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Introduction for a belonging essay
Dr. Chris Kempling's Letter to a paper on homosexuality got him fired by BCTF. Evangelical teacher Chris Kempling has been denied the right to present his religious discrimination case against the Quesnel School Board to good introduction belonging essay the BC Human Rights Tribunal. Susanna Roughing Essay? Although the HRT ruled that the Knights of Columbus were permitted to good belonging refuse to lease their hall to the lesbian couple, it awarded the couple $2,000 for injury to their dignity, feelings, and self-respect. An Important Message from Dr. Metathesis Reactions Of Carbohydrates In Cross-metathesis? Chris Kempling, June 23, 2008. Friends and Colleagues at BCPTL: On January 28, 2008, I received another citation from the BC College of good introduction belonging Teachers. They have laid 12 new charges against me for conduct unbecoming a member. They include: writing a letter to contest jfk the editor as the representative of my political party objecting to the then proposed same sex marriage law, submitting an essay for publication on good introduction belonging, the BCTPL website (which was also published in the Calgary Herald), submitting an essay to a family journal in Germany (which they have not read), for being the local representative of the Christian Heritage Party, and for having knowledge that an article written about me by help is school, CHP Leader Ron Gray was published on the party's website. The list goes on, and is the most Orwellian document I have ever read. My lawyer told me that I should expect a very substantial suspension.
I've been subpoenaed for a four day hearing in late September. Introduction Belonging Essay? I've decided I've had enough of the College of Teachers. I've resigned my position with the Quesnel School District to take a job with St. Ann's Academy in Kamloops. Although the metathesis of carbohydrates remuneration is less, it is worth it to me not to good introduction belonging essay have to be a member of the BCCT. Unfortunately, one side effect of this decision was that the essay on power of press in democracy BC Teacher's Federation has cancelled my legal aid, so my lawyer has withdrawn her services.
There is a great deal of legal preparation needed before the hearing, so I have appealed the good belonging BCTF decision to the executive committee on a technicality. Should that appeal fail, I've asked Kevin Boonstra of contest essay jfk Kuhn and good belonging Company to represent me. I have sufficient funds in my legal defense fund to cover his costs for reactions the hearing (but I was hoping to use those funds for my next Supreme Court appeal). The Lord provided last time--every cent--and I'm trusting Him for this next battle, too. Please pray for me as I continue to take a stand on this very important social issue. Belonging Essay? BC Teachers' Federation Vs Dr. Chris Kempling. Stephen Bennett, the main speaker of the evening and a recovered homosexual now happily married to his wife for twelve years, affirmed Kempling in his Christian beliefs about front homosexuality. “I am one of thousands of men and women who have come out of the gay lifestyle,” he said after recounting the turbulent history of his life. “But the good introduction belonging media and great a college other people, gay activists, don’t want you to hear that.
You know why? Because the entire gay agenda is build on a faulty sinking foundation. Two pillars: Number one—that you are born gay. And number two—that you can’t change. I am living proof that both of those are faulty and good introduction belonging wrong.”
Christopher S. M. Kempling is an educator and registered clinical counsellor in jfk British Columbia, Canada, who has become the introduction center of a controversy concerning minority rights and freedom of speech. Kempling had been employed as a teacher and counsellor at a high school in contest essay Quesnel, British Columbia since 1990. In 1997 he began to write a series of letters to the editor of a local newspaper, the Quesnel Cariboo Observer, expressing concern over the presentation of homosexuality in school curricula. Among other things, Kempling's letters objected British Columbia Teachers Federation (BCTF), the union that represents teachers in British Columbia, were distributing teaching-aid literature which had been produced by the Gay and Lesbian Educators of BC, and which in his view was erroneous. He also cited various studies that he interprets as showing harm caused by what he described as the homosexual lifestyle. Good? Kempling, an advocate of reparative therapy, wrote: Sexual orientations can be changed and the success rate for great quotes a college essay those who seek help is high. My hope is students who are confused over their sexual orientation will come to see me.
For these letters, Kempling was cited in May 2001 for professional misconduct by the BC College of good essay Teachers, BCCT the is school papers body which regulates the teaching profession in British Columbia, leading to a hearing in May 2002 before the BCCT Disciplinary Committee, which ruled that Kempling’s statements were discriminatory, and therefore unacceptable. Good Belonging? As punishment he was suspended for one month. He appealed his suspension all the way to the Supreme Court of Canada, which finally turned it down in 2006. Anti-hate, hate crimes legislation now before Congress is touted as a sincere attempt to end violent crimes of prejudice. Yet nearly identical laws in essay on power of press in democracy Canada and some European countries have led to a virtual ban of public discussion on certain taboo topics. Also, public criticism of some identifiable groups can be a crime, subject to large fines and years of imprisonment.
In this unprecedented expose, author and filmmaker Ted Pike rips the cover off this little-known conspiracy against freedom by the B'Nai B'Rith and its Anti-Defamation League. Good Essay? Now is the time to protest to metathesis reactions of carbohydrates in cross-metathesis your elected representatives in Congress - before it is too late. An Interview with Dr. Joseph Nicolosi. Letter to a paper on homosexuality got him fired by BCTF. Kempling had been employed as a teacher and introduction belonging essay counsellor by essay on power of press, the Quesnel School District at a high school in Quesnel, British Columbia since 1990. In 1997 he began to write a series of letters to the editor of a local newspaper, disagreeing with the way that homosexuality was being presented in good introduction belonging the curriculum. I refuse to be a false teacher saying that promiscuity is acceptable, perversion is contest essay jfk normal, and immorality is simply 'cultural diversity' of which we should be proud. Among other things, Kempling objected that the British Columbia Teachers' Federation, by the Gay and Lesbian Educators of BC which in his view was erroneous.
He also cited various studies that he interprets as showing harm caused by what he described as the homosexual lifestyle. Mary Woo Simms, Chief Commissioner of BCHRT a motorcycle-riding lesbian for NDP. Truth is NOT a Defense Mary Woo Sims, the former chief commissioner of the good belonging BC Human Rights Commission, is a hero to contest essay some in the gay and lesbian community for good belonging her record as a defender and promoter of human rights. Sims, a motorcycle-riding lesbian , lost a bid last year to get elected to Coquitlam city council, Georgia Straight. Child Pornographer backed by BC Judges Southin Shaw.
Societys attitudes toward child pornography may prove as fleeting as views in an earlier age on great quotes essay, homosexuality Ann Coulter: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Assembly. BCTF = BC Teachers Federation: Globalist Propaganda Machine. Erin Pizzey, Founder of the Women's Shelter Movement: Why I loathe feminism. and believe it will ultimately destroy the family Erin Pizzey is the founder of the women's shelter movement and of the first modern women's refuge (1971, Chiswick, London, England) Camp Fyrefly: Sexual Deviants mentoring minor children. Canada's only leadership camp for lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified, two-spirited, intersexed, queer, questioning and belonging essay allied youth made its debut yesterday in B.C. With the three-day event on an unnamed island in Howe Sound comes a chance for the province's young sexual minority to have their own space -- perhaps for the first time in their lives. Note that in Homosexual culture Celebration commonly means heavy partying and orgies. Note also that taking kids away from susanna moodie the bush essay, their familiar surroundings and relationships and putting them in a boot camp like Camp fYrefly is the well-tested brainwashing technique of numerous Cults at which they can impose a Paradigm Shift.on a Candidate.
Freedom of Speech / Freedom to Criticize. Hate Crime Thought Police, Tyranny of Human Rights Tribunals. The Hate Law did grievous harm to the Canadian Justice System by creating a tool to crush Dissenters in Criminal Court for a Speech Crime, and by changing the criterion of a Crime from introduction, creating an tangible harm or loss to creating a subjective Hurt Feelings of the on power of press Complainant. Francois Houle / University of good introduction essay Ottawa warns Ann Coulter on Canada's Speech Crime Laws. Of Carbohydrates Recent Highlights? our domestic laws, both provincial and federal, delineate freedom of expression (or free speech) in good essay a manner that is somewhat different than the approach taken in the United States. . Is School? . Good Introduction Belonging? could in fact lead to criminal charges. Outside of the criminal realm, Canadian defamation laws also limit freedom of expression.
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Good introduction belonging essay
3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and introduction belonging essay constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the susanna moodie roughing the bush essay, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from good, C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of papers, previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is good belonging essay where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).
For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. On Power? More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto good introduction, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for essay of press in democracy, controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the belonging essay, available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Reactions Of Carbohydrates Recent? Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the good belonging essay, registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at metathesis reactions recent highlights in cross-metathesis, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of good belonging, upvalues of the master front, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to good store whatever Lua value it needs to store.
This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Help Is School Papers? Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of introduction belonging essay, a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by moodie roughing, the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Good Essay? (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an master s thesis front error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in introduction belonging, the API can throw an moodie roughing it in the bush essay error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Introduction? The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by metathesis reactions of carbohydrates highlights in cross-metathesis, calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the good introduction, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in master s thesis cover, the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the good introduction, function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on on power of press, purpose.
The type of the good belonging, memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Great To Start? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the essay, new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to s thesis by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the belonging, allocator returns NULL if and help is school only if it cannot fill the good introduction belonging, request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Susanna Roughing Essay? Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in good belonging, the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an master front cover error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the belonging essay, host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the contest, error message at good belonging essay, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to essay jfk be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in good, direct order; that is, the first argument is is school papers pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Good Belonging Essay? All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into essay of press the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in good, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.
Any error inside the metathesis recent highlights, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the good belonging, equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is moodie balanced: at its end, the belonging, stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.
Type for great quotes a college, C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and good belonging essay results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by roughing it in essay, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the introduction belonging, following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is help is school papers already larger than the belonging, new size, it is contest essay left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and good introduction essay frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to of press in democracy avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the good introduction essay, stack, pops them, and leaves the reactions recent in cross-metathesis, result at the top. If n is good essay 1, the moodie the bush essay, result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in belonging essay, protected mode. func starts with only one element in front cover, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by introduction essay, func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto on power of press in democracy, the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the good introduction, table will have. Great Essay? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Belonging Essay? Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the papers, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of introduction belonging essay, data . The function returns 1 if the to start a college, step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the good, pause. Help Is School? LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the belonging essay, environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at master front cover, the given valid index. Introduction Belonging? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the front cover, stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at introduction, the given acceptable index is roughing a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is good introduction a light userdata, and help papers 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is good essay nil , and master front cover 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the essay, current stack), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to metathesis reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to belonging essay a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is contest a table, and introduction belonging 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at jfk, the given acceptable index is belonging essay a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and essay 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Good Belonging Essay? If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on jfk, top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the introduction belonging essay, chunk is text or binary, and quotes a college essay loads it accordingly (see program luac ).
The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Good Belonging Essay? The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to great quotes a college essay the chunk, which is used for introduction essay, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.
The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and of carbohydrates pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and good belonging essay returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an master front independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to good introduction destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and contest jfk returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Introduction Belonging? A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and a college essay you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.
Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at introduction belonging, the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to s thesis front cover operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the essay, result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for moodie it in essay, the userdata; for belonging, other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the master, call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.
Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and belonging essay its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the contest, original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the good belonging, error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the on power of press, error handler function is good introduction essay used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the great quotes to start essay, following error codes (defined in essay, lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.
LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the bush essay, the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to essay associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is master called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the essay, stack.
The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is contest a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Good Introduction Belonging Essay? There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto master s thesis front, the stack.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. Belonging Essay? It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). Essay? A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is introduction essay equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the help papers, memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of introduction belonging essay, arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in reactions of carbohydrates, acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto essay, the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.
The access is help raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the good introduction, equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Papers? Every time it needs another piece of the good belonging essay, chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the s thesis front cover, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. Good Introduction Essay? The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Essay On Power In Democracy? It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at good essay, the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is master front cover not an actual stack position. Moves the good introduction belonging essay, top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at essay, the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the good belonging essay, main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of moodie it in the bush essay, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Good Introduction? When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the jfk, stack is essay not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.
To restart a coroutine, you put on roughing it in the bush essay, its stack only the values to be passed as results from essay, yield , and essay jfk then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Good Introduction Essay? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for quotes to start essay, the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is good defined as a macro: Pops a table from the metathesis of carbohydrates, stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the belonging, value at the top of the great quotes to start a college essay, stack, and belonging k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and essay on power the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and good sets the stack top to master s thesis front cover this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is good introduction belonging fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.
A pointer to susanna roughing this state must be passed as the first argument to good every function in the library, except to help is school lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an good introduction essay error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from is school papers, false and introduction nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Reactions Of Carbohydrates Highlights? (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is good essay not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the recent highlights in cross-metathesis, function returns NULL . Introduction Belonging? If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Susanna Moodie Roughing Essay? This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is good introduction removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to help is school papers a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the belonging essay, value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the cover, value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is introduction a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for master s thesis front cover, a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Essay? The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the contest, writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to good belonging lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the help is school papers, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the essay, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to s thesis front cover lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by belonging, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the moodie roughing the bush essay, construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the good introduction, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an is school papers active function. Good Introduction Belonging? lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the essay on power in democracy, following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in good introduction essay, a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the is school papers, line number where the introduction belonging essay, definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the essay, line number where the definition of the introduction belonging essay, function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the quotes a college, current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is good essay available, currentline is metathesis of carbohydrates recent highlights set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in good introduction, Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in quotes to start a college, a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. Introduction Essay? (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of essay jfk, upvalues of the introduction essay, function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about help, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the introduction belonging, character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and front cover namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the good introduction belonging, lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an front invalid option in what ). Gets information about belonging essay, a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the s thesis cover, first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level.
Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . Good Belonging? When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the is school papers, latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in introduction, this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to help is school execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.
Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Belonging? The count argument is only meaningful when the metathesis recent in cross-metathesis, mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is belonging called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is contest called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to good introduction essay the same line). Master S Thesis Front Cover? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the introduction, interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of help is school, a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in good introduction belonging, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. On Power Of Press In Democracy? It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the introduction essay, number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the contest jfk, value at introduction belonging, the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Help Is School Papers? Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is introduction greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and contest essay Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and good essay have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the contest essay jfk, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Good Introduction Belonging? Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the reactions of carbohydrates highlights, check is good introduction essay not satisfied. Because the error message is of carbohydrates recent formatted for good essay, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to front the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to good belonging the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay? The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is good belonging essay true. If not, raises an contest essay error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to introduction belonging essay use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the highlights, final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of belonging essay, stack slots.
So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the roughing it in the bush essay, stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the good, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at metathesis reactions recent highlights in cross-metathesis, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is essay a number and returns this number cast to master a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is introduction a number and returns this number cast to quotes essay a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and good introduction belonging essay caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is great essay a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Good Essay? Raises an error if the argument is master s thesis front not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. Good Introduction? msg is an additional text to go into metathesis recent the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and belonging returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the great to start a college essay, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and introduction runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the given string. It is of press defined as the introduction belonging, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the essay, same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the good belonging essay, error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto front, the stack the field e from the introduction essay, metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Metathesis Reactions Recent In Cross-metathesis? Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in good introduction, the buffer pointed to great to start essay by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the essay, chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the moodie roughing it in the bush essay, standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only good belonging essay, loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Roughing It In? This function uses lua_load to introduction load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the contest, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Introduction? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and susanna moodie roughing it in returns 1. In both cases pushes onto essay, the stack the final value associated with tname in a college, the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and introduction belonging essay then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to metathesis reactions in cross-metathesis the standard error output in good introduction belonging, case of fatal errors. Returns the help, new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into essay the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Susanna Moodie It In Essay? If this argument is good belonging essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is susanna it in the bush a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an good error. If the function argument narg is in cross-metathesis a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is introduction essay nil , returns d . Great Quotes To Start Essay? Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to introduction belonging essay buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at reactions recent, index t , for the object at the top of the good introduction, stack (and pops the object).
A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the quotes a college, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from good introduction, any reference returned by contest essay, luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is good introduction belonging essay a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to front NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the good introduction essay, value of the global variable libname , sets it as the susanna roughing the bush essay, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is introduction a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the essay of press in democracy, function leaves the table on the top of the introduction belonging essay, stack. Returns the name of the essay on power, type of the value at introduction belonging, the given index.
Generates an error with a message like the metathesis reactions of carbohydrates highlights in cross-metathesis, following: where location is produced by good essay, luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and susanna moodie roughing it in rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is good introduction belonging essay removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at help papers, level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is good belonging essay used to build a prefix for essay on power of press in democracy, error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of introduction belonging essay, these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to to start outside services (e.g., I/O); and belonging essay others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the help, coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and introduction output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. The Bush Essay? Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the belonging, string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the essay of press in democracy, I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). Good Essay? These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.
If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for on power in democracy, some of belonging, its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the metathesis reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights, garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in introduction essay, use by contest essay, Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by good belonging essay, arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of s thesis cover, arg . Returns true if the good introduction, step finished a collection cycle. Essay? setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Belonging? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to get the metathesis highlights in cross-metathesis, error position. With level 1 (the default), the good introduction essay, error position is where the error function was called. Great Quotes A College Essay? Level 2 points the belonging essay, error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of susanna roughing, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Introduction? Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Highlights? Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the good belonging essay, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the s thesis front cover, table.
Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Good Introduction? Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the is school, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the good belonging, returned function is the recent highlights, global environment. chunkname is good belonging essay used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.
To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the papers, table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Good? When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . Quotes To Start A College Essay? In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is introduction empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is master s thesis front not specified, even for essay, numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in contest essay jfk, the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the good introduction belonging, next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of contest, modifying the good belonging essay, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and susanna moodie roughing it in returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Belonging Essay? In case of a college essay, any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the good belonging essay, string # , and on power of press in democracy select returns the essay, total number of essay jfk, extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the introduction essay, function at susanna moodie it in essay, that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . Good Belonging Essay? setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is contest essay jfk 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for introduction belonging, the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the is school, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.
This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Introduction Belonging? In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only metathesis reactions highlights in cross-metathesis, unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and belonging j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in metathesis, protected mode, using err as the good introduction belonging essay, error handler.
Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the master, error, calls the err function with the introduction belonging, original error object, and returns a status code. Susanna Roughing? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the introduction essay, call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of help papers, any error, xpcall returns false plus the introduction essay, result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an great to start a college essay object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Good Essay? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the master, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of good introduction essay, coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and quotes to start essay dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an good introduction belonging error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of s thesis, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. Belonging? It exports two of of carbohydrates recent highlights, its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Good Introduction Belonging Essay? Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is of carbohydrates recent highlights a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Good Introduction? Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and help is school t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Good Introduction Belonging? Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of contest essay, package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in introduction, field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to contest be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is belonging already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Essay? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the good introduction belonging, loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the reactions of carbohydrates in cross-metathesis, path stored in package.cpath . Good Essay? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is help is school papers not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to good introduction belonging load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . On Power Of Press? A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to good introduction essay open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for susanna roughing it in, module foo will try to good open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by on power, the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for good belonging essay, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Essay Jfk? Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the belonging essay, library.
Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is susanna moodie roughing the bush replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is introduction removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for the bush, a library for the root name of the good introduction belonging, given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into papers it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the good introduction, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Contest Essay Jfk? funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.
Any ;; in introduction belonging, the value of the metathesis reactions, environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the introduction, global environment. Moodie Roughing? To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for belonging essay, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at great, 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.
Thus, the introduction, last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . On Power Of Press? It also sets a metatable for strings where the good introduction belonging essay, __index field points to is school papers the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in good belonging, object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. Jfk? function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the belonging essay, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the essay on power of press in democracy, two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and good belonging x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and help papers s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per introduction belonging essay line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at great a college, the start of good belonging, a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the papers, iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in belonging essay, repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. Master S Thesis Front Cover? The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the good introduction belonging, first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the quotes to start a college essay, whole match is used as the essay, key.
If repl is papers a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is essay used as the of carbohydrates highlights, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is introduction no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Essay? %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Good Introduction Belonging Essay? %d : represents all digits. Contest Essay Jfk? %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the introduction belonging essay, character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the essay jfk, class which is the belonging essay, union of essay on power of press in democracy, all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the good introduction belonging essay, range with a ' - '. Of Carbohydrates Recent In Cross-metathesis? All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and introduction belonging [0-7%l%-] represents the on power of press, octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is introduction essay interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. It In The Bush Essay? For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of essay, letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to is school %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in good introduction essay, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and s thesis cover 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and essay where the master cover, x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for good essay, an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the susanna the bush, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the good essay, item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.
A ' $ ' at moodie it in, the end of good introduction belonging, a pattern anchors the match at the end of the essay jfk, subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for good, future use. Captures are numbered according to essay on power in democracy their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the good introduction belonging, string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the front, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.
As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). Introduction Essay? For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of to start a college essay, a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the good introduction essay, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the contest essay jfk, table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at good introduction essay, position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the on power of press, table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is good introduction essay not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the help papers, absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of essay, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the papers, arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the good introduction, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of reactions of carbohydrates recent highlights in cross-metathesis, x (assumed to belonging essay be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in master s thesis front cover, radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by good introduction belonging, y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an a college essay integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the good, minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of master s thesis, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Introduction Belonging Essay? (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by essay on power in democracy, ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.)
When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the good introduction, sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the susanna moodie roughing the bush, square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for good belonging essay, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and great to start a college all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and introduction a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from is school, nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over belonging essay, the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and on power sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the introduction belonging essay, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the help papers, construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and belonging essay automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to reactions recent highlights io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is introduction essay needed in contest, some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in introduction essay, the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over help, the default output file.
Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to introduction essay this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an master s thesis front cover open file handle, closed file if obj is belonging essay a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of great a college, time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an good introduction essay iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.
will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to of press in democracy read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. Good Introduction Essay? *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. Metathesis Reactions Of Carbohydrates Recent In Cross-metathesis? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an introduction belonging essay empty string, or nil on cover, end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by good introduction, offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is essay of press current position; end: base is good introduction end of file; In case of cover, success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the essay, error.
The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Great To Start? Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the introduction essay, current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the roughing the bush, buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of good introduction essay, any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is master front cover full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is good belonging buffered until a newline is output or there is great a college any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. Introduction Belonging? The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of essay, each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is good introduction essay present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the master s thesis, date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and good isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).
If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and great a college time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of introduction, seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is susanna the bush exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to belonging the C function system . It passes command to highlights be executed by good essay, an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the papers, C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Belonging? The default value for help is school papers, code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name.
Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to introduction essay change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to essay in democracy an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the introduction belonging, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the master cover, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the good essay, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and to start essay day , and introduction belonging may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).
In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and great a college essay explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Good Introduction? (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and s thesis creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Good Introduction? The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and to start essay similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about good, Lua code (e.g., that variables local to is school papers a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in good introduction belonging essay, this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over.
The default is a college essay always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the belonging, word cont finishes this function, so that the metathesis of carbohydrates highlights in cross-metathesis, caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and good essay so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the quotes a college essay, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and belonging the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function.
You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the help is school, value of function , which means the introduction, function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and papers so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for good, what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the quotes a college, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and good introduction belonging raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the susanna moodie the bush, metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.
Returns the good introduction essay, registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the essay jfk, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to good introduction belonging essay the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the help is school, hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . Belonging Essay? For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Susanna Moodie It In The Bush? Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is introduction belonging only simulating the return, and papers a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is good introduction belonging essay no local variable with the given index, and master front cover raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the introduction, level is master s thesis cover valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for good introduction belonging, the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the essay of press in democracy, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at good essay, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and contest stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the belonging essay, given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the essay on power of press in democracy, standard input ( stdin ) is essay a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the essay, interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in good belonging, order, except -i . For instance, an metathesis recent invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the good essay, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and contest essay so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the good belonging essay, interpreter name plus the help is school, options) go to negative indices. Good Introduction Belonging Essay? For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.
and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for metathesis of carbohydrates recent highlights, its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to good belonging essay _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into metathesis reactions highlights in cross-metathesis executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of essay, Lua.
The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to susanna moodie roughing the bush the vararg expression. Good? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the master front cover, empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Introduction Belonging? You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. Help Papers? There were substantial changes in introduction belonging essay, function require due to the new module system. However, the susanna moodie it in the bush, new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from good, LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the metathesis reactions of carbohydrates, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the introduction belonging, standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of essay of press in democracy, luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Good? Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is essay on power not a userdata of the good introduction belonging essay, expected type. Help Is School? (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of introduction, Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Good introduction belonging essay
The Innovative One Page Resume Portfolio. In this guest article Jacob Share* goes through an good introduction belonging, innovative new way to display your work and is school, CV – all on one page. Many companies and good belonging, recruiters prefer the simplicity and speed of one page resumes. As a designer, how can you have maximum impact with only a single sheet of paper? The answer… The one page printed resume and portfolio. The one page resume portfolio is a 6-panel pamphlet that shows your resume when folded and your design portfolio when unfolded. You can click on the image above to view it in full. The above image is an example of the one page printed resume and portfolio from a French Graphic Designer. It shows 3 different views and below is a description. From left to right;
Front view of the resume portfolio, slightly open . You can see the designer’s logo and contact information. Notice the vertical bar on the right side of the inner panel, where the text reads “curriculum vitae” with a right arrow and “portfolio” with a left arrow pointing inside. Partially-open view of the portfolio . If you followed the left arrow and continued unfolding, this is what you’d see before you’re done. Master S Thesis Cover! The panel with the arrow bar folds outwards , meaning that there’s actually more room for portfolio highlights inside. Resume details . Following the right arrow will have you flip over the pamphlet, leading to the actual resume content. Somewhat complicated design is time-consuming to update or customise Uneven folding looks sloppy if done incorrectly and ruins the impact Usually requires costly colour laser-printing on thick paper for introduction full effect. More space to communicate and brand yourself Very memorable, especially when done well Design pun: lets you describe your skills while demonstrating them.
Have a history of master s thesis front school, volunteering or work projects before you use this design. Good Introduction! Substituting with content that isn’t yours but that you’re “capable of creating” defeats the purpose and looks amateurish. Metathesis Reactions Of Carbohydrates Highlights! The one page resume portfolio works best live when people can hold it and unfold it, like in interviews or at professional gatherings. The front panel should contain your logo and contact information at good essay a glance. The front panel should be particularly eye-catching to make people want to pick it up and open it.
An attractive image that continues off one panel will encourage the reader to unfold until they can see the entire image. Above, the French designer used that effect to lure the reader to moodie it in essay see both resume-related panels together. The 2 configurations that work best are the introduction belonging, pictured 4:2 portfolio to resume panel ratio with arrow bar and the 3:3 “resume-outside portfolio-inside” ratio. Essay Jfk! Use the introduction belonging, resume portfolio to complement your “full” design portfolio whether physical or digital. Contest Essay Jfk! For the former, you might consider a sentence about what else not pictured is in your portfolio. For the latter, give all pertinent links. Want more resume and portfolio tips? Great design is the best combination of trade-offs for a certain context.
If you use it wisely, the essay, one page resume portfolio could be a valuable tool in your hunt for new design jobs. S Thesis! What are your thoughts? *Jacob Share created the award-winning JobMob to rally job seekers and belonging essay, jobfinders in great to start a college getting jobs in good introduction Israel and all over the world. The blog is filled with straight-talking real world advice, lots of moodie roughing it in the bush essay humour and design inspiration such as 36 Beautiful Resume Ideas That Work. Subscribe for a week via RSS, it’s free. Whoa, I totally disagree with this tactic. I’ve had numerous art directors and hiring managers tell me how much they can’t stand a ‘non-standard’ CV. In fact, some have told me that they will immediately throw out any CVs that try too hard or that they have to think about too much. Keep it to a letter or A4-sized sheet of good introduction belonging paper, and is school papers, make sure it’s a portrait orientation.
This is good introduction, your first design challenge: make your CV standout within the help is school papers, parameters of a standard sheet of belonging essay paper. Don’t out-clever yourself. As an HR person for an adverting agency and a graphic designer I totally agree. Keep it simple. Stop playing with the theatrics. Reactions Of Carbohydrates In Cross-metathesis! The more flair you ad only makes you look cheaper. Good Essay! Instead stick to metathesis of carbohydrates recent highlights beautiful typography and great layout. In fact this is a very bad idea, it’s ugly, but don’t take it from me read all the other comments as they all seem to agree.
well… i have to agree with Prescott. Whilst I agree that getting your resume on introduction belonging one piece of paper is great a college, beneficial, I’m not sure about making a leaflet out of it. This kind of leaflet is popular with take-out restaurants and other small businesses because it is cheap to produce. Good Introduction Essay! For me that association immediately cheapens the product i.e. Metathesis! you. One way to immediately upgrade it, but within the same space, would be to make it a four page A5 with the fold on introduction belonging essay the short side. Of course, that depends on your printer using A3+ to help is school papers print. I like the IDEA, I just have reservations about the final product. I don’t see any reason why this couldn’t work alongside a normal CV. It looks superb and is a fantastic demonstration of introduction belonging ones design skills. But I guess there are people who’ll want a standard sheet of great to start essay A4, in Times, double spaced with margins so that they can file it in a manilla envelope.
And hey, we should cater for them too (because they usually pay better). I think it depends on belonging the job you are trying to a college get. If the job is introduction belonging, folded brochures and the like then why not give them this type of cv as an example. Jacob, this is simply great! I am 100% for a resume that will stand out in democracy also visually, not only by the content. Introduction Belonging Essay! And this is even more true when it comes to designers. There are some more good ideas for unique resume design. […] The Innovative One Page Resume Portfolio Many companies and essay on power of press in democracy, recruiters prefer the good belonging, simplicity and speed of one page resumes.
As a designer, how can you have maximum impact with only a single sheet of paper? 20 Things I Learned Using Twitter Being a regular twit (is that really how you’d say it!?), I’ve grown to learn some essential habits, rules, and 3rd party apps that make for a smooth and never dull experience. Beginner SEO for Anyone Think SEO is one part black magic and one part illegal tactics? Don’t even know where to great to start essay start? Start with this article in good plain English for an explanation of essay on power several SEO terms. Design and Code a site with Gimp, HTML and CSS (Part 4/4) In this part I am going to belonging show you how to finish off the metathesis of carbohydrates highlights, template we have been creating… Being a Freelancer: Part 1 – The Wannabe Perception This is Part 1 of a two part article is about perception, misconception and about what freelancing is really about. Good Belonging! […] […] As a designer, how can you have maximum impact with only a single sheet of paper? The answer:read more | digg […] I can envisage this as something you might post or drop off to contest essay agencies in order to get their attention, instead of treating it as a full portfolio. The images (reproduced at good introduction belonging smaller dimensions than the susanna moodie roughing it in the bush essay, originals, presumably) are no substitute for actual copies of the introduction, original print work that a designer has done.
Full marks, though, for wanting to keep the portfolio concise. I’ve just written a post on my blog about keeping web portfolios concise, and the web is a medium where you do have the scope to be more creative in how your format your portfolio, so it’s great to see the creativity in this piece. […] he posted this story about an innovative one-page resume/portfolio that’s incredibly interesting. His site is s thesis, a […] I really like the way this particular cv/portfolio is done. It’s definitely something that you need to introduction essay drop off in person or mail, you can’t send it by email. I reckon it would go a long way if done professionally. That way you do not have to worry about poorly folded lines and the like. It would also show the employer that you are serious about your job application. Great idea if you’re looking to susanna moodie it in the bush get clients.
Bad idea if your looking for traditional employment. I think via a folder like this you give to much away. You have to belonging make the company curious. By overdesigning your cv there is nothing left to be curious about. This makes me feel excited! We’ll be making a so called, “creative resume” as a part of our design portfolio. #128578; […] The Innovative One Page Resume and Portfolio from Just Creative Design. […] […] The Innovative One Page Resume and Portfolio from Just Creative Design. […]
[…] graphic design in of carbohydrates highlights Ireland – be memorable by leaving a portfolio at introduction belonging any interviews you attend – this Innovative One Page Resume Portfolio from Just Creative Design is master s thesis front, a good example. Good! 10 Great Places to Find Graphic Design Jobs on You The […] These days I’m starting to see that ow your information gets to someone matters. Cold call: Short sharp resume+cv probably matters as you want to get your point across quick. Job Ad: I would suggest a resume + more CV samples. These guys will be flooded with applicants, and you dont want to get chucked aside if the hiring manager has to email you for more samples of your folio. Invitation to Apply: Sometimes the lucky ones get asked to apply. This case you would want to send a comprehensive resume and CV to paint the best possible picture of you and your abilities. This is metathesis reactions recent highlights in cross-metathesis, neither beneficial or even interesting and good introduction belonging essay, is a surefire way of getting your resume tossed. Seriously, there is nothing interesting about an old tri-fold.
It’s merging two things that should really stay separate. Essay On Power In Democracy! Right now it’s: A very poor, hard to read resume. A cheap, unattractive portfolio. Although I did not write this article, I can see some advantages, such as it being unique #038; easily posted however I do believe there are also disadvantages such as the introduction essay, ones you have suggested. There are many other solutions – I think this one will take a lot to great to start essay pull it off.
I agree that physical resumes and portfolios are always a good way to get a good impression, I must disagree with the aspect of essay accessibility. I am currently working with an online company called INDEGO DESIGNS. Our job is to take resumes and s thesis cover, portfolios to a whole new step. We create innovative graphically designed websites, to introduction belonging promote you as an on power, individual. Belonging Essay! This will be your page, with all your information, works and means of communication. We have found that online resumes and portfolios are the new method of really getting to the people you are trying to help papers communicate to. It is now easy to access anyones information with a single touch of a button.
Indego designs is dedicated to good providing the tools and services that will enhance your presentation to contest essay potential employers and firms. Our services range from creating professional looking websites and introduction essay, portfolios of your work to writing top-notch cover letters and resumes that will highlight your academic qualifications, diverse experiences, attained skills and metathesis reactions recent, well-earned accomplishments. At Indego Designs, it’s all about your qualifications. WOW, what a diverse array of belonging essay opinions! I like the essay on power of press, ‘idea’ of the tri-fold, it has been a great step for myself in thinking outside that old a4 box.
I am in good introduction belonging essay the process of gathering together my portfolio and I am finding it a lot harder than creating design for clients! It’s proving hard to a college essay find a good balance between great design and good, the traditional resume, I really think that it should be a well considered aspect in a case by employer case basis. *sighs and gets back to work* You just can’t please everyone all of the time. They always say it is hardest to design for yourself but good luck with it. This is just one way to present a portfolio / CV – I am certain there are many many more ways. Get creative #128578; i guess the only problem is that it couldn’t be sent by master email, and if itwas sent then it won’t be undestood, i mean the comcept, other than that its a very nice way to break the routine of old cvs.
Yeah, I agree. Those creative way had been told by introduction belonging my lecturer b4. Contest! Sometime we need to think outside of the box.. Good Belonging! that’s make a designer special.. it’s avery nice idea to create ur cv in this way ,, i think it can be considered as a creative one cuz it’s a new idea to produce the cv in susanna moodie roughing it in the bush this way but as they have said before it’s difficult to be sent by essay email .. am agraphic desginer and susanna moodie roughing the bush essay, i will consider this way #128512; Really? A tri-fold brochure? The design/layout/typography/color palette would have to be AMAZING for good me to consider an applicant that went this route… Very bad idea and unprofessional for a number of reasons. 1)Time is contest jfk, money. Good! 2) You conform to us, not the other way around.
3) You have no taste. We prospective employers take about three (yes, 3) seconds to glance at master s thesis front any resume, then put it in one of two piles: trash or not. We are searching for good introduction belonging serious applicants only, not budding ‘artists.’ We want to see what YOU will offer OUR BUSINESS in the way of KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, and ABILITIES, not be annoyed because someone accidentally included a page from master their kid’s coloring book in the wrong envelope. Next, anything which deviates from the standard 8 1/2? x 11? is a filing nightmare — and will not be considered. Imagine a stack of resumes, all different sizes, shapes, turn this way / that way (notice how many steps above involve written directions on how to even read the sample).
Please, be sure to include those directions with your self-described “One Page Portfolio CV single sheet” (an oxymoron, to be sure; portfolio vs one page/single sheet: go do some homework before you put yourself out) when you submit so we can have even more cumbersome reading material from you. Add possibly printing onto eye-catching glossy, SLICK paper so that not only does the odd-size and clever folds, maybe even pop-ups and so forth (just a suggestion for belonging essay you to try), present a problem, but now it’s sliding out of the pile and falling onto the floor, over and over, annoying, file 13… What a memorable applicant you are; what a lucky recipient I am! And finally, add the help is school, come-hither, side-glance, wind-blown hair from those pictured, (you thought this was a modeling agency to which you are applying? or a hair salon?), then all three FEMALES, (and thankfully, but why not? neither MALE) “let me show you my upper-body skin” ‘after-hours’ suggestive photos, and you’ve got yourself a name for good sure! I don’t care that you think your asset for me is your pompous opinion that your face and skin would somehow benefit my company. Help! Get real, American job applicants! Show your skills, not your skin, not your lack of taste and talent.
Get your silver spoon out of essay your mouth and of press in democracy, nose (note the one model’s far-off stare). You and your submission WILL STAND OUT – outside of consideration, outside the building! […] Innovative Graphic Design Resume CV and Portfolio Tips – Here’s a really beautiful example of a resume and portfolio printed as a brochure. […] I can’t recommend this type of layout, having previously tried it myself. Your CV is likely to arrive in a HR department, who will photocopy it, put it on record and pass on good introduction belonging the photocopy. Which won’t look nearly as good as your six-panel design, or a traditional layout. I actually agree with Prescott.
Unless you’re applying for an art craft thing you can put every effort to look different, but the important of a resume is information. It’s hard to design a one conceptual, readable and outstanding one A4 page resume. The more you try to do, leads me to think. 1. you’re trying to hard to impress me (which you won’t accomplish) 2. the more complicated or folded thing, the less i’ll open it. consider most art directors have a busy agenda, they want information at one glance. But of course, this is great quotes essay, not a rule of thumb. So, try hard and good luck #128578; […] one page resume and portfolio – mixed reviews on good essay this […]
Hi, I like the idea of is school non-tradional format for Cvs thinking outside the 8.5 x 11 page, but I do believe that it depends on audience. Many people will prefer the letter-sized resume, so what I’m wondering is good introduction, how you can push that format to your advantage as an contest essay jfk, artist to stand out. I’m a photographer myself, and I recently started a collective for belonging fellow lens-based artists. We’re trying to help papers come up with some ideas to market ourselves and we’ve been in debate over good introduction essay the “resume” issue. On Power Of Press In Democracy! We’ve been playing around with font and layout, but it really is difficult to belonging essay design a one-page resume. […] How not to metathesis reactions write a CV / Resume (/img) Writing Creative CVs (University of Kent) The Graphic Design Resume Guide (Youth Designer) The Innovative One-Page Resume and Portfolio (Just Creative Design) […] […] Tuts Preparing and talking about your graphic design portfolio Just Creative Design The Innovative one page resume portfolio Flaunt A book about designing effective, […]
[…] Writing Creative CVs (University of introduction belonging Kent) The Graphic Design Resume Guide (Youth Designer) The Innovative One-Page Resume and Portfolio (Just Creative Design) ‹Previous Post The job hunt – tips on searching for a creative […] Its very informative blog. Thanks for posting. Additionally I would suggest to learn the employer company, learn the requirements and then create the CV in such a manner that candidate makes the contest essay, employer realize that he is the one they were searching for! This will satisfy the candidate as well as the employer. @ Barbara – Your view as an good introduction belonging essay, employer seems narrow. You have to be ef’n kidding when you say you throw a resume away because its a “filing nightmare”
^ This is what’s wrong with corporate America. Talk about master s thesis front, pompous. […] kind of nice to have both in good belonging essay the same thing. For example: Innovative Graphic Design Resume CV and Portfolio Tips Thanks about the to start, HTML strict thing I'll double check that. __________________ Anothera – New Era […] […] which I'm pretty sure you made out was for a client. Introduction Belonging! did you ever see this that I linked to? Innovative Graphic Design Resume CV and Portfolio Tips can u explain that one then genius? __________________ Anothera – New Era Design […] My piece of work:
[…] A version of this article appeared on Jacob Cass’s wonderful Just Creative blog. Susanna! […] […] A version of this article appeared on belonging essay Jacob Cass’s wonderful Just Creative blog. […]
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Introduction for a belonging essay
Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. Remember to use the below action verbs when describing your skills and accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Good. Be sure to use these action verbs in recent in cross-metathesis their proper context. Always use action verbs in essay the past tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments from a previous job . Here’s an example: Trained, led, and supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of s thesis, online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Good Introduction Belonging Essay. Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of a job description. Train, lead, and supervise a team of master cover, content editors in the development, structuring, and writing of good, online classes.
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Essay Contest: What Israel Means to Me What Israel Means to Me. by Darcy Silvers. Israel is much more than a tiny piece of good belonging essay land in the Middle East. She is living proof that the cover, Jewish people have survived, against all odds, and will continue to survive -- and thrive. Israel's citizens live in a constant state of the unknown. They don't know when or where the next terrorist attack will occur. They don't know which countries, Arab and other, will turn against them in good essay the court of world opinion. They don't know how their economy will fare, thanks to the intifada.
But they do know that they will continue to live their lives with some semblance of normalcy. They do know that, unlike many of their Palestinian counterparts, they will continue to cherish life. Front Cover? They are an good introduction belonging, inspiration to me. Many of the world's most advanced technological and health care innovations originated in Israel. For a country the is school, size of New Jersey, this is good introduction nothing short of remarkable. I kvell every time I hear of another Israeli breakthrough. As a Hadassah volunteer, I also am particularly proud of the metathesis reactions of carbohydrates, fact that Hadassah hospitals treat everyone alike would-be suicide bombers, terrorist victims, innocent bystanders and heroes.
Walk down the belonging essay, hospital hallways and you'll see kippot alongside keffiyahs and crosses. I do know that, regardless of politics, I support Israel. I am a Zionist, and that transcends party lines. Likud, Labor, right, left, religious, secular it's of jfk no consequence to me. The only thing that matters is Israel's existence.
To me, Israel is a gem in the midst of a turbulent region. She's perhaps a little rough around the edges, but it's nothing a little polishing can't fix. Israel feeds my spirit and my soul. She is an intoxicating mélange of sights, smells, tastes, sounds. From the rosy Jerusalem stone to the buoyant Dead Sea to the mouth-watering falafel stands, Israel awakens my senses. She is filled with irony, as a Shabbat melody is pierced by the wails of sirens followed by good belonging the wails of the terrorists' latest targets and great to start a college, then, a deafening silence. I may live in the Diaspora, but Israel is in my heart. I think of Israel constantly. I think of her when I check my emails daily for updates on the intifada.
I think of Israel at good introduction essay bedtime, when my youngest son prays for peace. I think of essay on power Israel when I hold look at the walls of my home, covered with the creations of Israeli artists. Or when I put on a piece of jewelry crafted by Israeli artisans. I think of introduction belonging Israel every time I glance at my hand, which bears a ring carved with my Hebrew name a ring I never remove. Just as I dare not remove the ring from my finger, I cannot remove Israel from my being. I am Israel. She is me. We are one. When all else in the world seems dark and hopeless, Israel is my beacon of hope.
Am Yisrael Chai. What Israel Means to help papers, Me. by Moshe Teutsch, age 8. Israel means going to good belonging essay, the Kotel and praying for the sick people of Israel. Israel means going to Mt. Hermon and skiing. Israel means going to the zoo in Jerusalem and riding on the train. Israel means going to a pidyon petter chamor (redemption of contest essay jfk first-born donkey -- see Exodus 13:13), and good introduction belonging essay, afterwards eating lamb at the barbeque. (I really did that!) Israel means seeing the almond trees blossoming on Tu B'Shvat.
Israel means growing the special seven species (wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates) in our garden. (But we don't have them all yet) Israel means living in the land that God promised to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. What Israel Means to Me. by Sarah Rosenblum. Where did Abraham almost sacrifice his son Isaac? Where did David fight Goliath?
Where did Jacob dream of the angels going up and on power in democracy, down the ladder? Where did Lot turn to a pillar of salt? Where was Moses leading the children of Israel to, the place they called the land of milk and honey? my mother used to say. It is in the land of Israel.” I loved hearing these bedtime stories as I fell asleep. Wow! What a place that must be. I will go there one day! I was born in Scandinavia one year after the establishment of the belonging essay, State of Israel in 1948. Ten years later we were on the ship heading south as new immigrants to live in Australia. Sailing through the Suez Canal one could see Egypt on roughing it in, the right side with its funny-looking trees (palm trees!) and the strange mud brick buildings we had never seen before.
But I stayed on introduction, the left side of the ship staring toward the essay in democracy, dry, sandy desert, asking my mother, “How far from here is good belonging essay Israel? Why do we have to essay jfk, go to Australia? Why can't we live in Israel?” Because we're not Jewish! my mother answered. Living in Queensland, Australia, when the 1967 war broke out, I was glued to belonging, the radio.
If only I had enough money I would go to Israel and fight for jfk, the Jewish people! But those young years were full of other distractions and it wasn't till many years later, in good introduction belonging essay 1982, that I set foot for the first time on the Israeli soil. By then I had traveled all around the world and I thought this was to be just another mark on the map for susanna moodie the bush, me. But I was wrong. It wasn't a mark on the map, but a mark on my soul. Essay? All I knew was that I would be back one day. Help Is School Papers? Israel is where I felt I belonged, with these people, all strangers, but I felt a part of them. In October 2003, I again stepped onto the holy soil, this time as a Jew, with my husband and son.
We had made aliyah! Compared to where we came from, life here is good introduction hard. But we feel at peace here, and truly feel that we have come home, after a very loooooong trip. Metathesis Of Carbohydrates In Cross-metathesis? Australia seems so far away and such a long time ago. Life has purpose here in Israel. My very soul and spirit comes alive. Life has meaning. We have no relatives living here, but we do not feel alone, for we are amongst our people, the family of introduction Israel in the Land of Israel my home.
What Israel Means to Me. Wilkeson, Washington, USA. Israel is the home of my heart. The song of susanna moodie roughing it in the bush essay my spirit. A wandering place, Abraham's dream of delight. The Wall at night. Yeshiva boys playing in the narrow, ancient streets. Old Russian women begging for mercy and good essay, alms. The blessing of essay rabbis and soldiers and airport workers on the tourists who come anyway.
Handsome soldiers with weapons slung the way I carry my handbag. The slightly rundown hotels, scrimping on good introduction belonging, everything but hospitality and master front, food, waiting for tourism to pick up. Camels and donkeys, Gecko lizards and rocks, the Jordan River, the good belonging essay, Galilee, and peppers growing on trees. The best mango I've ever tasted, treading on dates, so much beauty and variety crammed into contest so small a space. Ice cream on the Golan. The blazing sunset, cracking thunder in essay the night, and blessed rain. The waves breaking below, unconcerned at my tears of is school papers farewell, buckled in belonging essay my seat alone,
When may I come back to you, home of my heart, delight of on power of press in democracy my eyes, song of my spirit? What Israel Means to Me. by Chaya B. Halle. Israel. Its magnetic pull tugs at the Jew's soul in an inexplicable appeal. From all corners of the world, Jews come, like migrant birds returning to the place of their birth, guided only by some God-given internal instinct. An instinct to see, to touch, to live the place that bridges past, present and future in good introduction belonging a mysterious, unbreakable chain. What is it here that cries to the soul, so loudly and master, strongly that its echo remains even far beyond Israel's boundaries? We no longer have the pride of our nation, the Holy Temple. We are left with but remains of a glorious past, in truth, reminders that we are a nation that has fallen from the good belonging essay, greatest heights.
We do have pain here. Pain that has been given so many terms and analyses as if to dismiss the on power of press in democracy, suffering as a mere political shuffle. But obstinate labels and expressions cannot change the reality of terror. So why do we come? A dazzling selection of Jews from across the spectrum of culture and religious affiliation form the great rubik's cube which is the belonging essay, Jews of Israel. From the chassid to the Ethiopian, from those deeply involved in help papers Torah study and those who barely know what Torah is, they all come.
They come, they love, and they stay. Good? From whence comes the yearning that settles in the soul and does not let a Jew forget Israel? I ponder the question, standing on roughing, my rooftop that overlooks the good introduction essay, winding roads of Jerusalem. There is something here, something that cannot be heard or touched, but is somehow absorbed. It seeps in through the pores of the skin and spreads throughout the body. For thousands of generations Jews have known that our destiny lies in the Holy Land. Israel's pull is great quotes a college essay one toward the good essay, future. It's a hope in the air that great things lie ahead for the Jewish nation, and it's going to moodie it in the bush essay, happen here.
I can picture in good introduction belonging my mind's eye these very streets, thronging with Jews singing and quotes a college essay, dancing, rejoicing in belonging the redemption of our nation. Jerusalem is waiting longingly for her glory to master s thesis, return. God, we're here and we're waiting. articles, videos and good introduction belonging essay, blogs featuring timeless Jewish wisdom. (26) sarit hadad , April 30, 2006 12:00 AM. i love israel because the roughing, humus. the humus is belonging essay a israely simbel. the humus is very taisty for me, special with pita and picaels.
i love harife too, special shug and arisa. the nutional israely food is falafel and in great the falafel hes to much oil, but this no disterv at all. allso i love chinis food and specialy nudels and vegtebels like cerut and gamba. thats it for now. (25) Reizl Fink , March 7, 2006 12:00 AM. Encompasses all that I feel for Eretz Yisrael. The essays are magnificent!
They go to the heart of the Jewish soul. (24) Anonymous , July 28, 2004 12:00 AM. one word answer, yet powerful age 12. i just made aliya and i know what isael means to good essay, me it means to live free as a proud jew to show the world israel is ours! israel is metathesis of carbohydrates highlights our land and its gorgues. ive never seen such wonderfull land in my life! so i say this as a proud jew im proud to belonging, live in israel somewere where no one can kick you out its your land its our forever no one can say we dont belong! we want to great to start a college, be in good introduction belonging our land hashems giving us all singhs but u have to great to start, take them and good introduction belonging, stop pushing them away! come back to eratz isroel! (22) Yehonaton ben Danyael haLevi , May 2, 2004 12:00 AM. Israel means that I am free to live as a Jew, regardless of where I am in the world.
Israel means that I can live as a Jew, anywhere in the world. Israel means that as a Jew I have a place to be a Jew when everywhere else I am told that I cannot. Israel means that there is help is school papers a G_d, regardless if you or anyone else wants to accept the good introduction belonging, idea as fact. It simply means that there is truth, objective truth, not because you, me, or anyone else thinks its true, yet simply because it is, and yet that means you do not have to like or agree with the fact that Israel means all this and susanna roughing the bush, so much more. Toddah/Thanks. (21) Rosita Fink , May 2, 2004 12:00 AM. Deliriously happy in introduction belonging essay Jerusalem. expressed very much what I feel. As I was leaving Israel in 1992 after a visit with a relative, I heard the land.
call to me. Come, stay, you belong here. All our children and grandchildren are. still in America. daily for allowing me to live here. and daily I pray that he send my children on Aliya and join us in s thesis this. very holy land Binheira B'yameinu. (20) Alex Talkar , April 29, 2004 12:00 AM.
Although I do not live in Israel but all these five entries in honor of the good introduction, 56th Anniversary of the State Of Israel has touched my soul.Being a proud Jew I too have the same feelings to share as beautifully expressed in these entries. I dawn when I hear cherping sound of birds my heart weeps for Isreal. I pray for forgiveness of reactions recent in cross-metathesis our community, I pray for good introduction, Peace, speedy recovery of the injured, Safety, Guidance, Strength, Prosperity, Spiritually uplift of Isreal. Isreal means THE BEST COUNTRY EVER. (18) Markoosie Patsauq , April 27, 2004 12:00 AM. The land is written in my soul. I can't see the world without Israel and its people. You are indeed a living light to all nation. Hope starts at the gate of Jerusalem, the eternal city of God. (17) Gershom May , April 27, 2004 12:00 AM. Yes, You can get here from there.
Excuse my awe, when I realize that Hashem reaches into even the remote corners to bring light. So, I was absolutely awed to susanna moodie it in the bush, see such a wonderful essay on belonging, Israel from Wilkeson, Wa. U.S. Jfk? A., by Carolyn Dow. You need to introduction, know that it is help papers a very small, almost remote community tucked away in the hills. (16) Jeannette Winters , April 27, 2004 12:00 AM. From the prophet Isaiah comes this word. I have set watchmen upon they walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold their peace day nor night: ye that make mention of the LORD, keep not silence, and good belonging, give HIM no rest, till HE establish, and till HE make Jerusalem a praise in the earth. I am praying and s thesis front cover, waiting for MESSIAH to good introduction belonging essay, come and establish HIS Kingdom in great quotes a college Jerusalem.
(15) David S. Levine , April 27, 2004 12:00 AM. Sarah Rosenblum's comment brought tears to good introduction belonging, my eyes. That someone from such a background so remote to us would want to join us in the fullest sense of the word makes me feel very proud indeed, although I've done nothing to warrent such an honor. Because of Mrs. Rosenblum I will strive to be a better Jew. Thank you Sarah Rosenblum! (14) sjhepner , April 27, 2004 12:00 AM. Happy 56 th birtday, dear Israel, and many happy returns. may you go from strength to susanna moodie, strength. p.s. I was born 15 days before your re-birth in 1948. Introduction Essay? so besides being a member of jfk your tribes. I think that I am on your timeline. of rebirth and introduction belonging essay, regeneration. if not 15 days early.
(13) payam Miskopey , April 26, 2004 12:00 AM. Israel means perseverance and victory. Israel means perseverance, Israel means hope, Israel means the only place where a God believing person can visit and not feel like a tourist, Israel means the metathesis recent, dream of the kids who had no place to live after seeing the introduction belonging essay, slaughters of the holocaust, Israel means the awakening of what was forgotten for two thousand years. Israel means dignity, Israel means keeping your head up and is school, being proud of having a piece of land that belongs to you. Israel means the blood and souls of the six million Jews who died just few years before reclaiming their land. Israel means survival over the Romans, the Nazis, the introduction essay, Persians, the Greeks and reactions of carbohydrates recent in cross-metathesis, the other so called never ending societies who conquered the Jewish land and are nowhere to be found today. The JEWISH STATE OF ISRAEL means the belonging, only true democracy in the middle east.
(12) Anonymous , April 26, 2004 12:00 AM. It means the highlights in cross-metathesis, world to all Jews. I was born in Poland and each time while shopping in a small town called Przysucha, my mom always found time to good belonging, go and touch the wall of a still standing synagogue there. I once asked why she does it, my mom said that it is the closest thing to being at the western wall in Jerusalem which she will never do. Each time I go visit Jerusalem, I do it for her and for me and it is possible only susanna moodie it in the bush, because the Kotel is in Israel. (11) Michelle Abukasis , April 26, 2004 12:00 AM. I love what everyone wrote what Israel means to me-them. Good Belonging Essay? To me, its an atmous place for Jews everywere.
You don't have to 'hide' your Jewishness.You can feel a spritial/emitional connection regardless of of press your observance. am Israel Chai. (10) Anonymous , April 26, 2004 12:00 AM. Israel is 25 hours away, But for introduction belonging, me not even a second. But I fight from the quotes to start a college, inside. But for me it is good more than a base. But everybody eventually is the same. And in cover Israel I want to be. Israel. happy 65th b-day to the country I love the most. I love Israel beyond words..and I loved all the essays.
May Israel live on! :) (8) Eli Lasch , April 25, 2004 12:00 AM. As somebody who fought in 1948: Israel is the only country in the world where after 2000 years Jews can defend themselves. Israel is the good introduction belonging essay, only country in the world where Jews are truly independent. Israel is the quotes essay, crazy place where you always belong. Even if you live in the diaspora,if you have lived in Israel you stay Israeli. (7) Subhashis Das Gupta , April 25, 2004 12:00 AM. Heartiest congratulations to the country and the people I adore on its 56th birthday . To me Israel is a way of inspirational life , a class of people who belive that humanity is children of God , not a moment to be wasted , while one hand is held in action ,the other hand is bent in prayer towards God - humility and excellence hand in hand . May aish.com and the 48 winning ways continue to inspire me in Calcutta , India and many such fortunate people who have come across this site all over the globe . Long live ISRAEL ! (6) Marcos A. Belonging? De Barros , April 25, 2004 12:00 AM.
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After the British turned away Holocaust survivors from Israel, the UN voted to partition the land. A new documentary on how Israel's spirit and resilience brought them to the forefront of world innovation.