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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. One of the first things you'll discover as a college student is that writing in college is different from writing in high school. Certainly a lot of what your high school writing teachers taught you will be useful to you as you approach writing in college: you will want to write clearly, to have an stem cell research, interesting and arguable thesis, to construct paragraphs that are coherent and focused, and so on. Still, many students enter college relying on writing strategies that served them well in high school but that won't serve them well here. Old formulae, such as the five-paragraph theme, aren't sophisticated or flexible enough to provide a sound structure for a college paper. And many of the old tricks - such as using elevated language or repeating yourself so that you might meet a ten-page requirement - will fail you now. So how does a student make a successful transition from high school to college?
The first thing that you'll need to understand is that writing in college is for the most part a particular kind of writing, called academic writing. Good Do Research Paper? While academic writing might be defined in many ways, there are three concepts that you need to understand before you write your first academic paper. 1. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for other scholars. Writing done by scholars for scholars? Doesn't that leave you out? Actually, it doesn't. Now that you are in stem research papers college you are part of a community of scholars. As a college student, you will be engaged in activities that scholars have been engaged in for centuries: you will read about, think about, argue about, and write about great ideas.
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What points seem less important? Why do I think so? How does this topic relate to other things that I know? What do I know about the topic that might help my reader to cell term understand it in new ways? What do I need to know? How can I find out more? You'll discover as you consider the questions listed above that you are moving beyond what you know about marine biology coursework a topic and are beginning to consider what you think. In the process of really thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation.
After all, it's not enough to summarize in research papers a paper what is already known and talked about. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Understand, however, that adding something of your own is not an essay disorders, invitation simply to bring your own personal associations, reactions, or experiences to the reading of a text. To create an informed argument, you must first recognize that your writing should be analytical rather than personal. In other words, your writing must show that your associations, reactions, and experiences of a text have been framed in stem cell research papers a critical, rather than a personal, way. How does one move from personal response to biology analytical writing? First, summarize what the primary text is saying. You'll notice that you can construct several different summaries, depending on your agenda.
Returning to the example of Hitchcock's film, you might make a plot summary, a summary of embryonic research term papers, its themes, a summary of its editing, and so on. Biology Coursework? You can also summarize what you know about the film in context. In other words, you might write a summary of the difficulties Hitchcock experienced in the film's production, or you might write a summary of how this particular movie complements or challenges other films in the Hitchcock canon. You can also summarize what others have said about the film. Film critics have written much about Hitchcock, his films, and their genre. Try to summarize all that you know.
The process of evaluation is an papers, ongoing one. Biology? You evaluate a text the moment you encounter it, and you continue to evaluate and to re-evaluate as you go along. Evaluating a text is different from simply reacting to embryonic cell research term a text. When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is important to subject do research paper be able to clearly articulate and to embryonic cell term support your own personal response. What in the text is leading you to respond a certain way?
What's not in the text that might be contributing to your response? Watching Hitchcock's film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in essays and punishment becker the film's suspense. What in the film is making you feel this way? The editing? The acting? Can you point to a moment in the film that is cell term papers particularly successful in creating suspense? In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: experiencing your own personal response, and analyzing the text. Constructing an informed argument asks you first to analyze - that is, to consider the parts of essays in the becker, your topic and then to examine how these parts relate to each other or to the whole. To analyze Hitchcock's film, you may want to break the film down by cell papers, examining particular scenes, point of view, camera movements, and so on. In short, you'll want to ask: What are the components of Hitchcock's film, and how do these components contribute to essays in the economics and punishment becker the film's theme? How do they contribute to stem cell term papers Hitchcock's work as a whole?
When you analyze, you break the whole into parts so that you might see the whole differently. In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say. When you analyze, you break down a text into marine coursework its parts. When you synthesize, you look for stem research, connections between ideas. Consider once again the Hitchcock film.
In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate. You may have some observations that at first don't seem to gel. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized. Thesis Analysis Proposal? This intellectual exercise requires that you create an umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and perspectives might stand. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an appropriate topic.
Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully. Your professor is term papers setting the parameters of the assignment for you. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt. She might not even give you a topic. For example, in a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of self. Essay Psychological? Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic.
Nor has she told you what the paper should look like. Papers? Should it summarize one of the gifts theories of self? Should it compare two or more theories? Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out their limitations? At this juncture, you have two options: talk to the professor and see what her expectations are, or figure out this matter for yourself. It's always a good idea to talk with the professor. Cell Term Papers? At the very least, you'll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper . In other words, is analysis your professor looking for embryonic stem cell, information or argument ? Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. Good Subject Paper? It will be up to you to embryonic cell term papers narrow your topic and to make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about essays grandmother a topic, ask yourself the following questions: Have you formed an intellectual question?
In other words, have you constructed a question that will require a complex, thoughtful answer? Is the question provocative? Startling? Controversial? Fresh? Will you be able to answer this question adequately in a few pages? Or is the cell research term question impossibly broad?
If the question seems broad, how might you narrow it? Does your question address both text and context? In other words, have you considered the historical and cultural circumstances that influenced this text? Have you considered what other scholars have said about it? Will your reader care about this question? Or will she say, So what?
For more advice on this matter, consult Coming Up With Your Topic elsewhere in this Web site. When writing an profile grandmother, academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to say, you must also consider to embryonic stem research whom you are saying it. In other words, it's important to determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think. What are your audience's biases? Values?
Expectations? Knowledge? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose? When you begin to answer all of these questions, you have started to narrative essay gifts reckon with what has been called the rhetorical stance. Rhetorical stance refers to the position you take as a writer in terms of the subject and the reader of your paper. Let's first consider your relationship to your topic. When you write a paper, you take a stand on research term papers, a topic. You determine whether you are for or against, passionate or cool-headed. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective (feminist, for example), or whether you are going to make a more general response. You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline - history, for marine biology, example. Your stance on the topic depends on the many decisions you have made in embryonic stem cell the reading and thinking processes.
In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions. Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part? If you dismissed part of proposal, a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so? Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to stem cell research be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of your response to the text that might cause your reader to narrative essay gifts discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to cell research papers reconsider your position on your topic. Your position on a topic does not by narrative gifts, itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader. Embryonic Cell? In the college classroom, the audience is analysis proposal usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience.
No matter who your reader is, you will want to consider him carefully before you start to stem cell papers write. What do you know about do research paper your reader and cell his stance towards your topic? What is he likely to know about the topic? What biases is he likely to have? Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader? Is your aim to be controversial? Informative? Entertaining? Will the essay reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to stem cell research consider how you might best reach him. If, for example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to narrative gifts readers who know little or nothing about it, then you'll want to embryonic stem papers take an informative stance.
If you aren't yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an thesis analysis proposal, inquisitive stance. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to embryonic term be sincere. You don't want to paper take an embryonic stem cell papers, authoritative stance on a subject if you aren't confident about what you are saying. Essays? On the other hand, you can't avoid taking a position on a subject: nothing is worse than reading a paper in embryonic stem term papers which the writer has refused to take a stance. What if you are of two minds on essays in the economics of crime and punishment, a subject?
Declare that to the reader. Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to stem cell please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to essays of crime and punishment discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that something new is stem research simply a fresh emphasis on thesis analysis proposal, a minor detail. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the ideal paper that exists in embryonic cell research term papers your professor's head. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to your professor's. Do you really want that to happen? In high school you might have been taught various strategies for structuring your papers.
Some of you might have been raised on the five paragraph theme, in marine biology coursework which you introduce your topic, come up with three supporting points, and then conclude by repeating what you've already said. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Term Papers? Others of you might have been told that the best structure for a paper is the hour-glass model, in which you begin with a general statement, make observations that are increasingly specific, and profile essays then conclude with a statement that is once again general. When you are writing papers in college, you will require structures that will support ideas that are more complex than the ones you considered in high school. Your professors might offer you several models for stem research, structuring your paper. They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on biology coursework, whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history. Embryonic Stem Research? Or they may provide you with different models for disorders, argument: compare and contrast, cause and embryonic stem cell research term effect, and so on. Marine Biology? But remember: the structure for cell research, your argument will in the end be determined by proposal, the content itself. No prefab model exists that will provide adequate structure for the academic argument. (For more detailed advice on various ways to structure your paper, see Writing: Considering Structure and embryonic stem term Organization.)
When creating an informed argument, you will want to rely on essays in the economics of crime and punishment becker, several organizational strategies, but you will want to keep some general advice in mind. Your introduction should accomplish two things: it should declare your argument, and embryonic stem cell research it should place your argument within the larger, ongoing conversation about narrative essay your topic. Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. That is, they will begin by summarizing what other scholars have said about embryonic stem their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to the conversation. Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. Thesis Analysis Proposal? Place your argument for your reader by naming the text, the author, the issues it raises, and embryonic stem papers your take on these issues. (For more specific advice on writing a good introduction, see Introductions and Conclusions.) Probably you were taught in high school that every paper must have a declared thesis, and narrative gifts that this sentence should appear at the end of the introduction.
While this advice is sound, a thesis is sometimes implied rather than declared in a text, and it can appear almost anywhere - if the writer is skillful. Whether your thesis appears at stem research term, the end of the introduction or the narrative essay gifts end of your paper, it must make an arguable claim - that is, it should declare something that is interesting and debatable. Because your thesis is arguably the most important sentence in your paper, you will want to read more about it in Developing Your Thesis. Because every thesis presents an arguable point, you as a writer are obligated to acknowledge in embryonic research your paper the other side(s) of an argument. Consider what your opponents might say against your argument. Then determine where and how you want to deal with the proposal opposition. Do you want to dismiss the embryonic stem cell term opposition in the first paragraph? Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by one? Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper.
Every convincing argument must have support. Your argument's support will be organized in your paper's paragraphs. Essay? These paragraphs must each declare a point, usually formed as that paragraph's topic sentence, or claim. A topic sentence or claim is cell like a thesis sentence - except that instead of announcing the argument of the entire paper, it announces the argument of that particular paragraph. In this way, the profile grandmother topic sentence controls the paper's evidence.
The topic sentence is more flexible than the thesis in that it can more readily appear in different places within the paragraph. Most often, however, it appears at or near the beginning. For more information on embryonic cell research papers, structuring paragraphs, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Writing a good conclusion is marine biology coursework difficult. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said.
You will want to leave the reader with something to embryonic term papers think about, but you will want to avoid preaching. You might want to essays grandmother point to a new idea or question, but you risk confusing the reader by introducing something that he finds irrelevant. Writing conclusions is, in stem cell research term part, a matter of finding the proper balance. For more instruction on how to write a good conclusion, see Introductions and Conclusions. OK: you think you understand what's required of essay, you in an academic paper. You need to be analytical. Critical.
You need to stem papers create an informed argument. You need to consider your relationship to your topic and to subject your reader. But what about the matter of stem cell research term, finding an appropriate academic tone and proposal style? The tone and style of academic writing might at first seem intimidating. But they needn't be. Professors want students to write clearly and intelligently on matters that they, the research term papers students, care about. What professors DON'T want is imitation scholarship - that is, exalted gibberish that no one cares about. If the profile essays student didn't care to write the paper, the stem term professor probably won't care to read it. The tone of an academic paper, then, must be inviting to the reader, even while it maintains an appropriate academic style. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe.
Understand that you are writing to a person who is delighted when you make your point clearly, concisely, and persuasively. Understand, too, that she is less delighted when you have inflated your prose, pumped up your page count, or tried to impress her by essays economics of crime and punishment, using terms that you didn't take the time to understand. In short, then, good academic writing follows the embryonic stem rules of good writing. If you'd like to know more about how to improve your academic style, please see Attending to Style, elsewhere in this Web site. Economics Of Crime And Punishment? But before you do, consider some of the following tips, designed to make the process of cell, writing an academic paper go more smoothly:
Rely on evidence over feeling. You may be very passionate about a subject, but that's no excuse to allow rhetoric alone to carry the ball. Even if you have constructed some very pretty phrases to argue against genetic engineering, they won't mean much to your professor unless you back those pretty phrases with facts. Watch your personal pronouns. Students often wonder if it's OK to use the proposal pronouns I and you in a paper. In fact, it is OK - provided you use them understanding their effect. For example, overusing the I might make the stem cell reader feel that your paper is overly subjective. In fact, when a writer too often invokes himself in the first person, he may be doing so to marine biology avoid offering proof: It's my own personal opinion, and I have a right to it. I don't have to defend it. But of course, he does.
As to embryonic stem cell research term using the essays pronoun you: Do you really want to aim a remark directly at the reader? Doing so draws the reader closer to the text and invites a more subjective (and sometimes more intensely critical) response. If this kind of response is what you want, then by all means employ the stem cell research you. However, you should also remember that certain academic disciplines (the sciences, for example) would frown on the use of these pronouns. When in doubt, ask. Watch your gendered pronouns. In The And Punishment Becker? When you write, you'll want to make sure that you don't do anything to make your readers feel excluded. Embryonic Stem Papers? If you use he and him all the time, you are excluding half of your potential readership. Essays In The Of Crime And Punishment Becker? We'll acknowledge that the embryonic stem cell research he/she solution is in the economics and punishment becker a bit cumbersome in writing. However, you might solve the problem as we have done in this document: by alternating he and cell she throughout. Other writers advocate always using she instead of he as a way of acknowledging a long-standing exclusion of women from texts.
Whatever decision you make in the end, be sensitive to its effect on profile, your readers. Be aware of embryonic cell research papers, discipline-specific differences. Each of the academic disciplines has its own way of analysis, constructing knowledge, of embryonic stem cell research term, organizing that knowledge, of in the of crime and punishment becker, using evidence, and of communicating within the field. These differences, which run very deep, also express themselves in terms of tone and style. If you need more information about discipline-specific issues, talk to your professor. Term? Read deeply in the discipline with the aim of trying to understand how people working within this discipline are constructing knowledge. And for matters regarding style, citation, and so forth, check out thesis analysis proposal a relevant style manual, such as the MLA or APA style sheets. Avoid mechanical errors.
No matter what audience you're writing for, you'll want to produce text that is error-free. Errors in grammar and style slow your reader down. Sometimes they even obscure your meaning. Embryonic Research Papers? Always proofread your text before passing it on to your reader. If you find that you are making a lot of errors and want help with grammar and style, consult a handbook or see Attending to Grammar and Attending to Style elsewhere in this Web site.
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Embryonic Stem Cell Research Paper Sample for Medical Health Majors
Writing Better University Essays/Main part. This part constitutes the main part of embryonic cell papers your essay. Try to psychological disorders use about 60% of your words for this part. You can understand it as delivering what you have promised in the introduction. Embryonic Stem Term Papers! This part of the essay is often referred to narrative gifts as the main body, or the argument. It’s the part of the stem cell research term essay, where you develop the answer.
Whilst doing so, it’s important to be aware of the question at all time. This is the only way to keep to the topic set. Ideally, every paragraph is geared towards answering the question. It does not suffice, if you are aware of essay disorders how a particular paragraph is focused on your task: you need to stem research term show the relevance to biology your reader. There are little phrases, such as “this example illustrates that”, helping you with this task.
Consider the following example: “The resistance in Harlem insisting to keep an open market in 125th street helped to point out that there are people with different needs in the city (Zukin, 1995).” After outlining resistance in Harlem, these few sentences make it plain what the example showed us: that different people in cities have different needs. Writing an essay can take a considerable time, but it’s important that you keep to your original plan as much as you can. Of course, new ideas will come up as you write. In this case, you should jot them down, so as not to lose them. Next, think about it: How will this help me answering the question? Is this relevant to the essay? Do I not have another example of this already?
What you do is to make sure that what goes into the essay has one purpose only: answering the question. Sometimes it’s difficult to resist the temptation, but don’t explore thoughts by the way. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Term! This should not discourage you from having original ideas, or even exploring them, but it should encourage you to use your essay for one purpose only. Keeping to the plan means keeping to the structure. This is important, because you can lose your reader by jumping around from one topic to the other, even if all you say as such is marine relevant and useful. By having a clear structure, and keeping to it, your reader will always know where the journey goes next. This makes your essay a pleasant read. To write a good essay, first of embryonic stem papers all, you need good hooks which help to draw your readers’ attention. A hook is a small element in the introduction of an essay which motivates people to read your work. It is an interesting and catchy sentence which has a deep meaning and helps a writer introduce the essay gifts main idea. Essay hook Identifies a purpose of writing.
When writing the main part of the essay, it’s important to keep the embryonic argument and illustrations in good subject do research paper, balance. Too few examples make the essay dry and difficult. Too many, on cell papers the other hand, make the argument disappear. The trick is to include illustrations to analysis bring the text alive, but link them tightly with the argument. Rather than stating that “this is an example of embryonic cell research papers white-collar crime,” you may say “tax avoidance is a good example of psychological white-collar crime, because…” By so doing, you demonstrate the importance of the example, you highlight how and why it is important, and most importantly, maybe, you avoid that the examples take over. If the illustrations take over, your reader will be unclear about why you included the examples.
Sections are an stem cell term, important tool to structure the answer of an good, essay. The longer the answer, the more important sections probably are. Some courses and tutors may ask you to include subheadings (as used in this book); some institutions even have explicit recommendations on their use. Embryonic Stem Research Term Papers! Subheadings can be a good way to structure an answer into sections. However, the lack of subheadings—or the fact that your tutor discourages you from using them—is no excuse for biology coursework not having sections. Sections group paragraphs that elaborate a similar point. Often, within a section, you’ll have a number of cell term paragraphs discussing the same issue from in the economics, a number of different perspectives. Research Term! A section can be treated, in some ways, as if it was a mini essay in itself.
This is the case, because in each section, a particular point is explored. For example, there might be a section on the arguments for abortion, and then a section on the arguments against. What is important when writing a section, is that both you and the reader are aware of the purpose of the section. Profile Grandmother! It’s tiring and frustrating for embryonic cell research term your reader to marine biology read half a page before knowing what you’re writing about, or more often why you’re writing this here. For these reasons it’s important to link the embryonic stem sections into a coherent one. By linking the sections, and narrative essay linking the paragraphs within each section, your essay will be more focused on answering the question. For example, after a paragraph outlining problems of studying and measuring the transmission of social disadvantage, in one of embryonic stem term my essays I discussed how sibling data may be the solution. I opened the paragraph as follows: “The use of sibling data promises a cure to at least some of the problems outlined above.” In one sentence, the coursework new topic (sibling data) is embryonic cell introduced, but it is also indicated why this may be important (because these data help tackling the do research paper problems already outlined). The reader should not be puzzled as to embryonic stem cell research term papers what the link is between problems of measuring the transmission of social disadvantage on the one hand, and sibling data on the other. Phrases that link different sections can be understood as mini introductions and mini conclusions. Particularly when a section is long, or where the link to the next section is not immediately apparent, it might be useful to write one or two sentences to summarize the section.
This will indicate to essay disorders the reader how far we have come in developing the argument, but also remind him or her, why we have bothered to write a section in the first place. This box contains a selection of useful phrases you can use in stem term papers, your essays. You can use these words and profile phrases to stem research connect the different bits and marine pieces of your text into cell papers, a coherent whole. Profile Grandmother! The following list is intended to stem cell research give you an analysis, idea of all the phrases that are available to you. Generalizing : as a general rule, as a rule, in general, generally, normally, on the whole, usually. Explaining : in other words, that is, this means that. Express certainty : it is certain that, there is no doubt that, I am confident that, certainly, definitely, clearly, undoubtedly, presumably, will, is, should.
Express probability : it is probable that, it is likely that, probably. Express possibility : can, may, it is possible that, could, might, might possibly, possibly, perhaps. Express doubt : it is doubtful that, maybe. Express improbability : is improbable, is unlikely, it is uncertain. Express impossibility : impossible, cannot, can’t, will not, is stem term not. Draw attention : it is worth noting that, it should be emphasized that, it should be highlighted that, it should be underlined that, in particular, especially, mainly, chiefly, mostly, it should be pointed out that, it should be noted that, it should be remembered that, it is psychological worth stressing that, is research term vital, is crucial. Contrasting two points : however, but, in spite of, despite, in essays and punishment becker, spite of the cell fact that, despite the fact that, nevertheless, nonetheless, instead, conversely, on the contrary, by contrast, whereas, while, whilst, although, even though, on the one hand, on the other hand, in contrast, in comparison with, but, yet, alternatively, the former, the latter, respectively, all the same. Giving alternatives : there are two possibilities, alternatively, the one, the other, either, or, neither, nor, in addition, no only, but also, worse still, better still, equally, likewise, similarly, correspondingly, in the same way, another possibility, in a similar vein, as well as, furthermore, moreover, also, although, again, what is more, besides, too, as well as. Giving examples or introducing illustrations : for example, for in the of crime and punishment instance, to name an example, to give an example, is well illustrated by, a case point is, such as, such, one of which, illustrates, is an example of this, is embryonic stem term papers shown by, is thesis proposal exemplified by, is illustrated by.
Stating sequence : first of all, first, firstly, second, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, now, then, next, finally, to embryonic complete, after that, 1, 2, 3, last, lastly, furthermore, to begin with, moreover, in narrative essay gifts, addition, to conclude, afterwards. Reformulate the embryonic cell research term papers same point : in other words, to put it more simply, to good paper put it differently, it would be better to say. Stating consequences : so, therefore, as a consequence, as a result, now, consequently, because of, thus, for embryonic stem cell research term papers this reason, then, this is why, accordingly, hence, given this, with reference to, given, on essays and punishment this basis, is caused by, causes, due to, has the effect, affects, the embryonic cell term reason for, because of economics of crime and punishment this, if, then, results in, leads to, produces, owing to, through, as, since, because. Stating purpose : in order to, so that, so as to, to. Giving the embryonic research term method by profile grandmother which something happened: by …ing, by (noun), by stem papers using. Stating surprise about something unexpected: besides, however, nevertheless, surprisingly, nonetheless, notwithstanding, only, still, while, in any case, at any rate, for all that, after all, at the same time, all the essay gifts same.
Summarizing : to embryonic stem cell research papers sum up, in biology coursework, summary, to summarize, in stem term, brief, altogether, overall. Reaching a conclusion : I conclude, I therefore conclude, reached the conclusion that, it is concluded, therefore, for this reason, then, thus, in conclusion, to bring it all together. Listing components : distinct factors, comprises, consists of, constitutes, is subject do research composed of, may be classified, may be divided, can be distinguished. Giving definitions : (something) is, means, describes, is defined as, is used, is concerned with, deals with, relates to, involves, signifies, consist of. Approximating results : is just over, is stem research term just under, a little over, a little under, about, approximately, nearly.
Qualifying comparisons : considerably, a great deal, much, very much, rather, somewhat, significantly, slightly, scarcely, hardly, only just (bigger than); exactly, precisely, just, virtually, practically, more or less, almost, nearly, approximately, almost, not quite, not entirely (the same as); totally, very, completely, entirely, quite, considerably (different from); is essay psychological similar, is dissimilar, is different. Qualifying frequency : never, rarely, sometimes, usually, often, always, generally, on the whole, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom. Qualifying results : under no circumstances, mainly, generally, predominantly, usually, the majority, most of, almost all, a number of, may be, some, a few, a little, fairly, very, quite, rather, almost. Qualifying change : no, minimal, slight, small, slow, gradual, steady, marked, large, dramatic, complete, steep, sharp, rapid, sudden (rise, increase, fluctuation, decrease, decline, reduction, fall, drop, upwards trend, downward trend, peak, plateau, level off) Just like sections are structured into paragraphs, each paragraph should have some internal logic. You can usually use the first sentence of a paragraph to introduce what the paragraph is embryonic stem cell term about. Essay Disorders! This is embryonic research particularly useful at the beginning of a new section. Profile Essays! Consider these phrases as bridges. For example, in embryonic cell term, one of my essays, I opened a paragraph with “It will now be necessary to consider the argument that local cultures are dominated by transnational corporations.” My readers will immediately know what the paragraph is about. Ideally, every single sentence is geared towards answering the do research paper question.
Practically, this is hard to achieve, given the embryonic stem lack of infinite time resources available to most of us. However, by your trying to link similar paragraphs into sections, and by linking sections into a wider argument, every essay will benefit. Subject Paper! The result is an embryonic stem cell research term, essay that is easier and more pleasant to read. Each paragraph, and marine biology definitely each section, should be geared towards the essay question you’re answering. It’s therefore a good idea to embryonic term evaluate each section in terms of and punishment how far this helped to answer the essay question.
You do a number of things with this: demonstrate that you’re still on embryonic stem term papers track; you’re working towards a conclusion; you demonstrate the relevance of what you wrote in the section. If you can’t state how a particular paragraph or section is profile essays grandmother relevant towards your answer, then probably it is embryonic research term not. There are different ways to structure the main part of the essay. One key difference is psychological between essays structured along the stem term papers lines of analytic dimensions, and analysis those structured along the lines of argumentative dimensions. Stem Term Papers! For example, the analytic dimensions of an essay on globalization may be economic aspects , cultural aspects , or political aspects . On the other hand, the argumentative dimensions may be arguments that globalization affects local consumption patters a great deal, and arguments suggesting very little impact only. The analytic approach would examine the different views in biology, terms of economic aspects first, before moving on embryonic stem cell term to cultural aspects. Marine Coursework! The argumentative approach would first explore the views in favour of strong impacts in all the different dimensions: economic, cultural, political, and then move on embryonic stem cell papers to do the same for arguments against. There is no fast rule which of these approaches is better. In fact, both approaches can be very successful.
You should consider the extent to which your structure helps you avoid saying the good subject same thing twice. Whatever approach you choose, a clear indication in the introduction as to how you approach the embryonic cell research term papers essay will make sure your reader knows where you’re going. An essay where the same word or sentence structure is repeated time and time again is often boring. Many writers consider repetitions bad writing. There are a few things you can do to profile grandmother avoid repetition. Where you should be careful, however, is the use of specialist terms. For the reasons outlined in the section on defining terms, you should never substitute a specific term with a more generic one. If you talk about power, then say so, even if this means using the same word over and over cell term papers, again.
By no means use a thesaurus and pick a random suggestion offered there. My word processor, for example, suggests cognition as a synonym for power . This may be the case in some contexts, but as a key term, this is hardly ever the case. The most common case when we tend to repeat the same phrase is probably where we refer to what somebody else said. In everyday speech we simply say “Amy said this, Bobby said that, Carla said yet another thing.” In the more formal style required in essay writing, this is biology commonly written in the following way: “Adams (2006) states that…, Bird (1999) suggests that.” In order to make your essay less repetitive, consider the stem research term following options in addition to thesis the common states and stem term suggests. Good Subject! Always use your own judgement, when a phrase feels overused. By suggesting that repetition may leave a less than ideal impression, it’s not argued that this is an embryonic cell papers, area of essay writing worth spending hours on. It’s much better being repetitive, but being precise and making a good argument.
Crouch (1977) argues that … Daniels (2004) sees the problem as resulting from … Elton (1848) identifies the problem as consisting of … Ferro (1997) is of the opinion that … Gallagher (2003) defends the narrative view that … Hall (1998) notes that the stem term problem originates from … Inglehart (2000) considers that … Jackson (1984) views the issue as caused by … Kanter (1970) maintains that … Lewis (2002) concurs with Mann (2000) that … Nixon (1955) supports the view that … Orwell (1999) holds the view that … Perry (2005) agrees that … Quart (2001) denies that … These alternative ways to put the in the economics of crime becker ever same idea may be particularly useful when reviewing what different authors had to say on an issue—the parts of the essay where you simply restate what has been said before. Other alternatives you might consider are saying that somebody: added, affirmed, argued, asked, asserted, assumed, believed, challenged, claimed, concluded, considered, contradicted, demonstrated, described, determined, disagreed, discussed, disputed, emphasized, explained, found, hypothesized, implied, inferred, maintained, observed, pointed out, postulated, questioned, recommended, refuted, regarded, rejected, reported, said, stated, stipulated, suggested, viewed (something). Cell Research! This list should illustrate that there need be no conflict between variation in marine biology coursework, writing and writing clearly. If in doubt, however, you should always prioritize clarity. When writing for academic purposes, there are a number of stem cell research conventions that you should follow. A key difference to marine coursework most other forms of writing is that we give references to the sources of our argument. Ambiguity is something most academics dislike, and you’re more credible, too, if you avoid it.
Academic writing tends to be rather formal, and many will advise you to avoid writing in the first person (that is, not write using I). This makes academic writing both formal and impersonal. The reason why the first person should be avoided, is that in scientific writing one’s opinions, feelings and views are not regarded as important. Research Term Papers! Stating that I think it’s unfair that some people can’t get a visa, does not count as much. However, urging you not to use I in essays can fail in two ways. Firstly, you could still write about economics of crime, your own feelings and research term papers opinions using different phrases, and secondly, not all uses of the first person are bad. It’s a good idea to stay clear of phrases such as “I think,” or “in my opinion,” unless you’re evaluating a claim. However, there is no apparent reason for not saying “I will first define the key terms.” Using the marine biology coursework first person in this way will make a text more approachable. Moreover, using phrases starting with I, you avoid using the passive voice which many find more difficult to read.
Having said this, some markers still consider it preferable not to use the first person. Should your tutor or marker be one of cell research term them, you may want to play it safe. Don’t use we when you mean I . If you are the sole author, the use of essay psychological a plural is technically not correct. However, even a tutor who hates such phrases will not mark you down: It’s the argument and embryonic research term papers general structure of your essay that count for much more. One area where there is no room for argument is the use of essay colloquialisms, slang, or street language. Embryonic Stem Term! Academic writing is formal writing, and you might be penalized for narrative gifts using the embryonic stem papers wrong register. Biology Coursework! A little bit of informality here or there will not normally matter much. Watch out for informal words, such as really , a bit , or maybe , and consider replacing them with very , a great deal , or perhaps' . In spoken language, we often use interjections such as actually , or to be honest . These, too, don’t belong into an academic essay. Consider the embryonic research following example: “To be honest, I don’t think much of essays this theory” is something we might say to a colleague of ours. When writing an embryonic stem research term papers, essay, you could put this as: “It is clear from the evidence presented in this essay that the applications of good subject paper this theory are limited.” The following list further illustrates what is meant by formal and informal English.
The formal words are included in brackets in each case: Ask for (request), carry out embryonic stem cell research term, (conduct), chance (opportunity), find out good subject paper, (discover), get better (improve), get worse (deteriorate), guess (estimate), look into (investigate), OK (satisfactory), tell (inform), worried (concerned). Euphemisms, such as passed away for embryonic term papers die , are another aspect of language you should not use in your essays: if you write about and essays mean die , then say so. Clarity and accuracy are paramount. For these reasons academic writing can be rather tentative and embryonic stem research cautious. This is the case because we are not after grabbing headlines, but we write accurately what we know. If our data suggest that X possibly leads to Y, we say just that. In this case we should never say that X leads to Y. In academia we are often unsure what really goes on, and we should be upfront about this. Similarly, contractions—such as don’t (for do not) or can’t (for cannot)—are not commonly considered formal enough for academic writing. Some of your readers will consider this convention ridiculous; others take it as a sign that you have not understood you should write in a scholarly fashion.
To play it safe, use the full forms at any time. This particular academic convention seems to ease more and more. Some students struggle with the rules of marine biology capitalization: which letters are written as capital letters. The easiest one is stem cell term that every sentence starts with a capital letter. Proposal! Names and titles (called proper nouns) are also written with capital letters, unless there is embryonic stem term papers a specific reason not to. So, we write the name of Mark Granovetter with capital letters, but the special case of the iPod is written with a small one. Official names and particular places are written with capital letters. It’s thus the Department of Health , and Oxford University . However, when we write about general places, we don’t use capital letters. We study at university in general.
Official titles are often capitalized, such as Value Added Tax . Furthermore, many abbreviations come with capital letters. It’s an MBA your friend may be studying for. The days of the week are capitalized, such as in Monday and Wednesday , as are the analysis names of the months. The names of countries, nationalities, languages, and people from places are written with capital letters: the Swiss live in Switzerland , and Norway is a country. Apart from this, about every other word is written with small letters. Because as scientists we normally want to be precise, there is a class of phrases we avoid: weasel terms. Weasel terms are short phrases that pretend much, but don’t actually deliver the cell research promise. They are usually empty assertions, such as “it is generally known that“ or “most writers agree that.” This box contains a list of weasel terms.
In an essay, you should never use these phrases without a reference to substantiate what is said. allegedly arguably as opposed to most considered by many contrary to many critics say that experts say that it could be argued that it has been noticed it has been said it has been stated it has been suggested it is generally claimed it is widely believed that mainstream scholars say that mainstream scientists say that many people say many scientists argue that research has shown researchers argue that serious scholars say that social science says sociologists believe that some argue some feel that some historians argue the thesis analysis scientific community this is widely considered to be this is widely regarded as widely considered as. It is possible to use weasel terms, as long as they are backed up with a reference or two. So, saying that something is cell papers “widely considered the foremost example of” something is possible, if you either provide a reference to someone who demonstrates this, or provide a group of references to thesis analysis back up your claim. However, in most cases we want to be more precise. Embryonic Cell Research Papers! Rather than saying that “many social scientists argue that class is important”—which is probably true—and giving a couple of references to proposal back this up, it’s better to put it as follows: “Goldthorpe (2000) argues that class remains important.” Or maybe we have access to a statistic we can cite, that X% of embryonic research term papers social scientists seem to consider class important.
In either case, the solution is disorders more precise and thus more satisfactory. The use of references is an academic convention, and you must follow this, even though it might be a tiresome exercise. Not only will you follow the convention, but your work will also appear much more credible. You can find more on the use of references in a separate section. Footnotes are often associated with academic writing. Before you use footnotes in your own writing, however, consider your reader. Footnotes interrupt the flow of reading: you force your audience to stop for a while, moving down to the bottom of the page, before they can read on. From the stem research term papers reader’s point of view you should avoid footnotes if you can. The only subject, general exception is embryonic stem cell papers if you use footnotes for referencing. Don’t use endnotes (footnotes at the end of the text), unless they are used exclusively for referencing.
Asking your reader to flick forth and biology coursework back through your essay is even more of an interruption. Embryonic Term! Endnotes exist for practical reasons from the time before word processors. Footnotes are used to explain obscure words, or when you want to add some special information. Essays In The Economics! In the case of embryonic stem cell research papers obscure words, if it’s a key term, define it in the main text. There are cases, where you’ll want to use an obscure word, but it is not central to thesis the argument. Consider the following example: “The Deputy must, with every word he speaks in embryonic stem cell research term, the Diet 1 , […] anticipate himself under the scrutiny of subject do research his constituents” (Rousseau, 1762, cited in cell papers, Putterman, 2003, p.465).
Here I talk about the name of an assembly. The word is profile essays grandmother probably obscure to most readers, but not central to cell my argument: I write about parliaments in general, not the Diet in particular. Adding this footnote will help the readers to understand the grandmother quote. In terms of special information, if you make an embryonic stem research, important point, then make in the main text. If it’s an profile essays, unimportant remark, then very often you don’t want to make it at all.
The guiding principle is whether the note is relevant to your answer. Another aspect of language you can find often in embryonic papers, academic writing are Latin abbreviations. Essay Disorders! Never use these unless you’re sure what they mean. Normally, you should not use abbreviations in cell research term papers, the main text. Instead, use plain English. Thesis Analysis Proposal! Not only will you avoid embarrassing yourself if you misuse the abbreviations, but also will your reader be clear about what you mean.
It’s much clearer to write for cell term papers example, rather than mistakenly putting i.e. instead of e.g. (a common mistake). Profile! Some readers are annoyed by Latin abbreviations, not many will be impressed. Research Papers! Others will simply struggle to profile understand without a look in the dictionary. Stem Papers! The same is true for a number of English abbreviations. Another area of academic writing where there are many bad examples out there is the use of jargon and specialist terms. Whilst we aim for clarity and accuracy, jargon is never justified where it does not help these purposes. Specialist terms can be very useful to analysis summarize complex issues into a few letters. Nonetheless, all technical terms need to stem term papers be defined in disorders, simpler language somewhere in your essay.
Once you have defined your terms, you can use them without worrying too much. This is where the define section comes in. Bear in mind what your audience is likely to know. Other aspects of writing that may make your essay easier to read, and thus more approachable are: the use of shorter words where possible, cutting out words where they are redundant, using the active voice ( I do , she says , rather than it is understood , it is achieved ), and using English words where they are not different from the embryonic stem cell research term papers Latin or Greek ones. We want to write as clearly as we can, because when the marine writing is not clear, very often this is an indication that the argument is not very clear, either.
1 The Diet was the name of the deliberative assemblies in many European countries at the time of Rousseau’s writings.