doing the cv resume, same things. To help rewrite your responsibilities to accomplishments, try asking yourself: What special things did I do to set myself apart? How did I do the job better or differently than anyone else? What did I do to make it my own? What were some problems or challenges that I faced?
How did I solve or overcome those problems? What were the results of my efforts? How did the company benefit from my performance? For example, did it make or save money or save time? It might help to use an accomplishment tracker template like this one available from king alfred essay, TechRepublic. 8. You use vague verbs and subjective adjectives. Avoid, at all costs, those abstract verb phrases like Assisted with. or Handled. French Cv Resume! or Managed. Those phrases can mean almost anything. Every time you're tempted with one of those phrases, ask yourself How ? How did you assist with something? What exactly did you do? Also, try using more dynamic words like constructed, coordinated, determined, established, executed, etc.
On the same ticket, it is very easy to say you skillfully completed some task or that you have extraordinary people skills. King Alfred! But unless you can back those statements up with concrete evidence, it's just you saying something good about acting resume, yourself. So explain why your task completion was skillful. Did it come in under budget and king alfred, within time restraints? What evidence do you have of your great people skills? Did you get recognized for questions, this in some way? Were you assigned more end users than other staffers? Any detail that you can offer in explanation will help. 9. Your resume is essay like all the others. We're not saying that you should make yourself stand out by formatting your entire resume in a cursive font.
We're saying that, since you're a tech pro, a prospective employer is probably going to expect something a little more advanced. Toward this goal consider: Including a link to your online portfolio. Online portfolios can be anything from a blog or a website, to cardiovascular case study answers a dedicated solution (something that's just a portfolio, without any of the extra stuff). Make it something that loads fast, is visually professional, and showcases your accomplishments, mission statement, career progression, and leadership aptitude. Before you put the link in king, your resume, ask yourself how well the site answers questions any potential employers might have about you. Adding a QR code. Resume! A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional, barcode-like image that, once scanned, directs potential employers to carefully selected, customized web pages for more information about a job seeker. It's a tech-savvy way to illustrate your strengths. 10.
You lie/exaggerate on alfred, your resume. Decision makers routinely conduct background checks and online research to verify a resume. And sometimes what they find out can embarrass you down the line; a lesson learned the career after essay, hard way by former CEO Scott Thompson. At the very least, don't claim education that you don't have. But you should also be careful about exaggerating any experience you have. It could take only a few targeted questions in king alfred, an interview to reveal your deception.
Toni Bowers is write Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to king alfred essay software, IT career, and cv resume, IT management issues. Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the essay, award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues. College! We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and the products revolutionizing the planet.
Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and videos that you absolutely cannot miss to king alfred stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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Be the alfred essay first to cardiovascular case study upload a photo of alfred your new accessory. Android Wear™ ist ein Warenzeichen der Google Inc. Fossil ist eine amerikanische Lifestyle Marke, die ihre Wurzeln im klassischen und authentischen Vintage-Design hat. French! Seit 1984 sind wir bestrebt, qualitativ hochwertige Uhren, Taschen und Accessoires herzustellen, die das Beste aus der Vergangenheit mit dem modernen Look von heute verbinden. Alfred! Wir feiern 30 Jahre Vintage Tradition und ganz im Geist von Freiheit und Abenteuer entdecken wir auf unserer Reise durch Vergangenheit und Gegenwart die unendlichen Moglichkeiten, die noch vor uns liegen. French! Ob auf einer Reise um die Welt oder nur auf dem taglichen Weg zur Arbeit, jeder braucht funktionelle, perfekt designte Accessoires, die zu seinem Lebensstil passen. King Alfred Essay! Wenn klare Formen aus den 1950er Jahren auf moderne Looks von heute treffen, entstehen Schlusselprodukte, die genau zeigen, fur was wir stehen: Tragbare Taschen im klaren Design, traditionelle Uhren in memento essay frischen Farben und zeitlose Kleidung und Accessoires, die Dich immer stylisch begleiten. Unsere Damen- und Herrenuhren kommen mit schicken Leder- oder Edelstahlbandern und unsere Must-Have Taschen verbinden Fashion mit Funktion.
Unsere Favoriten der Saison? Zauberhafte Uhren in essay Rosegold fur sie und elegante Swiss Made Uhren fur ihn - Uhren, die alles haben, was einen Fossil Klassiker ausmacht. Resume Write! Wir tragen sie zu funkelnden Ohrsteckern, einer glamourosen Halskette oder einem lassigen Lederarmband fur einen perfekten Look bei Tag und Nacht. Taschen, die immer schoner werden, je langer man sie tragt, uberzeugen durch unkomplizierte Silhouetten und langlebige Materialien, die dafur sorgen, dass mobile Gerate, Zeitungen und die unverzichtbaren Dinge des Alltags immer gut geschutzt und stilvoll verstaut sind. Alfred Essay! Unser Signature Leder in french neuen neutralen oder kraftig bunten Farben spiegelt Fulle und Uberfluss der Jahreszeit wider und unterstreicht die klaren Linien unserer kultverdachtigen Designs. King Alfred! Handy- und Tabletcover, Geldborsen, Gurtel und Geschenke sind verspielte und praktische Accessoires, die man viele Jahre lang tragen kann. Cardiovascular Case Study! Ob klassische Taschen oder vintage-inspirierten Uhren und Accessoires, unsere Kollektionen sind dafur gemacht, dass man immer perfekt gestylt an alfred essay seinem Ziel ankommt. 15 % SOFORTRABATT* (WENN DU UNSEREN NEWSLETTER ABONNIERST) Nur ein paar Klicks und wir werden ganz schnell Freunde und teilen die aktuellsten Neuheiten, kommende Sales und spezielle Angebote mit Dir.
Der Schutz deiner personenbezogenen Daten ist der Fossil Europe GmbH (nachfolgend auch „Fossil“ oder „wir“) wichtig. Career After College Essay! Mit diesen Datenschutz-Bestimmungen informieren wir daruber, welche Daten wir im Zusammenhang mit unseren Dienstleistungen auf dieser Webseite www.fossil.de sammeln und wie wir sie verarbeiten. Personenbezogene Daten, die wir sammeln. Personenbezogene Daten sind Einzelangaben uber eine naturliche Person wie z.B. Alfred Essay! Dein Name, Deine E-Mail-Adresse oder Waren, die Du uber Deinen Account gekauft hast. Wir speichern und verarbeiten die folgenden personenbezogenen Daten von Dir: Angaben, die Du beim Ausfullen von Formularen auf unseren Webseiten machst. French Cv Resume! Das beinhaltet Informationen zur Registrierung auf unserer Seite (wie z.B.
Name, Lieferadresse, Geburtsdatum), Einwilligungen in king essay den Erhalt des Newsletters, Anfragen zu Katalogzusendungen, abgegebene Bewertungen, Eintrage auf Deinem Wunschzettel, oder Software-Downloads. Acting Resume! Auch Informationen, die wir im Rahmen von Gewinnspielen oder anderen Marketing-Aktionen abfragen, werden gespeichert, ebenso wie Nachrichten von Dir, etwa zu Problemen mit unserer Seite. King Alfred Essay! Es ist – ggf. Write! nach deiner Einwilligung – moglich, dass wir Teile einer Kommunikation aufzeichnen, sofern Du Anfragen entweder online oder per essay, Telefon an letters from vietnam unseren Kundendienst stellst. Essay! Wenn Du Dich entscheidest an from essay Umfragen teilzunehmen, die wir zu Marktforschungszwecken durchfuhren, werden Deine Antworten ebenfalls gespeichert. Alfred! Die Teilnahme an solchen Umfragen ist naturlich freiwillig. Goals After College Essay! Details zu Einkaufen auf unserer Webseite, auf anderen Fossil Webseiten oder in alfred unseren Stores. Memento! Darunter fallen unter anderem Angaben zu eingekauften Produkten, zu Warenruckgaben oder –umtausch oder auch die Information, dass ein Produkt auf Basis der Garantie zuruckgeschickt oder zur Reparatur eingeschickt wurde.
Deine Besuche auf von Fossil betriebenen Webseiten sowie Deine Nutzung unserer Newsletter (z.B. Alfred! welche Seiten du besuchst, welche Services Du nutzt), werden von uns pseudonymisiert gespeichert. Career Goals After College Essay! Das bedeutet, sie werden NICHT unter Deinem Namen gespeichert, sondern unter einer pseudonymisierten Identifikationsnummer. King Alfred! Wenn Du der Sammlung dieser Daten widersprechen mochtest, schicke bitte eine E-Mail an french firstname.lastname@example.org. King Alfred Essay! Die oben genannten Daten speichern wir, um mehr uber die Interessen und das Verhalten unserer Nutzer zu erfahren, um Probleme im Zusammenhang mit unserer Seite, unseren Produkten und/ oder unseren Services besser zu erkennen und entsprechende Verbesserungen vorzunehmen, um Trends und Statistiken zu analysieren und um sicherzustellen, dass die Inhalte auf unserer Webseite fur Dich optimal prasentiert werden. Goals! Wenn du in king alfred einem unserer Verkaufshauser eine elektronische Rechnung anforderst, speichern wir Deinen Namen, Deine E-Mail-Adresse und Deine getatigten Einkaufe. Wozu wir personenbezogene Daten verwenden.
Wir benutzen und speichern Daten von Dir zu folgenden Zwecken (weitere Beispiele sind im vorigen Abschnitt aufgefuhrt): Erbringung der Leistungen und Erfullung der Verpflichtungen, die wir aufgrund Deiner Kaufe haben (z.B. Career Goals After College! Warenzusendung, Garantierverpflichtungen, Reparaturen, Rucknahmen, Umtausch). King! Um Dir Informationen uber Produkte und Services zukommen zu lassen (mehr Informationen dazu findest du hier). Acting Resume! Registrierung zu Gewinnspielen oder Marketing-Aktionen. King! Information bei Anderungen unserer Services. Dear From! Schutz unserer Webseite und unseres Geschafts vor Sicherheitsrisiken und Sicherstellung der Integritat unseres Angebotes. Verwendung der Daten fur Marketing-Zwecke.
Wir nutzen personenbezogene Daten auch fur Marketingzwecke und zur Marktforschung. Alfred! Fur das Direktmarketing kontaktieren wir dich gema? den geltenden Bestimmungen, was bedeutet, dass wir Dir nur dann Informationen per case study, Post zusenden, solange Du nicht widersprochen hast, dass wir dir E-Mails zu solchen oder ahnlichen Produkte senden, die Du schon mal bei uns gekauft hast, solange Du nicht widersprochen hast, dass wir nur dann andere Marketing-Informationen (z.B. King! Newsletter, SMS, …) senden, wenn du zuvor explizit eingewilligt hast. Sobald Du der Zusendung von Werbesendungen widersprochen hast, werden wir Dich aus dem Verteiler fur Werbeaktionen herausnehmen. Memento Essay! Du kannst zudem generelle der Verwendung Deiner Daten fur Marketing- und Marktforschungszwecke jederzeit widersprechen, etwa indem du eine E-Mail an king alfred essay email@example.com sendest. Fur den Geschaftsbetrieb ist es erforderlich, dass Fossil Daten auch an cardiovascular study answers andere Unternehmen ubermittelt. King Essay! Das konnen andere Fossil-Gesellschaften oder auch externe Partner sein. Diese Unternehmen bieten unterschiedliche Dienste an.
Zum Beispiel beauftragen wir Logistikunternehmen mit der Auslieferung unserer Produkte, einen Spezialisten fur die Abwicklung samtlicher Zahlungsvorgange auf unseren Webseiten oder Marketing-Agenturen zur Vorbereitung und Unterstutzung bei Marketing-Aktionen. Best Essay! In solchen Fallen mussen wir Deine personenbezogenen Daten an alfred essay Dritte ubermitteln. Essay Questions! Wenn wir Dienstleister in essay Anspruch nehmen, die Zugriff auf personenbezogene Daten erhalten, stellen wir sicher, dass dieser Zugriff und eventuelle Datenverarbeitungen ausschlie?lich fur den jeweiligen Zweck und nach unseren vertraglichen Anweisungen erfolgen. Daten, die uber diese Webseite erhoben werden, speichert und verarbeitet die Fossil, Inc. in memento essay questions unserem Auftrag in essay den USA. Questions! Auch andere Dienstleister speichern ggf. King Alfred! Daten in french cv resume den USA.. Essay! Fossil stellt in resume allen Fallen sicher, dass die Anforderungen der EU an alfred Datenschutz eingehalten werden, zum Beispiel durch Verwendung von EU-Musterklauseln zum Datenschutz oder durch eine entsprechende Safe-Harbor-Zertifizierung (vergleiche hierzu auch das Kapitel „Safe Harbour Abkommen“). Wenn es erforderlich ist, ubermittelt Fossil personenbezogene Daten an nyu entrance Dritte, um gesetzlichen Anforderungen nachzukommen oder um die eigenen Nutzungs- und Verkaufsbedingungen anzuwenden oder durchzusetzen. Fur den Fall, dass Du an essay Gewinnspielen oder anderen Wettbewerben teilnimmst, ist in acting write den Teilnahmebedingungen beschrieben, an essay wen Deine personenbezogenen Daten moglicherweise weitergegeben werden.
Daten von Deinem Wunschzettel werden von uns an essay questions Freunde, Verwandte und Bekannte weitergeleitet, wenn Du uns damit beauftragst. Fossil nutzt Cookies, Zahlpixel und weitere Technologien. Cookies sind kleine Dateien, die bei Aufruf einer Webseite auf der Festplatte Deines Rechners gespeichert werden. King Alfred! Zahlpixel (auch Pixel-Tags, Web-Beacons oder Clear Gifs genannt) sind kleine Bilddateien wie zum Beispiel Zahler auf Webseiten. From Essay! Diese werden in alfred den nachfolgenden Ausfuhrungen auch unter dem Uberbegriff Cookies zusammengefasst.
Wir nutzen unterschiedliche Arten von Cookies fur verschiedene Zwecke. College Essay! Folgende Kategorien unterscheiden wir: Sitzungscookies (Session Cookies). Essay! Dies sind vorrubergehende Dateien die wieder geloscht werden sobald du deinen Browser schlie?t und deine itzung beendest. Essay Questions! Das nachste Mal wenn du die Seite besuchst wird sie dich nicht wiedererkennen und es gibt nichts in alfred deinem Browser, das die Webseite wissen lasst das die sie schon einmal besucht hast (Mehr uber Sitzungscookies).
Dauercookies (Persistent Cookies). Acting! Diese bleiben auf deiner Festplatte bis du sie loschst oder sie abgelaufen sind. Alfred Essay! Wie lange ein Cookie auf deiner Festplatte gespeichert bleibt hangt von den Einstellungen der Webseite ab (Mehr uber Dauercookies). Write! Erforderliche Cookies. Alfred! Diese Cookies sind fur die Nutzung unserer Webseite und unserer Services notwendig. Career Goals After Essay! Das sind beispielsweise Cookies, uber die das Login realisiert wird, uber die Du Deinen Wunschzettel gestalten oder den elektronischen Einkaufswagen befullen kannst. King! Funktionale Cookies: Diese werden beispielsweise dazu gebraucht, Dich zu erkennen, wenn du wiederholt auf unsere Seite kommst und so helfen unsere Seite optimal an Deine Bedurfnisse anpassen, dich also zum Beispiel immer direkt auf eine deutsche Webseite lenken, wenn deutsch die von Dir bevorzugte Sprache ist. Memento Questions! Analytische Cookies und nutzungsorientierte Internetwerbung: Solche Cookies analysieren, wie Du Dich auf unserer Webseite verhaltst (z.B. King Essay! welche Seiten oder Links du benutzt).
Diese Cookies werden von Fossil und Drittanbietern platziert. Cv Resume! Google analysiert so beispielsweise, wie sich Nutzer im Web verhalten. Alfred Essay! Durch die Analyse ist Fossil in memento der Lage, die Bedurfnisse der Nutzer besser zu verstehen und das eigene Angebot an king alfred essay diese Bedurfnisse anzupassen. Mochtest Du analytischen Cookies widersprechen so sende bitte eine E-Mail an goals after college firstname.lastname@example.org (fur Google Analytics bitte den nachsten Absatz); mochtest du Cookies zur nutzungsbasierten Werbung widersprechen, so hast du hier die Moglichkeit. Diese Webseite benutzt Google Analytics, einen Webanalysedienst der Google Inc. King Alfred! („Google“). Cardiovascular Case! Die durch den Cookie erzeugten Informationen uber Benutzung dieser Website durch die Nutzer (mehr dazu unten in king essay der Tabelle) werden in cv resume der Regel an king alfred essay einen Server von Google in essay den USA ubertragen und dort gespeichert. In unserem Auftrag wird Google diese Informationen benutzen, um die Nutzung der Website durch die Nutzer auszuwerten, um Reports uber die Websiteaktivitaten zusammenzustellen und um weitere mit der Websitenutzung und der Internetnutzung verbundene Dienstleistungen zu. erbringen. King Alfred Essay! Die im Rahmen von Google Analytics von Ihrem Browser ubermittelte IP-Adresse wird nicht mit anderen Daten von Google zusammengefuhrt.
Nutzer konnen daruber hinaus die Erfassung der durch das Cookie erzeugten und auf ihre Nutzung der Website bezogenen Daten (inkl. Study! Ihrer IP-Adresse) an essay Google sowie die Verarbeitung dieser Daten durch Google verhindern, indem sie das unter dem folgenden Link verfugbare Browser-Plugin herunterladen und installieren. Cv Resume! Der aktuelle Link ist: Du kannst in king Deinem Browser einstellen, ob Cookies generell nicht auf Deinem PC installiert werden durfen oder ob Du jeweils im Einzelfall informiert werden mochtest und dann individuell entscheidest, ob ein Cookie installiert werden darf oder nicht. Dear Letters Vietnam Essay! Wenn du die Installation von Cookies generell verbietest, wirst Du einige der angebotenen Dienste auf unserer Webseite nicht nutzen konnen. Partner fur nutzungsbasierte Werbung. Fossil beauftragt Werbepartner mit der Platzierung von Fossil-Banners oder –Links im Internet.
Diese Partner sammeln moglicherweise Informationen uber Deine Besuche auf unseren Webseiten (etwa uber angesehene Produkte) sowie Deine Besuche auf anderen Webseiten. King! Diese Informationen beinhalten KEINE Namen, Adressen, E-Mail-Adressen oder ahnliche personenbezogene Daten, konnen aber Informationen uber Deinen Browser beinhalten. Write! Die Informationssammlung erfolgt uber die Nutzung von Cookies. Alfred! Zurzeit arbeiten wir mit folgenden Partnern zusammen: Partner fur nutzungsbasierte Werbung. Criteo SA, deren Datenschutz-Hinweise Du hier einsehen kannst. Cardiovascular! Jedes Werbebanner enthalt einen Link auf die Seite mit dem Datenschutz-Hinweis in king dem unter anderem erklart wird, wie Du den Criteo-Service uber Opt-Out-Funktion abstellen kannst. Essay! Google Remarketing: [Hier] kannst Du mehr uber Google’s remarketing Programm erfahren.
Wenn Du verhindern mochtest, dass Google Cookies auf Deinem Computer platziert und Daten fur verhaltensorientierte Internetwerbung nutzt, folge diesem Link. King Alfred! Bitte beachte, dass Google diese Daten auf Servern in best den USA speichert. Alfred! Google nimmt an career goals college dem US Safe Harbor Programm teil, um einen angemessenen Schutz Deiner Daten zu gewahrleisten. Auch zukunftig werden wir mit Partnern zusammen arbeiten, um nutzungsbasierte Werbung zu platzieren. King! Wenn Du mehr uber Informationssammlungen unserer Online-Partner, ihrer Verwendung fur Marketing-Zwecke und der Moglichkeit, dich aus dem Marketing-Verteiler abzumelden, erfahren mochtest, so kannst du dies hier tun: Your Online Choices Page. Speicherung und Loschung personenbezogener Daten. Wir speichern Deine Daten nur solange, wie dies fur die Erbringung unserer Leistungen erforderlich ist. Nyu Entrance! Anschlie?end werden die personenbezogenen Daten geloscht.
Wir konnen Deine personenbezogenen Daten nicht loschen, wenn eine gesetzliche Aufbewahrungspflicht besteht, z. King Alfred! B. Dear From Vietnam! aus steuerlichen Grunden, oder wenn ein aktuelles Vertragsverhaltnis vorliegt. Fossil hat eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Sicherheitsma?nahmen ergriffen, um zu verhindern, dass nicht autorisierte Personen Zugriff auf personenbezogene Informationen erhalten. Alfred! Beispielsweise speichern wir Deine personenbezogenen Daten nur auf Servern, die wir in memento essay questions Gebauden und Raumen mit kontrollierten Zutrittsrechten aufstellen und auf die nur eingeschrankte Nutzergruppen Zugriff haben. King Alfred Essay! Wir haben technische Sicherheitsma?nahmen ergriffen wie zum Beispiel Browserverschlusselung und den Einsatz von Routern und Firewalls. Bitte beachte, dass es keine Sicherheitsma?nahmen geben kann, die IT-Systeme 100-prozentig vor unerlaubten Zugriffen, Katstrophen oder technischen Fehlern schutzen. Case Study Answers! Fossil hat keine Kontrolle uber die Sicherheit von Computern oder anderen elektronischen Devices oder auch uber die Ubertragungswege die Du nutzt, um E-Mails zu versenden oder Fossil Informationen zukommen zu lassen. King Essay! Daher kann Fossil nicht die Sicherheit von Daten gewahrleisten, die au?erhalb der Verantwortung und Infrastruktur von Fossil uber das Internet verschickt werden. Wann immer wir auf unserer Webseite Links auf andere Webseiten anbieten, geschieht dies im Interesse unserer Nutzer oder ist als Entgegenkommen gegenuber dem Drittanbieter zu verstehen. Career Essay! Seiten, auf die wir verlinken und Seiten, die auf unsere Webseite verlinken, stehen nicht grundsatzlich unter der Kontrolle von Fossil. King Essay! In solchen Fallen ist Fossil weder fur die Inhalte dieser Seiten noch fur die Einhaltung der jeweils gultigen Datenschutz-Vorschriften verantwortlich. Dear Letters Vietnam! Wir empfehlen Dir, die jeweiligen Datenschutz-Hinweise dieser Drittanbieter sorgfaltig durchzulesen um zu erfahren, wie Deine personenbezogenen Daten geschutzt werden.
Recht auf Auskunft, Korrektur und Datenloschung. In dem Bereich „Mein Konto“ hast Du die Moglichkeit, Deine Daten einzusehen und Korrekturen oder Loschung Deiner Daten zu beantragen, sofern wir nicht aus gesetzlichen oder vertraglichen Grunden verpflichtet sind, die Daten aufzubewahren. King Alfred Essay! Anfragen kannst Du auch immer uber unsere E-Mail-Adresse email@example.com, unser Kontaktformular oder uber unser Help-Desk unter +49 (0) 8661 622 6500 an acting resume uns richten. Anderungen der Datenschutz-Bestimmung. Diese Datenschutz-Bestimmungen sind gultig ab dem [Datum]. King! Anderungen werden grundsatzlich auf dieser Seite abgedruckt und Dir – soweit erforderlich – auch per cv resume, E-Mail mitgeteilt. Essay! Wir empfehlen Dir, regelma?ig auf diese Seite zu schauen, um Anderungen an nyu entrance unseren Datenschutz-Bestimmungen zu verfolgen. Bitte richte alle Fragen oder Anliegen zu unserem Datenschutz-Programm, unseren Datenschutz-Bestimmungen und zu unserem Umgang mit Datenschutz und mit personenbezogenen Daten an: Fossil (Europe) GmbH. Tel.: +49 (0)8661-622-6500.
Fax: +49 (0)8661-622-7000. Alternativ konnen Sie sich auch direkt an alfred unsere Compliance Abteilung in den USA wenden: Attention: Chris King. Chief Compliance Officer. 901 S. Cardiovascular Case Study! Central Expressway. Richardson, TX 75080. Tel.: +49 (0) 8661 622 6500. Montag bis Donnerstag von 9.00 bis 17.00 Uhr.
Freitag von 9.00 bis 16.00 Uhr. Tel.: +43 (0) 662 826040. Montag bis Donnerstag von 9.00 bis 17.00 Uhr. Freitag von 9.00 bis 16.00 Uhr. Verwendung von Cookies. Wir verwenden Cookies, um unsere Webseite bestmoglich durch personalisierte Inhalte und Anzeigen an essay die Besucher anpassen zu konnen.
Wenn Du mit der Nutzung der Webseite fortfahrst, stimmst Du der Verwendung von Cookies automatisch zu. Acting Write! Fur mehr Informationen und Deine Rechte und Moglichkeiten, der Verwendung von Cookies zu widersprechen, klicke auf mehr Informationen. Datenschutzbestimmungen und rechtliche Hinweise. Der Schutz Deiner personenbezogenen Daten ist der Fossil Europe GmbH (nachfolgend auch „Fossil“ oder „wir“) wichtig. Mit diesen Datenschutzbestimmungen informieren wir daruber, welche Daten wir im Zusammenhang mit unseren Dienstleistungen auf dieser Webseite www.fossil.de sammeln und wie wir sie verarbeiten. Personenbezogene Daten, die wir sammeln. Personenbezogene Daten sind Einzelangaben uber eine naturliche Person wie z.B. King Essay! Dein Name, Deine E-Mail-Adresse oder Waren, die Du uber „Mein Konto“ gekauft hast. Wir speichern und verarbeiten die folgenden personenbezogenen Daten von Dir:
Angaben, die Du beim Ausfullen von Formularen auf unseren Webseiten machst. Cv Resume! Das beinhaltet Informationen zur Registrierung auf unserer Seite (wie z.B. King Alfred Essay! Name, Lieferadresse, Geburtsdatum), Einwilligungen zum Erhalt des Newsletters, Anfragen zu Katalogzusendungen, abgegebene Bewertungen, Eintrage auf Deinem Wunschzettel, oder Software-Downloads. Essay Questions! Auch Informationen, die wir im Rahmen von Gewinnspielen oder anderen Marketing-Aktionen abfragen, werden gespeichert, ebenso wie Nachrichten von Dir, etwa zu Problemen mit unserer Seite. Essay! Es ist – ggf. Memento Essay! mit Deiner Einwilligung – moglich, dass wir Teile einer Kommunikation aufzeichnen, sofern Du Anfragen entweder online oder per essay, Telefon an after college essay unseren Kundendienst stellst.
Wenn Du Dich entscheidest an essay Umfragen teilzunehmen, die wir zu Marktforschungszwecken durchfuhren, werden Deine Antworten ebenfalls gespeichert. Die Teilnahme an dear letters essay solchen Umfragen ist naturlich freiwillig. King Alfred Essay! Details zu Einkaufen auf unserer Webseite, auf anderen Fossil Webseiten oder in cv resume unseren Stores. Alfred Essay! Darunter fallen unter anderem Angaben zu eingekauften Produkten, zu Warenruckgaben oder –umtausch oder auch die Information, dass ein Produkt auf Basis der Garantie zuruckgeschickt oder zur Reparatur eingeschickt wurde. Cardiovascular! Deine Besuche auf von Fossil betriebenen Webseiten sowie Deine Nutzung unserer Newsletter (z.B. Alfred Essay! welche Seiten Du besuchst, welche Services Du nutzt), werden von uns anonymisiert gespeichert. Essay! Das bedeutet, sie werden NICHT unter Deinem Namen gespeichert, sondern unter einer anonymen Identifikationsnummer.
Wenn Du der Sammlung dieser Daten widersprechen mochtest, schicke bitte eine E-Mail an alfred firstname.lastname@example.org. Case Study! Die oben genannten Daten speichern wir, um mehr uber die Interessen und das Verhalten unserer Nutzer zu erfahren, um Probleme im Zusammenhang mit unserer Seite, unseren Produkten und/ oder unseren Services besser zu erkennen und entsprechende Verbesserungen vorzunehmen, um Trends und Statistiken zu analysieren und um sicherzustellen, dass die Inhalte auf unserer Webseite fur Dich optimal prasentiert werden. King Alfred Essay! Wenn Du in study answers einem unserer Fossil Stores eine elektronische Rechnunganforderst, speichern wir Deinen Namen, Deine E-Mail-Adresse und Deine getatigten Einkaufe. Wozu wir personenbezogene Daten verwenden. Wir benutzen und speichern Daten von Dir zu folgenden Zwecken (weitere Beispiele sind im vorigen Abschnitt aufgefuhrt): Erbringung der Leistungen und Erfullung der Verpflichtungen, die wir aufgrund Deiner Kaufe haben (z.B.
Warenzusendung, Garantierverpflichtungen, Reparaturen, Rucknahmen, Umtausch). Essay! Um Dir Informationen uber Produkte und Services zukommen zu lassen (mehr Informationen dazu findest uber). Dear America Letters Essay! Registrierung zu Gewinnspielen oder Marketing-Aktionen. King Alfred! Information bei Anderungen unserer Services. Memento Questions! Schutz unserer Webseite und unseres Geschafts vor Sicherheitsrisiken und Sicherstellung der Integritat unseres Angebotes. Verwendung der Daten fur Marketing-Zwecke. Wir nutzen personenbezogene Daten auch fur Marketingzwecke und zur Marktforschung. King! Fur das Direktmarketing kontaktieren wir Dich gema? den geltenden Bestimmungen, was bedeutet, dass wir Dir nur dann Informationen per goals after, Post zusenden, solange Du nicht widersprochen hast, dass wir Dir E-Mails zu solchen oder ahnlichen Produkte senden, die Du schon mal bei uns gekauft hast, solange Du nicht widersprochen hast, dass wir nur dann andere Marketing-Informationen (z.B. King Alfred! Newsletter, SMS, …) senden, wenn Du zuvor ausdrucklich eingewilligt hast.
Sobald Du der Zusendung von Werbesendungen widersprochen hast, werden wir Dich aus dem Verteiler fur Werbeaktionen herausnehmen. Answers! Du kannst zudem generell der Verwendung Deiner Daten fur Marketing- und Marktforschungszwecke jederzeit widersprechen, etwa indem Du eine E-Mail an alfred email@example.com sendest. Fur den Geschaftsbetrieb ist es erforderlich, dass Fossil Daten auch an memento essay andere Unternehmen ubermittelt. Essay! Das konnen Tochtergesellschaften von Fossil oder auch externe Partner sein. Diese Unternehmen bieten unterschiedliche Dienste an. Zum Beispiel beauftragen wir Logistikunternehmen mit der Auslieferung unserer Produkte, einen Spezialisten fur die Abwicklung samtlicher Zahlungsvorgange auf unseren Webseiten oder Marketing-Agenturen zur Vorbereitung und Unterstutzung bei Marketing-Aktionen. French! In solchen Fallen mussen wir Deine personenbezogenen Daten an essay Dritte ubermitteln. Memento Essay! Wenn wir Dienstleister in alfred essay Anspruch nehmen, die Zugriff auf personenbezogene Daten erhalten, stellen wir sicher, dass dieser Zugriff und eventuelle Datenverarbeitungen ausschlie?lich fur den jeweiligen Zweck und nach unseren vertraglichen Anweisungen erfolgen.
Daten, die uber diese Webseite erhoben werden, speichert und verarbeitet die Fossil, Inc. in best essay unserem Auftrag in king alfred essay den USA. French Cv Resume! Auch andere Dienstleister speichern ggf. King Essay! Daten in best essay den USA.. King Alfred! Fossil stellt in nyu entrance allen Fallen sicher, dass die Anforderungen der EU an king alfred essay Datenschutz eingehalten werden, zum Beispiel durch Verwendung von EU-Musterklauseln zum Datenschutz oder durch eine entsprechende Safe-Harbor-Zertifizierung (vergleiche hierzu auch das Kapitel „Safe Harbour Abkommen“). Wenn es erforderlich ist, ubermittelt Fossil personenbezogene Daten an essay Dritte, um gesetzlichen Anforderungen nachzukommen oder um die eigenen Nutzungs- und Verkaufsbedingungen anzuwenden oder durchzusetzen. Fur den Fall, dass Du an alfred essay Gewinnspielen oder anderen Wettbewerben teilnimmst, ist in resume write den Teilnahmebedingungen beschrieben, an king wen Deine personenbezogenen Daten moglicherweise weitergegeben werden. Daten von Deinem Wunschzettel werden von uns an cardiovascular study answers Freunde, Verwandte und Bekannte weitergeleitet, wenn Du uns damit beauftragst. Fossil nutzt Cookies, Zahlpixel und weitere Technologien.
Cookies sind kleine Dateien, die bei Aufruf einer Webseite auf der Festplatte Deines Rechners gespeichert werden. King! Zahlpixel (auch Pixel-Tags, Web-Beacons oder Clear Gifs genannt) sind kleine Bilddateien wie zum Beispiel Zahler auf Webseiten. Dear America From Vietnam Essay! Diese werden in essay den nachfolgenden Ausfuhrungen auch unter dem Uberbegriff Cookies zusammengefasst. Wir nutzen unterschiedliche Arten von Cookies fur verschiedene Zwecke. Nyu Entrance Essay! Folgende Kategorien unterscheiden wir: Sitzungscookies (Session Cookies). Alfred Essay! Dies sind vorrubergehende Dateien die wieder geloscht werden, sobald Du Deinen Browser schlie?t und Deine Sitzung beendest.
Das nachste Mal wenn Du die Seite besuchst wird sie Dich nicht wiedererkennen und es gibt nichts in memento questions deinem Browser, das die Webseite wissen lasst, dass Du sie schon einmal besucht hast. King Essay! Dauercookies (Persistent Cookies). French Cv Resume! Diese bleiben auf Deiner Festplatte bis Du sie loschst oder sie abgelaufen sind. Alfred! Wie lange ein Cookie auf Deiner Festplatte gespeichert bleibt hangt von den Einstellungen der Webseite ab. Resume! Erforderliche Cookies. Alfred! Diese Cookies sind fur die Nutzung unserer Webseite und unserer Services notwendig. Acting! Das sind beispielsweise Cookies, uber die das Login realisiert wird, uber die Du Deinen Wunschzettel gestalten oder den elektronischen Einkaufswagen befullen kannst. King! Funktionale Cookies : Diese werden beispielsweise dazu gebraucht, Dich zu erkennen, wenn Du wiederholt auf unsere Seite kommst und so helfen unsere Seite optimal an cardiovascular study Deine Bedurfnisse anpassen, Dich also zum Beispiel immer direkt auf eine Deutsche Webseite lenken, wenn Deutsch die von Dir bevorzugte Sprache ist. King Alfred Essay! Analytische Cookies und nutzungsorientierte Internetwerbung: Solche Cookies analysieren, wie Du Dich auf unserer Webseite verhaltst (z.B. Cv Resume! welche Seiten oder Links Du benutzt).
Diese Cookies werden von Fossil und Drittanbietern platziert. King Alfred! Google analysiert so beispielsweise, wie sich Nutzer im Web verhalten. America Letters! Durch die Analyse ist Fossil in der Lage, die Bedurfnisse der Nutzer besser zu verstehen und das eigene Angebot an king alfred essay diese Bedurfnisse anzupassen. Cardiovascular Study Answers! Mochtest Du analytischen Cookies widersprechen so sende bitte eine E-Mail an king alfred essay firstname.lastname@example.org (fur Google Analytics siehe den nachsten Absatz); mochtest Du Cookies zur nutzungsbasierten Werbung widersprechen, so hast Du hier die Moglichkeit. Diese Webseite benutzt Google Analytics, einen Webanalysedienst der Google Inc. Best! („Google“). King Alfred! Die durch den Cookie erzeugten Informationen uber Benutzung dieser Website durch die Nutzer (mehr dazu unten in nyu entrance der Tabelle) werden in king alfred der Regel an french einen Server von Google in alfred den USA ubertragen und dort gespeichert. French Cv Resume! In unserem Auftrag wird Google diese Informationen dazu verwenden, um die Nutzung der Website durch die Nutzer auszuwerten, um Reports uber die Websiteaktivitaten zusammenzustellen und um weitere mit der Websitenutzung und der Internetnutzung verbundene Dienstleistungen zu erbringen. Essay! Die im Rahmen von Google Analytics von Deinem Browser ubermittelte IP-Adresse wird nicht mit anderen Daten von Google zusammengefuhrt. America Letters! Nutzer konnen daruber hinaus die Erfassung der durch das Cookie erzeugten und auf ihre Nutzung der Website bezogenen Daten (inkl. King! Ihrer IP-Adresse) an french Google sowie die Verarbeitung dieser Daten durch Google verhindern, indem sie das unter dem folgenden Link verfugbare Browser-Plugin herunterladen und installieren.
Der aktuelle Link ist:http://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout?hl=de. Du kannst in essay Deinem Browser einstellen, ob Cookies generell nicht auf Deinem PC installiert werden durfen oder ob Du jeweils im Einzelfall informiert werden mochtest und dann individuell entscheidest, ob ein Cookie installiert werden darf oder nicht. Best Nyu Entrance Essay! Wenn Du die Installation von Cookies generell verbietest, wirst Du einige der angebotenen Dienste auf unserer Webseite nicht nutzen konnen. King! Aktuell verwenden wir diese Cookies: Partner fur nutzungsbasierte Werbung. Fossil beauftragt Werbepartner mit der Platzierung von Fossil Bannern oder Fossil Links im Internet. French Cv Resume! Diese Partner sammeln moglicherweise Informationen uber Deine Besuche auf unseren Webseiten (etwa uber angesehene Produkte) sowie Deine Besuche auf anderen Webseiten. Alfred Essay! Diese Informationen beinhalten KEINE Namen, Adressen, E-Mail-Adressen oder ahnliche personenbezogene Daten, konnen aber Informationen uber Deinen Browser beinhalten. Questions! Die Informationssammlung erfolgt uber die Nutzung von Cookies. King Alfred Essay! Zurzeit arbeiten wir mit folgenden Partnern zusammen:
Criteo SA , deren Datenschutz-Hinweise Du hier einsehen kannst. Cardiovascular Case Answers! Jedes Werbebanner enthalt einen Link auf die Seite mit dem Datenschutz-Hinweis in king essay dem unter anderem erklart wird, wie Du den Criteo-Service uber Opt-Out-Funktion abstellen kannst. Acting Write! Google Remarketing : Hier kannst Du mehr uber Google’s remarketingProgramm erfahren. King Alfred Essay! Wenn Du verhindern mochtest, dass Google Cookies auf Deinem Computer platziert und Daten fur verhaltensorientierte Internetwerbung nutzt, folge diesem Link. Cardiovascular Case Answers! Bitte beachte, dass Google diese Daten auf Servern in king alfred den USA speichert.
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Copper Rose - an Everlasting Flower! So, after lots of requests from the internet and king essay, my friends, I thought I'd upload a step-by-step guide to making a rose out of goals after college essay sheet copper and alfred essay, steel/brass rod. Of course, this is not a definitive guide - I saw a similar flower on the internet and wasn't completely satisfied with it, so modified it to suit what I wanted in a project. So feel free to adapt and change as you go along; as long as you don't just steal my idea and call it your own, I'm fine with it. A big, big thank you to everyone who did vote for this in the Valentines 2013 Contest - I won! Thank you so much, it was an incredible surprise. Also, a big thank you to essay my very tolerant parents, my helpful DT teacher, and Jeffery Santo at king alfred essay Darkmoon Metals, who gave the initial inspiration for this project. Few words before I begin (skip ahead if you want, nothing here's essential): This is my first attempt, ever, at making a guide to a metalworking project (or actually to a project of any sort) - whilst I have guided friends through making things in person, I've never tried to communicate steps just via words and study answers, pictures. Essay! So this is a new type of challenge for me, and the outcome may not be perfect. French Cv Resume! That said, I know that I may make steps too complex /it's fairly easy to be misunderstood, so if you do want clarity on a particular step, just comment and I'll do my best to fill you in.
This is alfred essay a fairly simple metalworking project, as there is no welding of cardiovascular study any kind involved, which can sometimes dissuade beginners. Ok, so onto essay, a list of tools and materials. Most of this is fairly crucial to the project but should be in your toolbox anyhow: Scribe Centre punch - I actually made myself a set from career college essay some old, thick nails, but I also use some I found in my toolbox. Cordless Drill/Drill Press/Dremel/Hand Drill - as long as it can take a 5mm (3/16 or thereabouts) drill bit, you're good. Drill Bits: 5mm ?(3/16)/3mm ?(7/64) - for use with above. Other sizes are always handy.
Tinsnips/jewellers saw/pneumatic press - essentially, something to cut your copper with. King! I found these to be excellent, but use whatever suits you the best. Rubber/leather/wood mallet - to french flatten out your copper without marking it. Metalworking file - for removing rough edges and king essay, cut marks. Resume! Dirt cheap, and ubiquitous at DIY stores. Cross Peen hammer - you know the end of the hammer head you always thought was for king alfred, use with tacks? Well, it's not.
Anvil/Metal block - For hammering on.I bought a slab (10x10cm) of steel, and use that. (Man, I wish I had an anvil. ) Propane Torch/forge/brazing hearth - a heat source, capable of annealing copper. Resume! You can get away with using a cooks blowtorch or a gas hob , but I invested in this as I do lots of metalwork at home. Pliers (Needlenose, locking, rounded) - for manipulating the king metal. I daresay you have at least needlenose pliers lying around, and you can manage with just them. M6/M5 dies (optional) - for cardiovascular answers, cutting the thread. I don't own a set of taps and dies, but I'm going to buy one.
I used the ones my school workshop has, but if you can't get your hands on essay, some, I'm providing a workaround as they are slightly obscure. A full set will cost a bit, but they don't wear out quickly, and are very useful. Cutting fluid (optional) - this helps to best nyu entrance make a nice, clean thread as well as prolonging the life of your tools. Metalworking Vise - ideally with some softgrips so you don't mark your work as much. Ballpeen Hammer - with a rounded head to make rivets. Wire Brush - one with a toothbrush sized head works best. Sandpaper (100/220/500 grit) - I use a mesh type sandpaper, as it is very flexible and doesn't clog. Buffing wheel/attachment for drill buffing compound (optional) - I have a combination electric grindstone/buffing wheel that I use to get a beautiful finish on copper quickly, though you can do it by hand. 50x225mm of 1.2mm/16oz Copper Sheet - if you can't get hold of this locally, there are plenty of suppliers online - this is what I use, and king, it is enough for two flowers with spare. Alternatively, reclaim some copper by opening out some old copper tubing and flattening that out. 2x Steel M6 hex nuts - very common, and very cheap.
Keep a couple spare, in case something goes wrong. 200mm of 6mm/ 3/16 silver steel rod - you can use mild steel rod (cheaper, and resume, more common) but silver steel is harder; whilst this makes it more difficult to work (cutting threads takes longer) it also means that the thread is much neater and better for what you're gonna use it for. Now that i've made lots of king alfred roses, I recommend using smaller diameter steel as it looks more aesthetically pleasing. However, the pictures in the guide are old, and still using those old photos. Use 4mm steel and an M4 die if you want to go for something prettier and only slightly less strong. OR, if you haven't got access to a set of dear america from vietnam dies,
Brazing rod/brass rod of a smaller diameter, around 4mm - this is for the workaround step. Brass is king alfred one of the few metals that's really soft enough to be cut without using a die (but more about goals after college essay, that later). You can find this in alfred most hardware/ironmongery type places, or online. Ok, so you've gathered your equipment, and bought/salvaged your materials. Now, turn on some of your favourite music, grab a drink, and get to work on this first stage. 2). Goals Essay! Repeat on king essay, the other side. Using your scribe and a ruler, draw lines across the width of america essay your copper to divide it up into four 50x50mm squares, with one 25x50mm rectangle left over. (it doesn't really matter how you do this, as long as you end up with four 50mm squares, and one 50mmx25mm rectangle) Using your tinsnips/preferred method of king cutting, cut out all the pieces, so you end up with four 50mm squares, and one 50x25mm rectangle. Using a file, remove any sharp edges/cut marks, and you should be left with your copper blanks ('petals'), each with a hole in the centre.
Check that your rod ('stem') fits cleanly through. Grab your crosspeen hammer, and turn it over so you're using the career goals flat (regular) side. Using firm, regular strikes, hammer the edges of king alfred essay each petal thin, on both sides - you want to make them so that they can be easily curled at answers the edges. It doesn't matter that much if you mark the alfred copper, as we're just about to start texturing it. Quick word about copper, and work hardening. Copper is one of a few metals that the more you work, the harder they become, and the more brittle they are. Dear Letters From Essay! This isn't great for us, as we want to bend all the petals and shape them a lot, without them breaking.
Fortunately, copper is very easy to king alfred essay get back to its malleable, soft, state via a process known as annealing. (Skip to step 7 if you couldn't get your hands on some dies) Taking your length of steel, grind a slight bevel on end end using a file or an essay, electric grindstone, should you have one. This is to get the die to grip the steel and makes it easier to start cutting the alfred thread. (ignore this if you did get some dies, and continue to step 8) So for those of you unable to get your hands on memento essay questions, a set of dies, we're going to improvise. The aim of this is to cut a thread using your hex nut (steel) on the softer stem (brass). I'm assuming you use brass rod of king alfred essay roughly 3-4mm, and a hex nut that's a size too small. 30mm (1) of thread on the rod. I actually remove the nut at this point and questions, replace it with a fresh one, but you can leave the king essay original one on.
You're done! Ok, so you should now have all your copper blanks, and essay, a stem with a nut on king essay, it. Assembly is career college not as simple as you might think. So, I'm gonna assume that you've now got roughly 20mm/ 1 of threaded stem left on top of your last nut. Using a hacksaw or a file, trim this down to about 4mm/0.25, and clamp your flower securely in some softgrips. The last step, but arguably the most fun. Yet somehow the king alfred essay hardest to get just right. Phew.
Take a step back, breathe in, and admire your creation. Now you're done with that, how about some modifications! - Cut leaves from copper, texture as before, and braze onto stem. - Texture stem with ballpeen hammer. - Insert ball of cotton wool soaked in rosewater into cardiovascular answers, innermost bud, to essay make it scented. I hope you enjoyed this guide, and that I haven't been too patronising. (also, post pics of any roses that you do make!) Thanks for the awesome instructable!
I've made one out of essay questions brass and another out of stainless steel. One thing I'm wondering about is if you've figured out king essay a convenient way to nyu entrance essay keep these standing upright. I'm considering setting it in an acrylic base, or maybe something out of king alfred essay metal. Thanks again! Those look great! I've actually had quite a few thoughts but never been able to execute them - I no longer have access to a forge to write shape steel - such as a spiral/leaf twist pattern, or anything that widens the base. Alfred! I never really designed them to be upright as flowers - lying down, you get to see the acting resume texture more if they're displayed at eye height, but a metal vase might be best.
I would also consider getting a log, and setting them in there - anything contrasting and natural would be good. King Alfred Essay! Have a look at my imgur (http://imgur.com/a/7jJ20) album for what I'm talking about, or PM me for more details - glad you made them :) This is aw inspiring. I make tree's and ring's out of copper, but been looking for something new. Letters Vietnam Essay! quick note, what if you zinc plated parts of in like one or two of the peddles? Thanks! I'd love to see some photos of copper trees - they sound cool! There's no reason why you couldn't zinc plate some of the petals, apart from it being a bit harder to king alfred shape them later without cracking the layer - it would be easier (and this is best what I'm testing out at alfred essay the moment) to just brush some of the petals with gold/silver gouache or transfer on some gold leaf, if you wanted some colour variety.
Another way that you could get some color variety, which I'm going to test when I get the chance to start working on my rose, is to collect some copper wire to form a stem and then oxidizing it. Suddenly, you have a pretty natural looking stem to go along with your copper flower, and when it's all varnished, the color difference is preserved! Wow, really fancy! :) Great pattern. Questions! makes it look totally do-able yet professional! Cheers! Glad you liked them. Out of interest, do you know if there is a place on the forums where you can chat about pricing of things? It's just that i've now received several commissions (woo!) for king essay, some of nyu entrance essay these, and would love to king get a sort of crowd sample to see how much people think I should sell them for, without resorting to Facebook. Old copper pipe and a brass rod. Acting Resume! Turned out better than I thought for king alfred, only using a hack saw, sand paper, and small pliers. hey a tip for the marks, use leather on best, your pliers to alfred essay stop them from marking the acting write metal, youll have to experiment with the thicknessess.
I'm in alfred essay the process of making a copper rose that I plan on giving the 'bud' of a red semi-matte patina using the answers cupric sulfate / ammonium chloride solution found here: They have solution formulas for pretty much any color of king alfred patina. If you choose to use them make sure to be careful. i had so much fun making this, it really opened me up to the possibilities of french cv resume copper. thanks for the instructable! Rather then doing the king alfred threading, would you be able to just solder the pieces on? Or is that not strong enough to hold it? But im just a girl studying in seventh i dont i can work up with copper and acting write, mend them please can u post something easy but beautiful for me to gift to my best friend ? Plz plz plz. Im rizwana i will be waiting to hear from u. I made a few changes to king alfred the methods and cardiovascular study, materials and alfred essay, posted a new instructable here. Dear From! https://www.instructables.com/id/Copper-Roses/ Thank you, and I definitely put credit where credit is due in my intro with a link back here. Thank you for this well detailed post.
Here's what I made: For a first attempt it's looks Alright. Very nice rose. I have been a blacksmith for 40 years and made many ornamental projects and it takes lots of practice to get good and it seems that you are cut out for this type of work. Keep at it and start more different projects. like making copper ladles and spoons. perhaps a copper pot or kettle. Alfred Essay! There is a huge market for hand made steelwork. Cardiovascular Case Study! It seems that people want the old school items more and more each day. King Essay! You can pick up a small anvil or piece of railroad track and look into a leather peening bag ( round leather disc bag about 12 dia x 4 high filled with lead shot.) for dear america letters, your copper and brass peening. Keep up the good work you are a real artist.
Good Luck. Robert. Finally an alfred essay, inspiration. however I wasn't able to career goals after college essay acquire thicker plates of copper but I used Air Conditioning copper pipe as the alfred stem. Acting! I was wondering- how do you keep them oxidizing without having to alfred essay clean it so often. Use water sand paper to smoothe the tool marks, then dip into memento questions, nitric acid to king essay really smooth it out,, after nitric acid, dip into a saturated sodium bicarbonate water solution to neutralise the essay acid. regards. Silver Smith.
To avoid getting tool marks on the edges of the petals when forming you could try nylon coated pliers. They come in round nose and flat. Followed your instructable and added some filework to the stem to try out how it looks OK i think, I'm making a mark 2 at the moment and king essay, doing a more distressed look with a dremel tool to see what that looks like. I also made up some leaves for the stem which i peened in then bent the career after essay stem and fixed it to alfred essay a wooden ash base polished with Danish Oil, secured with chopped down copper roofing nails Hope you like Cheers Jason. thank you for posting, great looking flowers. I just finished my 'rose', not as nice as yours, but passable, i really like the way you used the after college essay hammer to make the fluting.. i'll keep trying.. thanks again for king alfred essay, posting. I do love hearing that people actually make these - thank you so much! Practice makes perfect - it took me 3 weeks to make them like this, with a plan and everything, and I've now completely changed it again! great project !! fantastic idea for america letters vietnam, both novice and pros. this is on king alfred essay, my to cv resume do list now.
Wow! This instructable was amazing! I was blown away by it's relatively easy process and my result was beautiful. Alfred Essay! Not to mention my girlfriends reaction when it was delivered to her at dinner! Nice! You must be really proud, well done. I hope she appreciates it as much as she should :) Great job mate will give it a try, for goals essay, an anvil you could do what i have done get an alfred, old bashed one that does not have a flat surface mine was free because of cardiovascular study answers this. King Alfred! Then layer up the surface will arc welding so roughly flatish then use a hand beltsander p26 or so and memento, flaten then use bigger grits to king alfred essay get a shiney finish works a treat, good as new anvil.
Just get some 2mm rubber cut to career goals essay pliers shape and glue to pliers. Alfred! :) Hah, not a bad idea :) I've now changed up how I make these - plus, I've switched to making miniature ones out of goals essay silver instead :P But thanks for the ideas! This is what I made it's out of alfred essay polished stainless steel. Awesome! That's so cool, you should be really happy :) It's nice having one that's so reflective - copper just can't go up to best that level of shine once you've textured it. Well done :)
Could you try making a puzzle ring? (it seems like you have knack of metal working stuff) Wow, now that would be a challenge. King! Puzzle rings vary in complexity (whether they are just interlocking, like a cartier trinity ring) or if they actually slot together into one ring. They really are astoundingly complex to design, but i'll keep the project in best the back of my head. Maybe one day.
You should check out my ible. King Alfred Essay! I made one, but it could be better. If I can do it then you should be able to also (after all, I'm only like 5 years younger than you). Ok, a four band puzzle ring. I think, if I was going to make it, it would be out of silver wire, but i'll do a mock up in steel first and see if that works. I'm a bit busy with exams and holidays coming up, but thanks for the idea! congrats. a very deserving.
Cheers! I'm glad you liked it. until it turns green. Well, I did say that you can apply a clear varnish or polyurethane etc -that would stop any oxidation occurring, so it wouldn't discolour. Anyhow, it would go red/dull long before it went green - green patination is very hard to do. lol, or you can simply galvanize it. Well, galvanising is only applicable to coating steel/iron objects in cardiovascular zince, which, even if it could be done here, would sorta ruin the colour of the copper which we are trying to preserve. Wonderful Instructable, I think I will try this with a few different metals. Thank you for sharing. Thanks, that's very kind of king you to say so. What metals were you considering?
Aluminum, copper and brass was what I was thinking. For what parts, respectively? I was going to letters vietnam add some brass leaves to my brass stemmed one, but other than that. I was thinking of the actual flowers - you can get relatively thin metal, and king alfred essay, I had done some smithing before if I have to french heat and essay, bash. then there is always the mill and lathe to best nyu entrance essay cut up the king alfred essay rest. Oh really? I hadn't though of using multiple metals for different coloured petals in questions the same flower - nice idea! I was thinking of the actual flowers - you can get relatively thin metal, and essay, I had done some smithing before if I have to heat and bash. Best! then there is always the mill and lathe to alfred cut up the rest.
A well written instructable, one I may have to try. Let your inbox help you discover our best projects, classes, and contests. Instructables will help you learn how to make anything!