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Literature at MIT | Writing a Thesis in …
book report skeleton Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of popular entertainment while giving you and writing, your family the essential tools you need to understand, navigate and template lpn, impact the culture in which we live. Through reviews, articles and discussions, we want to spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to follow the command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on human tradition and the basic principles of literary, this world rather than on Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for words to adequately express how much it means to my husband and me to know that there is an organization like Focus that is rooting for us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and esume cover letter, thinking about how your ministry provides ways to 'dwell in the land and enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and an 8-year-old in our household. Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family. All three of literary writing, our kids are dedicated to their walk with Christ but they still encounter challenges. Resume! Thanks for all of your research and thesis literary writing, persistence in helping us navigate through stormy waters. Plugged In helps college student stand-up for his belief. Thanks for the great job you do in posting movie and television reviews online. I’m a college freshman and resume write, I recently had a confrontational disagreement with my English professor regarding an R-rated film. It is thesis literary writing her favorite movie and she wanted to show it in help writing essay class.
I went to your Web site to research the film’s content. Although I had not seen the movie myself, I was able to make an educated argument against it based on thesis literary writing the concerns you outlined. The prof said that she was impressed by my stand and decided to antithesis coy mistress, poll the whole class and give us a choice. We overwhelmingly voted to watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and I will be using it a lot in the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and Order’ to Non-believer. “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do.
Instead of being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the literary writing, evidence, you allow the jury of your readers to decide for themselves what they should do. In my opinion, you bring sanity and order to resume, the wild world of modern day entertainment. Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the literary writing, ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and check out your assessment of resume write, a given film. I think this is the BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and I recommend it to my family and friends. Keep up the good work! Our hope is that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the information and tools at Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. We are privileged to do the work we do, and are continually thankful for the generosity and support from literary, you, our loyal readers, listeners and friends. Writing! This action/thriller book is the third in the Alex Rider series by Anthony Horowitz and is published by the Penguin Group. Skeleton Key is written for kids ages 12 to 16.
The age range reflects readability and not necessarily content appropriateness. Orphaned 14-year old spy Alex Rider is asked by the British spy agency M16 to be a ball boy at Wimbledon. While at the tournament, he uncovers a sinister plan carried out by a Chinese gang that involves rigging the outcome by drugging certain tennis players. Afterward, the gang members attempt to redeem their reputation by trying to writing, kill Alex. He is antithesis forced to go into thesis literary, hiding. Alex vows — once more — to never work for M16. Help Writing Argumentative Essay! Of course, as was the case in book two of this series, M16 officials manipulate Alex until he accepts their latest case. Since attempts are being made on Alex's life, M16 feels that Alex should travel to Florida as part of a joint spy mission with the CIA.
Alex flies to literary writing, Miami and meets two agents that pose as his parents, Carver (male) and Troy (female). After a week of training, the three travel to Skeleton Key, an island near Cuba. The CIA agents leave Alex at help writing the hotel while they spy on those in the mansion of thesis, a mad Russian general, Alexei Sarov. The CIA had received a report that the general recently bought uranium. Alex convinces agents Carver and cover, Troy to literary, let him accompany them on a scuba diving excursion, which is really another spy operation. Carver and Troy are killed by a trap set by Sarov in a cave underneath his mansion, and Alex is taken hostage. The mad general doesn't want to hurt Alex, even though he knows Alex is an M16 agent. Alex reminds the general of his only son who was killed in the war between Afghanistan and his country. General Sarov offers to adopt Alex. Sarov thinks Alex is considering his offer as they fly to assessment resume, Russia where the general plans to set off a nuclear bomb in a harbor of outdated and rusted Russian submarines. On the way, they stop in London to fuel their jet, and Alex escapes.
Sarov recaptures Alex, but not before the young spy is writing able to get the attention of the authorities. In Russia, Sarov and his men seize control of a submarine yard and the nuclear bomb is lowered onto the top of cover letter, a sub. Alex manages to stall Sarov and his men until Russian soldiers arrive to take control of the situation. The bomb is defused. Sarov realizes that Alex does not want to be his son and shoots himself. Sarov claims that he doesn't believe in God. Alex's parents are dead and so is thesis his uncle, the man who had been raising him and who was a secret M16 spy.
For the most part, Alex is on his own, though he does have a caretaker — a young American woman — who is only briefly mentioned and never appears in thesis usa the book. Agents Carver and Troy pose as Alex's parents on a spy mission, but Troy does not treat Alex well because she doesn't think a boy should be on such a serious assignment. Carver is nice to writing, Alex and takes him under his wing, treating him like he would a son. After kidnapping Alex, Sarov tries to adopt him and become his father. Alex wants no part of it, as it's obvious that the resume, general is thesis mad. Three men attempting to leave Skeleton Key in lpn a plane get bogged down in a swamp surrounding the literary writing, runway and are eaten by crocodiles. Thesis Usa! Alex fights a man posing as a guard. The fight is brutal and bloody, and writing, Alex finally knocks the help writing, man out and thesis literary writing, puts him in a freezer. It's implied that the man later dies. CIA agent Carver is captured, and later Alex finds him, beaten and bloody, tied to help argumentative essay, a chair. Writing! A cargo ship full of bad guys blows up, killing all aboard.
Alex is attacked by a shark while scuba diving and barely escapes with his life. When he returns to the boat, he finds the driver dead with a knife sticking out his back. One of Sarov's henchmen ties Alex to template lpn, a conveyor belt used for crushing sugar cane, but the machine is turned off at the last minute by Sarov. An airport guard is found shot between the eyes. Sarov's men shoot five Russian sailors. Sarov shoots himself with a gun in front of Alex.
After nearly dying in a fight at Wimbledon, Alex is furious at M16. A couple of days later he stands on the veranda of a house and thinks to himself, To h--- with all of them! Alex's girlfriend is enamored with a tennis player, and thesis literary writing, Alex, who is a bit jealous, tells her to Keep her hands on the right balls. Coy Mistress! There are two instances where characters use God’s name in vain. As a spy, Alex often lies in order to outwit his enemies. Are there times in life when it's all right to lie?
If so, in what kind of situations would it be OK? If not, why not? What does the Bible say about lying? How does the biblical perspective line up with what you believe? Being an literary writing orphan, Alex would like nothing more than to be a part of a real family. Help Argumentative! However, when Sarov offers to adopt him, Alex declines. What does it mean to have God as your heavenly Father and to be a member of thesis writing, His family? Does Sarov believe in God? Does Alex?
Do humans have more of esume letter, a natural desire to do what is right or what is wrong? Why does Alex hate working for M16? What would Alex like about your life? What do you like about his? Does Alex want to go on the mission to Skeleton Key? Book reviews cover the content, themes and world-views of fiction books, not their literary merit, and equip parents to decide whether a book is appropriate for their children.
A book's inclusion does not constitute an endorsement by Focus on the Family. Thesis! You can request a review of thesis usa, a title you can't find at email@example.com. Get weekly e-news, Culture Clips more! PLUGGED IN is a trademark and SHINING A LIGHT ON THE WORLD OF POPULAR ENTERTAINMENT is thesis a service mark of Focus on assessment resume the Family.
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To help you decide what should go on your resume, you can use your existing resume or you can note down some specifics about your skills and literary writing, experience. What you put on your resume will also depend on the details of the desired job and the job description. If you’re applying in the medical field for example, it’s important to have a section for thesis usa, certifications and thesis literary, credentials. If you’re applying for antithesis coy mistress, a retail job, however, this section is probably not necessary. Here are the literary sections that should always go on lpn your resume: Here are some ideas for thesis literary writing, optional sections: Career Objective, Objective Statement, or Professional Summary Interests and antithesis to his, Activities Relevant Skills Achievements and Awards References. Your resume should have the minimum number of sections necessary to showcase your abilities as a job candidate.
Ruthlessly delete unnecessary information. Now that you’ve decided what sections to literary writing, include, it’s time to format those sections into a beautiful, simple resume. You don’t need to do this work on your own. Resume Work Write? We’ve compiled a list of simple resume templates you can use. However, you should know about good resume design so you’ll know how to best customize the thesis writing template you choose. With all of thesis usa our resume templates, you can change the bullet points, fonts, colors, and thesis literary, arrangement as needed. Avoid large blocks of text in your resume. Having white space between sections adds balance. If a section on your resume involves a list (such as a “Skills” section), you will want to choose a template with bullet points. These make your resume look organized and easy to read.
There’s nothing wrong with a classic font like Times New Roman, but a simple resume often looks best with a clean, modern, sans-serif font like Helvetica Neue. If you choose to use font colors to dress up your resume, use them sparingly. Antithesis To His Coy Mistress? Pick just one or two colors to thesis literary writing, highlight aspects of your resume. For example, you might choose a conservative color, like gray or dark blue, for resume headers. Make sure any font color you choose is resume lpn easy to thesis literary writing, read. Antithesis? Avoid pink, yellow, and lighter shades, which look unprofessional and are hard to notice. Always be consistent. Have your “Objective” header in thesis literary the same color as your “Education” header. Don’t write your “Skills” section in antithesis coy mistress Times New Roman and your “Work History” section in literary Helvetica. The following common resume mistakes make your resume look too complicated and template lpn, poorly designed:
Too many colors and literary, fonts Hard-to-detect colors and fonts Unconventional fonts like Comic Sans Elaborate borders Colored or needlessly fancy paper Too many sections Unnecessary images Inconsistent formatting. If your resume is overly designed or messy, employers will be distracted from the content and more likely to put your resume in the “No” pile. A really elaborate resume might even be automatically discarded before it gets read. Once you’ve chosen the right resume template for you, it’s time to write your unique resume content. If you’ve never written a resume before, use one of cover our detailed resume guides, or a free resume builder to help you get started. A simple resume is about more than just layout. Literary? There should be simplicity in your phrasing too. This is the case for all resumes, but especially for one with a simple design.
Don’t hide your impressive experience under flowery language or long sentences. State things simply so employers can easily learn about you. It may be tempting to add detail with more words, but wordiness will only cover letter make your resume look messy. Keep in mind that many job applications will also require a cover letter, where you can add more detail about your experience. Thesis Literary Writing? It doesn’t all need to go on thesis usa your resume. Use active verb forms and literary writing, short sentences or bullet points when describing things like skills or achievements. Find places to cut or reword. Write? It’s okay to use sentence fragments in your bullet points.
Not only do these points make your resume look good, they also make it more likely that a prospective employer will read all of it. We have a variety of free simple resume examples to thesis, suit your needs, including chronological, functional, and combination resumes. Using what you’ve just learned in this guide, look through these templates and letter, choose one that suits your current job search best. Then customize it to reflect what you have to offer as a unique job candidate. Good use of thesis writing white space gives this professional resume template an open feel while subtle colours add design touch. Two main sections let you detail your experiences and education in assessment resume a reverse chronological order. Size: 183 B Downloads: 103817 Filename: upfront.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:18:00 / 6327. Very compact and neat professional layout. Notice how the use of red text draws the thesis eye.
Just the right amount in thesis usa the right places can be really helpful to the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 103178 Filename: neat.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:38:00 / 4968. Traditional format with light orange headers and subtle gray titles. Great sample resume for graphic designers, corporate writers, or administrative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 52880 Filename: subtle-creativity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:42:00 / 6315.
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Section titles offset in writing the margin with blue and light gray fonts. Small vertical lines used to separate columns. Excellent template for antithesis, those who have been in one industry for several years. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6473 Filename: industry-lifer.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:49:00 / 6041. Dark black section dividers complement light green and blue fonts and bullets. Literary? Large, three-columned Core Skills section for many key attributes. Assessment? Serif font type completes mature, professional feel.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 5797 Filename: cosmopolitan.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:41:00 / 6032. Two-page, one-column layout with red and orange for headings and titles. Lots of space for detailed, paragraph descriptions. Corporate and academia feel with this sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5630 Filename: tidy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:23:00 / 6287. A traditional format that portrays a simple elegance. Thesis Literary Writing? An initialed ribbon provides a smart touch which can be personalized with you initials, your highest qualification or your most prestigious award.
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Large Skills Abilities section great for the career changer. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4123 Filename: academia.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:17:00 / 5748. Open and airy one-column format centered on the page. Blue headings and bold titles with plus signs and thesis, outlined circle bullets provide subtle design appeal. Service and labour workers take a look here. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4083 Filename: breezy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:35:00 / 6026. Colour contrast and different font types dictate the style and impact of this resume. Assessment? The use of the red always pulls you back to the name of the thesis writing applicant. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3990 Filename: simple-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:02:00 / 5655. Oversized captions for key words or job titles. Resume Work? Small profile photo with blue shaded section headers.
Excellent use of literary writing space for intern experience, new graduates, and cover, creative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3942 Filename: caption.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:00:00 / 6144. Want a different way to distinguish your sub-headings from thesis your headings? This layout shows how different shades of the same colour can do this. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3823 Filename: mono-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:48:00 / 4986. Light blue titles, bold headings, and carat bullets with good use of white space in help writing essay this basic resume template. Perfect example for service industry and thesis literary, labour staff as well as new graduates.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3335 Filename: burgeoning.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:52:00 / 6089. Simple layout with bold headings and thick lines to separate different sections. Not the best format if you have a lot of information to include. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3183 Filename: simple-central.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:10:00 / 5662. Offset sections balance out lpn, this sample.
Good use of white space helps focus the reader#039;s eye. Orang titles provide design touch. Great format to take your few years of literary writing experience to the next level. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1183 Filename: moving.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:05:00 / 6147. Thin margins with stacked sections provide lots of area for all of your achievements. Unique Projects area lets you describe your accomplishments. Resume Work? IT, project management, and senior-level sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 167298 Filename: substantial.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:36:00 / 6077. Thin page border and literary, section divider lines with red and bold, black titles and cover letter, key words provide an executive feel. Thesis? Project managers, directors, and senior VPs can do well with this example.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 11562 Filename: top-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:42:00 / 6083. A compact resume format that draws the reader’s eye to the important information across different sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10835 Filename: in-a-nutshell.docx Uploaded: 2015-10-10 08:21:00 / 8305. Two well-defined columns give this sample structure. Help Writing? Thick, orange-coloured bar graphs make your capabilities pop on the page and the italicized, muted gray job titles add the professionalism.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 10053 Filename: raise-bar.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:28:00 / 5758. What stands out in literary this sample is the Skills section. This format provides an work write, instant snapshot of literary writing your skill levels that looks very professional and easy to thesis usa, read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9661 Filename: self-assessment.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4980. Entry-level workers ready for thesis writing, the next step here. Conventional sections with blue headers and light gray arrows and open circular bullets point all of thesis usa your strengths and skills.
Plenty of room for thesis literary, goals, key word lists, and more. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7399 Filename: space.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:38:00 / 6029. A very smart style that gets straight down to business. Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of time to read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6467 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961.
Great use of contrasting text colour and lpn, line thickness to differentiate between sets of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5490 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652. Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of room in thesis literary this example. Multiple sections for your training, certifications, skills, and other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4863 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836.
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Gray shading and esume cover letter, colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and thesis, confident air. Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and assessment resume, career highlights take center stage. Thesis Writing? This resume lends a decisive and authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and background to shine. This is a perfect template for individuals seeking to change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the civilian workforce, and others who want to emphasise their talents and strengths, and not their previous job titles or employers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 40837 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162. Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Europe. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30414 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed. Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of color and creativity. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30382 Filename: discreetly-modern.docx Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:09:00 / 7448. Very classy and professional full-page two-column sample.
Lots of thesis usa sections included for thesis literary writing, key skills, awards, and attributes. Red and blue titles add touch of thesis usa colour. Great example for those with substantial work experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12942 Filename: firm.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:48:00 / 6086. Two column layout for full page with sections styled into various columns. Light gray divider lines and red and blue titles. Stylish with a corporate feel for marketing director, senior VPs, and thesis, principal managers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9120 Filename: aristocratic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:05:00 / 6104. Two-column layout with profile photo. Large Awards section to list your sales, academic, or artistic achievements. Great sample for advertising, creative, sales, or communication professionals.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 8430 Filename: award-winner.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:15:00 / 6062. Traditional classic layout with a high-end executive feel. Resume Work Write? Great use of bordered headings, indented bullets and literary, tabbed text to write, create an elegant professional look. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7023 Filename: executive-elegant.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4983. A round portrait option makes this sample a bit different.
Then a strong opening statement in bold lettering is great for impact, and makes the reader want to thesis, find out more about you. At the end of the resume a simple scale allows you to thesis usa, give a snapshot of your levels of competence. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6913 Filename: bold-simplicity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:32:00 / 4946. Two-column format used for the whole page offers lots of section areas. Light grays for literary, headers and thesis usa, dashed section dividers as well as shaded background to highlight key work experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6672 Filename: split-page.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:47:00 / 6038. Bold headings shaded with olive and dark greens for thesis writing, a sophisticated template. Esume Letter? Managers, administrators, directors, and accountants take advantage of the three-columned skills area and oversized sections for experience, certificates, and literary writing, licenses. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6555 Filename: polished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:43:00 / 5812.
Functional two-page sample with three-column core skills lists and areas for professional experience, work history and thesis usa, more. Great resume style for those looking to thesis, switch industries. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6165 Filename: new-agenda.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:00:00 / 6098. Checkmarks for bullets with blue, green, and gray fonts catch the eye. Thesis Usa? Underlines connect job titles to dates. Thesis? Analysts, developers, academia, or health care template.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4750 Filename: check.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:51:00 / 6044. Deep and light blue headers with bold font titles add pop for this traditional template. Three-column key word section and two-column bulleted experience lists offer space for work, everything. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4375 Filename: airy-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:43:00 / 5899. Want the literary writing focus to be on work write your opening statement? This resume does that. Literary? Make your pitch for this job a real eye opener.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3183 Filename: inverse.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:33:00 / 4949. Two-column layout with block paragraph descriptions. Light blues and grays for help essay, headers, dates, and thesis literary writing, titles. Resume? Excellent sample for literary, business, IT, administrative, or counselling. Size: 183 B Downloads: 2808 Filename: solid-segments.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:43:00 / 6035. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.
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Approaches to teaching and learning in the DP. Experienced DP coordinators and teachers who wish to thesis writing learn more about implementing approaches to teaching and learning in the DP in the context of their school. This workshop will first briefly introduce the new element of the DP approaches to teaching and learning before giving the participants an opportunity to writing argumentative essay discuss implementation of these elements in their school’s context. This will be done by examining past and current experience with approaches to writing teaching and resume lpn, learning - style skills, assessment, unit planning and thesis literary, curriculum mapping, the sharing of good practices and work, developing an action plan for one#39;s own school. Literary Writing? Approaches to learning in resume work the MYP. It is recommended that participants for this workshop attend at least one category 1 workshop in order to come prepared with a basic understanding of unit planning and the role of approaches to learning within the MYP framework.
All teachers, counsellors, coordinators, and heads of schools are encouraged to attend. Literary? Through the MYP approaches to learning (ATL) skills framework of categories and clusters, participants will inquire into how students develop skills that have relevance across and beyond the curriculum, helping them “learn how to learn”. Essay? ATL skills in thesis literary writing cognitive, affective and metacognitive domains can be learned and taught (explicitly and implicitly), improved with practice and developed with increasing complexity incrementally. They provide a solid foundation for learning independently and with others. ATL skills help students prepare for, and demonstrate learning through, meaningful assessment. They provide a common language that students and teachers can use to reflect on, and communicate on, the antithesis to his process of learning. Business Management: A focus on thesis literary, internal assessment. a ll experienced DP Business management teachers and those to resume template have recently completed a category 1 workshop. Gain key understandings, tools and resources to adapt and develop your programmes in line with the thesis writing DP Business Management internal assessment. In this practical workshop, you will examine the assessment criteria, mark internal assessment components, ask questions, and learn how to develop a robust programme underpinned by lpn, appropriate pedagogy and a range of useful resources.
You will closely examine the internal assessment, be clear about its requirements and be prepared to apply what you learn in a manner that supports the IB mission statement, the learner profile and other core areas of the DP. This workshop will equip you to deliver the Business Management internal assessment to students with confidence as you generate useful resources and devise appropriate activities with fellow participants. Core assessment: improving student performance in TOK, CAS and EE. experienced theory of knowledge (TOK) teachers, creativity, action, service (CAS) coordinators, extended essay (EE) coordinators and supervisors, DP coordinators and librarians. Thesis Literary Writing? This workshop is intended to provide participants with an opportunity to explore and apply the esume cover criteria and literary writing, descriptors used for assessing work in TOK, CAS and the EE. The workshop revolves around sample student work in TOK to provide participants with specific examples of work and how it is assessed. Sample extended essays are also used in this way. In addition, participants can discuss possible CAS activities to help clarify the criteria used to assess student growth.
In all instances, the workshop involves participants in assessing work rather than merely listening to thesis usa presentations about rubrics. Cultivating learning-focused IB World Schools. educators and administrators who want to improve their leadership capabilities in an IB context. This workshop is tailored for: New IB Leaders (Heads of School) Principals, administrators, Experienced leaders System Leaders - those working in writing groups of schools Aspirant Head teachers who have completed other leadership workshops. Resume Work? Leadership in International Education recognizes high-quality leadership capabilities in literary writing IB World Schools and identifies key features of leadership that transcend cultural boundaries. The workshop explores the challenges of leading IB World Schools and preparing students to live and work in the 21st century. Participants develop appreciation for work the IB mission statement, philosophy and pedagogy and what success can and does mean for their school and its stakeholders and refine their capacity to play the leading role in providing a transformational educational experience.The IB learner profile and the goal of literary writing international-mindedness will serve as the two overarching themes informing the discussion of these different assessments. Antithesis To His Coy Mistress? DP Coordinators, Administrators, district/local representatives. To develop an understanding of the thesis literary writing following.
The self study should be evidence based, drawing on existing school documentation and reflecting actual practice in the school during the period under review - normally five years The foundation of coy mistress what it means to be an IB world school is articulated in the Programme standards and practices documents. The school determines its own assessment of the implementation of the literary writing programme, according to the Programme standards and practices and programme requirements. The IB analyses and evaluates the school‘s assessment to commend the school and provide guidance to enhance implementation. . Schools should consider programme evaluation as an on-going process of action and reflection that aims to enhance the implementation of the resume programme. This process is supported by the school‘s on-going action plan, which is based on the Programme standards and practices. The self-study process is the most important aspect of the entire process of programme evaluation. When planning the self-study, consider what the school should do in order to literary successfully comply with this requirement The culmination of the evidence-based self-study is the submission of the questionnaire, charts, supporting documents, feedback and an evaluation visit. The results of the esume Diploma Programme self-study as the strategic plan for the next five-year period. teachers, coordinators and administrators, This workshop is an active, hands-on workshop for teachers, coordinators and literary, administrators who want to understand the MYP evaluation process. The Programme standards and practices (January 2014) and the Programme evaluation guide and self-study questionnaire: Middle Years Programme(February 2014) are used as the backbone to esume analyse this topic. Participants will leave with a self-devised strategic plan for their own school evaluation process that will enable them to continue to move forward. Recommended audience: PYP, MYP and DP administrators, coordinators and teachers.
A growing number of thesis literary teachers are flipping their instruction by coy mistress, having students watch video lectures at home and then complete their homework in the classroom. However, many teachers don#39;t realize that there#39;s more to the flipped model than posting lectures to YouTube, and as a result, the hurdles they encounter while attempting to produce online video content or restructure activities in their classrooms often result in writing frustration. In this workshop, participants will be guided in the process of planning and antithesis coy mistress, delivering a successful flipped classroom model from start to finish. Teachers who have successfully implemented the flipped model will discuss the successes and challenges that they encountered and share insightful tips. The structure of this workshop covers background information about the flipped model, tips for organizing content and producing a flip video, instructions on how to produce and distribute videos, and writing, strategies for making the most of time in the classroom. Participants will explore the wide range of thesis usa resources that are available for thesis literary writing producing and distributing flipped videos as they plan and introduce a flipped program in their respective classrooms. Governance: Introduction to the IB for writing argumentative essay school owners and board members. owners, school councils or boards of governors. It is recommended for groups consisting of board members and the senior leadership team. The following understandings are developed during this workshops: There is a close alignment between the educational beliefs and values of the school and those of the programme. Intercultural understanding and international mindedness are at the heart of the IB and the PYP, and are reflected in the learner profile.
The school promotes international ? mindedness on the part of the adults and the students in the school community. Successful student learning is thesis influenced by school design and management The PYP, MYP and DP are constructivist and collaborative in nature. TheIBProgrammes (PYP, MYP, DP) have non?negotiable elements; it is the argumentative essay task of the school to respect and thesis writing, nurture them. The implementation of the resume lpn IB programmes depends on the support, understanding and practical involvement of the school leadership. History: A focus on internal assessment. experienced IB DP history teachers. At a minimum, teachers should have attended at least a Category 1 DP history workshop.
As this workshop focuses exclusively on the Internal Assessment, participants should be well versed with this topic before they arrive, ideally having taught and assessed this component in an IB DP history classroom. Deepen your understanding of the thesis literary writing very important assessment component within the IB DP history course, the Historical Investigation. The workshop will cover the three elements of the Internal Assessment (IA)Identification and letter, evaluation of sources, Investigation, and thesis literary, Reflection. You will discuss expectations and assessment criteria for each and pay particular attention to the Reflection component of the IA, as this can be an thesis usa element that students find particularly challenging. The workshop will include an opportunity to read student samples and mark them against the published assessment criteria, and you will share ideas and resources around the design of an effective IA process and product. You will design and/or refine your own IA process to reflect the needs, strengths and interests of your students and thesis literary, promote and support academic honesty. PYP teachers and write, coordinators in candidate and authorized schools and non-IB teachers. This workshop is for administrators, coordinators and teachers who: Have attended a category 1 workshops Have an in-depth understanding of the philosophy and curriculum framework of the programme. Note: Participants in category 3 workshops may be from non-IB schools. This workshop has also been recommended for teachers interested in differentiation, including gifted and talented.
Inquiry is the pedagogy that underpins all programmes in the IB. This workshop looks at how the PYP framework provides opportunities for all learners to engage in relevant and significant inquiries through the transdisciplinary themes and in single-subject classes. Thesis? Participants will critique a range of inquiry models emphasizing that inquiry is an ongoing process that leads to reflection, new inquiries and deep understanding. Inquiry is true differentiation, supporting the personal construction of meaning and thesis usa, meaningful action regardless of thesis literary writing language competency or learning style. The role of the librarian - PYP/ MYP/ DP/ CP.
IB librarians. Experience in a (school) library and/or experience in IB schools (any programme or mix of them) will gain most; attendance at a Category 1 or Category 2 workshop is not a pre-requisite. The workshop focuses on the many possible roles of the librarian in assessment supporting IB programmes. The library/media centre provides school-wide opportunities to engage and reflect on the IB principles and practices and connect teachers and students to knowledge and information in a digital and global context. In this workshop, we shall (amongst other topics) • investigate the key characteristics that define an IB education to develop an understanding of thesis writing how the library/media centre and librarian can support the IB standards and practices; • explore ways of supporting student-centred learning environments in a digital world; • evaluate and analyze resources that can support teaching and learning in a global context and contribute to the significant content of each IB programme in a manner that will enhance the connections between the programmes; • reflect on the collaborative relationship between the library/media centre, the academic staff and school leadership to prioritize specific IB standards that have an impact on the library/media centre and librarian.
Participants will leave the workshop with greater understanding of their possible roles within the school, with strategies and practical ideas and an action plan to chart the way ahead. experienced MYP teachers and esume, coordinators. Inquiry is the pedagogy that underpins all teaching and learning in all IB programs. This workshop is a deep dive into the MYP framework that will provide participants with the opportunity to engage in and evaluate a gamut of in quiry models that are foremost in the constructivist contemporary classroom and are a ready fit for the MYP. Participants will be able to further explore these models in the context of their own school environment, teaching style and delivery of curriculum and embrace why adopting an thesis inquiry approach to learning can enhance student access to learning that is to his coy mistress a dynamic, internally controlled . processes that positively influence a student#39;s tendency to approach, engage with, expend effort on literary writing, and persist in learning tasks in an on-going, self-directed manner (Combes 1984). Participants can expect to access an array of 21st-century educational technology tools that will enhance the inquiry experience for both student and teacher, differentiation techniques and access for all students. Template? Interdisciplinarity and the world studies extended essay. Experienced DP subject teachers, extended essay supervisors, DP coordinators and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop. This workshop is designed to give guidance on how to prepare and help students undertaking this extended essay option. Through interactive experiences, the workshop will prepare teachers to guide students through two core learning dimensions of the world studies extended essay conducting rigorous interdisciplinary research and developing a greater global consciousness.
Participants will address questions such as: What is rigorous interdisciplinary research? What is global consciousness? What do we know from research about literary writing how students learn to conduct this type of thesis usa research and become more globally conscious? How is the world studies extended essay designed to literary promote quality of these core learning dimensions? What kinds of learning experiences might best help students complete their world studies extended essay successfully? What roles do supervisors and schools play in supporting student independent learning? How do we assess students’ learning in help the world studies extended essay? Arts-Visual and Performing: Managing assessment in the MYP. Heads of School/IB coordinators: Managing assessment in the MYP. Literary Writing? Language and literature: Managing assessment in resume work the MYP.
Mathematics: Managing assessment in the MYP. Sciences: Managing assessment in the MYP. Recommended audience: Participants should be experienced MYP educators that have attended at writing, least a category 2 workshop and have experienced a minimum of two years teaching and assessing MYP in their school and/or subject group. School leaders, MYP coordinators, lead teachers in subject areas are welcome to attend. This workshop is intended for school leaders, heads of school, MYP coordinators and lead teachers in subject groups who want to deepen their understanding of the MYP assessment model. Participants will explore the targets of MYP assessment strategies in esume cover letter their subject areas and apply their knowledge of the literary writing holistic MYP framework for teaching and help essay, learning to build successful assessment practices using their subject-specific objectives and assessment criteria. Participants gain hands-on experience with the development of concept-driven assessments and consider new models of optional external assessment for the MYP. All experienced DP coordinators, extended essay coordinators, librarians and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop. Schools can increase student achievement in the extended essay by writing, taking a systematic approach to managing the extended essay process and by preparing teachers to assume supervisory roles and responsibilities. This workshop is suitable for both new and assessment resume, experienced extended essay coordinators and DP coordinators who are keen to explore ways of developing effective school procedures for thesis literary managing the extended essay process. Esume Letter? During the workshop, participants will engage in activities to develop a clear understanding of the extended essay requirements and the role that librarians and supervisors play in supporting the writing process.
Maths SL and HL: A focus on internal assessment. All experienced DP mathematics standard level/higher level (SL/HL) teachers and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop. Literary Writing? In the new mathematics SL and HL guides (first examinations 2014), internal assessment is completely different from the current portfolio with which many teachers may be familiar. This workshop will help participants learn how to develop good mathematical explorations. There will be opportunity to discuss the use of stimuli and mind maps that scaffold students’ mathematical discovery. Participants will also review various student samples to lpn develop expertise in the application of the internal assessment criteria and the moderation process. Pedagogical Leadership in the Diploma Programme.
Heads of School and senior administrators, IB Diploma Coordinators, Curriculum / Teaching and Learning Coordinators. This workshop deepens your understanding of philosophical and pedagogical implications of implementing the IB Diploma Programme. It looks at how assessing schools against literary, the IB standards and practices supports the thesis usa planning, implementation and thesis writing, improvement of the thesis usa programme. The importance of developing a collaborative school culture to bring about systemic and sustained change is discussed along with the ways in thesis writing which IB pedagogy can be used to lead professional learning. You will be encouraged to examine how the diverse ways people think, learn and work affect how their learning communities function. You will examine the complex nature of change in detail along with the role of thesis usa pedagogical leaders and teams in planning for and implementing change, including an inquiry-based approach to programme improvement. coordinators who are new to the role or who will commence the writing coordinator position in the next school year. Participants must be current PYP coordinators, either newly appointed or experienced. This workshop looks at the role of the PYP coordinator in documentation, organizing professional development opportunities, and managing complex relationships, resource management and communication with a range of stakeholders.
All of antithesis to his coy mistress these responsibilities are integral to the successful implementation of the programme. The workshop will provide opportunities for thesis reviewing new and existing publications, curriculum mapping, policy writing and reviewing the guidelines for verification and evaluation. Participants will also become familiar with the global professional development architecture, REGIS and the role of the IBEN. The workshop will model collaborative leadership strategies and explore ways to effectively manage change. Resume Work? Recommended audience: This workshop is recommended for all. This workshop will explore the meaning and depth of action in the IB, different models of service (developed through the curriculum and writing, unit planners as well as other entry points in the daily life of the school), and offers insights into planning meaningful, developmentally appropriate service activities that are grounded in relevant global contexts. Learning expectations and workshop activities will incorporate research-based best practice, the learner profile and approaches to learning skills, and will include engaging and productive reflection techniques.
Participants will return to the classroom with processes and products, an understanding of how to make action an integral part of the school, and ideas for resume work write how to thesis literary manage the requirements of cover service as action in the MYP. Thesis? Supporting IB students in the university admissions process. DP coordinators, counsellors, principals, heads, members of senior management teams, school district officials from authorized schools and university/college admissions officers. By 2014, more than 120,000 DP students will be entering university each year. IB students represent a broad range of nationalities from nearly 140 countries and to his coy mistress, reflect diverse experiences and perspectives, which they apply to their learning in the DP. These experiences, in combination with the literary writing emphasis on international mindedness and to his, academic rigour of the DP, provide students with a unique set of skills, attitudes and perspectives for success in university and life in the 21st century. During this workshop, there will be an opportunity to develop a clearer understanding of writing how university recognition impacts a student’s application to university and to resume work explore strategies in which schools can support students to maximize their chances of acceptance at their chosen university. TOK: Helping students write strong TOK essays and assessing their work. experienced TOK teachers and for teachers involved in the delivery of the DP program who may be called upon to help students with their TOK essays and assessments. Thesis? It is also open to school administrators and DP coordinators who have an interest in TOK assessment and what this involves. Gain new strategies to help students elevate their TOK essay writing skills, especially those related to argument, analysis and counter-claims, and learn how to antithesis to his coy mistress better assess their work.
In this workshop, you will explore “global impression marking” as applied to assessment and delve into the meaning of the TOK assessment rubrics from both the literary teacher and student point of writing view. You will learn strategies that help students extract knowledge questions from prescribed titles and frame them effectively. You also will assess sample TOK essays to better understand the elements of what accomplished TOK essays look like, and you will learn experientially as you take on the task of writing a TOK essay based on thesis literary, a prescribed title. For experienced DP educators. OVERALL PURPOSE OF WORKSHOP.
This workshop uses a centre out approach that identifies the key elements and skills and resume write, then places in them in the TOK context. This is so that teachers can make clear links between the inquiry basis for TOK and their own subject areas without getting caught up in the complexities of the course. By the literary end of the workshop, participants should be able to recognise and plan opportunities for the TOK elements to writing argumentative essay ‘cross over’ into thesis writing, their own subject areas. Experienced IB subject teachers who do not teach theory of knowledge (TOK), but would like to develop their own understanding so that they may model and reinforce effective thinking skills and concepts in their teaching. This workshop aims to antithesis coy mistress develop the thesis literary following conceptual understandings: TOK is a central part of the DP programme model and the learner-centred classroom and is consistently integrated into the curriculum. Resume Template Lpn? TOK is a structured way of thinking that asks the writing question ‘how do we know what we know?” TOK thinking is based on identifying and working with knowledge questions. The Ways of Knowing form the basis for TOK inquiry Areas of knowledge build on the Ways of Knowing to enable learners to make links across and between these areas. They relate both to writing the DP subject areas as well as others The TOK presentation provides an opportunity for TOK students to apply their TOK thinking skills to literary writing a real-life situation.
The TOK essay is the primary assessment opportunity for DP students to demonstrate their understanding and application of TOK thinking skills All DP teachers contribute to the modelling, understanding and reinforcement of TOK thinking skills. [Return to the top of the page] Recommended audience: PYP teachers and coordinators. Teachers in candidate and authorized schools and non-IB teachers. .This workshop is for administrators, coordinators and teachers who. Have attended a category 1 workshop Have an resume write in-depth understanding of the philosophy and writing, curriculum framework of the template lpn programme. Note : Participants in thesis category 3 workshops may be from outside IB schools. The PYP provides an extensive framework for designing and achieving transdisciplinary teaching and learning. This workshop looks at tools to map local curricula against essay, the PYP scope and sequence documents.
It analyses the transdisciplinary themes and examines how effective, concept-based central ideas and lines of inquiry can be designed to address the curriculum in a way that is relevant, challenging and engaging. Participants will also look at how the transdisciplinary skills are an essential element of thesis curriculum mapping. This workshop is also suitable for those wishing to map national and state curriculum against PYP concept based scope and sequences. Category 3 workshops, not in our current catalogue, include: Academic honesty in practice - one day workshop. For new and experienced DP educators. OVERALL PURPOSE OF WORKSHOP. Academic honesty in the International Baccalaureate is a set of values and behaviours informed by writing, attributes of the learner profile. In teaching, learning and assessment, principles of academic honesty serve to promote personal integrity, engender respect for the integrity of others and their work, and ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to demonstrate the knowledge and skills they acquire during their studies.
This workshop provides an opportunity for participants to deepen their understanding of academic honesty and develop skills to better support IB Diploma Programme students. The workshop sessions are structured so that there is a balance between understanding the different types of malpractice that exist and methods of detection which constitute a reactive approach, alongside the more proactive approach that schools can take in developing an thesis writing academic honesty policy that both raises awareness of the issues and provides safeguards for students during their learning. The workshop is assessment suitable for IB DP Coordinators, IB TOK teachers and IB Extended Essay supervisors, all DP subject teachers and librarians. Biology: A focus on internal assessment. Experienced DP Biology teachers and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop. Practical work is an important feature of the DP Biology course. This workshop supports participants in the development of a balanced and practical scheme of work that provides opportunities to assess students using the group 4 internal assessment criteria. Participants will examine various student samples to develop a clear understanding of the application of the internal assessment criteria and the moderation process. Ways in which teachers can scaffold teaching and learning to thesis writing prepare students for internal assessment will also be explored. The workshop is suitable for experienced teachers who wish to esume cover improve their practical schemes of thesis writing work, as well as teachers new to teaching Biology in the DP. Chemistry: A focus on internal assessment.
Experienced DP Chemistry teachers and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop. Practical work is an important feature of the resume DP Chemistry course. This workshop supports participants in the development of thesis literary writing a balanced and practical scheme of work that provides opportunities to assess students using the group 4 internal assessment criteria. Thesis Usa? Participants will examine various student samples to develop a clear understanding of the writing application of the internal assessment criteria and the moderation process. Ways in which teachers can scaffold teaching and learning to prepare students for resume internal assessment will also be explored. The workshop is suitable for experienced teachers who wish to improve their practical schemes of literary writing work, as well as teachers new to teaching Chemistry in the DP. ICT to resume support practical work in Biology and thesis literary writing, Chemistry. Experienced DP biology and chemistry teachers and those who have recently completed a category 1 workshop.
This workshop is designed for experienced teachers who are already familiar with the lpn structure and assessment of the literary course and who wish to explore the resume role that information and communication technology (ICT) can play in teaching, learning and thesis, school-based assessment in the DP biology or chemistry curriculum. Participants will discuss the importance of ICT as a tool in practical work, investigate the ways of scaffolding knowledge required for students to design their own experiments using ICT and focus on the design of esume cover ICT experiments suitable for internal assessment. Thesis? In addition, participants will simulate activities to enhance their understanding of concepts, explore hands-on practical activities with a range of different software packages, and explore other ways to antithesis coy mistress use ICT as a means of supporting teaching and learning. Physics: A focus on literary writing, internal assessment. Experienced IB Physics teachers and argumentative, IB Physics teachers who have recently completed a category 1 Physics workshop.
Practical work is an thesis important feature of the DP Physics course. Resume? This workshop supports participants in the development of a balanced and practical scheme of work that provides opportunities to assess students using the group 4 internal assessment criteria. Participants will examine various student samples to develop a clear understanding of the application of the internal assessment criteria and the moderation process. Ways in which teachers can scaffold teaching and thesis, learning to prepare students for internal assessment will also be explored. The workshop is suitable for experienced teachers who wish to improve their practical schemes of work, as well as teachers new to teaching Physics in the DP. The Role of the Supervisor in Extended Essays. Purpose of Workshop: To develop an understanding of the following. As a process the extended essay provides a valuable learning experience that supports lifelong learning Each school plays an important role in providing a structure that enables students to build on their own learning experiences when developing the extended essay A well-focussed research question will provide opportunity for template systematic investigation which is both legal and ethical The librarian plays a pivotal role in thesis writing supporting students in research techniques, referencing and promoting an understanding of academic honesty The supervisor can support and encourage the student throughout the research and writing of the extended essay The supervisor can use the assessment criteria to frame feedback to the student during the writing process The viva voce provides an opportunity to check on lpn, plagiarism and thesis literary writing, malpractice but also encourages the student to reflect on their learning The supervisor contributes to the modelling. Understanding the work Diploma Programme (DP) DP teachers who wish to increase their level of understanding of the IB Diploma Programme.
This workshop is designed to meet the needs of a range of professional development requirements and can be used by schools undertaking the authorization process as well as a post-authorization refresher. There is a focus on what it means to be an IB world school offering the Diploma Programme (DP) and how the thesis literary values of the school should reflect and assessment, promote the writing IB standards and practices. For schools preparing to be authorized, this provides an opportunity to consider the basics while those schools post-authorization will be given an opportunity to reflect and evaluate their IB journey thus far. To foster a community of collaboration, teachers will explore the role of the resume write three DP core elements: Theory of Knowledge; Creativity, Action, Service; and the Extended Essay as a means of broadening students’ educational experience and providing an interdisciplinary forum in which students are challenged to apply their knowledge and skills. This will support DP subject teachers in thesis writing developing a deeper understanding of the core elements and resume work, means of articulation with the subjects they teach through meaningful curriculum planning and thesis writing, consideration of approaches to teaching and learning. For all information regarding our workshops. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of writing argumentative Methadone Treatment. Addiction to opiates involves a complex interplay of physiological, psychological, social, and other variables. Writing! The primary purpose of thesis usa methadone treatment is to intervene directly in the physiological processes that underlie addiction. Ideally, such treatment is supported by additional psychological and behavioral therapies. To understand why methadone treatment works, it is important to understand the thesis physiological basis of heroin addiction. This chapter provides an overview of the development of pharmacotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of thesis usa opiate addiction and summarizes the key basic scientific investigations of the physiological underpinnings of opiate effects, including the discovery of the endogenous opioid system. In addition, the chapter describes the pharmacological and medical characteristics of methadone as a medication for the treatment of opiate addiction. The Rationale for Pharmacotherapy. Opiate addiction is operationally defined today as at least one year of literary writing daily opiate drug self-administration, with development of tolerance, physical dependence, and drug-seeking behavior.
The concepts of tolerance and dependence are thus fundamental to understanding the physiological aspects of opiate addiction. When a person repeatedly uses an write opiate drug-like heroin, over time, that person becomes tolerant to heroin; that is, he or she requires greater and thesis literary writing greater doses of heroin to resume template, achieve the same physiological and thesis writing psychological effects. The same is true for the opiate drug morphine. Tolerance. can be thought of thesis usa as an adaptation of the functional (physiological) systems of the body to opiates. During chronic use of an opiate, physical dependence also develops when the physiological systems have adapted to the point that they actually require the opiate just to thesis, maintain physiological equilibrium. Virtually all physiological systems are affected in opiate addiction. A reproducible syndrome occurs when an opiate addict goes through withdrawal. Work Write! This syndrome includes yawning, lacrimation, piloerection, perspiration, mydriasis, tremor, gooseflesh, restlessness, myalgia, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, hyperpnea, and hypertension.
When prolonged, the thesis literary syndrome includes weight loss and, even after acute withdrawal, symptoms subside, persistent symptoms such as sleep disturbances, irritability, restlessness, and poor concentration which can be present for months or years. Both acute and chronic tolerance are physiological phenomena subserved by help writing argumentative essay the central nervous system. Thesis Literary! However, both acute and chronic tolerance may also be influenced by writing environmental variables, such as setting, conditioning, and learning. The pharmacological approach to thesis literary writing, long-term treatment of letter heroin addiction, first undertaken in early 1964, was rooted in what was then a hypothesis that opiate addiction is a metabolic disease, caused by either intrinsic or drug-induced alterations in physiology. The original researchers in the field, Drs. Vincent Dole, the late Marie Nyswander and Mary Jeanne Kreek, hypothesized that in thesis literary, some or most cases of heroin addiction the addicted individuals had a intrinsic metabolic disorder, possibly with an underlying genetic predisposition, which expressed itself clinically after initial exposure to specific types of drugs or other chemical agents of abuse; and that in other cases, individuals who developed addiction were experiencing drug-induced metabolic disruptions in otherwise normal physiology. Resume! They speculated that in the latter cases, heroin-induced changes in specific neurobiological systems persist over long periods and possibly become permanent. The researchers observed that gradual removal of physical dependence upon morphine or heroin (detoxification) followed solely by psychiatric or other behavioral treatment frequently failed to help addicts sustain abstinence. Thesis Literary Writing! Similar observations had been made much earlier in some of the initial studies conducted between 1936 and 1941 at the U.S.
Public Health Service (USPHS) Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, which showed that less than ten percent of assessment resume hard-core addicts were able to stay free from opiates after discharge from literary long stays in drug-free treatment programs that only offered counseling and psychiatric care. Thus, Dole, Nyswander, and Kreek sought an optimal pharmacological agent that could supplant or complement psychological and behavioral. treatment approaches. Their first study in 1964 was to repeat earlier studies that attempted unsuccessfully to work write, use short-acting opiates, such as heroin and morphine, in a controlled fashion, in the management of opiate dependence. Morphine was again shown to be an unsuitable pharmacotherapeutic agent for several reasons: short duration of action, requiring four to six administrations per day; necessity for parenteral administration, because of lack of substantial bioavailability after oral administration; and the rapid development of increasing tolerance. Regular, frequent increments in doses were needed to thesis writing, prevent the emergence of assessment resume withdrawal symptoms. The poor suppression of craving (drug hunger) and drug-seeking behavior, unless doses were regularly increased, made it difficult to reach a steady state. In view of the anticipated limitations of morphine as a maintenance agent, a search was made for a medication that would block withdrawal symptoms of thesis writing heroin addicts and that would be orally effective, long-acting, nonsedating, and devoid of adverse side effects. Methadone, a synthetic opiate compound originally synthesized in Germany for use as an analgesic in World War II, was selected for study in esume cover letter, 1964. Methadone had been introduced between 1958 and 1962 at the USPHS hospital in thesis literary, Lexington, at the Bellevue Medical Center in New York City, and at a limited number of other sites for detoxification treatment of thesis usa heroin addiction. In the thesis literary writing early detoxification programs it was given in three or four small daily doses, usually 5 to 10 mg each, because the assessment resume prolonged duration of action was not yet appreciated and no analytical techniques existed for objective measurements of pharmacokinetics.
The purpose of these detoxification programs was to wean patients off heroin so that they could pursue a drug-free lifestyle. However, these efforts largely failed. Within weeks following methadone detoxification all patients quickly relapsed and returned for repeat detoxification in a revolving-door fashion. Certain characteristics were thought to be important for successful pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction, including systematic bioavailability after oral administration and prolonged duration of action. Literary! An oral route of administration was thought to be more acceptable to patients and, thus, would enhance patient compliance. Oral medication would also eliminate the risk of help argumentative blood-borne infection (principally serum hepatitis) associated with intravenous administration coupled with use of unsterile or shared needles and syringes. Lastly, oral administration would disrupt the symbolic linkage to an illicit lifestyle and, practically, diminish the literary behavior of thesis usa congregating to share needles and other drug paraphernalia. A prolonged duration of action (a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile) was desired so that the thesis literary dosing regimen could be infrequent, preferably once daily. In addition to ensuring better compliance with the medication, long intervals between doses would minimize inter-dose opiate withdrawal or abstinence symptoms. It was hypothesized that such a long-acting pharmacokinetic profile.
would also permit normalization of specific physiological functions disrupted by chronic use of short-acting opiates such as heroin. It was further hypothesized, and resume write later proven, that long-acting agents would be effective at a stable dose for a much longer period of thesis literary writing time owing to template, slower development and sustained level of tolerance. In fact, subsequent studies have shown that once the daily dose of thesis writing methadone has been stabilized, tolerance does not develop to lpn, the essential effects of methadone (prevention of opiate abstinence symptoms and prevention of drug hunger or craving) as used in maintenance treatment. Thus, steady constant doses can be used for years to treat heroin addiction effectively. In 1964, only thesis writing, methadone met the criteria of being orally effective and long-acting.
In 1993, another related synthetic opiate, LAAM, was approved by FDA as a pharmacotherapeutic agent for opiate addiction. LAAM has an even slower onset of action than methadone and more prolonged duration of action. 1 (See Pescor, 1943; Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c, 1987b; Dole, 1988; Kreek, 1991, Kreek 1992a, Kreek 1992b, Kreek 1992c.) While clinicians treating heroin addicts were developing new pharmacotherapeutic approaches, important discoveries from basic science regarding opiate physiology began to emerge. A breakthrough in the study of the neurobiological basis of opiate effects was the discovery in 1973 by three independent groups, those of Snyder at Johns Hopkins University, Simon at New York University, and Terenius at the University of Uppsala (Sweden), of specific opiate receptors.
These studies revolutionized the field of neuropharmacology and neurochemistry and were based, in part, on the earlier work of Dole and Goldstein. Later, three typesmu, delta, and kappaof specific opiate receptors were identified. In 1975, the first class of endogenous opioid peptide ligands, the enkephalins, were discovered by Kosterlitz and Hughes. Such compounds, generically called endorphins, can be thought of thesis usa as the body's endogenous morphine-like substances in that they share structural and physiological similarities with morphine and heroin. Soon thereafter, attention focused on three separate classes of endogenous opioid ligands that bind to the specific opioid receptors. In animals, many of the literary well-known opiate effects have been reproduced by administering large amounts of these endogenous opioids.
This pharmacologic effect depends primarily on the metabolism of the parent LAAM compound to two active metabolites, noracetylmethadol and dinoracetyl-methadol. These two metabolites are pharmacologically active and are even longer acting than LAAM, permitting an every two- or even every three-days dosing schedule. Tolerance develops to some of these natural opioid peptide effects. The specific relationships between the action of endogenous opioid peptides and discrete physiological functions are still being defined. Endogenous opioids or endorphins include the enkephalins, dynorphins, and beta-endorphin. The three opioid peptide genes have been cloned, and each encodes a single large peptide, which is then processed to yield all of the opioid peptides within a class: proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and proopiomelanocortin, the resume latter of which contains both beta-endorphin and other important nonopioid peptide hormones including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). As mentioned above, there are at least three types of specific opiate receptors, mu, delta, and kappa, each of thesis which may have several subtypes. The genes for each of these receptor types have also been cloned very recently.
Recent studies using transfected opioid receptors have shown that methadone binds primarily or exclusively to the mu type of opiate receptor, with greater selectivity than morphine or most other commonly used mu receptor preferring ligands. Currently, studies are in progress to localize and characterize gene expression of the assessment resume endogenous opioid system peptide and receptor genes, to assess the effects of drugs of abuse and treatment agents on gene expression, and to writing, understand the complex molecular biological interactions of this system. Both basic and clinical studies have focused on the possible role of the endogenous opioid system in the biological basis of addiction. This system involves numerous brain regions and types of opioid peptides. Although the complex interactions of this system within the resume work brain are not fully understood, data suggest that cycles of heroin addiction severely disrupt this system and that chronic, steady-state methadone maintenance attenuates this disruption.
A metabolic disease concept has been suggested, in addition, which holds that some individuals may be predisposed to heroin addiction because variations in their genes result in writing, abnormal levels of endogenous opioid peptides, levels that can be corrected by cover letter taking heroin (Goldstein, 1994). The effect of heroin addiction on the genetic regulation of the endogenous opioid system is currently an active area of research that is beginning to writing, reveal intriguing clues about the biological underpinnings of addiction. Another area of thesis usa particular interest is the possible role the endogenous opioid system plays in stress. It has been hypothesized that an thesis writing atypical responsivity to stress, including the common stresses in our daily environment, may contribute to the acquisition of drug-seeking behavior, and both laboratory and thesis usa basic clinical research studies have been conducted to define the stress responsive axis in humans with addictive diseases and in animal models. One of the thesis writing most important modulators of template stress responsivity is the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. It is known that a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), drives.
the anterior pituitary in humans to release peptides from one important gene product, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which yields both the long known peptide hormone ACTH and as one of the endorphins, beta-endorphin. ACTH then acts peripherally on thesis, the adrenal gland to cause release of the work critically important glucocorticoid steroid in humans, cortisol. In addition to many peripheral actions, cortisol acts in a negative feedback control manner to literary, control both CRF release from the hypothalamus and antithesis coy mistress the release of POMC peptides, ACTH, and beta-endorphin, from the anterior pituitary in humans. Studies using opioid antagonists have shown that the endogenous opioids-like exogenous opiods, modulate the stress responsive axis. Thesis Literary Writing! However, whether the effects of the resume lpn antagonists are mediated wholly through central actions of the brain opiods, or whether peripheral βEndorphin plays a role remains to be determined. (See Dole, 1970; Ingoglia and Dole, 1970; Goldstein et al., 1971; Kreek, 1973a, Kreek, 1973c; Pert and Snyder, 1973; Simon et al., 1973; Terenius, 1973; Hughes et al., 1975; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek and Hartmen, 1982; Kreek, Schaefer, et al., 1983; Kreek, Wardlaw, et al., 1983; Kreek, Raghunath, et al., 1984; Kreek, Schneider, et al., 1984; Kreek, 1987a; Branch et al., 1992; Evans et al., 1992; Hurd et al., 1992; Kiefer et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Chen et al., 1993a, 1993b; McGinty et al., 1993; Spangler et al., 1993a, 1993b, 1994; Wang et al., 1993; Yasuda et al., 1993; Unterwald et al., 1993; Kreek, Simon, et al., 1994; Spangler et al., (in press.) When methadone maintenance was in its early stages of research and development as a possible treatment for opiate addiction, there were no adequately sensitive and thesis specific analytic methods (e.g., gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography or radioimmunoassay techniques) with which to assess the pharmacokinetics of methadone (or any other opiate such as morphine and heroin); that is, the time course of distribution, metabolism, and clearance in thesis usa, the body.
Some researchers turned to thesis literary writing, animal models for initial pharmacodynamic and sometimes pharmacokinetic research. These were not helpful, however, because the pharmacokinetic profile and duration of action of methadone (and also LAAM) were much longer in humans than in rodent models. Consequently, the relative duration of action of opiates was assessed by careful clinical observations of pain patients and opiate addicts receiving methadone in clinical research settings. Both morphine-induced analgesia in pain patients and euphoria in opiate addicts have a rapid onset and decline; within 46 hours, another dose is. required. However, clinical studies demonstrated important differences between morphine and methadone in these two patient groups. Although in antithesis coy mistress, early studies methadone seemed to provide full analgesia for only 46 hours in pain patients, similar to morphine, when repeated doses of methadone were given over 24 hours, opiate-like side effects were observed. This suggested an thesis literary accumulation of methadone and, thus, a much longer half-life of this medication. When methadone was given to heroin addicts, it seemed to prevent signs and symptoms of withdrawal for 24 hours. During oral administration of methadone to opiate addicts on doses selected to resume template, be less than those to literary, which tolerance had been developed, the high or euphoria, and all other perceived opiate effects, are minimal or even absent.
In the early 1970s, appropriate analytical techniques were developed to measure plasma levels of methadone. These techniques substantiated the early clinical observations and showed that there was a gradual onset of action of assessment resume orally administered methadone and that low peaks of methadone were reached. Peak plasma levels were usually less than twice the thesis writing trough levels, and relatively steady-state sustained plasma levels of methadone were maintained during the remainder of the thesis usa 24-hour dosing interval. The mechanisms that maintain the steady-state plasma levels were shown to include binding of methadone in body tissues (primarily the liver), with subsequent release into the circulation, and extensive plasma protein binding, which limits plasma total and unbound concentrations of methadone and prolongs the literary pharmacological actions of methadone in patients receiving a daily maintenance dose. LAAM has also been shown to share this reservoir property with methadone. Thus, methadone, unlike the short-acting opiates such as morphine and heroin, appears to have its own timed-release mechanism within the body and this makes it very well suited to daily interval dosing. The resultant prolonged pharmacokinetic half-life probably accounts for the diminished or absent physiological and behavioral effects typical of short-acting opiates. (See Inturrisi, and Verebely, 1972; Sullivan et al., 1972; Dole and Kreek, 1973; Kreek, 1973d; Anggard et al., 1974; Hachey et al., 1977; Kreek et al., 1978; Kreek, Hachey, et al., 1979; Nakamura et al., 1982; Kreek, 1991c) In maintenance treatment of opiate addicts, methadone is thesis usa administered as a single constant daily dose after the induction period is over. On this schedule patients exhibit no signs of opiate withdrawal during the writing 24-hour interval between doses. Assessment! If a daily dose is missed or omitted, however, a patient on.
methadone maintenance will exhibit signs and symptoms of opiate withdrawal, usually within 24 to 36 hours after the last dose of methadone. The intensity of these signs and symptoms increases gradually if the patient remains off methadone. A daily dose of methadone stabilizes a maintenance patient pharmacologically by the creation of a drug reservoir in the tissues of the thesis literary writing body that holds the plasma level within narrow limits. This buffering action makes short-term minor fluctuations in medication release from the template lpn tissue reservoir unimportant. Writing! Although opiate withdrawal symptoms can be prevented with low doses, it is cover important to provide adequate treatment doses (60120 mg/day in most patients) to assure plasma levels that blockade the effects of any superimposed short-acting opiates. The well-documented importance of constant, steady blood levels argues strongly against the sometimes-used practice of thesis literary writing using methadone dose level as a reward or punishment variable in so-called contingency contracting or other behavioral interventions. There are conditions under which the tissue reservoir appears to be less effective and withdrawal symptoms may appear earlier or more often. One of esume cover letter these is severe, chronic liver disease, such as postviral or alcoholic cirrhosis, which probably results in a reduction in the amount of thesis literary hepatic storage capacity for resume, methadone. Less severe liver disease does not seem to have this effect. Literary! Also, drug interactions of specific types may accelerate the metabolism of methadone and help writing essay decrease its effectiveness (see below).
(See Dole et al., 1966; Kreek, 1973c; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, Oratz, and Rothschild, 1978; Novick, Fanizza, et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Novick, Kreek, Arns, et al., 1985; Ball and Ross, 1991, Kreek, 1991c.) Effects, Side Effects, and Special Pharmacological Issues. In the original maintenance research in 1964, divided methadone doses were used very briefly, but, as already mentioned, soon it was found that a single daily dose of methadone could suppress withdrawal symptoms for writing, 24 hours. To His Coy Mistress! Then, cross-tolerance or narcotic blockade and treatment studies were conducted to determine if methadone could be used to stabilize former active heroin addicts on literary writing, a single, steady, oral dose, and thus prevent withdrawal symptoms, craving, and drug-seeking behavior. The level of to his coy mistress tolerance to thesis literary writing, methadone developed during maintenance treatment, and cross-tolerance to other superimposed opiate drugs, is high. In the 1964 research, the phenomenon of help writing narcotic blockade was described in literary writing, which cross-tolerance blocks the effect of any superimposed short-acting opiate drug.
In double-blind studies conducted on former heroin addicts stabilized on full treatment doses of cover methadone, doses of heroin far exceeding those that. might be used illicitly had no effects in the research subjects. Occasional medication errors have also been reported in which a stabilized, long-term, methadone-maintained patient has been given up to 10 times the usual dose of medication and, in most cases, there were no untoward effects except for literary, somnolence. The strength of narcotic blockade and the level of tolerance and antithesis cross-tolerance in maintained patients, however, are dependent upon the dose of methadone. For example, a 40-mg dose or less of methadone can easily be overridden by common street doses of heroin. Studies have confirmed that continued illicit heroin use is much more prevalent among addicts on lower doses of methadone compared with those receiving higher doses (60 mg and more daily). The early and subsequent ''blockade'' or cross-tolerance studies have shown that it is difficult for patients to override methadone doses of 60120 mg/day with heroin to get any euphoria or any other perceived or observable opiate effects. This lack of literary writing any override effect has been established in the clinical research laboratory and subsequently on the street. Resume Template Lpn! Studies have demonstrated that the double-blind administration of heroin, morphine, hydromorphoneall administered in typical street doses to methadone-maintained patient subjectsproduced no narcotic-like effects. In addition, single-blind administration of heroin in increasing doses to methadone-maintained research volunteers had no effects until the doses of heroin administered (up to 200 mg) exceeded street amounts commonly used at that time. Such studies have demonstrated that the margin of safety with respect to respiratory depression is very high.
Consequently, if an individual maintained on literary writing, methadone sought to get high on heroin (which frequently is attempted during the first few weeks in treatment), he or she is not likely to experience any desired or adverse effects. Although some methadone is diverted to the street, the help writing argumentative essay instances of primary addiction to methadone are extremely rare. Illicit methadone is used primarily by thesis literary writing addicts to work write, self-medicate for literary writing, a short time for detoxification purposes or for extended periods in thesis usa, a maintenance mode. (See chapter 4 for an extended discussion of diversion.) The acute effects of any opiate in a naive individual are significantly different from chronic effects because tolerance develops, albeit at varying rates to most, but not all, of the opiate effects. Diverse acute effects of opiates involving multiple organ systems have been recognized for years and more carefully defined and studied in recent years. The protocol for induction into methadone treatment that was developed in the initial studies of methadone maintenance treatment is still used today. During the first few weeks of maintenance treatment, the thesis writing daily dose gradually is increased at a rate slow enough to prevent any appearance of narcotic-like effects. From around two months onward, doses are held constant at an adequate blockading level, usually of 60 to 120 mg, to provide cross-tolerance and thus prevent any appearance of euphoria if the patient should attempt to superimpose the use of illicit heroin. Resume! The patient is, thus, stabilized on pharmacotherapy so that withdrawal symptoms and drug hunger or craving are fully suppressed, but are unaccompanied by intolerable side effects.
The side effects, which may occur if methadone is used in doses exceeding the degree of thesis literary writing tolerance developed, are somnolence, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, difficulty in urination, edema of the lower extremities, and help writing argumentative essay constipation (to be discussed later). They diminish as tolerance develops and may be prevented with administration of writing appropriate doses of methadone. Chronic liver disease is the most common medical problem seen in heroin addicts, and the chronic sequelae of liver infection or injury persist during methadone treatment. The majority of heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance treatment have biochemical evidence of assessment resume chronic liver disease, and, until very recently, 80 to 90 percent have serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C. In some regions of the country, up to 30 percent also have serological evidence of infection with hepatitis delta. Of patients maintained on thesis literary writing, methadone for months to years, over one-half have persistent biochemical liver abnormalities. In these patients, the abnormalities result from the complications of previous heroin addiction and include viral hepatitis of one or more type, comorbidity with alcoholism, or both. Methadone itself is not hepatotoxic; patients entering treatment with normal liver function maintain normal liver function during long-term treatment. Chronic renal disease is a medical problem in some heroin addicts entering methadone maintenance, but the presence of chronic renal disease does not result in the systemic accumulation of methadone or its metabolites. In such patients plasma levels of methadone remained within the assessment appropriate therapeutic ranges for literary writing, the doses received. This is thesis usa because methadone metabolites are inactive; also, unlike morphine and heroin, methadone and its metabolites are normally excreted in part in feces as well as in urine and may be exclusively excreted by the hepatobiliary fecal route in the presence of renal disease.
The influence of pregnancy on the use and effects of methadone has also been investigated. Plasma concentrations of methadone are significantly lower and systemic elimination of literary writing methadone more rapid as pregnancy progresses through the third trimester. Thus, some women report symptoms of opiate withdrawal during late pregnancy, even when the daily dose of methadone remains constant. Accordingly, increased methadone doses (and certainly no dose reduction) may be required to maintain adequate levels of work write methadone for effective treatment during the thesis literary writing third trimester. In addition to minimizing risk of. relapse, it is important to suppress withdrawal symptoms, because they can trigger premature labor. To date, the only adverse effects of methadone maintenance treatment on the fetus have been the production of work write physical dependence, which causes mild to modest opiate withdrawal signs and thesis writing symptoms in the early postnatal period in many, but not all, babies.
This is readily managed by appropriate treatment with an resume template lpn opiate such as paregoric, tincture of opium, or oral morphine. No chronic sequelae of thesis maternal methadone treatment have been found, nor have any teratogenic effects been reported. (See Dole et al., 1966; Cherubin et al., 1972; Gordon and Appel, 1972; Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1973a; Stimmel et al., 1973; Kreek, Schecter, Gutjahr, Bowen, et al., 1974; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1979; Beverly et al., 1980; Kleber et al., 1980; Kreek, Gutjahr, and Hecht, 1980; Hartman et al., 1983; Kreek, 1983b; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, 1985; Pond et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, and Kreek, 1986; Novick, Stenger, et al., 1986; Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991c; Kreek, 1992b; Novick, Richman, et al., 1993; Novick, Reagan, et al., in press.) Physiological Functions Disrupted During Heroin Addiction. Addicts inject (or self-administer by template another route) themselves repeatedly with increasingly larger doses of literary writing heroin, usually sufficient to achieve the desired euphoria or high effect during chronic use of opiates, and modified responses, or tolerance, to the drug develop. The first self-administrations of heroin by a curious adolescent are likely to cause nausea with or without an accompanying pleasurable feeling. Later, with repeated use of heroin, tolerance rapidly develops to assessment resume, the nausea-producing effect and the euphoria predominates. The euphoric experience becomes central to thesis literary, the addict's life; but with additional heroin use, the addict finds it progressively more difficult to achieve euphoria, unless an increasing dose of heroin is used. Tolerance also develops at different rates to most of the opiate effects of methadone as used in maintenance treatment. Most of the initial opiate effects, predominantly somnolence, can be avoided by esume cover letter starting treatment at relatively low doses and increasing the dose gradually to appropriate treatment levels.
Other important physiological functions that are deranged during cycles of heroin addiction include (1) central nervous system stress responses that are mediated by thesis writing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; (2) reproductive biology hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis with resultant abnormal function; (3) various indices of immune function that are linked to or modulated by neuroendocrine function. These altered functions, which may contribute to resume template, or be part of the mechanism underlying drug-seeking behavior, have been shown to normalize during long-term steady-dose methadone treatment. Adverse neuroendocrine effects of heroin, which cause menstrual irregularities in heroin-addicted women, and sexual dysfunction in men and women, reverse in over 80 percent of patients within one to thesis literary writing, three years. Constipation, a side effect of both short- and template lpn long-acting opiates, persists for writing, a protracted period of esume cover time; with slow development of tolerance, this effect on the gastrointestinal tract diminishes. Excessive sweating is thesis literary writing a side effect of argumentative essay methadone treatment that, in some patients, does not remit. Some patients (less than 20 percent) continue to complain of thesis literary writing sleep and sexual dysfunction for antithesis coy mistress, up to one year or longer, and may experience constipation for up to three years; up to 50 percent experience excessive sweating for even longer periods of time. In contrast to thesis literary, the gradual development of tolerance expressed by thesis usa reduction at different rates of these diverse side effects, tolerance to literary writing, sedative and lpn also analgesic effects of opiates develops rapidly and fully in methadone-maintained patients. Writing! Consequently, such methadone-maintained patients will experience pain with delivery of a child, surgery, injury, and painful diseases and pharmacologic pain management is necessary.
Such management can be achieved by antithesis use of the usual approved pharmacotherapeutic approaches normally used in each medical situation. This includes the thesis writing use of template opiate drugs, such as morphine, when these are the usually indicated medications. Thesis Writing! The upper range of normal doses of opiate medications, however, and shortened dosing intervals as clinically required of short-acting narcotics, are often necessary and effective. (See Blinick, 1968; Renault et al., 1972; Cushman, 1973; Kreek, 1973b; Santen, 1974; Mendelson et al., 1975a, 1975b; Santel et al., 1975; Kosten et al., 1986a, 1986b; Kreek 1987b; Kosten et al., 1992; Kreek, 1992c; Terenius, O'Brien, et al., 1992; Culpepper-Morgan et al., 1993.) Interactions of Methadone with Other Drugs. A fundamental public health issue related to methadone maintenance was whether or not a methadone-maintained patient would be in jeopardy of overdose if he or she self-administered heroin during methadone treatment. As noted above, the 1964 cross-tolerance studies documented that the resume lpn risk of literary writing morbidity or death in methadone patients receiving a full treatment dose (60 to 120 mg per day) is extremely low because of the to his high level of thesis writing tolerance (and cross-tolerance to other opiates) developed during treatment. In addition to blocking the euphoric effects of superimposed, short-acting opiate drugs, methadone and its accompanying narcotic blockade may serve. a relapse-prevention function. The suppression and ultimate extinction of resume write drug-seeking behavior should result, theoretically at least, when illicit opiate self-administration is uncoupled from the thesis literary anticipated and desired opiate effect of resume write euphoria.
The now well-documented significant reduction or cessation of illicit opiate use by literary writing former heroin addicts stabilized on assessment, steady and adequate doses of methadone suggests that this may be due partly to the effects of counseling, as well as to the direct biological effects of the drug. As mentioned above, severe liver disease can impair the disposition and bioavailability of methadone, but it is not the sole cause. One major, widely used, antituberculosis drug, rifampin, interacts with methadone to accelerate methadone metabolism in literary writing, the liver. This interaction is important because opiate addicts are particularly vulnerable to tuberculosis. Esume! Rifampin has been shown to alter significantly the clinical efficacy of thesis methadone by accelerating its metabolism in the liver and thus its rapid removal from the body. This rapid biotransformation of methadone leads to to his, the appearance of thesis writing withdrawal symptoms in patients otherwise well-maintained on work write, methadone. The two major effects of rifampin on literary, methadone metabolism, a lowering of plasma concentrations and thesis usa increased urinary excretion of the major metabolite, suggest that the drug exerts its effect by literary writing enhancing hepatic microsomal enzyme activity.
Another important interaction occurs between the antiseizure drug phenytoin and methadone. Maintained patients can experience moderately severe opiate withdrawal within three to four days of beginning phenytoin therapy for management of assessment resume epileptic seizures. Studies have shown that phenytoin accelerates methadone metabolism, and thesis literary writing methadone dosing adjustments need to be anticipated when phenytoin is assessment initiated or discontinued. Although the question of a possible interaction of methadone with cocaine has been raised, no conclusive data have been forthcoming. Preliminary studies suggest that methadone does not alter cocaine metabolism. However, some studies have suggested that cocaine may, in some cases, accelerate the metabolism of methadone. Also common in a heroin-addicted population is the comorbid incidence of alcohol abuse.
It is literary estimated that at least one in four or five heroin addicts, and former addicts maintained on work write, methadone, abuse alcohol. Literary! Methadone treatment has been positively associated with reduced alcohol consumption while alcoholic heroin-addicted patients are in treatment; also, increased alcohol consumption is reported by alcoholic heroin addicts when not taking heroin or methadone. Disulfiram (Antabuse) has been used to essay, deter alcoholic abusers from further drinking on the basis of aversive effects of the alcohol-disulfiram interaction. Although alcoholic opiate addicts maintained on methadone can usually be treated safely with disulfiram, in a few patients unwanted side effects have been observed, suggesting a possible methadone-disulfiram interaction that could lead to excess sedation. A theoretical basis for. this effect could include a disulfiram-induced inhibition of the liver microsomal enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of methadone, but such an interaction was not found in one study in which average doses of thesis writing disulfiram were administered to thesis usa, methadone-maintained subjects. This phenomenon, however, might occur when high doses of disulfiram are used, or in patients with severe alcoholic cirrhosis with compromised hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme capacity. High levels of thesis literary alcohol itself have been shown to have two opposing interactions with many therapeutic agents, including methadone, and lpn chronic addicts with comorbidity may use large amounts of thesis literary alcohol. Resume Work Write! Alcohol is metabolized by the hepatic microsomal enzymes. When present in large amounts, alcohol may retard the biotransformation of medications that are metabolized by the hepatic P450 enzyme related systems; yet when alcohol levels fall, drug metabolism may be accelerated due to the chronic effects of alcohol on hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. (See Kreek, 1973; Kreek, Garfield, et al., 1976; Kreek, Gutjahr, et al., 1976; Kreek, 1978a; Tong et al., 1980; Kreek, 1981; Tong et al., 1981; Kreek, 1983a; Kreek, 1987a; Kreek, 1990a; Borg et al., 1993.)
Impact of Methadone Maintenance on Infectious Diseases. By the late 1960s, infectious serum hepatitis could be defined more precisely owing to the development of serological tests for hepatitis B disease. Thesis Literary Writing! The injecting heroin addict was identified as being at very high risk for write, acquisition and thesis spread of antithesis to his coy mistress hepatitis B. In multiple studies, over 80 percent of the injecting heroin addicts entering methadone treatment had markers of prior infection and 5 to 15 percent had hepatitis B antigenemia. 2 However, studies have also shown that after 10 years or more in maintenance treatment, the percentage of thesis literary patients with hepatitis B antigenemia drops to less than 5 percent. By the late 1970s a second and lethal form of hepatitis, caused by a viroid-like circular RNA agent (delta agent) that requires hepatitis B for its own infectiousness, was discovered and resume template its biology defined.
By retrospectively examining banked sera and by prospectively testing those entering treatment for addiction, it was found that hepatitis delta had entered the untreated heroin addict population in New York City by the mid-1970s. By 1984, approximately 90 percent of the untreated heroin addicts on writing, the streets of New York City. A positive marker for hepatitis B virus antigen, indicating the presence of live hepatitis B virus and thus potential viral replication. continued to thesis usa, show evidence of having been infected with hepatitis B, as evidenced by the presence of some marker for that disease; and approximately 30 percent by that time had evidence of hepatitis delta infection. Literary! Recently, the resume template third type of hepatitis virus infection, hepatitis C, was identified. Studies have shown hepatitis C virus infection in 80 to 90 percent of heroin addicts and former heroin addicts in methadone treatment.
In 1981, shortly after the thesis literary clinical symptoms of to his AIDS were characterized, the etiological viral agent HIV-1 was identified. By examining blood samples that had been banked prospectively from thesis writing 1969 onward, it was found that HIV-1 infection had reached the lpn drug-injecting population in New York City in 1978 and infection had progressed rapidly until 19831984, when the prevalence of HIV-1 infection reached a level of over 50 percent of intravenous users in the inner city area. Of public health importance, investigators further found that heroin addicts in literary, New York City who had entered effective methadone maintenance treatment programs before the 1978 advent of the AIDS epidemic and who remained in treatment displayed a much lower incidence of resume HIV-1 infection in 1984 than did untreated heroin addicts: less than 10 percent of such methadone patients were infected in 1984, compared to thesis literary, over 50 percent of untreated heroin addicts. Studies of HIV-1 infection in long-term, methadone-maintained patients have been reported in Sweden and other countries worldwide with similar findings of efficacy of methadone treatment in the prevention of HIV-1 infection. It should be recognized that sharing of unsterile needles is not the only mode of HIV-1 transmission among addicts.
Cocaine use by methadone patients is also a risk factor for HIV-1 infection, owing to promiscuous sexual behavior commonly associated with cocaine, including sex as payment for the drug. Concurrent use of cocaine by heroin addicts is thesis usa estimated to be between 50 and 90 percent and, thus, is an added risk factor in the heroin-using population. Once in treatment, the prevalence of thesis literary writing cocaine use among heroin addicts generally drops to resume template, between 20 and thesis writing 40 percent. Finally, and of potentially great importance, studies have shown that multiple indices of immune function are deranged during cycles of heroin addiction, probably because of assessment resume many factors, including lifestyle, multiple infectious diseases, and possible direct or indirect effects of the drug use. Writing! Immune factors, however, normalize during chronic long-term methadone treatment. Thesis Usa! Natural killer cell activity is literary writing not altered by methadone in thesis usa, vitro . Long-term methadone maintenance permits return to normal levels of natural killer cell activity, as well as to normal absolute numbers of B cells and T cell subsets, which may have important implications for immune system function and, possibly, for thesis literary, retarding the progress of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. (See Kreek, Dodesn, et al., 1972; Kreek, 1978b; Kreek, 1983b; Des Jarlais, Marmor, et al., 1984; Novick, Farci, Karayiannis, et al., 1985; Kreek, Khuri, et al., 1986; Novick, Khan, et al., 1986; Novick, Kreek, Des Jarlais, et al., 1986; Blix, 1988; Novick, Farci, Croxson, et al., 1988; Chaisson et al., 1989; Des Jarlais et al., 1989; Kreek, 1989; Novick, Ochshorn, Ghali, et al., 1989a; Ochshorn et al., 1989; Kreek, 1990b, 1990c; Kreek et al., 1990; Ochshorn et al., 1990; Kreek, 1991b; Novick, Ochshorn, and Kreek, 1991; Novick, Reagon, et al., in press.) Albeck, H, Woodfield, S, and Kreek, MJ. 1989. Quantitative and pharmacokinetic analysis of naloxone in argumentative, plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and solid phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography 488:435445.
Anggard, E, Gunne, L-M, Holmstrand, J, McCahon, RE, Sandberg, C-G, and Sullivan, HR. 1974. Literary! Disposition of methadone in methadone maintenance. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 17(3):258266. Ball, JC, and help argumentative Ross, A. Literary Writing! 1991. Thesis Usa! The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment: Patients, Programs, Services and thesis Outcome . New York: Springer-Verlag. Beverly, CL, Kreek, MJ, Wells, AO, and Curtis, JL.
1980. Effects of alcohol abuse on progression of liver disease in methadone-maintained patients. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1979; Proceedings of the 41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed., NIDA Research Monograph 27 Series., Rockville, Md., Pp. 399401. Blinick, G. 1968. Menstrual function and pregnancy in narcotics addicts treated with methadone. Thesis Usa! Nature 219:180.
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1989. A UV-sensitive RNA structural element in a viroid-like domain of the hepatitis delta virus. Science 243:649652. Branch, AD, Unterwald, EM, Lee, SE, and Kreek, MJ. 1992. Quantitation of antithesis to his coy mistress preproenkephalin mRNA levels in brain regions from male Fischer rats following chronic cocaine treatment using a recently developed solution hybridization procedure. Molecular Brain Research 14:231238. Chaisson, RE, Bacchetti, P, Osmond, D, Brodie, B, Sande, MA, and Moss, AR.
1989. Literary Writing! Cocaine use and HIV infection in esume letter, intravenous drug users in San Francisco . Journal of the American Medical Association 261:561565. Chen, Y, Mestek, A, Liu, J, Hurley, JA, and Yu, L. 1993a. Molecular cloning and writing functional expression of a mu opioid receptor from rat brain. Resume Template Lpn! Molecular Pharmacology 44:812. Chen, Y, Mestek, A, Liu, J, and Yu, L. 1993b. Molecular cloning of a rat kappa opioid receptor reveals sequence similarities to the mu and literary writing delta opioid receptors. Biochemical Journal 295:625628. Cherubin, CE, Kane, S, Weinberger, DR, et al.
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Journal of the American Medical Association 261:10081012. Des Jarlais, DC, Marmor, M, Cohen, H, Yancovitz, S, Garber, J, Friedman, S, Kreek, MJ, Miescher, A, Khuri, E, Friedman, SM, Rothenberg, R, Echenberg, D, O'Malley, PO, Braff, E, Chin, J, Burtenol, P and Sikes, RK. 1984. Antibodies to a retrovirus etiologically associated with Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in populations with increased incidences of the syndrome. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33:377379. Dole, VP. 1970. Biochemistry of addiction.
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1966. Narcotic blockade. Archives of thesis literary writing Internal Medicine 118:304309. Evans, CJ, Keith, DE, Jr., Morrison, H, Magendzo, K, Edwards, RH. 1992. Antithesis To His! Cloning of a delta opioid receptor by functional expression. Science 258:19521955. Goldstein, A, Lowney, LT, and Pal, BK. 1971.
Stereospecific and nonspecific interactions of the thesis writing morphine congener levorphanol in subcellular fractions of help writing essay mouse brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68:17421747. Goldstein, A, and Freeman, WH. 1994. Addiction: From Biology to Drug Policy , New York. Gordon, NB, and Appel, PW. 1972. Performance of effectiveness in relation to methadone maintenance. In: National Association for the Prevention of Addiction to Narcotics, Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Methadone Treatment . Pp.
425427. Hachey, DL, Kreek, MJ and thesis literary writing Mattson, DH. 1977. Quantitative analysis of methadone in template lpn, biological fluids using deuterium-labeled methadone and GLC-chemical-ionization mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 66:15791582. Hartman, N, Kreek, MJ, Ross, A, Khuri, E, Millman, RB, and Rodriguez, R. 1983. Alcohol use in youthful methadone-maintained former heroin addicts: Liver impairment and treatment outcome. Alcoholism, Clinical, and thesis literary writing Experimental Research 7:316320. Hughes, J, Smith, TW, Kosterlitz, HW, Fothergill, LA, Morgan, BA, and Morris, HR. 1975.
Identification of writing argumentative two related pentapeptides from the brain with potent opiate agonist activity. Writing! Nature 258:577580. Hurd, YL, Brown, EE, Finlay, JM, Fibiger, HC, and Gerfen, CR. 1992. Cocaine self-administration differentially alters mRNA expression of striatal peptides. Help! Molecular Brain Research 13:165170. Ingoglia, NA, and Dole, VP. 1970. Localization of d- and l-methadone after intra ventricular injection into rat brain.
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DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 811029. Writing Essay! Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Kosten, TR, Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, and Kleber, HD. 1986a. Cortisol levels during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in ex-opiate addicts. Biological Psychiatry 21:217220. Kosten, TR, Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, and Kleber, HD. 1986b. A preliminary study of beta-endorphin during chronic naltrexone maintenance treatment in ex-opiate addicts.
Life Sciences 39: 5559. Kosten, TR, Morgan, C, and Kreek, MJ. 1992. Beta-endorphin levels during heroin, methadone, buprenorphine and naloxone challenges: Preliminary findings. Biological Psychology 32:523528.
Kreek, MJ. Literary! 1973a. Medical safety and side effects of methadone in tolerant individuals. Journal of the American Medical Association 223:665668. Kreek, MJ. Resume Template! 1973b. Physiological implications of methadone treatment. In: Methadone Treatment Manual . Thesis Literary! U.S. Department of thesis usa Justice. Publication No. 2700-00227.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pp. 8591. Kreek, MJ. 1973c. Physiological implications of methadone treatment.
In: National Association for the Prevention of literary writing Addiction to Narcotics, Proceedings of the Fifth National Conference on Methadone Treatment . Pp. 8591. Kreek, MJ. Resume Template! 1973d. Plasma and urine levels of thesis literary methadone. New York State Journal of Medicine 73:27732777. Kreek, MJ. 1978a. Effects of drugs and alcohol on opiate disposition and action. In: Factors Affecting the Action of Narcotics , M.W.
Adler, L. Manara, and R Samnin, eds. New York: Raven Press. Pp. 717739a. Kreek, MJ. 1978b. Medical complications in methadone patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 311:110134.
Kreek, MJ. 1979. Methadone disposition during the perinatal period in humans. Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior . Work Write! 11(Suppl.):17. Kreek, MJ. 1981. Metabolic interactions between opiates and alcohol. Annals of the New York Academy of thesis literary Sciences 362:3649. Kreek, MJ. 1983a.
Factors modifying the pharmacological effectiveness of methadone. In: Research in the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction: State of the Art , J.R. Cooper, F. Resume Template Lpn! Altman, B.S. Brown, and D. Czechowicz, eds. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 83-1281. Pp. 95114a. Kreek, MJ. 1983b.
Health consequences associated with use of thesis literary writing methadone. In: Research in the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction: State of the Art , J.R. Cooper, F. Altman, B.S. Thesis Usa! Brown, and D. Czechowicz, eds. Thesis Literary Writing! NIDA Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 83-1281.
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NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No.(ADM) 87-1508. Pp. 76:5361. Kreek, MJ. 1989. Immunological approaches to clinical issues in drug abuse. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1988; Proceedings of the 50th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Thesis Writing! Harris, ed.
NIDA Research Monograph 90, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 89-1605. Pp. Antithesis To His! 7786, 1989. Kreek, MJ. 1990a. Drug interactions in humans related to drug abuse and thesis literary writing its treatment. Modern Methods in Pharmacology 6:265282. Kreek, MJ. 1990b. HIV infection and parenteral drug abuse: Ethical issues in diagnosis, treatment, research and the maintenance of confidentiality.
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Immune function in esume letter, heroin addicts and former heroin addicts in thesis writing, treatment: Pre/post AIDS epidemic. Current Chemical and Pharmacological Advances on argumentative essay, Drugs of Abuse Which Alter Immune Function and Their Impact Upon HIV Infection , P.T.K. Pham and literary K. Rice, eds. Resume! NIDA Research Monograph 96, Rockville, Md. Pp. 192219. Kreek, MJ. 1991b.
Immunological function in active heroin addicts and methadone-maintained former addicts: Observations and possible mechanisms. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1990; Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the thesis literary writing Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph 105, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 91-1753. Pp. 7581.
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Jaffe, eds. Writing! New York: Raven Press. Literary Writing! Pp. 205230. Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, DC, Trepo, CL, Novick, DM, Abdul-Quader, A, and help writing essay Raghunath, J. Thesis Literary Writing! 1990. Contrasting prevalence of delta hepatitis markers in parenteral drug abusers with and without AIDS. Journal of Infectious Diseases 162:538541. Kreek, MJ, Dodes, L, Kane, S, Knobler, J, and Martin, R. 1972. Long-term methadone maintenance therapy: Effects on liver function. Annals of Internal Medicine 77:598602. Kreek, MJ, Garfield, JW, Gutjahr, CL, and Giusti, LM.
1976. Rifampin-induced methadone withdrawal. New England Journal of Medicine 294:11041106. Kreek, MJ, Gutjahr, CL, Garfield, JW, Bowen, DV and Field, FH. 1976. Drug interactions with methadone.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 281:350370. Kreek, MJ, Hackey, DL, and Klein, PD. 1979. Stereoselective disposition of resume methadone in man. Life Sciences 24:925932. Kreek, MJ, and Hartman, N. 1982. Chronic use of opioids and writing antipsychotic drugs: Side effects, effects on endogenous opioids and toxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 398:151172. Kreek, MJ, Khuri, E, Fahey, L, Miescher, A, Arns, P, Spagnoli, D, Craig, J, Millman, R, and resume write Harte, E. 1986. Long-term follow-up studies of the thesis literary medical status of adolescent former heroin addicts in chronic methadone maintenance treatment: Liver disease and writing immune status.
In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of The Committee on Problem of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph 67, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No.(ADM) 86-1448. Literary! Pp. 307309. Kreek, MJ, Oratz, M, and template Rothschild, MA. 1978.
Hepatic extraction of long-and short-acting narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver. Thesis Literary! Gastroenterology 75:8894. Kreek, MJ, Raghunath, J, Plevy, S, Hamer, D, Schneider, B, and Hartman, N . 1984. ACTH, cortisol and beta-endorphin response to metyrapone testing during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Neuropeptides 5:277278. Kreek MJ, Schaefer, RA, Hahn, EF, and assessment resume Fishman, J. 1983. Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, reverses chronic idiopathic constipation. Thesis! Lancet (Feb. 5) 261262. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, A, Gutjahr, CL, Bowen, D, Field, F, Queenan, J, and Merkatz, I. 1974.
Analyses of assessment methadone and other drugs in maternal and neonatal body fluids: Use in evaluation of symptoms in a neonate of mother maintained on methadone. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 1:409419. Kreek, MJ, Schecter, AJ, Gutjahr, CL, and Hecht, M. 1980. Literary! Methadone use in patients with chronic renal disease. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 5:197205. Kreek, MJ, Schneider, BS, Raghunath, J, and Plevy, S. 1984. Prolonged (24 hour) infusion of the opioid antagonist naloxone does not significantly alter plasma levels of thesis usa cortisol and ACTH in humans. Abstracts of the literary writing Seventh International Congress of thesis usa Endocrinology, Excerpta Medica , International Congress Series 652, Amsterdam Oxford-Princeton. P. Thesis! 845. July.
Kreek, MJ, Simon, E, Evans, C, Uhl, G, Wang, J-B, Johnson, P, Imain, Y, Waltherm, D, Wu, JM, Wang, WF., Moriwaki, A, Yu, L, Min, B, Augustin, L, Felsheim, R, Fuchs, J, Hoh, H, and Inturrisi, C. In press. Symposium for 20th anniversary. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994; Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Kreek, MJ, Wardlaw, SL, Hartman, N, Raghunath, J, Friedman, J, Schneider, B, and Frantz, AG. 1983. Circadian rhythms and levels of beta-endorphin, ACTH, and cortisol during chronic methadone maintenance treatment in humans. Life Sciences 33 (Suppl.
I):409411. McGinty, JF, Daunais, JB, and Roberts, CS. Esume Cover Letter! 1993. Cocaine self-administration causes an thesis increase in preprodynorphin, but not c-fos, mRNA in rat Striatum. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1992: Proceedings of the resume 54th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Thesis! P. 143. Mendelson, JH, Mendelson, JE, and Patch, YD. 1975a. Plasma testosterone levels in heroin addiction and during methadone maintenance. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 192:211217. Mendelson, JH, Meyer, RE, Ellingboe, J, et al.
1975b. Effects of heroin and methadone on plasma cortisol and testosterone. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 195:296302. Nakamura, K, Hachey, DL, Kreek, MJ, Irving, CS, and template lpn Klein, PD. 1982. Quantitation of methadone enantiomers in humans using stable isotope-labeled 2H3, 2H5, 2H8 methadone. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 71:3943.
Novick, DM, Farci, P, Croxson, ST, Taylor, MB, Schneebaum, CW, Lai, EM, Bach, N, Senie, RT, Gelb, AM and Kreek, MJ. 1988. Hepatitis delta virus and thesis literary writing human immunodeficiency virus antibodies in parenteral drug abusers who are hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Journal of Infectious Diseases 158:795803. Novick, DM, Farci, P, Karayiannis, P, Gelb, AM, Stenger, RJ, Kreek, MJ, and Thomas, HC. 1985. Esume! Hepatitis D virus antibody in HBsAg-positive and literary writing HBsAg-negative substance abusers with chronic liver disease. Journal of Medical Virology 15:351356. Novick, DM, Khan, I, and Kreek, MJ.
1986. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and infection with hepatitis viruses in individuals abusing drugs by resume injection. Thesis Literary Writing! United Nations Bulletin on Narcotics 38:1525. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Arns, PA, Lau, LL, Yancovitz, SR, and Gelb, AM. 1985. Effects of severe alcoholic liver disease on the disposition of methadone in writing argumentative essay, maintenance patients.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 9:349354. Novick, D, Kreek, MJ, Des Jarlais, D, Spira, TJ, Khuri, ET, Raghunath, J, Kalyanaraman, VS, Gelb, AM, and Miescher, A. 1986. Antibody to LAV, the putative agent of AIDS, in parenteral drug abusers and methadone-maintained patients: Abstract of thesis literary clinical research findings: Therapeutic, historical, and ethical aspects. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1985; Proceedings of the 47th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Committee on resume work, Problems of Drug Dependence . L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. (ADM) 86-1448. Pp.
318320. Novick, DM, Kreek, MJ, Fanizza, AM, Yancovitz, SR, Gelb, AM, and Stenger, RJ. 1981. Methadone disposition in patients with chronic liver disease. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 30:353362. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, Ghali, V, Croxson, TS, Mercer, WD, Chiorazzi, N, and Kreek, MJ. 1989. Natural killer cell activity and lymphocyte subsets in parenteral heroin abusers and thesis literary long-term methadone maintenance patients. Journal of Pharmacology and thesis usa Experimental Therapeutics 250:606610. Novick, DM, Ochshorn, M, and Kreek, MJ.
1991. In vivo and in vitro studies of opiates and thesis literary cellular immunity in narcotic addicts. In: Drugs of Abuse, Immunity and Immunodeficiency , H. Friedman, In press. New York: Plenum Press. Pp. 159170. Novick, DM, Reagan, KJ, Croxson, TS, Gelb, AM, Stenger, RJ, and Kreek, MJ.
Hepatitis C virus serology in parenteral drug users with chronic liver disease. In: Problems of Drug Dependence, 1994: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Scientific meeting of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence , L.S. Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md. Novick, DM, Richman, BL, Friedman, JM, Friedman, JE, Fried, C, Wilson, JP, Townley, A, and Kreek, MJ. 1993. The medical status of methadone-maintained patients in treatment for 1118 years. Esume! Drug and Alcohol Dependence 33:235245. Novick, DM, Stenger, RJ, Gelb, AM, Most, J, Yancovitz, SR, and Kreek, MJ. 1986.
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Harris, ed. NIDA Research Monograph Series, Rockville, Md., DHHS Publication No. Esume Cover Letter! (ADM) 89-1605. Literary Writing! P. 369. Ochshorn, M, Novick, DM, and template lpn Kreek, MJ. 1990. In vitro studies of methadone effect on thesis literary writing, natural killer (NK) cell activity. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 26:421425. Pert, CB, and template lpn Snyder, SH.
1973. Literary Writing! Opiate receptor: demonstration in nervous tissue. Science 179:10111014. Pescor, MJ. 1943. Follow-up study of treated narcotic drug addicts. Public Health Report (Suppl.) 170:1. Pond, SM, Kreek, MJ, Tong, TG, Raghunath, J, and Benowitz, NL. 1985. Altered methadone pharmacokinetics in methadone-maintained pregnant women. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 233:16.
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Mechanism of action of narcotics in the production of resume work menstrual dysfunction in women. Thesis Literary Writing! Fertility and Sterility 26:538548. Simon, EJ, Hiller, JM, and thesis usa Edelman, I. 1973. Stereospecific binding of the thesis literary potent narcotic analgesic [3H]Etorphine to rat-brain homogenate. Proceedings of the National Academy of resume work write Sciences 70:19471949.
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Repeated cocaine administration upregulates κ and thesis literary μ, but not δ, opioid receptors. NeuroReport . Wang, JB, Imai, Y, Eppler, CM, Gregor, P, Spivak, C, and Uhl, GR. To His Coy Mistress! 1993. Thesis Writing! Mu-opiate receptor: cDNA cloning and expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:10,23010,234. Yasuda, K, Raynor, K, Kong, H, Breder, CD, Takeda, J, Reisine, T, and Bell, GI.
1993. Cloning and functional comparison of kappa and delta opioid receptors from resume work mouse brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:67366740. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. For nearly three decades, methadone hydrochloride has been the primary means of treating opiate addiction. Writing! Today, about 115,000 people receive such treatment, and thousands more have benefited from it in the past. Even though methadone's effectiveness has been well established, its use remains controversial, a fact reflected by the extensive regulation of its manufacturing, labeling, distribution, and use.
The Food and Drug Administration regulates the safety and effectiveness of methadone, as it does for all drugs, and the Drug Enforcement Administration regulates it as a controlled substance. However, methadone is also subjected to a unique additional tier of regulation that prescribes how and under what circumstances it may be used to treat opiate addiction. Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment examines current Department of Health and Human Services standards for cover letter, narcotic addiction treatment and the regulation of methadone treatment programs pursuant to those standards. The book includes an evaluation of the effect of federal regulations on literary writing, the provision of methadone treatment services and an exploration of options for modifying the regulations to writing argumentative, allow optimal clinical practice. The volume also includes an thesis writing assessment of alternatives to the existing regulations. Front Matter i–xii Executive Summary 1–16 Introduction 17–36 Pharmacology and Medical Aspects of thesis usa Methadone Treatment 37–60 Who Are the thesis literary Recipients of Treatment? 61–91 Methadone Diversion Control 92–119 Federal Regulation of Methadone Treatment 120–150 Methadone Treatment 151–184 Treatment Standards and antithesis to his coy mistress Optimal Treatment 185–216 Implementing Standards--And Beyond 217–238. You're looking at thesis writing OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on assessment, our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.
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