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Marketing – luxury branded products. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR (TPB) This theory tries to predict human behaviour. In the late 1970s, Fishbein and Ajzen developed a model of paragraph for persuasive behavioral intentions based on their theory of how to an essay reasoned action (Marcoux and Shope, 1997). Paragraph Starters! Ajzen in 1988 developed the Theory of Planned Behaviour and it was developed as a result of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Knabe, 2012). The theory is based on the assumption that human beings are able to reason when they carry out any action and make use of the information available to them in an orderly manner to in marketing essay carry out the action. They take into account available information and indirectly or openly consider the repercussions of their actions (Ajzen, 2005 in Bisquolm, 2010).
TPB predicts that individual’s actions towards situations are planned and deliberate. The theory has been used successfully by several other researchers to predict behaviours and also intentions towards drinking, pre-marital sex, smoking, drug abuse etc. TPB considers the fact that all behaviours are not under conscious choice and that behaviours are continuous and extend from total control to a complete lack of control (Morisky, 2002). The author further added that the for persuasive essays control factors include internal factors (skills, abilities, information, and emotions) and also external factors (skills, abilities, information, and career in marketing essay emotions). The theory suggests that behaviour is affected by for persuasive behavioral intentions which, in turn, are affected by attitudes toward the introductory essay on composition act and by paragraph for persuasive essays subjective norm (Chiou, 1998) .The TPB as it relates to intentions comprises of three determinants, they include; attitudes toward behavior which is personal in nature, subjective norms which reflects social influence, and perceived behavioral control reflects social pressure (Morisky, 2002; Bisquolm, 2010)
THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR. Image retrieved from Knabe (2012) Kobbeltvedt and Wolff (2009) defines attitudes as “the individual’s evaluation of whether performing the behaviour is either positive or negative, thus a valence-based subjective evaluation”. In other words it refers to an individual’s view of articles a particular behaviour. Paragraph Starters! The individual may view the behaviour or act as being good or bad depending on the perception of such individual. Attitudes towards a particular behaviour can be direct or indirect; a direct attitude towards buying a counterfeit brand may be the consumers’ overall assessment about whether it is worth paying for introductory essay koch, while an paragraph starters for persuasive, indirect attitude involves how strongly the consumer believes a peripheral outcome will occur as a result of performing the behaviour, coupled with an assessment of that outcome. Novel Research! For example, a consumer might believe he/she would gain social recognition if he/she is starters using a particular counterfeit luxury brand even if it is not original. How To An Essay! (Chang, 2015)
A subjective norm involves the for persuasive essays people that are around you especially what you think they think about a particular behaviour and how strongly they think it (Chang, 2015). In essence, the individual performs behaviours based on what the significant people to the individual prescribe. Knabe (2012) also says that “subjective norms refer to what individuals believe other key people in of the year essay contest their lives think about whether or not the paragraph starters individual should perform the behavior”. For example a consumer might have the intention to invest in purchasing the an essay original Chanel bag but a friend insists that the individual should buy look- alike since it is cheaper. Perceived behavioural control refers to the extent to which an individual perceives a particular behaviour as easy or difficult to perform, taking into account their personal resources (abilities, skills, and knowledge) and situational variables (obstacles and paragraph essays opportunities) (Ajzen Madden, 1986 in Kylea, Whiteb1, Hydec and Occhipinti, 2014). Chiou (1998) stated that “the theory of planned behavior proposes that perceived behavioral control of the important person in a decision making situation may affect his/her behavioral intentions”. In other words it refers to the extent to which individuals feel they can involve in particular behaviors. Perceived behavioral control includes two main sides which include; it depends on the way individuals see themselves as adequately knowledgeable, skillful, disciplined, and able to perform some act, called internal control.
It has a connection with the idea of self-efficacy and also it depends on the extent to which individuals feel that other factors, such as the cooperation of colleagues, resources, or time constraints, could inhibit or facilitate the behavior, called external control (Kraft, Rise, Sutton, Roysamb, 2005 in Moss, 2008). RELEVANCE TO THE STUDY. There is an incessant increase in the production and purchase of counterfeit brands in the market of Nigeria today such that causes erosion of the brand equity of the original luxury brand. This theory can be used to explain the reason why consumers purchase counterfeits. Essays! It reveals that the act is behaviour and it is deliberate and planned. Consumers do not just go to essays the market to purchase for nothing but rather they go on a purpose which could the prompted on the need to fulfill a desire, the need for social recognition or the need to reflect one’s personality. The theory suggests that, before a purchase is being made consumers are able to how to write reason and make use of the information they have to carry out paragraph essays their actions. Purchasing counterfeits is based on consumers intentions which is paper usually affected by consumers attitudes of starters essays whether purchasing the counterfeit in the presence of the original luxury brand is good or bad based on probably the price or past experience. Finally, TPB explains how reference groups are important for influencing the purchase of counterfeits or original luxury brands and also how the purchase of either of both brands depends on knowledge and information coupled with resources or capital.
On the other people that live in the highbrow areas might see the how to need to own an original luxury brand to show their social status and the counterfeit would not be an option for them when a purchase decision is paragraph starters essays made, because the chaucer essays people that reside in such vicinity might not include a counterfeit brand when they make purchases. 2.2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE. 2.2.1 Brands and paragraph starters for persuasive Counterfeit Luxury Branded Products. A brand is a product, service or concept that is publicly distinguished from other product, service or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed (Chacharkar, 2013). A brand, in the words of Stone and Desmond (2007:92) refers to, “a product which has been effectively differentiated from others and which has been provided with a form of personality which resonates with its target audience”. On Composition Koch! In simpler terms, a brand differentiates a company from other companies and has features that are in starters for persuasive line with its target audience.
Counterfeits can be said to be products that are dishonestly made to look like the genuine product but typically lower in career essay quality in terms of starters essays performance, reliability or durability (Lai and introductory koch Zaichkowsky, 1999 in Wilcox, Kim, and Sen, 2009). Paragraph Starters! The Anti-Counterfeiting Group defines counterfeiting as “the deliberate attempt to deceive consumers by copying and marketing goods bearing well known trademarks, generally together with packaging and product configuration, so that they look like they are made by novel a reputable manufacturer when they are, in fact, inferior copies.” (Hoe, Hogg, and Hart, 2003). Some these counterfeits are made to look just exactly as the original while others are made to look similar to the original but carry the brand name as the paragraph starters original or a brand name that sounds similar the original. Mirror Plath! For example a particular PRADA counterfeit has the brand name PVADA and has the same design of the original bag. The issue of counterfeiting has become the order of the day as manufacturers involve in for persuasive essays the production of fake goods in order to an essay take advantage of the profit that would be derived.
Counterfeit usually come in lower quality of the original because its manufacturers make use of inferior materials in the production. The OECD records that, counterfeiting represents 5 to 7% of the world trade (200 to 300 billion of Euros) and paragraph also caused the chaucer essays articles loss of paragraph essays 200 000 jobs across the world (European Commission in father of the year essay Maman, 2008). The existence of these counterfeits has caused a lot of companies’ downfall because they cause damage to starters the brand image which in chaucer essays articles turn affects their market. A good number of luxury goods are being counterfeited these days, goods like clothing, perfumes, accessories, leather goods, wines etc. Starters For Persuasive Essays! The most common form of counterfeit is counterfeit luxury branded products which involves the production of novel paper replicas of original luxury branded products and then sold at low prices (Phau et. al., 2009 and Wilcox et al. in Lu, 2013). In Lu (2013) it was observed that the counterfeit luxury branded products is associated with and possibly generates loyalty to counterfeit products because its owners were found out to paragraph starters for persuasive have favourable attitude towards the counterfeit.
Some of these counterfeits actually offer satisfaction to its users because they actually come cheaper and they can be recognised as individuals that can afford to chaucer essays articles own a branded product. Some consumers prefer to change looks frequently and feel that purchasing an original luxury brand limits that desire and paragraph essays prefer to purchase a counterfeit that offers similar benefits and mirror comes cheaper such that they can switch brands anytime they like or get tired of the product they previously tried. Counterfeit brands are usually associated with mass production because unlike the original luxury brand that is produced seasonally or quarterly, the for persuasive counterfeits are usually produced in large amount frequently. There are two types of counterfeit purchasing according to (Haider, 2008), which includes deceptive and non-deceptive counterfeiting. 126.96.36.199 Deceptive and Non-Deceptive Counterfeiting. It is chaucer true that counterfeits are made to convince consumers that they have bought the original. However, this is not the case for all counterfeit brands. During the purchase of products consumers may or may not know that they are participating in an unlawful act of starters essays purchase. Counterfeiting comes in two forms, when the consumer is not aware that he/ she is buying a fake he becomes a victim of counterfeiting, we can deduce that he is engaging in ‘deceptive counterfeiting’ (Maman, 2008).
In other words that individual has been deceived into a wrong purchase. On the other hand, when consumers are aware of the origin and are informed that the product is an inferior quality, they are engaging in ‘non-deceptive counterfeiting’ (Cademan, Henriksson, and Nyqvist, 2012) which is the main focus of this research work. The consumers can often distinguish between the essay contest counterfeit and the genuine brand especially on the basis of differences in paragraph starters price, the distribution channels and the inferior quality of the product itself (Nia and Zaichkowsky, 2000 in Wilcox et. al., 2009). Career In Marketing Essay! Non deceptive counterfeit brands could generate great satisfaction for essays, consumers who have limited budget and on composition do not necessarily see counterfeits as inferior goods (Cordell et. Essays! al., 1996 and leibowitz 2005 in Lu, 2013) 2.2.2 Original Luxury Branded Products. Luxury itself has been defined in several ways. Hennigs, Wiedmann, Klarmann and Behrens (2013) define original luxury as “a promise of decadence and a dream of an exclusive lifestyle, a key component of marketing management and a tagline in commercials and advertising campaigns”.
The authors’ further mention that to some consumers, original luxury represents materialistic traits and superficial possessions while others see it as deeper values, excellent craftsmanship and a country’s identity. The word luxury defines “beauty”, when linked with brand it could be regarded as “images in the minds of consumers that comprise associations about a high level of price, quality, aesthetics, rarity, extraordinariness and a high degree of non-functional associations”, (Heine, 2012) The concept of the original luxury brand usually comes from the paper mind of its originator usually driven by a vision (Triandewi and Tjiptono, 2013). The authors further added that “individuals consume luxury goods because of their desire to differentiate themselves by either being part of their reference group, or to separate themselves from other groups preferably to become part of a higher social class”, this is probably the reason why they are the prime targets of counterfeit brand owners because of their popularity amongst consumers. For Persuasive! Dubois, Laurent and Czellar (2001) in Stegemann (2006) proposed a definition of the nature and on composition characteristics of the concept of luxury, and identified six sides which are excellent quality, very high price, scarcity and uniqueness, aesthetics and polysensuality, ancestral heritage and personal history, and superfluousness. In spite of the economic recession, the demand for luxury branded products worldwide has not diminished and is still strong even in the presence of counterfeits as consumers are willing to pay more to associate with the benefits of luxury branded products (Jung and Shen, 2011 in Lu, 2013). 2.2.3 Original Luxury Fashion Brands. Fashion products in for persuasive general, comes in essays various forms such as apparels (jackets, coats, t-shirts, trousers, skirts and dresses), accessories (bags, purses, wallets, and watches) and for persuasive jewelries (necklaces, earrings, rings etc.). Novel Research! The original luxury fashion brands are those that are directly manufactured from the manufacturers of Michael Kors, Louis Vuitton, Nike, Prada HM, Nike, Zara, Gucci, Hermes, Cartier, Addidas etc. They are usually the target of counterfeit brands because of starters for persuasive its uniqueness, exceptionality and essay on the poem mirror plath its ability to yield profit. According to Gould and DeBord (2015), the world’s top 10 brands that are worth a whopping $121.74 billion include Louis Vuitton, HM, Nike, Zara, Gucci, Hermes, Cartier, and Addidas, Prada, and Tiffany Co., they worth the sums of $22.55, $21.08, $19.86, $12.13, $10.39, $8.98, $7.45, $7.38, $5.98, $5.94 Billion respectively.
They are usually uniquely made from the paragraph for persuasive essays creativity of its originators. Original luxury brands are made in a way that makes its users stand out from their peers because of the chaucer quality materials used in the production and also the price at which it is sold for. A lot of counterfeit brands are found in starters this sector because they are widely used by a lot of individual on essay a daily basis. Consumers like to look good so purchases of fashion good are made regularly. 2.2.4 Comparative Analysis between Counterfeit and Luxury Brands. Image retrieved from starters essays http://www.lollipuff.com. There is an obvious difference between counterfeit and luxury brands. Although the essay on the mirror counterfeit brand makers have become smarter to make the counterfeit of the original look almost like the original brands, consumers find it difficult to starters differentiate but loyal luxury brand consumers are able to detect one when they see it, but some other consumers fall victim of their act. Investing in the purchase of a luxury brand earns a lifetime guarantee for example the original Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton etc. but when you invest in essays buying the paragraph starters for persuasive essays fake, you are not investing in how to write of application anything because you cannot resell it and when it starts wearing off you become at a loss (Gurfein, 2015).
In other words luxury brands do not wear off easily unlike the counterfeit brand that would start peeling after three months or even lesser. Original luxury brands would always make use real leather that would have irregular texture with subtle leather scent unlike the counterfeit that usually has a consistent pattern of paragraph essays pores that would have a strong chemical smell (Patkar, 2013). The author further mentioned that the novel paper logos of original luxury brands are usually perfect and bold unlike the counterfeit that would be faint and inconsistent. For clothing, the paragraph starters for persuasive stitches for the original are usually neat while the stitches on counterfeits are rough. Original luxury brands usually expensive while the prices of counterfeits are usually too good to be true because they are usually outrageously cheap, for example an original luxury brand that should originally be sold for 200,000 naira having its counterfeit sold for 1000 naira. The spellings on the label of counterfeits are sometimes wrong, for example PVADA instead of PRADA. Finally, the packaging of original luxury brands are usually exclusive and of high quality while that of the essays counterfeits are carelessly packed using low quality (Patkar, 2013; Mahalo, 2015)
2.2.5 Consumers’ Perception of Counterfeit Brands and Luxury Brands. Perception basically concerns peoples feeling about something. It refers to “our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of paragraph starters for persuasive essays environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli” (Cherry, 2015). Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, hear, smell and taste. Therefore consumer’s perception can be defined as “a marketing concept that encompasses a customer’s impression, awareness and/or consciousness about a company or its offerings” (Business Dictionary.com)
People react to brands differently because they perceive the attributes differently and novel form attitudes based on their perception of the brand. Even the same individual may perceive the same brand differently at different times (Masterson and Pickton, 2004). Consumers evaluate directly product attributes based on physical elements such as tasty, smell and size while others use variable such as place of origin, type of for persuasive essays distribution channel, price, packaging the manufacturer and among others (Agyekum, Haifeng, Agyeiwaa, 2015). Consumers’ perceptions are always different because individuals are not created the same way. Consumers who are more concerned with the shame of using fakes will be less willing to purchase them (Vida, 2007). In other words, consumers who feel embarrassed when using counterfeits are less likely to be attracted to year contest counterfeits. Essays! The theory of planned behaviours reinforcement of the importance of subjective norm is very important here because reference groups especially the paper consumers peers help to influence consumers purchase intentions. Wiedmann, Hennigs, Siebels (2007) observed that “it is for persuasive expected that different sets of consumers would have different perceptions of the luxury value for the same brands, and that the overall luxury value of a brand would integrate these perceptions from different perspectives”. In essence, consumers of luxury products do not view luxury brands the same way, their perception varies from introductory essay koch consumer to consumer.
A product that is perceived as luxury to one individual might not be to another individual. Literatures have indicated that Consumers’ perception of counterfeit brands might be that they would not be accorded the necessary respect when they use such brands so they would rather make use of the original luxury brand just for the respect and recognition and vice versa while consumers perception of luxury brand is that it give them a feeling of paragraph prestige and it showcases their social status. 2.2.6 Price of Counterfeit Brands and Consumers’ Perception of on the poem mirror by sylvia Original Luxury Brands. In order to essays discuss how counterfeit brands affect consumers’ perception of original luxury brand, it is important to note that price is one of the essay koch concerns. Price as a concept can be defined as money charged for paragraph starters for persuasive essays, a product or service (Masterson and novel research Pickton, 2004). There is no doubt that counterfeits offers price advantage which attracts some consumers but this in turn has a great influence on paragraph for persuasive essays the way consumers view luxury brands. Consumers feel that they cannot afford to buy original luxury brand because they are too expensive and are not affected by low quality and poor materials because they do not see counterfeits as inferior choices (Ergin, 2010). An Essay Of Application! In other words consumers would rather buy the paragraph starters for persuasive essays counterfeit especially because of budget restrictions even if the products do not have premium quality. Counterfeit products usually with low prices often made with expensive materials which increase their value especially through their packaging and quality makes it difficult for people to write an essay of application distinguish the paragraph starters essays counterfeited product from the introductory koch original one (Yaqub, Ahmed, Nasir, Sharif and starters essays Javaid, 2015), this is why some consumers prefer to pay lesser for write, a counterfeit when they feel they are also buying quality. As a result of the above, the consumption of original luxury brands is usually on the decrease. Starters For Persuasive! However, those that know quality would still purchase the quality irrespective of the father of the year essay contest winners price.
2.2.7 Availability of Counterfeit Brands and Consumers’ View of Original Luxury Brands. The availability of counterfeit brands in the market has increased to an alarming rate such that it can be found just anywhere thereby devaluing the essence of limiting the access to essays original luxury brands. The originators of original luxury brands limit the introductory essay access to the brands just to create a scene whereby the consumers who cannot afford the expensive brand can envy the ones who can. This is starters for persuasive no longer the case as consumers have abundant opportunities to purchase the counterfeit luxury brands since these brands can be easily found in local markets and chaucer articles high street shops scattered across most urban cities in paragraph starters essays the country (Ergin, 2010). Counterfeits are easily accessible which makes it easier for consumers to get whatever they need at first instance with ease, this is because they are illegally brought into the country and are then sold in several places like the road side, local markets etc. unlike the original luxury brands that are found in selected classy stores. When these goods that are supposed to be scarce are found everywhere, consumers might not see the essay koch need to purchase the paragraph starters original luxury brand since they have been provided another option that is readily available. 2.2.8 Improved Quality of Counterfeit Brand and Consumers’ Opinion of Original Luxury Brands. The quality of counterfeit brands has improved greatly such that makes it difficult for consumers to paper differentiate between counterfeits and the original. Counterfeiters try their best to attract consumers with the help of paragraph for persuasive new manufacturing technology which has now been out-sourced and how to an essay new technology such as high quality equipment’s has helped to increase the sophistication of counterfeit products (Yao, 2006)
Consumers now have the option to have a good quality product even if it is paragraph not the original luxury brand and career they also have the option to get good quality at a lower price. This improved quality has the tendency to starters essays affect the sales of luxury brands because some consumers would rather go for good quality at low price rather than better quality at chaucer, high price. 2.2.9 Personal Gratification from essays Counterfeits and Consumers’ Perception of Original Luxury Brands. Gratification simply means satisfaction, pleasure; fulfillment etc. How To Write An Essay Of Application! form this we can say that, personal gratification is linked to the need for paragraph starters essays, a sense of accomplishment, appreciation, and a craving to enjoy the essay on composition koch finer things in paragraph starters for persuasive essays life (Basu, Basu and Lee, 2015). The authors went further to say that if a consumer believes that buying product is a means of introductory personal gratification, self-representation and status, the consumer is likely to starters hold an unfavorable attitude toward the behavior of buying a counterfeit. Consumers believe that whether they wear or carry a counterfeit or an original brand they can be recognised as using a branded product and that those who purchase the counterfeit brand end up getting just the reputation of the koch original brand without paying for it (Penz and Stottinger 2005 in Ergin, 2010). Similarly, Ergin (2010) stated that Consumers who buy counterfeit brands just want to paragraph starters for persuasive demonstrate that they can afford branded goods and also show that they belong to a particular social group, or to use the product for symbolic self-extension. Maslow’s hierarchy of need also states that consumers usually have “the need to feel a sense of accomplishment and gain recognition, status, and respect from others” (Belch and Belch, 2003: 109) Conclusively, it is safe to say that status consciousness, the need for social recognition and high self-image positively affect purchase intention and perception of original luxury brands because genuine products convey the image of wealth, high social standing and affluence (Wee, Tan and Cheok, 1995 in Ergin, 2010) 2.2.10 Past Purchase of how to write Counterfeits and Consumers’ Perception of starters for persuasive Original Luxury Brands. When consumers have previously purchased a counterfeit product and felt no discomfort or uneasiness they are likely going to want to try it again or another type of counterfeit because they are possibly going to research paper depend on paragraph their past experience with the by sylvia plath product.
This reliability may diminish after a while after probably exposure to an original brand. This past purchase experience goes a long way in affecting consumers’ opinion of the original luxury brand. Yoo and Lee (2009) explains that past purchase of counterfeit brands is supposed to result in paragraph for persuasive purchasing a counterfeit again while the past purchasers of original luxury brands would also buy the original over and over career essay again. If this is paragraph starters essays true of past purchase of counterfeits, it means that consumers who buy counterfeits would remain loyal and might not have any interest in luxury brands which in turn has the tendency to affect their perception of the real brand. 2.2.11 Brand Equity vs. Counterfeit and Original Luxury Brand. It has been previously discussed that counterfeit brands has an influence on how to write consumer’s perception of luxury brands. A brand can go a long way in making or breaking a company’s reputation which they have invested so much in starters essays maintaining.
In order to measure consumers perception of luxury brand one approach is to measure the brand equity from the customer’s perspective (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993 in father of the Cademan, Henriksson, and Nyqvist, 2012). Brand equity refers to the added value that a certain brand name gives to paragraph starters a product in novel research paper the market place (Boone and Kurtz, 2005). Starters For Persuasive! The authors further add that brands that have high equity are more liable to have financial advantage over competitors because they command large market share and essays articles consumers may pay little attention to differences in prices. Brand equity can be seen from two perspectives, which are the marketers and customers perspective (Peter and Olson, 2005) From the customer’s perspective, brand equity is the added value bestowed on the product by paragraph the brand name (Schiffman and father year contest Kanuk, 1997) while from marketers perspective, brand equity suggests greater profits, more cash flow and greater market share (Peter and Olson, 2005). For the purpose of this research brand equity will be examined from the customers’ point of view. Brand equity from customer’s perspective also called customer-based brand equity can be defined as “the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand” (Keller, 1993:p.8 in paragraph starters essays Cademan et. al., 2012). According to the European institute for chaucer essays, brand management (2009) Aaker’s brand equity model identifies five brand equity components which consist of for persuasive Brand loyalty, Brand awareness, Perceived quality, Brand association and other proprietary assets.
Four of them can be viewed from the customer’s perspective but the last item of father of the other proprietary assets cannot be included in customer based perspective brand equity (Washburn and starters for persuasive essays Plank, 2002 in Cademan et. al., 2012) because it contains trademarks and patents which is not from customers’ perception. Image retrieved from Crescitelli E. and Figueiredo B. J. (2009) 188.8.131.52 Brand Awareness. Brand awareness refers to “the ability of target consumers knowing about a brand and calling it to mind when thinking about the product category” (Bearden, Ingram and LaForge, 2004). Consumers’ counterfeit luxury branded product consumption increases when they have less awareness of the original luxury branded product, which makes them have favourable attitude towards counterfeits ( Lu, 2013). In other words, when consumers are fully aware of a particular brand they are more likely to purchase that brand instead of the brand they do not know about. 184.108.40.206 Perceived Quality.
Perceived quality is one of the most important aspects of of the year essay winners brand equity and it refers to the extent to which a brand is able to provide products with good quality (European institute for essays, brand management, 2009). It has great influence on the performance of a brand in the market in the presence of its competitors. Career In Marketing Essay! When a company is able to include quality in paragraph essays the production of its product it is assumed that they would make more profit than the company who does otherwise. A brand with greater quality is more likely to be preferred by consumers than the essay brand with a lower quality. 220.127.116.11 Brand Association. Brand association is anything which is deep seated in customer’s mind about the brand (Management Study Guide, 2015). The author further explained that “brand associations are not benefits, but are images and symbols associated with a brand or a brand benefit”.
Consumers will often ask for a product by the specific brand name rather than the essays general name of the product category (AllBusiness.com). For example consumers could go into paper a store to request for a Rolex wristwatch rather than going to request for a wristwatch. Brand association can come from the paragraph qualities of product or service, from symbols, not just logos but symbols like people (Steve Jobs, Richard Branson), things like the Coke bottle, Trump Tower or Mickey Mouse ears, there can also be association with the time of the year or an occasion (Thoranna, 2015). On Composition! The higher the association with luxury brands the lower the likelihood of consuming counterfeit brands (Lu, 2013) 18.104.22.168 Brand Loyalty. Brand loyalty occurs when a consumer repeatedly purchases a product produced a particular by a particular company instead of buying that same product from a competitor (Grimsley, 2015). Similarly, it refers to consumers’ constantly choose the luxury brand over the counterfeit brand of vice versa.
The brand name, packaging, brand identification, price promotion and channel of distribution could prompt consumers to paragraph for persuasive repeatedly purchase a particular brand (Peter and Olson, 2005). The more brands loyal a customer is for a brand and the more brands loyal these consumers are, the higher the brand equity or the career in marketing essay value of the brand in the market (Bearden et. al., 2004). Among all these dimensions of brand equity, brand association and perceived quality are the paragraph starters essays most important when discussing about the influence of counterfeit brands on consumers’ perception of luxury brands. This is because brand loyalty mainly focuses on existing consumers’ rather than the prospective customers and brand awareness talks about a consumer knowing the essay winners brand and not how they perceive the brand. 2.2.12 Influence Counterfeits on paragraph essays Luxury Brands. Counterfeiting has a great influence on luxury brands because it is quite sad to invest so much on developing your product just to find out that it has been copied or stolen as the career in marketing case may be. Starters! According to chaucer Basheer and for persuasive Loizides (2014) “Counterfeiters undermine this investment, and research paper as such, the paragraph starters for persuasive essays legitimate interests of the brand owner”. In the case where counterfeit brands are being sold like they are original, the brand being copied risks losing its luxury status, and also revenue and essay market share. Consumers might unknowingly purchase a brand thinking they have purchased an original product that would last them for a long while, but unfortunately didn’t meet up to expectation due to lack of quality as a result of the use of an inferior product in the cause of production. For Persuasive Essays! Such individual might attribute the lack of quality to the original brand itself leading to the loss of a potential customer (Basheer and Loizides, 2014).
The major targets of luxury brand owners are consumers who like to chaucer articles show off their social status as though they are the one who can afford to buy very expensive brands but the existence of paragraph for persuasive essays counterfeits in the market has change this idea. Consumers who do not have the chaucer capital to own genuine brands can now fulfill their desire to have those brands by buying the paragraph starters essays counterfeit which have made it possible for anybody regardless of the social class to own a luxury brand (Wilcox et. Father Year Essay Contest Winners! al., 2009; Wiedmann et. al., 2012 in Cademan et. al., 2012). Literatures have also observed that counterfeits may reduce the attractiveness of original luxury branded products and harm the brand in terms of consumer confidence. The nature of a luxury brand is to be limited in paragraph starters for persuasive distribution i.e. it is essay on the mirror by sylvia plath not meant to be found just anywhere but the existence ant counterfeits this is no longer the case as branded product can be found anywhere now a days. For example, markets like the for persuasive popular Balogun market in chaucer essays Lagos is a typical example of where a lot of counterfeit luxury brands are found in essays almost all stores. Most of the on the mirror plath products carry the luxury brand labels on them and paragraph starters for persuasive essays are displayed on the floor or in shops. Although, counterfeits could help original brand improve brand awareness because luxury brands are very expensive for majority of customers and just consumed by a small proportion population (Muller Kocher, 2006 in UKessays, 2015). Essay On The Poem Mirror By Sylvia! In other words, because of the spread of paragraph essays counterfeits in different place consumers are able t have it in their mind that such brand exist. For example a consumer is aware of the fact that a Michael Kors brand exist because of the presence of its counterfeit in career in marketing essay the market. Counterfeits can help to paragraph starters advertise the luxury brand such that some counterfeit buyers can advance to the original product and others who have never bought counterfeit but has come across the brand as a result of the display of counterfeits become buyers of original brands (Raustiala and Spirgman, 2012)
It is evident that the influence could be both positive and an essay negative but mostly more of negative. This testifies that counterfeits have impacts on its counterpart which is the paragraph starters original brand. 2.2.13 Strategies to an essay Curb Counterfeiting by starters essays Luxury Brand Owners. Luxury brand owners in their own little way can help to stop the spread of counterfeit product from thriving in the market. Career In Marketing Essay! They suffer so many losses as a result of the sales of lower quality of the original which reduce their profit. The International Trademark Association (ITA) (2015) provides several legal, technological and business steps to prevent counterfeiting.
They include: 1) Original luxury brand owners should ensure that they register their trademarks in countries where they sell, manufacture, and ship or store products. 2) They should also record their trademarks with the national customs where possible. 3) They should monitor and carry out audits on their company’s supply chains. 4) They should add authentication devices to genuine products. 5) They should set up a corporate brand protection program and also train employees about anti-counterfeiting measures.
6) They should monitor brick-and-mortar and online stores. 7) They should take legal action in civil court when needed. 8) They should also provide training for local law enforcement personnel on their company’s brand protection program. Assisting and supporting law enforcement in the seizure of starters for persuasive essays counterfeit goods and the arrest and prosecution of counterfeiters. Brand owners should also work closely with legitimate online and brick-and-mortar retailers to prevent inadvertent sales of counterfeit products.
By taking these actions provided by ITA changes can be made in the market of luxury goods and father of the year contest winners the value attached to the goods can be protected in the extinction of counterfeits. Similarly, Manufacturers and for persuasive essays wholesalers should make sure that they regularly check the IDs of the companies they do business, and avoid trading with scandalous firms or those that have been known to sell counterfeits (Lewis, 2009). Of The Essay Contest! The author further mentioned that manufacturers of luxury brands can also try to inform consumers on different ways to essays identify original and counterfeit goods. 2.2.14 Contribution of Government and Agencies to Curb Counterfeiting. The authorities in power such as the how to of application government in Nigeria have a great role to play in helping the originators of intellectual property save their rights by eliminating the issue of counterfeiting. Government should ensure that they follow the following measures as provided by for persuasive the International Trademark Association (ITA) (2015) which includes; 1. Governments should ensure that they develop calculation methods that lead to fines against counterfeiters proportionate to the harms caused by them; and impose sanctions, such as contempt of court, for failure of counterfeiters to on the poem mirror pay such fines. 2. Governments should ensure that they establish prohibitory regimes against exports of starters for persuasive essays counterfeits; eliminate bond requirements imposed on trademark owners as a condition to on the poem by sylvia processing counterfeiting cases by starters essays customs; and take appropriate steps to essay on composition reduce or eliminate the burdens on trademark owners of suffering costs of storage and destruction of counterfeit goods. 3. Paragraph Starters! Governments should also ensure that they take appropriate steps to novel paper ensure that all counterfeit goods are compulsorily destroyed, definitively removed from channels of commerce, or disposed of with the rights holders’ consent where there is no health or safety risk. 4. Governments should amend their trademark laws to allow courts to award significant statutory (or “pre-established”) damages against counterfeiters in recognition of situations where it is paragraph starters for persuasive essays difficult for the trademark owners to prove their measurable monetary damage.
5. In regions where counterfeiting poses serious challenges, governments should establish specialized intellectual property crimes investigation and prosecution units within their law enforcement and prosecution structures, respectively. 6. Governments should also allocate sufficient resources towards training judges and customs officials, and of application ensure the paragraph starters for persuasive submission of litigated trademark cases to judges specializing in or having substantial experience in trademark matters. 7. Governments should revise their rules and procedures to provide prompt and reasonable access by trademark owners to research relevant documents and starters for persuasive essays information gathered by chaucer essays governments on counterfeiters for the trademark owners’ use in conducting private investigations or the filing of complaints to the courts or other government agencies. 8. Governments should not consider administrative enforcement to be sufficient to satisfy their obligations under Article 61 of the TRIPS Agreement to paragraph for persuasive essays provide access to criminal enforcement in counterfeiting cases on novel paper a commercial scale, nor should administrative proceedings be considered as a substitute for starters for persuasive, criminal enforcement of how to write intellectual property rights. 9. In order to ensure that trademark owners have sufficient time to commence a proper action pursuant to a seizure/suspension of clearance by customs authorities so that instances of counterfeits being released by the customs authorities can be eliminated, the governments should provide in paragraph for persuasive their laws a time period of at least 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is novel research paper longer, to trademark owners to commence such action.
If these measures are being adhered to counterfeiters would not have the paragraph for persuasive essays opportunity to thrive in the market of fashion brands in Nigeria. 2.2.15 Efforts to be taken by Consumers to Curb Counterfeiting. In order to curb the problem of of the counterfeiting from the consumers side, it is starters for persuasive essays important for consumers to cultivate the habit of chaucer essays resisting the temptation to purchase counterfeits. Although there are some consumers who do not know that they are purchasing a fake product but many consumers who purchase counterfeits know that it is fake and purchase the product just to feel among or just because it comes cheaper than the paragraph essays original and many more reasons. Of The Year Winners! Lewis (2009)’s response to such consumers is that “these consumers need to be aware that their actions could harm consumers, businesses, and society, and could also encourage organized crime and paragraph starters for persuasive essays terrorist activities”. Consumers should also try to know the paper characteristics of substandard products. For Persuasive Essays! One of which is that they come cheaper than the by sylvia plath original brand. For example a Hermes bag that should sell for about 100,000 naira and more is sighted in the market and sold for as low as 5,000 naira should be suspected to be a counterfeit. Starters Essays! Another example could be the material being used, or difference in logo, a slight change in the name etc. Essay Plath! All these characteristics should be known in for persuasive essays order to avoid purchase. Consumers should also avoid purchasing goods from suspicious dealers (Lewis, 2009).
When consumers sight dealers such as the ones that are probably selling branded goods on the road side or when buying from an in marketing essay, online platform and coming across an expensive brand that is sold at a very cheap price. Consumers can help by paragraph starters essays informing the producer or law enforcement of their suspicions (Lewis 2009). Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Marketing essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of an essay expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Marketing work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Marketing essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
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Word Resume templates are those kinds of resume templates which are provided or presented to you in paragraph starters essays the Microsoft Word Resume formats . These types of Resume templates are extremely useful because with them, you don’t need to chaucer essays articles go through the essays, hassle of converting the format to any other format for professional use or printing.As all the resume samples can be easily customized, users will have no problems revising the articles, format and paragraph for persuasive essays alignment of the novel research paper, templates if they feel the requirement to starters do so. Research? If every aspect is in place already, users just have to input the necessary information and starters essays send the resume to how to of application the hiring manager/employer. Word Resume templates are complete with the entire outline structure and most of the content that makes way for a powerful resume in a matter of just a few minutes. Paragraph? Word Resume templates are easy to mirror find or spot on the internet and can be downloaded for further use. On downloading, you obtain a Word file with the resume template printed on it. So go on, download a Word resume template today for paragraph starters for persuasive essays moving closer to your dream job. Now this is a very basic question that we are going to answer. Cover letters have the very basic, formal MS Word resume format that is followed by essays articles, all official letters as well.
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In this type of resume qualification, skills, achievements and other qualities are listed before work details. The work details are recorded in order as per experience and all the categories or blocks need really detailed content. These are also known as traditional resumes and include more content than any other basic type. This type of an essay resume focuses mainly on work details. Starters Essays? The work details are recorded in order such that the most recent one is father essay listed on the top. This format focuses basically on starters, short and precise content. You can say that is quite opposite of functional resumes which are very traditional. Highlighted titles, bullet points and short summaries are specific to this kind of resumes. It is very necessary to understand the kind of resumes preferred by the establishment that you want to work for. Many companies and organizations like schools and colleges prefer employees who submit a detailed functional resume with thorough explanations of everything. Other establishments might want you to submit a rather modern resume with small precise content under smart highlighted subheadings.
Thus understanding the preference of the novel, organization that you would like to paragraph essays work for is utterly important and. Writing a resume can be a very time consuming task and do not worry if it takes hours. On The Poem Mirror By Sylvia? Just stick to your goal. This is the first and foremost step. Then try to gather as much content as possible and make sure that there is essays no in it. It is possible that your interviewers will cross-check all the information and verify all the details before recruiting you, so there is on composition koch no scope for any mistake.
You might be inquired and questioned on the projects or experiences that you have gathered and worked with. So make sure to revise and test your knowledge before including them in your resume. There are several resume writing guidebooks available in for persuasive the market that might help you. Remember to research on the reviews and father of the contest winners ratings before buying such books. Also your can simply search for fresher resume format download in paragraph for persuasive MS Word or simple resume format download in MS Word. Organize the contents in a proper order. Start it with your personal details like name, age, sex, etc. then go for essays qualifications and academic details or work experiences, based on the type of format that you would like to follow. (Various curriculum viate format download in MS word are already discussed above) This is a well known and discussed topic that a resume needs to starters for persuasive essays be very engaging. Its ability to grasp your recruiter’s attention and of application make a good impression is really necessary to make your resume land on paragraph for persuasive, the desk rather than an unwanted pile on files and papers.
Things to novel paper remember while going for resume templates in word available online Printable resume templates provide the schema with proper spaces for content to be added. Essays? There are so many templates available in word format that it gets really difficult to choose a perfect one. A wise decision is to go a template that includes sample content. Samples and examples can help you get an idea on the content as well as understanding the context of professional resumes. Most resume format word file available for free download so make sure not to waste money with the articles, idea of starters for persuasive getting a better option. On The By Sylvia? In most cases the money quotient is attached with resumes just to paragraph starters essays increase their market value and father of the year contest a free resume will serve the purpose equally well. You may just Google and find that there are so many free downloadable resume formats in Microsoft Word available and wonder why you should even go for templates while making your resume ! Now this makes sense because ultimately you have to gather all the information related to every field and place them properly in the template which only has the paragraph for persuasive, related headings and novel research paper subheadings. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive? Moreover there are so many resume templates Microsoft Word to choose from that it is really difficult to land on that one link which will actually work for you. On the other hand downloading resume format templates can save you a lot of how to an essay of application time if you find one which is well structured.When you scout the Internet for resume samples you will find that most of them are in paragraph starters essays MS Word format – and for good reason. Formatting or reformatting template in MS Word is far easier and quicker. In case you also want to articles apply some out-f-the box changes in a template, MS Word is quite welcoming and flexible.
Another simple way of paragraph starters for persuasive essays making a resume without considering downloadable templates is to use various free resume builders available online. Novel Paper? These are really quick and easy to use. If you are a fresher then, using resume builders is starters for persuasive essays a more viable choice than using any MS Word resume example or template. Father Of The Contest? You can Google your way to find good resume builder . Resume builders basically analyze your situation step by step and ask you to enter details for given blocks providing some good examples and suggestions. Paragraph Starters Essays? These are highly customizable.
You can also upload your already created Bio data form in research MS Word and edit it using these. Another useful feature of for persuasive these resume builders is that you can view and choose from various resume formats in word all at the same platform without having to go through too many links.
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about courage essay WHAT IS COURAGE? Do you remember the last time when you showed courage? Courage is often a measure of our self-esteem and will. Courage is what makes us individuals different from others. It shows in what we believe and starters the power of belief over our will.
It is always the difficult path. Introductory. It could be an unconscious act of boldness, but before all it is the conscious decision of a person to act despite the paragraph, danger. Thus, courage is always related to belief, will, and danger. There is no courage whitout risk. There is research paper no heroism without stakes.
We cannot speak about courage without thinking about losses and starters for persuasive victories. Courage differs from research paper, imprudence or madness by its results. The courageous act saves lives, gives hope, it is a rare act of self-scrifice for paragraph the good of others. The criminal who steals, or lies for personal gain, or kills, who causes unhappiness to of the year contest winners, others with his reckless actions, is starters essays not a courageous person. William Ian Miller, a professor at the University of write an essay of application Michigan Law School and starters for persuasive essays specialist of Icelandic sagas, medieval history, emotions, vices, and virtues, published recently The Mystery of Courage (Harvard University Press). In Danger, Death, and. Dieting? , an article that appeared in The In Character magazine, Miller makes a short resume of his book. Courage was a great subject for the ancient Greeks, writes Miller. Athenians were proud that their courage is natural and voluntary in contrast with those of of the essay winners their enemies, the Spartans, who according to Pericles, were forced to be courageous through extensive training and painful discipline. Spartans, on the other hand, were prone to give a prize to the most courageous and prident of their warriors.
Courage lacking prudence was less esteemed among the Spartans. Evidence for this was Aristodemus, one of their warriors, who didn't receive the prize because of his rashly heroism in the battle of for persuasive essays Plataea (479 BC). Miller says that courage was also politics for the ancient Greeks; there were standards of courage, for citizens and for warriors, that measured their level of heroism. Courage was so important for the Greeks that national self-esteem depended on it. Courage is still used for political inspiration. Politicians and leaders all over the world call for courage; nations and groups pride themselves with the courage they show. People still care intensely about courage- says Miller - and we're still trying to stack the father essay contest winners, deck in our own favor. Determining who has courage, what actions count, who gets the prize, is starters essays disputed now no less than in the Iliad. In our day we hear people praised for their courage for sticking to a diet, for giving up smoking, even for investing in essay on the mirror by sylvia, a Silicon Valley start-up.
Courage is often discussed among the philosophers. Plato, for for persuasive example, explained that courage is not only an act of resistence aginst fear and pain, it is also the ability to control your desires. For Plato, the research, Stoics, and the early Christians, courage was closely related to self-control. Describing the paragraph, courageous Socrates in his Dialogues , Plato showed that the true philosopher is a courageous person. Socrates demonstrated that man should respect the law and should be ready to give his life for the truth. (Miller however says that some of the braver people he has met do not happen to be in humanities departments or law schools.) Miller argues that the stricter view of courage gets its classical formulation from Aristotle, who makes courage a matter of risking life and limb in chaucer essays, war for the polis. The martial view is easily the dominant view, informing heroic literature and paragraph starters songs of triumph from Ur to Ugarit, to Judea and Nineveh, to the Germanic North. Career Essay. Indeed, it is starters for persuasive essays pretty nearly a universal view of courage. Miller finds two basic conceptions on courage: the courage as offence and the courage as defense. The courage of offense was and remained the preserve of men and, by widespread ideology across a multitude of cultures, upper-class men. The courage of on composition defense, though by obvious necessity and by definition, was no less at home on paragraph essays the battlefield than the courage of father of the winners offense. Consider that a good portion of ancient and starters for persuasive essays medieval warfare was siege warfare.
More than anything it involved the ability to endure long, drawn-out suffering, pain, and hunger, and the constant importuning visions of eating your children, or being eaten by them. Perhaps from the courage of defense comes the idolization of martyrdom. The courage of defense, martyr-like fortitude, began to dominate on the battlefield, says Miller and gives us the examples of mechanized war, the trenches, the mud, cold, filth, and death that the soldiers had to endure. There are many theories and tales about the courage, but as Abner Small, a Civil War veteran, wrote (cited by Miller): men were heroes or cowards in spite of themselves. Miller finishes his essay discussing moral courage. Moral courage, he writes, is a rather recent development; the term does not appear in English until the nineteenth century. It took a largely pacified society for people to think to distinguish stand-up-in-meeting kind of novel research courage - the courage of risking ridicule, humiliation, loss of employment, or social ostracism for speaking out against injustice, or of defying immoral or illegal orders from a superior - from plain old courage.
The thing that distinguishes moral courage from all other forms of courage, and this seems the most interesting point of Miller's ideas on the subject, is that it is usually a lonely courage . To fight injustice or overcome difficulties alone, without the support of paragraph heroic tales and examples, of sermons, public opinion and friends, needs a courage that only a few are capable of.
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cmu resume Scurit sociale : loi de financement 2014. Assemble nationale - 1 re lecture. La Commission saisie au fond a nomm MM. Starters Essays! Grard Bapt rapporteur (Recettes et quilibre gnral) le 5 juin 2013, Christian Paul rapporteur (Assurance maladie) le 5 juin 2013, Mme Martine Pinville rapporteur (Secteur mdico-social) le 5 juin 2013, MM. Articles! Michel Issindou rapporteur (Assurance vieillesse) le 5 juin 2013, Laurent Marcangeli rapporteur (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) le 5 juin 2013 et Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau rapporteur (Famille) le 5 juin 2013. Examen du texte au cours de la runion du 15 octobre 2013 17 heures. Examen du texte au cours de la runion du 15 octobre 2013 21 heures. Examen du texte au cours de la runion du 16 octobre 2013 9 heures. Examen du texte au cours de la runion du 16 octobre 2013 16 heures 30. Rapport n° 1470 dpos le 17 octobre 2013 : Tome I de M. Paragraph Starters Essays! Grard Bapt (Recettes et quilibre gnral) - recettes et quilibre gnral (mis en ligne le 18 octobre 2013 22 heures 45)
Tome II de M. Father Essay Contest Winners! Christian Paul (Assurance maladie) - assurance maladie (mis en ligne le 19 octobre 2013 18 heures) Tome III de Mme Martine Pinville (Secteur mdico-social) - mdico-social (mis en ligne le 19 octobre 2013 16 heures 33) Tome IV de M. Paragraph Starters Essays! Michel Issindou (Assurance vieillesse) - assurance vieillesse (mis en ligne le 18 octobre 2013 18 heures 15) Tome V de M. Father Year Essay Contest Winners! Laurent Marcangeli (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) - accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles (mis en ligne le 19 octobre 2013 17 heures 48) Tome VI de Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau (Famille) - famille (mis en ligne le 19 octobre 2013 15 heures 35) Tome VII de MM. Paragraph Essays! Grard Bapt (Recettes et quilibre gnral), Christian Paul (Assurance maladie), Mme Martine Pinville (Secteur mdico-social), MM. In Marketing Essay! Michel Issindou (Assurance vieillesse), Laurent Marcangeli (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) et Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau (Famille) - tableau comparatif (mis en ligne le 18 octobre 2013 15 heures 30) La Commission saisie pour avis a nomm Mme Valrie Rabault rapporteur pour avis le 11 juin 2013. Scrutin public n° 0678 sur l'ensemble du projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014 au cours de la 1 re sance du mardi 29 octobre 2013. Snat - 1 re lecture.
Projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale, adopt par l'Assemble nationale, pour 2014, n° 117, dpos le 5 novembre 2013. et renvoy la commission des affaires sociales. La commission des finances s'est saisie pour avis. La Commission saisie au fond a nomm MM. Paragraph For Persuasive Essays! Yves Daudigny rapporteur le 3 juillet 2013, Georges Labaze rapporteur le 3 juillet 2013, Mmes Isabelle Pasquet rapporteure le 3 juillet 2013, Christiane Demonts rapporteure le 3 juillet 2013 et M. Of Application! Jean-Pierre Godefroy rapporteur le 3 juillet 2013. Rapport n° 126 dpos le 6 novembre 2013 : Tome I de M. Paragraph Essays! Yves Daudigny - Equilibres financiers gnraux. Tome VI de M. Career In Marketing Essay! Jean-Pierre Godefroy - Accidents du travail et maladies professionnelles. La Commission saisie pour avis a nomm M. For Persuasive! Jean-Pierre Caffet rapporteur pour avis le 18 septembre 2013. Avis n° 127 dpos le 6 novembre 2013 par M. Career In Marketing! Jean-Pierre Caffet.
Projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014, rejet en 1 re lecture par le Snat le 14 novembre 2013 , TA n° 30. Commission Mixte Paritaire (Dsaccord) Convocation d'une commission mixte paritaire. La Commission Mixte Paritaire a nomm MM. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive Essays! Yves Daudigny rapporteur le 18 novembre 2013 et Grard Bapt rapporteur le 18 novembre 2013.
Rapport dpos le 18 novembre 2013 par M. Essay! Grard Bapt rapporteur, mis en ligne le 19 novembre 2013 12 heures 30, sous le n° 1557 l'Assemble nationale et par M. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive! Yves Daudigny rapporteur, sous le n° 150 au Snat. Assemble nationale - Nouvelle lecture. Projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale, adopt par l'Assemble nationale, pour 2014 et qui a fait l'objet d'un vote de rejet, par le Snat, au cours de sa sance du 14/11/2013, n° 1552, dpos le 14 novembre 2013 (mis en ligne le 19 novembre 2013 11 heures 45). Travaux des commissions. Examen du texte au cours de la runion du 20 novembre 2013 9 heures.
Rapport n° 1564 dpos le 20 novembre 2013 (mis en ligne le 22 novembre 2013 18 heures 55) par MM. Career! Grard Bapt (Recettes et quilibre gnral), Christian Paul (Assurance maladie), Mme Martine Pinville (Secteur mdico-social), MM. For Persuasive! Michel Issindou (Assurance vieillesse), Laurent Marcangeli (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) et Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau (Famille) Scrutin public n° 0725 sur l'ensemble du projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014 (nouvelle lecture). Research Paper! au cours de la 1 re sance du mardi 26 novembre 2013. Snat - Nouvelle lecture. Projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale, adopt par l'Assemble nationale, en nouvelle lecture, pour 2014, n° 170, dpos le 26 novembre 2013. et renvoy la commission des affaires sociales. Rapport n° 171 dpos le 26 novembre 2013 par M. Essays! Yves Daudigny. Projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014, rejet en Nouvelle lecture par le Snat le 28 novembre 2013 , TA n° 41.
Assemble nationale - Lecture dfinitive. Texte soumis l'examen de l'Assemble nationale, en lecture dfinitive, pour 2014, adopt en Nouvelle lecture par l'Assemble nationale, le 26 novembre 2013, TA n° 244. Rapport n° 1594 dpos le 2 dcembre 2013 (mis en ligne le 2 dcembre 2013 17 heures 30) par MM. On The Mirror Plath! Grard Bapt (Recettes et quilibre gnral), Christian Paul (Assurance maladie), Mme Martine Pinville (Secteur mdico-social), MM. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive Essays! Michel Issindou (Assurance vieillesse), Laurent Marcangeli (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) et Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau (Famille) Scrutin public n° 0736 sur le projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014 (lecture dfinitive). Poem Plath! au cours de la 2 e sance du mardi 3 dcembre 2013. Saisine du Conseil constitutionnel le 4 dcembre 2013 par plus de soixante snateurs, en application de l'article 61 alina 2 de la Constitution. Saisine du Conseil constitutionnel le 5 dcembre 2013 par plus de soixante dputs, en application de l'article 61 alina 2 de la Constitution. Dcision n° 682 DC du 19 dcembre 2013. Paragraph For Persuasive! [sur le site du conseil constitutionnel]
Extrait du compte rendu du Conseil des ministres du 09/10/13. La ministre des affaires sociales et de la sant et le ministre dlgu auprs du ministre de l'conomie et des finances, charg du budget, ont prsent le projet de loi de financement de la scurit sociale pour 2014. •prs de 2,5 milliards d'euros, en limitant 2,4 % la progression de l'ONDAM ; •800 millions d'euros du fait du dcalage de la date de revalorisation des pensions (hors minimum vieillesse) dans le cadre de la rforme des retraites ; •200 millions d'euros dans le cadre de la rforme des prestations familiales ; •500 millions d'euros d'conomies de gestion des organismes de scurit sociale. Des ressources seront galement apportes en 2014 la scurit sociale. How To Write Of Application! Il s'agit de la hausse des cotisations vieillesse prvue dans le cadre de la rforme des retraites ainsi que des mesures proposes en projet de loi de finances dans le cadre de la rforme des prestations familiales et de la gnralisation des complmentaires sant, dont le rendement sera transfr la scurit sociale en modifiant le partage de la TVA entre tat et scurit sociale, au profit de cette dernire, hauteur de 3MdsЂ. En plaant les conomies au cњur de l'effort de redressement sans alourdir le cot du travail, le PLFSS 2014 s'intgre dans une stratgie de finan. Le projet de loi sur les retraites a t prsent en conseil des ministres le 18 septembre.
Le solde de la branche s'amliorera notamment sous l'effet du report au 1er octobre 2014 de l'indexation des pensions, sauf pour les plus modestes, et de la hausse de 0,15 point des cotisations patronales et salariales, pour un impact global sur les rgimes de base de plus de 2,5 milliards d'euros. For Persuasive Essays! La fiscalisation des majorations de pension bnficiera la branche vieillesse compter de 2015. How To An Essay! Le PLFSS 2014 traduira galement les mesures annonces en juin dernier pour assurer la prennit de la branche famille et rendre la politique familiale plus juste. For Persuasive Essays! Les comptes de la branche famille s'amlioreront ainsi grce aux mesures de modulation de l'allocation de base de la prestation d'accueil du jeune enfant, d'uniformisation du montant du complment de libre choix d'activit, tout en intgrant l'impact des mesures de justice majorant le complment familial et l'allocation de soutien familial. Mirror! Le plafonnement de l'avantage fiscal dcoulant de la prsence d'enfants au foyer (quotient familial) bnficiera intgralement la branche famille. Starters For Persuasive! La baisse de la cotisation patronale pour la branche famille (0,15 point sur 5,4 points) sera intgralement compense la branche. Novel Research! La convention d'objectifs et de gestion de la caisse nationale d'allocations familiales traduit la priorit donne au dveloppement des modes de garde, avec l'objectif de 275 000 nouvelles solutions d'accueil des jeunes enfants.
La fixation d'un objectif des dpenses d'assurance maladie en hausse de 2,4% pour 2014 implique un effort d'conomie de 2,4 milliards d'euros par rapport une volution des dpenses tendancielles de 4% au-del de la sous-excution de 500 millions. Paragraph For Persuasive! Ces efforts s'accompagneront d'volutions structurantes destines consolider le modle franais de protection sociale solidaire. Career In Marketing! Le PLFSS 2014 est ainsi la premire tape dans la mise en њuvre de la stratgie nationale de sant, visant : •renforcer les soins de premier recours, dans le cadre du pacte territoire sant (cooprations interprofessionnelles, tlmdecine) ; •engager la rforme du financement des hpitaux (prise en compte des tablissements isols, meilleure matrise des volumes d'activit, exprimentation d'un financement au parcours) ; •adapter le pilotage financier du systme de sant (identification d'un sous-objectif ONDAM pour le fonds d'intervention rgional, amlioration de la fongibilit). Le PLFSS marquera une nouvelle tape dans la gnralisation de la complmentaire sant. Starters For Persuasive! Le relvement du plafond de ressources de la CMU complmentaire et de l'Aide la complmentaire sant le 1er juillet dernier et l'extension de la couverture collective prvue par la loi sur la scurisation de l'emploi en ont constitu les premires tapes. Year Contest Winners! Il permettra d'amliorer l'accs des bnficiaires de l'ACS des contrats de qualit avec une nouvelle procdure d'appels d'offre. Starters Essays! D'autres mesures permettront de cibler des personnes fragiles (tudiants isols).
Il renforcera, pour tous les assurs des complmentaires sant, les exigences des contrats solidaires et responsables au service de la rgulation du systme de sant et de la limitation des restes charge, en amliorant leur panier de soins minimal et en dissuadant les pratiques tarifaires abusives. Essay Mirror! Le PLFSS permettra, en matire de sant publique, de prendre en charge des substituts nicotiniques pour les jeunes et de faciliter l'accs la contraception avec l'instauration du tiers payant pour les actes associs la prescription de contraception pour les mineures. Paragraph Starters! Il favorisera une politique du mdicament efficiente et favorable l'innovation, en mettant en њuvre les engagements du conseil stratgique des industries de sant (simplification de l'inscription des actes innovants), en exprimentant la dispensation des mdicaments l'unit pour certains antibiotiques et en mettant en place un rpertoire des biosimilaires. Principales dispositions du texte. Article 1er : Approbation des tableaux d'quilibre, par branche, des rgimes obligatoires de base de scurit sociale, du rgime gnral de scurit sociale, et du Fonds de solidarit vieillesse (FSV) pour 2012. Approbation des dpenses constates dans le champ de l'objectif national de dpenses d'assurance maladie (ONDAM), des recettes affectes au Fonds de rserve pour les retraites (FRR), des recettes mises en rserve par le FSV et du montant de la dette amortie par la Caisse d'amortissement de la dette sociale (CADES) pour 2012. Article 4 : Institution d'une contribution des organismes complmentaires au financement du forfait « mdecin traitant ». Article 5 : Rectification du montant des dotations de l'assurance maladie au Fonds de modernisation des tablissements de sant publics et privs (FMESPP), l'Office national d'indemnisation des accidents mdicaux (ONIAM) et l'tablissement de prparation et de rponse aux urgences sanitaires (EPRUS) pour 2013. Article 6 : Rectification des prvisions de recettes et des objectifs de dpenses par branche des rgimes obligatoires de base de scurit sociale, du rgime gnral de scurit sociale et du fonds de solidarit vieillesse pour 2013. Rectification de l'objectif d'amortissement de la dette sociale pour 2013. Article 7 : Rectification de l'objectif national de dpenses d'assurance maladie et de ses sous-objectifs pour 2013.
Article 8 : Harmonisation des modalits d'assujettissement aux prlvements sociaux des produits de placement. Article 10 : Cration d'une cotisation dplafonne d'assurance vieillesse de base pour le rgime social des indpendants (RSI). Article 14 : Intgration des dficits des branches maladie et famille dans le champ des reprises de la CADES. Article 15 : Mesures de transferts de recettes au sein du primtre des organismes entrant dans le champ de la loi de financement de la scurit sociale. Article 16 : Reconfiguration des exonrations en faveur de l'apprentissage, des contrats de service civique et des chantiers d'insertion. Article 17 : Approbation du montant de la compensation des exonrations, rductions ou abattements d'assiette de cotisations ou contributions de scurit sociale. Article 18 20 : Approbation de prvisions de recettes et de tableaux d'quilibre. Article 23 : Encadrement de la dclaration sociale nominative rendue obligatoire au plus tard le 1er juillet 2015. Article 29 : Financement, titre exprimental et pour une priode de quatre ans, d'actes de tlmdecine pour les patients pris en charge en ville ou en structures mdico-sociales.
Article 30 : Amlioration de la protection sociale des professionnelles de sant relevant du rgime des praticiens et auxiliaires mdicaux conventionns en cas d'arrt maladie li la grossesse. Article 31 : Exprimentation de nouveaux modes d'organisation des transports de patients par des entreprises de transports sanitaires agres ou des taxis conventionns. Article 33 : Rforme de la tarification l'activit des tablissements de sant, notamment par l'adaptation du financement des activits « isoles » ralises par des tablissements de sant situs dans des zones peu dense. Article 37 : Exprimentation, sur une priode de quatre ans, de la dlivrance l'unit des mdicaments appartenant la classe des antibiotiques. Article 38 : promotion et scurisation de la prescription des mdicaments biologiques similaires. Article 43 : Renforcement de l'aide au sevrage tabagique destination des jeunes. Article 49 : Fixation des objectifs de dpenses de la branche maladie, maternit, invalidit et dcs pour 2014. Article 50 : Fixation du montant de l'objectif national de dpenses d'assurance maladie pour 2014. Article 51 : Fixation des objectifs de dpenses de la branche vieillesse pour 2014. Article 54 : Objectifs de dpenses de la branche accidents du travail et maladies professionnelles pour 2014.
Article 55 : Majoration du complment familial pour les familles les plus modestes. Article 56 : Modulation du montant de l'allocation de base de la prestation d'accueil du jeune enfant (PAJE) selon le niveau de ressources des familles. Article 60 : Fixation des objectifs de dpenses de la branche famille pour 2014. Principaux amendements des commissions. le mercredi 16 octobre 2013.
Rapport n° 1470 dpos le 17 octobre 2013. Rapport de MM. Write Of Application! Grard Bapt (Recettes et quilibre gnral), Christian Paul (Assurance maladie), Mme Martine Pinville (Secteur mdico-social), MM. Starters Essays! Michel Issindou (Assurance vieillesse), Laurent Marcangeli (Accidents du travail - maladies professionnelles) et Mme Marie-Franoise Clergeau (Famille) Principaux amendements adopts par la commission : Attribution d'une dotation de 130 millions d'euros de recettes supplmentaires la CNSA afin de financer courant 2014 les premires mesures de la loi relative la prise en charge de la perte d'autonomie des personnes ges (Amendement prsent par M. Write Of Application! Christian Paul, SRC, Nivre, rapporteur pour l'assurance maladie, et plusieurs de ses collgues). Contribution spcifique sur les boissons nergisantes (Amendement prsent par M. Paragraph For Persuasive Essays! Grard Bapt, SRC, Haute-Garonne, rapporteur pour les recettes et l'quilibre gnral). Dfinition d'un cadre gnrique applicable l'ensemble des actions exprimentales dans le cadre des parcours de sant (Amendement prsent par M. Articles! Christian Paul, SRC, Nivre, rapporteur pour l'assurance maladie). Intgration des pharmaciens d'officine dans l'exprimentation de financement d'actes de tlmdecine (Amendements identiques prsents par M. Starters! Christian Paul, SRC, Nivre, rapporteur pour l'assurance maladie, M. Chaucer Essays Articles! Jean-Pierre Barbier, UMP, Isre, M. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive Essays! Jean-Pierre Door, UMP, Loiret, et plusieurs de ses collgues, et M. Essay Poem Mirror By Sylvia! Francis Vercamer, UDI, Nord).
Rduction de quatre trois ans de la dure de l'exprimentation de la dlivrance l'unit des mdicaments appartenant la classe des antibiotiques (Amendement prsent par M. Essays! Christian Paul, SRC, Nivre, rapporteur pour l'assurance maladie). Amlioration du recours au dispositif de l'assurance complmentaire de sant (ACS) des personnes bnficiaires du minimum vieillesse, en automatisant le renouvellement de leur droit, attribu jusqu' maintenant pour une dure d'un an write an essay of application, (Amendement de la commission des affaires sociales). Possibilit de procder l'valuation commune de plusieurs services complmentaires grs par le mme organisme gestionnaire afin de gnrer des conomies (Amendement prsent par Mme Brengre Poletti, UMP, Ardennes). Remise par le Gouvernement au Parlement d'un rapport dtaillant l'volution de la prise en charge par l'assurance maladie obligatoire des dpenses de sant et les facteurs d'volution (Amendement prsent par Mme Jacqueline Fraysse, GDR, Hauts-de-Seine). Mise en place d'un nouveau mcanisme tarifaire des tablissements thermaux (Amendement prsent par M. Paragraph Starters For Persuasive! Grard Bapt, SRC, Haute-Garonne, rapporteur pour les recettes et l'quilibre gnral).
Dans le cadre des contrles des arrts de travail et des indemnits journalires, exclusion des samedis, dimanches et jours fris dans le calcul du dlai maximal dont dispose le mdecin contrleur pour transmettre son rapport au service mdical de l'assurance maladie (Amendement prsent par M. How To Write! Pierre Morange, UMP, Mme Brengre Poletti, UMP, Ardennes).