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Best Homework Tips To Cut Study Time In Half. Charlie is case study networking, a perfect example of voting experience essay a smart young man who needed the best homework tips to study in our lives cut his study time in half. He is a smart young man but he wasn’t always showing it in voting, school. When I first met him, he was in the middle of eighth grade, taking one of my study skills classes. He had been trudging through three-to-four hours of homework every night, with lukewarm grades! His mom was concerned because homework was “stressing him out” and was the source of many family arguments. Within a few short weeks, however, Charlie learned study skills and the best homework tips that helped him cut his homework time to case study networking in our lives less than one hour every night…and improved his grades! He definitely discovered the excellent study skills and the best homework tips. I asked Charlie to share the best homework tips and top three study skills that made the most difference for him. This is what he shared several months later: 1. Get organized! “I didn’t realize how much time I wasted looking for things,” explained Charlie. “My notes, homework assignments, folders, textbooks…I spent so much time digging through my book bag for things. Many times, I had to ask my dad to and benedick essay drive me back to school because I forgot stuff in my locker.
He was never happy with that, it took a lot of time and he always wondered whether I#8217;d ever learn the best homework tips.#8221; To help Charlie get organized, we condensed his 14 different folders and notebooks down to ONE binder. It was instantly easier for him to track papers, assignments, and on social networking in our lives, notes because everything went in one place. This also reduced the case study design of experiments, volume of his supplies by 60%, which instantly resulted in a more organized book bag and locker. Just doing this one simple thing helped him know he was on his way to learning the best homework tips. We also talked about his locker routine so he was less likely to forget things at case on social networking in our lives, school. Homework? Charlie recalled, “You pointed out that every time I’m at my locker, I’m in a rush. Case Networking? I’m rushing to class, to and benedick lunch, to the bus…no matter when I’m at study on social networking lives, my locker, it’s always a rush.
So, I had to sex essay figure out how to on social networking in our get what I needed quickly. Essay Bachchan? I broke it down and now I ask myself two questions every time I’m at my locker. Lives? This keeps me focused and helps me get everything I need.” 2. Power down! “I really didn’t like it when you first suggested that we turn off all of the homework, electronics,” said Charlie, “but this was huge for me. When you said that electronics will always control us unless we learn to control them, I decided to case study on social lives take the advice one night. I turned off my cell phone, the TV, and the computer. I couldn’t believe how fast I got my homework done and this was one of the best homework tips ever!#8221; Charlie’s experience is natalie goldberg, something I am hearing more and more in my study skills classes over networking in our the last several years. “I always figured that the TV, cell phone, and stuff helped make homework less boring,” he said. “Now I realize it is the other way around. When everything is off, I can concentrate better, get my homework done faster, and on amitabh bachchan, then have more free time to do that stuff later.” 3. Case Study On Social Networking? Think of homework as a study guide! “I used to do homework just to get it done. I didn’t think much about it.
But now, I think about aol helper, homework differently. You called it ‘active learning’ and I am starting to see what that means. On Social Lives? I don’t just hunt for answers, I try to aol helper think about what I am doing and make connections to in our lives anything I can; something my teacher said in class or sometimes, I’ll think of connections to something that is completely different. “I also use the key question you shared: ‘How can this homework assignment help me study for the next test?’ It’s simple, but it keeps me thinking more about beatrice, my homework, instead of case study on social lives just trying to experience get it done. When I’m really thinking about study on social lives, what I am doing, I get it done faster. Experience Essay? And, I’m getting better grades because I know I have the best homework tips to help me!” Schools Do Not Teach How To Learn.
Charlie is like many of the students I work with in study networking, my study skills classes; he found great success from applying these best homework tips strategies to the process of case study design of experiments learning and doing homework! Study skills –which are really strategic learning skills- are not taught in schools. The national and state standards that teachers have to case networking teach are ALL content. There is absolutely no focus on teaching students how to learn. Charlie was floundering because he had no system for success. Once he learned a system of good study skills plus the best homework tips, however, he was unstoppable!
Every student can benefit from learning study skills; “good” students are thrilled to learn how to essay get those good grades in case on social lives, less time. “Struggling” students are thrilled to learn that there is a reason why they are struggling (no one taught them how to voting study) and that there are actually study skills that work! But, what if there is study in our, more to the problem? How do you know if your child needs additional help? Identifying Homework Problems. Follow the be specific statement, ten-minute rule. Many research studies confirm that “ten minutes per grade level” is the optimal amount of homework. For example, a first-grader should be expected to study on social in our lives do ten minutes of short on amitabh bachchan homework each night, a sixth-grader up to 60 minutes, and a 12th-grader up to 120 minutes. With good study skills, this amount of homework time can actually be cut in half, but these time limits are a good benchmark for case networking in our what is homework, reasonable at each grade level. During this time, homework should be completed with minimal support from you as the study on social networking lives, parent. Short Essay On Amitabh Bachchan? If this is routinely NOT the case for your child, then something is case study on social in our, not right. If that is the case, determine the root of the problem; is it your child or the homework?
If your child is struggling to complete homework within the “ten minute” guideline, he may simply need to anti sex essay get organized and learn a few strategic study skills plus the case on social in our lives, best homework tips like Charlie did. On Amitabh? However, pay attention for signs of a health problem or more serious learning challenge; if your child is having a hard time sitting still, needs things repeated several times, is squinting excessively, or simply isn’t “getting it” despite several attempts, these may be signs that something more than just study skills are needed. Talk to your child’s teacher and pediatrician right away. Case Study On Social? Keep notes on and benedick relationship essay your observations and study on social in our, stick to your guns! If there is a learning challenge, you may be met with some resistance along the way, but your persistence and friendly cooperation with teachers and doctors will be the key to getting proper help for your child. Your child needs a strong foundation so he or she can learn the best homework tips easily. Do not be quick to judge these challenges as “laziness.” Laziness is rare in students! If it is apparent, then it usually happens after a student has experienced so many challenges in school that he feels defeated. In fact, when I hear a parent or teacher say things like “He’s lazy,” “She’s just not trying,” or “If she would just try harder,” it triggers a strong warning in aol helper homework, my mind that there is likely something else going on. On Social? Usually, there is.
Homework itself can be the problem if too much is being assigned, or if the natalie goldberg statement, homework is not being assigned appropriately. Homework should only be a review of content covered in class. The purpose is to provide practice, not instruction! If your child is complaining that he “never learned this in school,” that may be true. In these cases, arrange a meeting with your child’s teacher(s) and politely explain your concerns.
Most of the case on social lives, time, teachers are simply not aware of these problems because they typically don’t get feedback; most families just suffer in silence and don’t communicate appropriately. Obviously, you must use your judgment to determine how far to push homework issues with teachers, but you should not be suffering in silence! Conclusion About The Best Homework Tips. Homework is a major source of stress and frustration for manhy students and their families, but it doesn’t have to be. When homework struggles require strong intervention, look for experience essay the cues and on social networking lives, trust your instincts. However, 90% of the time a few good study skills are all you need to make a world of difference with the best homework tips.
Susan Kruger is the best selling author of SOAR Study Skills, founder of StudySkills.com and an expert on beatrice and benedick relationship the best homework tips . What do you suggest for adults who went back to college? I am 43 and I have been working and going to school full time online for the last two semesters and part time the previous two. I also took a class during the summer so I have been going to school and working since August of 2012. I was recently laid off so I have more time but it seems like I have less time. I spend hours and hours doing homework. Case Study In Our? I have four classes; medical coding, marketing, finance, and anatomy with lab. How can I get more organized? My couch is my desk because I have my laptop hooked up to short essay on amitabh bachchan the tv for case on social networking in our lives better viewing.
I have papers everywhere although I try to be organized with my books in and benedick, one container, papers in another. Etc. I am spending 7-8 hours a day and getting burned out. There is a lot of reading and study networking in our lives, videos and there is no time to voting read it all. Case Study In Our Lives? Sometimes 70 pages in one class with multiple anatomy meanings. I know we arent suppose to retain it all just the idea but OMG how?
I highlight main ideas and just go back. Please help. Im drowning with a 3.9 GPA. Idont want to start falling behind and I have to get a job soon and aol helper, then I#8217;m afraid I will really fall behind! God bless! Lona. I have to same problem Lona! I am 42 and starting grad school and find my classes overwhelming and time consuming- a bottomless pit of knowledge for case study networking which I could not learn in a lifetime.
I usually get by by studying just what I need to know for the test but need to do better than that to study design of experiments become a competent professional. I too have a 3.9 but still struggle. Case Networking Lives? I also have health problems. I really need help!
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Essay about Case Study on Social …
The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The June 16 1976 Uprising that began in Soweto and spread countrywide profoundly changed the socio-political landscape in South Africa. Events that triggered the uprising can be traced back to on social networking in our, policies of the voting essay Apartheid government that resulted in the introduction of the Bantu Education Act in 1953. The rise of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) and the formation of South African Students Organisation (SASO) raised the political consciousness of many students while others joined the wave of anti-Apartheid sentiment within the student community. When the language of Afrikaans alongside English was made compulsory as a medium of instruction in schools in 1974, black students began mobilizing themselves. On 16 June 1976 between 3000 and case networking in our 10 000 students mobilized by the South African Students Movement's Action Committee supported by the BCM marched peacefully to demonstrate and aol helper protest against the government’s directive. The march was meant to culminate at a rally in Orlando Stadium. On their pathway they were met by heavily armed police who fired teargas and later live ammunition on demonstrating students.
This resulted in a widespread revolt that turned into an uprising against the government. While the uprising began in Soweto, it spread across the country and carried on until the following year. The aftermath of the events of June 16 1976 had dire consequences for the Apartheid government. Images of the police firing on study on social lives peacefully demonstrating students led an international revulsion against premarital South Africa as its brutality was exposed. Meanwhile, the weakened and exiled liberation movements received new recruits fleeing political persecution at home giving impetus to study, the struggle against Apartheid. The word ‘Bantu’ in the term Bantu education is highly charged politically and relationship essay has derogatory connotations. The Bantu Educational system was designed to case study on social networking lives, ‘train and fit’ Africans for their role in the newly (1948) evolving apartheid society. Education was viewed as a part of the overall apartheid system including ‘homelands’, urban restrictions, pass laws and job reservation. This role was one of labourer, worker, and servant only.
As H.F Verwoerd, the short essay on amitabh bachchan architect of the Bantu Education Act (1953), conceived it: “There is case study in our lives, no place for [the African] in the European community above the be specific natalie level of certain forms of labour. It is of no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aim, absorption in the European community” Pre-apartheid education of Africans. It is mistaken however, to understand that there was no pre-apartheid educational marginalization of black South Africans. Long before the historic 1948 white elections that gave the Nationalist Party power, there was a system of segregated and unequal education in the country. While white schooling was free, compulsory and expanding, black education was sorely neglected. Financial underprovision and an urban influx led to gravely insufficient schooling facilities, teachers and educational materials as well as student absenteeism or non-enrolment. A 1936 Inquiry identified problems, only to have almost nothing done about these needs.
Bantu education and the racist compartmentalizing of education. In 1949 the government appointed the Eiselen Commission with the task of considering African education provision. The Commission recommended 'resorting to case on social networking lives, radical measures' for the 'effective reform of the Bantu school system'. In 1953, prior to the apartheid government's Bantu Education Act, 90% of black South African schools were state-aided mission schools. The Act demanded that all such schools register with the state, and removed control of African education from the churches and provincial authorities.
This control was centralized in the Bantu Education Department, a body dedicated to keeping it separate and inferior. Almost all the mission schools closed down. The Roman Catholic Church was largely alone in its attempt to keep its schools going without state aid. Experience Essay! The 1953 Act also separated the financing of education for case study networking in our lives, Africans from general state spending and linked it to direct tax paid by Africans themselves, with the essay result that far less was spent on black children than on white children. In 1954--5 black teachers and students protested against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement was formed to provide alternative education. For a few years, cultural clubs operated as informal schools, but by case study networking lives 1960 they had closed down.
The Extension of University Education Act, Act 45 of 1959, put an end to black students attending white universities (mainly the universities of Cape Town and Witwatersrand). Separating tertiary institutions according to race, this Act set up separate 'tribal colleges' for black university students. The so-called 'bush' Universities such as Fort Hare, Vista, Venda, Western Cape were formed. Blacks could no longer freely attend white universities. Again, there were strong protests. Expenditure on Bantu Education increased from the late 1960s, once the homework apartheid Nationalist government saw the need for a trained African labour force. Through this, more African children attended school than under the old missionary system of case study on social in our lives, education, albeit grossly deprived of facilities in comparison with the education of other races, especially whites.
Nationally, pupil:teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in short on amitabh bachchan 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Overcrowded classrooms were used on a rota basis. There was also a lack of teachers, and many of those who did teach were underqualified. Case Study On Social! In 1961, only 10 per cent of black teachers held a matriculation certificate [last year of voting experience essay, high school]. Black education was essentially retrogressing, with teachers being less qualified than their students. The Coloured Person's Education Act of 1963 put control of 'coloured' education under the Department of Coloured Affairs. 'Coloured' schools also had to be registered with the government. 'Coloured' education was made compulsory, but was now effectively separated from white schooling. The 1965 Indian Education Act was passed to separate and control Indian education, which was placed under the Department of Indian Affairs. In 1976, the SAIC took over certain educational functions.
Indian education was also made compulsory. Because of the government's 'homelands' policy, no new high schools were built in case on social lives Soweto between 1962 and 1971 -- students were meant to move to their relevant homeland to attend the newly built schools there. Then in study of experiments 1972 the government gave in to pressure from business to improve the study on social networking lives Bantu Education system to meet business's need for a better trained black workforce. 40 new schools were built in Soweto. Between 1972 and 1976 the number of short, pupils at case on social networking in our lives secondary schools increased from 12,656 to 34,656. One in five Soweto children were attending secondary school. Oppression through inferior education and the 1976 Soweto uprising. An increase in secondary school attendance had a significant effect on voting youth culture. Previously, many young people spent the time between leaving primary school and obtaining a job (if they were lucky) in gangs, which generally lacked any political consciousness. But now secondary school students were developing their own. Case Networking Lives! In 1969 the black South African Student Organization (SASO) was formed.
Though Bantu Education was designed to deprive Africans and isolate them from 'subversive' ideas, indignation at voting being given such 'gutter' education became a major focus for study on social in our, resistance, most notably in the 1976 Soweto uprising. Study Of Experiments! In the wake of this effective and clear protest, some reform attempts were made, but it was a case of too little, too late. Major disparities in racially separate education provision continued into the 1990s. When high-school students in Soweto started protesting for better education on 16 June 1976, police responded with teargas and live bullets. Networking Lives! It is commemorated today by a South African national holiday, Youth day, which honors all the young people who lost their lives in the struggle against Apartheid and Bantu Education.
In the 1980s very little education at and benedick relationship essay all took place in the Bantu Education system, which was the target of almost continuous protest. The legacy of decades of inferior education (underdevelopment, poor self-image, economic depression, unemployment, crime, etc.) has lasted far beyond the introduction of a single educational system in in our lives 1994 with the first democratic elections, and the creation of the beatrice Government of National Unity. Presumably, not all students of the earlier generation 'worshipped the school authorities'! The first, recorded stoppages of lessons, (always called strikes in case lives the South African newspapers), and homework the first riots in African schools occurred in case study networking 1920. In February, students at the Kilnerton training centre went on a hunger strike 'for more food'. read on. The school students in Cape Town reacted to the news they heard of events in Soweto. A teacher at study of experiments one of the case study networking in our Coloured schools was later to experience essay, write: 'We haven't done much by way of on social in our lives, teaching since the Soweto riots first began. Kids were restless, tense and confused. 'There is no similar record of be specific goldberg thesis, what the African children thought, but it is case study networking in our lives, known that they were aware of the extra police patrols that were set up in the townships following June 16. After the first shootings in voting Cape Town, a teacher at one of the schools recounted. read on. Throughout the 1960's black students campaigned for study networking lives, the right to be specific natalie goldberg statement, affiliate to the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) and just as steadfastly, the move was vetoed by the campus authorities. NUSAS was also keen to welcome the colleges into their fold.
Not only case on social in our would this make it the largest student organisation in the country, but it would also bring into the liberal ''old all student opponents of the government's apartheid policy. read on. Countdown to conflict: The main cause of the protests that started in African schools in the Transvaal at the beginning of 1975 was a directive from the Bantu Education Department that Afrikaans had to be used on an equal basis with English as one of the languages of instruction in anti the department's secondary schools. read on. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Case On Social! Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”.
Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in anti premarital Soweto than it had been with the missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of lives, facilities. Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from short bachchan 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967. Case Study On Social In Our! Because of the lack of proper classrooms and the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on experience White education than on Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for only 38 000 students.
To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to case networking lives, repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to short essay on amitabh bachchan, build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the case study networking in our lives government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)). By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in premarital these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by study networking the Bantu Education Department.
Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on homework an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to react was the study on social lives Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in bachchan Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for case on social networking in our, Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the of experiments education of a Black child is being paid for by the White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups. Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the networking lives responsibility of satisfying the English and Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the only way of be specific statement, satisfying both groups, the medium of instruction in all schools shall be on case on social networking lives a 50-50 basis.
In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only be set in the medium with no option of the other language. Teachers also raised objections to premarital sex essay, the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in case study on social networking Afrikaans. The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character.
SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for short essay on amitabh bachchan, the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on study in our lives 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and experience influenced by national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of case study in our lives, being taught in the language of the and benedick relationship oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of networking in our lives, apartheid.
The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the anti premarital sex essay police opened fire on unarmed students. By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and other parts of the country. The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the case study in our only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets.
June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. The introduction of Afrikaans alongside English as a medium of instruction is considered the immediate cause of the Soweto uprising, but there are a various factors behind the 1976 student unrest. These factors can certainly be traced back to the Bantu Education Act introduced by the Apartheid government in 1953. The Act introduced a new Department of Bantu Education which was integrated into case study, the Department of Native Affairs under Dr Hendrik F. Verwoerd. On Social In Our! The provisions of the Bantu Education Act and some policy statements made by the Bantu Education Department were directly responsible for the uprisings. Dr Verwoerd, who engineered the Bantu Education Act, announced that “Natives (blacks) must be taught from an be specific goldberg thesis, early age that equality with Europeans (whites) is not for them”. Although the Bantu Education Act made it easier for more children to attend school in Soweto than it had been with the study networking missionary system of education, there was a great deal of discontent about the lack of facilities. Goldberg Thesis Statement! Throughout the country there was a dire shortage of classrooms for Black children. There was also a lack of teachers and case study networking many of the teachers were under-qualified. Nationally, pupil-to-teacher ratios went up from 46:1 in 1955 to 58:1 in 1967.
Because of the lack of proper classrooms and aol helper the crippling government homeland policy, students were forced to case networking lives, return to “their homelands” to attend the newly built schools there. The government was spending far more on White education than on natalie goldberg statement Black education; R644 was spent annually for each White student, while only R42 was budgeted for a Black school child. In 1976 there were 257 505 pupils enrolled in Form 1 at high schools which had a capacity for case, only 38 000 students. To alleviate the situation pupils who had passed their standard six examinations were requested to repeat the standard. This was met with great resentment by the students and their parents. Although the situation did not lead to an immediate revolt, it certainly served to build up tensions prior to the 1976 student uprising. In 1975 the government was phasing out Standard Eight (or Junior Certificate (JC)).
By then, Standard Six had already been phased out and many students graduating from on amitabh Primary Schools were being sent to the emerging Junior Secondary Schools. It was in these Junior Secondary schools that the 50-50 language rule was to be applied. The issue that caused massive discontent and made resentment boil over into the 1976 uprising was a decree issued by the Bantu Education Department. Deputy Minister Andries Treurnicht sent instructions to the School Boards, inspectors and principals to the effect that Afrikaans should be put on an equal basis with English as a medium of instruction in all schools. On Social Networking In Our! These instructions drew immediate negative reaction from various quarters of the community. The first body to voting experience essay, react was the lives Tswana School Boards, which comprised school boards from Meadowlands, Dobsonville and other areas in Soweto. The minutes of the meeting of the Tswana School Board held on 20 January 1976 read: The circuit inspector told the board that the Secretary for Bantu Education has stated that all direct taxes paid by the Black population of voting experience essay, South Africa are being sent to the various homelands for educational purposes there. In urban areas the education of a Black child is being paid for by the on social in our White population, that is English and Afrikaans speaking groups.
Therefore the Secretary for Bantu Education has the responsibility of satisfying the English and aol helper homework Afrikaans-speaking people. Consequently, as the study networking only way of satisfying both groups, the medium of aol helper homework, instruction in all schools shall be on a 50-50 basis. Case On Social! In future, if schools teach through a medium not prescribed by the department for a particular subject, examination question papers will only short essay on amitabh be set in the medium with no option of the other language. Teachers also raised objections to the government announcement. Some Black teachers, who were members of the African Teachers Association of South Africa, complained that they were not fluent in study on social lives Afrikaans.
The students initially organised themselves into local cultural groups and youth clubs. At school there was a significant number of branches of the Students Christian Movements (SCMs), which were largely apolitical in character. SASM penetrated these formations between 1974 and 1976. And when conditions ripened for the outbreak of protests, SASM formed an Action Committee on be specific 13 June 1976, which was later renamed the Soweto Student Representative Council (SSRC). They were conscientised and influenced by study on social national organisations such as the Black Peoples' Convention (BPC), South African Student Organisations (SASO)and by the Black Consciousness philosophy. They rejected the idea of being taught in the language of the oppressor. The uprising took place at a time when liberation movements were banned throughout the country and South Africa was in the grip of apartheid. The protest started off peacefully in Soweto but it turned violent when the police opened fire on unarmed students.
By the third day the unrest had gained momentum and spread to townships around Soweto and and benedick other parts of the country. Study On Social Networking In Our Lives! The class of 1976 bravely took to the streets and overturned the whole notion that workers were the only essential force to challenge the apartheid regime. Short Essay On Amitabh Bachchan! Indeed, they succeeded where their parents had failed. They not only occupied city centres but also closed schools and alcohol outlets. It is hard to get a clear picture of what exactly happened on case study in our lives the day of June 16th. Most of the aol helper information comes from eyewitness accounts of students who participated, journalists who were on the scene, as well as the police reports on the events. As with all history, a lot depends on the perspective of the person telling the story as well as those who have subsequently written about it. Some accounts directly contradict each other. We are not endeavouring to write an objective account but are providing a platform for people to tell their own stories which we hope will form an accurate portrayal of events.
Please send us an e-mail us and tell us if any of the case networking in our lives information is factually incorrect. Not all the children who were to case design, participate in the march on June 16 knew about it on the morning of the 16th. For many it was an ordinary school day. But, by this time, students were feeling very frustrated and dissatisfied with the Bantu education system in general and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction. Case On Social Networking In Our! It was exam time for the senior students and many were scared that they would fail the exams if they would have to write in Afrikaans. Nonetheless the march that was planned by aol helper homework the Action Committee of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC) was well organised and was to be conducted in a peaceful way. The leaders of the case study in our original march, mainly came from two high schools, Naledi High in Naledi and Morris Isaacson in Mofolo. Sfiso Ndlovo argues, however, that the main centre of organisational activity was Phefeni Junior Secondary, close to study design, Vilakazi Street in Orlando.
Phefeni was certainly close to study in our lives, the railway station from which many students got off their trains to join the march. The plan was that students from Naledi High were to experience, march from study networking lives their direction and beatrice relationship pick up students from the schools on their way. The Morris Isaacson students were to march from their school doing the same until they met at a central point where they would proceed peacefully together to the Orlando Stadium. Other schools also were part of the original plan but it is on social networking in our, not clear that the students at beatrice relationship all those schools were fully aware of the march. The first students to gather together were at Naledi High. The mood was high spirited and jovial. At assembly the on social principal gave support to the children and wished them good luck. The first chairperson of the beatrice relationship essay Action Committee, Tepello Motopanyane addressed them and informed them that discipline and a peaceful march were to be the order of the study on social lives day. Meanwhile, at Morris Isaacson students also gathered. They were also addressed by one of the leaders of the Action Committee, Tsietsi Mashinini, and then set out.
On the way they passed by other schools, where some were waiting and those who were not were recruited on experience essay the spot to join. We were singing and it was jovial, the mood, exciting and with the placards we started going. - Dan Moyane Morris Isaacson High School. The first time we heard of it was during our short break. On Social Lives! Our leaders informed the principal that students from Morris Isaacson were marching. We then joined one of the groups and marched. - Sam Khosa Ibhongo secondary School.
In the end there were 11 columns of students marching to Orlando Stadium to meet at the central point of Uncle Toms Municipal hall. Before this point, there had been some minor skirmishes with police but it was here that police stopped them, barricading their path. Other schools had been stopped by the police earlier on and had dispersed but managed to join later. It is hard to determine how many students there were, estimates range from 1 000 to 10 000. The march was halted and some people helped Tietsi Mashinini climb up onto a tractor so that everyone could see him when he addressed the case of experiments crowd: Brothers and study on social networking in our lives Sisters, I appeal to case of experiments, you-keep calm and cool. We have just received a report that the case study networking in our police are coming. Don't taunt them, don't do anything to them. Be cool and calm. We are not fighting.
It was a tense moment for both the police and the students. Police reports stated that the situation was explosive and aol helper homework they retreated to await further reinforcements. The students carried on marching until they got to what is now Hector Petersen Square, close to case study on social in our lives, Orlando High School. The march came to a halt again. Different reports of what actually started the shooting have been put forward. Despite the short on amitabh tense atmosphere the case networking in our students remained calm and well ordered. Suddenly a white policeman lobbed a teargas canister into the front of the crowd.
People ran out of the smoke dazed and coughing. The crowd retreated slightly but remained facing the police, waving placards and singing. A white policeman drew his revolver. Black journalists standing by the police heard a shot: Look at him. He's going to shoot at thesis statement the kids. A single shot ran out. There was a split seconds silence and pandemonium broke out. Children screamed. More shots were fired. At least four students fell and others ran screaming in case study on social in our lives all directions.
Brooks Brickhill Whirlwind before the storm, 1980. After the first massacre, the students fled in different directions. Anger at the senseless killings inspired retaliatory action. West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) vehicles and buildings were set alight and essay burned to the ground, a white WRAB official was pulled out of his car and beaten to death, bottlestores were burned and looted. Other encounters with the police occurred where more students were killed especially in the vicinity of the Regina Mhundi church in Orlando and the Esso garage in Chiawelo.
As students were stopped by the police in one area they moved their protest action to study, others. By the end of the day most of Soweto, including Diepkloof, which was relatively quiet during the morning, had felt the impact of the protest. Case Study! For the students at some schools, this was the first they heard or saw. Schools were closed early at about 12:00 and study networking in our many students walked out of school to a township on fire. It was past twelve, past twelve to one. Sister Joseph allowed us to go home, because now it was chaos around. So when we went home we could see that now cars were burning, especially the company cars, those from town, those owned by whites. As more students were let out of school they joined those protesters that were closest to anti premarital sex essay, them. Some accounts see the events of the afternoon to be chaos or a free for networking in our lives, all especially on the basis that bottlestores and beerhalls were raided and looted. The apartheid press certainly tried to portray it that way. It was clear that the events of the afternoon were not organised and an atmosphere of design of experiments, panic and defiance existed.
However, others argue that the students attacked targets for political reasons and were disciplined in case on social networking in our who and what they attacked. Goldberg Statement! A white university student who was sympathetic was actually taken to safety by the schoolchildren themselves. It was overwhelmingly, WRAB structures and cars that were razed. One black owned business was attacked, the shop of Richard Maponya but this was deliberate. Maponya was a wealthy businessman who was despised by most people because he exploits us and is a sell out. There probably was an element of case on social networking, free for all in the looting of bottlestores.
Many students came home with booze and a lot of people enjoyed the results of the plunder. But people had long seen alcohol as a method used by the apartheid government to try and make black people apathetic. Most of the beerhalls were built by the municipality. People were shouting less liquor, better education. There were probably different motivations at play in the raids of the anti bottlestores. In any political protest there are those that are more politically motivated and disciplined than others, to networking, see it as one or the short on amitabh bachchan other is to misunderstand the nature of political mass action. Fires continued blazing into the night. At 21:00 Armoured Police cars later known as Hippos started moving into Soweto.
Official figures were that 23 people had been killed, but some reports estimated that it was at least 200. It is hard to study lives, know how many people had been killed because of police efforts to cover up the number of people who died. The second day. was marked by uncontrollable fury and burning hostility. Police also assumed another attitude. Case Design Of Experiments! They shot at random, and at anyone who would raise a fist and shout Power, into their face. Many others joined the original protesters. Not everyone had heard about Hector Petersen and the others who were killed yet, but the word was spreading. The following day I pick up stones. I joined the struggle. On the 16th I just came home and stay. because we formed the case study on social networking in our lives slogan an injury to one is an aol helper homework, injury to study lives, all So we were supposed to be there. - Solomon Marikele Rhulane Senior Primary.
The heavily biased Cilliers Report for this day sums up the events. Schools, trains, buses, delivery vehicles, West Rand Administrative Buildings (WRAB) buildings, cars of beatrice and benedick relationship, business people, all were targeted. The fury and frustration that had been simmering amongst township youth had free reign. On Social Networking Lives! There was enormous police presence on the morning of the 17th 1500 police armed with sten guns, automatic rifles, and hand machine carbines had taken up strategic positions in anti premarital the township. Helicopters flew overhead.
The army was on standby. The police force had never developed other methods of crowd control other than the use of live bullets. The police shot at people indiscriminately and casualties were even higher than the day before. The violent reaction of the networking police only made the children angrier. At a press conference Mr. Goldberg Thesis Statement! Manie Mulder announced that nearly all the WRAB buildings in Soweto had been destroyed.
This amounted to 21 offices being burnt down, 10 being plundered, 3 schools burnt as well as unknown numbers of municipal halls, beerhalls, bottlestores. The Rand had lost value overnight. Thousands of on social networking in our lives, workers had refused to go to work. It was indeed a crisis for short on amitabh, the Apartheid government. It was also a serious loss of face in case study on social networking lives light of US Secretary of State, Henry Kissingers impending visit to South Africa. Demonstartion during Henry Kissinger's visit. Kiss- inja (a dog) Soweto, September, 1976. To add to this, 300 predominantly white Wits students marched through the city centre to protest the killing of schoolchildren. Short On Amitabh! As they marched through the streets they were joined by many black workers.
At this point the political leadership of the Soweto Students Representative Council (SSRC), SASM and other organisations were desperately trying to take leadership of the protest and to channel the anger of the youth and to give the study on social networking in our movement political direction. The ANC in study exile called for immediate international action and the intensification of economic sanctions. The protest action also spread to case, other townships around Soweto. In Thembisa, students organised a solidarity march, which, although heavily guarded did not result in violence. In Kagiso, police tried to stop a gathering of students and adults; the result was a forced retreat and the destruction of WRAB buildings, vehicles and schools. When the police returned with reinforcements, they shot indiscriminately into the crowd, killing at least five people. On the third day of the Uprising 18th June, the anti sex essay situation in Soweto was still volatile.
Outside butchery in Moroka there were some fatalities. Fires were blazing in many Soweto townships, like Zola, Ikwezi, Moletsane, Naledi and Tladi. Administrative buildings, wine stores and beer halls, which were hated by case in our lives the young people, were also set on fire. Buses and cars running through Soweto were burned. Police intensified their terror in trying to return the situation to normality in the township. However this angered the insurgents young people and brought them up against heavily armed police. And Benedick Relationship! They used stones to case on social networking in our lives, counter armoured police cars, helicopters and homework guns. At about 10 a.m the chairman of the West Rand Administrative Board (WRAB) Manie Mulder was in Soweto to asses the situation. He was escorted by a large police vans. All the WRAB owned cars that had escaped being burned were taken out of Soweto after Mulder's visit.
The columns of cars drove past Orlando police station into the direction of Johannesburg. But in general the action on this day had already moved to the East and West Rand and Alexandra townships as well as other parts of the country. The people in other parts of the country were not revolting to pledge their solidarity with the people of Soweto. They shared the same problem, the same sorrows and the same causes of resentment and rebellion. A general stawaway was organised in Alexandra Township and four people were killed when the police opened fire on marching residents. The government, which for the first time publicly addressed the issue, and justified the harsh measures taken by study on social networking lives the police.
There were some reports of students seizing weapons from police and premarital using them to shoot back. June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising casualties. Response to study on social in our lives, the June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising by organisations in exile. June 16 marks the commemoration of National Youth Day in be specific goldberg thesis statement South Africa. This is the day the country reflects on the massacre of on social lives, school children during the Soweto Uprising of 1976. The response of the organisations in exile can be understood in the context of the events that took place on the day. Relationship Essay! The students had organised a peaceful march against the Afrikaans Medium Decree, issued in 1974, which made it mandatory for Black schools to use the Afrikaans language as the medium of instruction in Mathematics, Social Sciences and Geography at the secondary school level. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of then Bantu Education, was quoted as saying: “I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I’m not going to. On Social In Our! An African might find that ‘the big boss’ spoke only Afrikaans or spoke only thesis English.
It would be to his advantage to study in our lives, know both languages.” The policy was deeply unpopular since Afrikaans was regarded by some as the language of the short essay on amitabh bachchan oppressor. It was against this background that on 30 April 1976, students from the Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike and boycotted classes. Case On Social Networking! By 16 June, their rebellion spread to other schools in Soweto. Aol Helper Homework! Incidentally, the student-organised mass rally on this date turned violent, as the police responded with bullets to stones thrown by the angry students. Many students were shot.
The official death toll was 23, but it could have been higher than 200 because the incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed more lives. The first student to be shot on that fateful day was 15-year old Hastings Ndlovu. Case Study Networking In Our Lives! However, the killing in the same incident of Hector Pieterson, aged 12, and in particular the thesis statement publication of his photograph taken by in our lives Sam Nzima, made him an international icon of the short essay on amitabh bachchan uprising. It became the major rallying point of the study lives struggle against apartheid. Military Response: Camps in exile.
The incident triggered widespread violence not only in Soweto but also throughout South Africa. For the political organisations in beatrice relationship exile, notably, the African National Congress(ANC) and Pan Africanist Congress(PAC), the Soweto unrest in June 1976 provided a golden opportunity both for recruitment and military training of young men and women. Many Black people felt in danger of being arrested by the police and further underground activities were launched as a result of this threat. Discreet recruitment operations culminated in on social in our lives many incensed students taking up arms against the government, and case design being sent for military training. Hence the mushrooming of case study networking in our, military camps such as Mkhumbane in case design of experiments Temeke (Tanzania) outside the case study networking in our country, under the command and mentorship of Ntate Mashego and the Engineering camp in anti premarital sex essay Angola. Recruits were advised on study on social networking in our lives how to unlawfully cross the border(s) into be specific goldberg statement, Botswana, Swaziland, Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where they received military training. It is essential to note that the accession to power of the Mozambique Liberation Front (Frelimo) in Mozambique and the Popular Movement for the Liberation of case study on social networking in our, Angola (MPLA) in Angola in 1975, together with the exodus of thousands of young people in the months following the Soweto uprising, created favourable conditions for anti sex essay, the resumption of sabotage activity in South Africa, especially after the collapse of the ANC/Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) joint operation (i.e.the Wankie Campaign).
These developments were followed by the infiltration of trained fighters back into South Africa, bombings of white installations and the subsequent arrest and trials of anti-apartheid activists. Clearly, an issue that gave rise to a vast number of trials under security legislation was the massive recruitment of people and case on social in our their transportation out of short essay bachchan, South Africa. While there is certainly some indication that this was already on the increase prior to June 1976, the revolts of 1976 gave an enormous boost to the activity of organisations recruiting members for military training. This is especially so in the case of the networking lives ANC, but there is also some evidence that PAC activity had been revitalised to some extent. As a result, there were many South Africans in short essay bachchan ANC and PAC training camps. The period also witnessed a large number of case on social lives, trials against recruitment for military training. Those who were brought to trial for this offence seemed to reach a peak in 1977 and the first part of 1978. Many trained guerrilla fighters returned to be specific natalie thesis statement, South Africa, often wielding a large quantity of arms, explosives and ammunition. Case Study Networking In Our Lives! This group included the Black school children who fled or were recruited in the wake of the June 1976 rebellion. Their activities gave rise to a number of case study design, trials as exemplified by the case of case study networking in our, Petrus Bushy Molefe, aged 22, who underwent training in East Germany, and was charged for sabotage and terrorism under the Sabotage and Terrorism Acts of June 1962 and June 1967 respectively.
Related to this was the large quantity of arms and ammunition found by police in their attempts to uncover guerrillas in the urban areas and in clashes in the rural areas. It is important to note that most of the arms caches that were uncovered comprised weapons originating from the experience essay then Soviet Union, and study on social networking in our the Eastern bloc countries, which suggests that the West was not prepared to anti sex essay, lend similar support to the Southern African liberation movements. On 30 November 1976 a group of armed guerrillas clashed with the South African Police near Bordergate, on the Swaziland/South African border. A hand grenade was detonated by one of the guerrillas, injuring two policemen, and allowing the insurgents to escape. Case Networking! Shortly before this incident a railway line near Dikgale, in the Pietersburg district, was damaged in a successful sabotage attempt. From December 1976, in a series of raids covering Johannesburg, Soweto, Alexandra, Rustenburg, Odi, Nebo, Pietersburg and Sekhukhuniland, security police detained a number of ANC activists. Towards the middle of 1977 twelve accused activists, who included Mosima Gabriel “Tokyo” Sexwale, were charged under the Terrorism Act in the famous trial of the “Pretoria 12”. They were mainly accused of being members or active supporters of certain unlawful organisations in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Russia and China such as the ANC, the South African Communist Party(SACP) and Umkhonto we Sizwe(MK).
They were also alternately charged with endangering, in study various ways, the maintenance of law and order in South Africa; undergoing military and other training; possession of explosives, ammunition, firearms and weapons; harbouring and rendering assistance to guerrillas; as well as taking part in the activities of a banned organisation. On the whole, they were accused of conspiring to case study in our lives, overthrow the white government and were all convicted on the main count of sedition. Thus, the response of the political organisations operating in case design exile was one that was premised on mobilisation, recruitment of study on social lives, people and the organisation of the armed phase of the experience essay struggle from case study in our outside in order to topple the apartheid government. Clearly, the essay on amitabh bachchan events of the Soweto revolt and case on social in our the response from the liberation movement in exile are not isolated developments. They have their roots in the spirit of resistance to anti sex essay, the growing crisis of apartheid. The collective resistance to case on social in our lives, oppression and exploitation in South Africa also fundamentally underpins the relationship that was forged between internal and external forms of organisation after this incident. It led to major transformations in the strategies of the various exiled liberation movements more in accordance with the changing conditions in the country. Short Essay Bachchan! A militant approach, that found expression in the recruitment and subsequent training of the study on social networking in our cadres in neighbouring as well as some European and essay on amitabh bachchan Asian countries, was emphasised.
References to Youth and the National Liberation Struggle 1894-1994. Brits, J. P. (1995). Study In Our! The Concise Dictionary of Historical and essay Political Terms , London: Penguin. Christie, P. On Social Lives! (1991). The Right to Learn: The Struggle for Education in South Africa , Johannesburg: Sached Trust/Ravan Press. Cross, M. (1992). Resistance and Transformation: Education Culture and Reconstruction in case design of experiments South Africa , Johannesburg: Skotaville. Howcroft, P. unpublished South African Encyclopaedia papers. Kallaway, P. On Social Networking Lives! (ed) (1984).
Apartheid and and benedick essay Education: The Education of networking in our, Black South Africans , Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Saunders, C. And Benedick Relationship Essay! Southey, N. (1998). On Social Networking In Our Lives! A Dictionary of South African History , Cape Town: David Philip. This article was produced for South African History Online on 21-May-2013.
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Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich essay. Nowadays, the United States is one of the most developed countries in the world. It exceeds many European and Asian countries in economic growth. Nevertheless, a research done by Marco Cagetti of the Chicago Fed showed that the United States represents the most uneven distribution of income and wealth (Cagetti 22). An irregular distribution of wealth is a matter, which residents of the United States know very well. This issue has gained notoriety in 2012 owing to the Occupy Wall Street movement. Contemporary state of affairs is the result of certain historical events, which have determined today’s correlation of different classes of society. The U.S. Case Study Networking In Our! prosperity of 21 st century can be easily estimated comparing to the previous centuries. One can compare its economic conditions, because of aol helper two prominent individuals of 19 th and 20 th centuries.
The first one is Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), famous steel tycoon, businessman and philanthropist. The second one is Robert Bernard Reich (born in 1946), who is case on social lives now economist, professor, and political commentator. Each of these great men had their own economical point of be specific natalie goldberg view that was deeply appreciated by their contemporaries. Andrew Carnegie lived in time when industrial growth changed American society. The new class of wealthy industrialists and a prosperous middle class was born afterwards. Lives! It also caused the expansion of a working class, particularly the blue-collar workers. Robert Reich, on the opposite, was a witness of 1990s economic transfer from one economic system to anti premarital another. The core pyramid like corporations has changed into the global webs. As far as Andrew Carnegie and on social networking Robert Reich had a lot to say about social and economic issues, they had both written books about it.
This research will concentrate on two works of these authors “The Gospel of Wealth” by Andrew Carnegie and an essay “Why the Rich Are Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer” by Robert Reich. It is worth noticing that both of these authors had common and different views reflected in their writings. Though Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich were both living under different historical circumstances, in different time periods and in different societies, they have something in common. They are bothered with the relationship same issues, and they raise the same problems for discussion. They have a concern in case on social where is society heading for and what is the right way of aol helper homework distribution of wealth. Case Networking In Our Lives! Both authors are writing about the wealth balance within society. They explain that there is no way for society to homework consist from the wealthy members only. There must be always poor people to balance them, and it is the way things are supposed to be.
Carnegie states that it is inevitable, and study on social networking in our it is natural. He speaks of the appearance of strict castes in society. These castes ignore each other and do not trust each other. The wealth must be accumulated in the arms of rich cast to benefit lower classes. Thus, Carnegie notices that society loses its homogeneity. Reich also sees some logic in distinction between rich (that are getting richer) and the poor (that are getting poorer). Both authors say enough about the competence, as well. Carnegie describes the law of competence. Under this law, the employers are forced into and benedick, the harshest economies with the constant controversies between the case study on social networking in our employer and the employed, between investments and efforts, between privileged and underprivileged.
It can be difficult for individual, but it works for the sake of the whole society. This is the thesis statement competence that should be the study in our common aim for everybody. Everyone has a right to the wealth one can afford. In his evolution ladder, rich people are “the men”, the elite of the society who deserve the most of the wealth. The poorer somebody is the less clever he or she has to be. Thus, everybody gets fairly what one deserves. Homework! Carnegie’s opinion is alike to case lives one of Robert Reich. According to his perspective, society is divided into three groups, each of which can count on the specific “share” in the common wealth.
He likens three social groups to the boats. The first group of premarital routine producers is sinking slowly. These workers can be easily displaced with machines; therefore, they are not in a great demand in the 20 th century. The second boat of in-person servers is networking in our lives sinking more slowly. There is a strong demand for such kind of workers, but there is also a great competence that may sink this boat. The third boat of natalie goldberg statement symbolic analysts is rising and will continue with rising further. Case Networking In Our Lives! Thus, each of groups is bound either to sink or to rise, and each can count on the specific wages.
Competence in Reich’s essay is considered within the relationship terms of case particular social groups. Its members have to compete for the vacant positions available to the limited quantity of homework people. Both authors write about the price society, which will need to pay for the well-balanced economic system. Carnegie suggests this price to study on social networking in our be the disappearance of society homogeneity. Society is from now on voting essay divided into strict castes where no understanding can be found. For Reich, this price is high as well. Citizens of the U.S. On Social Lives! loose good-paying routine production jobs within advanced economy. Their positions are often taken by the workers from east countries that do the same work for the lower salary. On Amitabh! Many of them lose their opportunity to case study on social networking belong to aol helper unions and benefit from case study on social networking predominant wage rates customary for collective bargaining agreements. As far as the old corporate bureaucracies are flattening into global webs, trading control has been lost.
Both authors are doing their best in objective estimating their economic systems. For that, they name its pros and cons. Carnegie believes that economical evolution is beneficial for everybody. He still admits that competence might have both positive and negative results of it. Castes’ appearance is the negative result of the evolution process. Nevertheless, society can do nothing, but accept it as an integral part of the progress. Reich also believes that global webs have positive and negative sides. Particularly, their negative side is beatrice that they do not work for the benefit of society. They work for case in our lives their own benefit and try to do everything to case study design gain more profit with the case study networking in our low costs. These companies are ready to manufacture as many robots as possible to save money on their human resources.
Under such conditions only symbolic analysts can earn much and thus benefit from the whole system. People possess something that computers could never attain. They are able to create something from nothing and so creative professions will always be in strong demand. As for the rest, both authors have many differences in opinion. Aol Helper! Firstly, Carnegie argues about case study on social lives equal distribution of wealth, the main problem of his age.
He wants “the ties of sex essay brotherhood to bind together the rich and study networking poor in harmonious relationship” (Jacobus 391). His point is based on the Darwin’s theory of natalie evolution. Carnegie believes that rich people are the most developed individuals in the evolution hierarchy. They reach their wealth as the result of the study networking in our lives progress. As follows, the individual that accumulates much wealth is an extraordinary human being that managed to use his natural talents and energy for the society progress. His next topic is using of that surplus wealth for “humankind improvement” in philanthropic affairs. Thus, rich are expected to help poor as far as they need it despite the anti premarital sex essay competence between them. Comparing to that, there is case on social in our lives no way for the brotherhood in relationship essay Reich’s essay. He admits that “All Americans once were used to be in roughly the same economic boat” (Jacobus 422). Nevertheless, with the lapse of time more and more people will compete for a profitable position and a well-paid job. As far as many people can now be substituted with machines and robots, the demand for human work gradually decreases.
Thus, there is on social networking in our lives no need in human resources. Consequently, there are only particular positions left for which people will compete. This is how the “jungle law” operates every man for anti premarital himself. Reich does not suppose any help from one class to another. Classes of routine workers and in-person servers do not usually like their work. Being not satisfied with it they do not want their surroundings to progress, as well. Still being afraid to case study in our lives lose their job, they would do everything to anti premarital eliminate their rivals. Another point two authors may argue about is an economical concept. Carnegie talks about national economics.
He discovers the theme of economic and business development within the bounds of the country. Thus, the wealth must be distributed among main classes’ representatives that belong to one country. Meanwhile, Reich does not confine himself to the U.S. Study On Social Networking In Our Lives! only. With the development of essay modern technologies companies can hire the workers all around the world. Hence, one can speak about the world economics taking into account that fact. The distribution of wealth then is done among more and less developed countries. Carnegie’s point is that exceed wealth distribution is obligatory. Therefore, he raises the issue of the proper mode of study on social networking lives administering wealth after the laws upon which civilization is founded.
For that, he suggests three modes. The first one is to leave the wealth to the families of the decedents. Anti Sex Essay! The second mode is to bequeath it for public purposes after death. The third mode is to administer one’s wealth during the study on social networking in our lives life of its possessor. Carnegie considers the first mode as the least effective. According to him, this mode does not bring in case study design of experiments the profit neither to the state nor to the children of decedents.
As for the second mode, it is believed to on social networking lives be better, but riskier. Society usually does not approve people who do it for they look as greedy ones. Carnegie believes that it is fair to impose taxes on the rich people, who do not wish to share it with the society while being alive. The purpose of fair wealth distribution is to be “by far most fruitful for on amitabh the people”. Case Study On Social In Our! Therefore, the wisest mode of wealth distribution is to use wealth during the life of its possessors. Carnegie approves is as “the true antidote for the temporary unequal distribution of wealth”. This mode contributes to the reconciliation of the rich and the poor, and a reign of harmony.
Thus, fortunes accumulated by the few and spent for the public purposes can benefit poor people more than if it had been distributed in small sums to the people themselves. These are the preconditions for the ideal state for surplus wealth of the few becomes the property of the many. Reich, in turn, does not have a concern in the wealth distribution in the modern world. He makes some predictions about future wealth distribution among the second group of in-servers. Particularly, expectations are that the life-expectancy will lengthen in the future, and case study the number of octogenarians will triple. Case Study! All these old-timers will need additional medical help. Reich even states that there might be a booming market for euthanasia specialists (Jacobus 430). Thus, inperson services will be in strong demand. Nevertheless, Reich warns that these people will not be able to pay for these services due to the lack of relationship money. They would have used up their personal savings years before. Having a wide range of healthcare jobs, inperson servers of the 21 st century will be bound to give their earnings to the state.
Thus, talking about money distribution, Reich puts it next way. The in-person workers can get some part of wealth only thanks to their clients. They will depend mostly on the value that their customers will add to the world economy. Hence, Reich does not explore the issue of the proper mode of administering wealth. Moreover, he rather cares about “how to make large amounts of money by case in our lives moving large amounts of money”. As the purchasing power of American workers became far less relevant to its economic survival, the issue of proper wealth distribution loses its urgency. Society is no longer bothered with sharing surplus wealth problem.
Consequently, rich do not have an obligation to administer surplus wealth to the poor. It seems that Carnegie and beatrice Reich discuss different notions of growth. For Carnegie, the social and on social lives economic growth is important. Primarily, few magnates have to homework appear to be able to help the other members of society to progress as well. It is the way the whole society benefits. Hence, there are two levels of development for Carnegie, personal and social. They in case in our turn lead to economic growth and state prosperity. On the other hand, Reich talks about private career growth. People do not unite their efforts for the sake of society and essay common good. People only care about the quality of their work.
Different classes may have different possibilities, but they do everything for their own sake only. Thus, nothing can be done to provide state prosperity and social wealth. Additionally, Carnegie believes the concentration of case study in our lives capital is voting experience essay essential for societal progress and should be encouraged. For Reich, private capital is case in our increasingly global and unattached, while a human capital is the only one resource on which the nation’s standard of anti premarital living depends. These are the public investments that have to be the cornerstone of economic policy (Reich 203). After this one can conclude that though over hundred years passed the issue of distribution of study on social lives wealth in America is still relevant today. Works of Andrew Carnegie and Robert Reich demonstrate common and different views towards the question of wealth and poverty. Being written in 19 th and 20 th centuries they remain applicable to the current economic status of America today.
Their writings also allow to estimate contemporary economical situation better and to grasp the idea about economics concepts of their time.
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Chapter 3: Architectural Patterns and Styles. For more details of the case on social networking topics covered in this guide, see Contents of the Guide. This chapter describes and discusses high level patterns and principles commonly used for applications today. Case Study Design? These are often referred to as the on social networking architectural styles , and include patterns such as client/server, layered architecture, component-based architecture, message bus architecture, and beatrice service-oriented architecture (SOA). For each style, you will find an overview, key principles, major benefits, and information that will help you choose the appropriate architectural styles for your application. It is case study on social networking in our important to understand that the styles describe different aspects of applications. For example, some architectural styles describe deployment patterns, some describe structure and design issues, and others describe communication factors.
Therefore, a typical application will usually use a combination of more than one of the styles described in aol helper this chapter. An architectural style, sometimes called an architectural pattern, is a set of principles—a coarse grained pattern that provides an abstract framework for a family of systems. An architectural style improves partitioning and promotes design reuse by providing solutions to frequently recurring problems. Study On Social Lives? You can think of aol helper homework, architecture styles and patterns as sets of principles that shape an study networking, application. Garlan and homework Shaw define an architectural style as: “#2026a; family of systems in terms of a pattern of structural organization.
More specifically, an case on social in our lives, architectural style determines the beatrice vocabulary of components and connectors that can be used in instances of that style, together with a set of constraints on how they can be combined. Case On Social Lives? These can include topological constraints on architectural descriptions (e.g., no cycles). Other constraints—say, having to premarital sex essay, do with execution semantics—might also be part of the style definition.” An understanding of architectural styles provides several benefits. The most important benefit is that they provide a common language. Case Study Networking? They also provide opportunities for conversations that are technology agnostic. This facilitates a higher level of conversation that is inclusive of patterns and principles, without getting into specifics. For example, by using architecture styles, you can talk about client/server versus n -tier. Essay? Architectural styles can be organized by their key focus area. The following table lists the major areas of focus and the corresponding architectural styles.
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Message Bus. Client/Server, N-Tier, 3-Tier. Domain Driven Design. Component-Based, Object-Oriented, Layered Architecture. Summary of study lives, Key Architectural Styles.
The following table lists the essay on amitabh common architectural styles described in this chapter. It also contains a brief description of each style. Networking In Our? Later sections of this chapter contain more details of each style, as well as guidance to help you choose the appropriate ones for your application. Segregates the system into two applications, where the client makes requests to the server. In many cases, the server is a database with application logic represented as stored procedures. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces. Domain Driven Design. An object-oriented architectural style focused on be specific natalie modeling a business domain and defining business objects based on entities within the business domain. Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups (layers). An architecture style that prescribes use of case study on social in our, a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to know specific details about each other.
Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer. A design paradigm based on division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Refers to applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and case design messages. The architecture of a software system is study networking almost never limited to a single architectural style, but is often a combination of architectural styles that make up the complete system.
For example, you might have a SOA design composed of services developed using a layered architecture approach and an object-oriented architecture style. A combination of natalie thesis statement, architecture styles is also useful if you are building a public facing Web application, where you can achieve effective separation of concerns by using the layered architecture style. This will separate your presentation logic from case in our lives your business logic and your data access logic. Your organization's security requirements might force you to deploy the application using either the 3-tier deployment approach, or a deployment of more than three tiers. Beatrice And Benedick? The presentation tier may be deployed to the perimeter network, which sits between an lives, organization's internal network and an external network. On your presentation tier, you may decide to aol helper homework, use a separated presentation pattern (a type of layered design style), such as Model-View-Controller (MVC), for your interaction model. You might also choose a SOA architecture style, and study networking implement message-based communication, between your Web server and application server. If you are building a desktop application, you may have a client that sends requests to a program on the server. In this case, you might deploy the client and server using the client/server architecture style, and use the component-based architecture style to decompose the design further into independent components that expose the appropriate communication interfaces. Using the object-oriented design approach for these components will improve reuse, testability, and and benedick essay flexibility.
Many factors will influence the architectural styles you choose. These factors include the capacity of your organization for design and implementation; the capabilities and experience of your developers; and your infrastructure and case study on social in our organizational constraints. Anti Sex Essay? The following sections will help you to determine the appropriate styles for your applications. The client/server architectural style describes distributed systems that involve a separate client and server system, and a connecting network. The simplest form of client/server system involves a server application that is accessed directly by multiple clients, referred to as a 2-Tier architectural style. Historically, client/server architecture indicated a graphical desktop UI application that communicated with a database server containing much of the business logic in case study in our lives the form of stored procedures, or with a dedicated file server. More generally, however, the aol helper client/server architectural style describes the relationship between a client and one or more servers, where the client initiates one or more requests (perhaps using a graphical UI), waits for replies, and processes the replies on receipt. The server typically authorizes the user and then carries out the processing required to generate the result.
The server may send responses using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information to the client. Today, some examples of the client/server architectural style include Web browser—based programs running on the Internet or an intranet; Microsoft Windows® operating system—based applications that access networked data services; applications that access remote data stores (such as e-mail readers, FTP clients, and database query tools); and tools and utilities that manipulate remote systems (such as system management tools and network monitoring tools). Other variations on the client/server style include: Client-Queue-Client systems . This approach allows clients to communicate with other clients through a server-based queue. Clients can read data from and send data to case study networking lives, a server that acts simply as a queue to store the data. Be Specific Natalie? This allows clients to distribute and case on social networking in our lives synchronize files and information.
This is sometimes known as a passive queue architecture. Homework? Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications . Developed from the Client-Queue-Client style, the study on social networking P2P style allows the client and server to swap their roles in order to distribute and be specific statement synchronize files and information across multiple clients. It extends the client/server style through multiple responses to requests, shared data, resource discovery, and resilience to removal of peers. Application servers . A specialized architectural style where the server hosts and executes applications and services that a thin client accesses through a browser or specialized client installed software. An example is a client executing an application that runs on the server through a framework such as Terminal Services. The main benefits of the client/server architectural style are: Higher security . All data is on social stored on the server, which generally offers a greater control of security than client machines. Centralized data access . Because data is stored only on the server, access and updates to the data are far easier to administer than in study design other architectural styles. Ease of maintenance . Roles and case study networking lives responsibilities of a computing system are distributed among several servers that are known to each other through a network. This ensures that a client remains unaware and unaffected by a server repair, upgrade, or relocation. Consider the client/server architectural style if your application is homework server based and will support many clients, you are creating Web-based applications exposed through a Web browser, you are implementing business processes that will be used by people throughout the organization, or you are creating services for other applications to consume.
The client/server architectural style is also suitable, like many networked styles, when you want to centralize data storage, backup, and management functions, or when your application must support different client types and different devices. However, the traditional 2-Tier client/server architectural style has numerous disadvantages, including the study in our tendency for application data and business logic to anti premarital, be closely combined on the server, which can negatively impact system extensibility and scalability, and its dependence on case networking lives a central server, which can negatively impact system reliability. To address these issues, the voting experience client-server architectural style has evolved into the more general 3-Tier (or N-Tier) architectural style, described below, which overcomes some of the disadvantages inherent in the 2-Tier client-server architecture and provides additional benefits. Component-Based Architectural Style. Component-based architecture describes a software engineering approach to case study on social lives, system design and development. It focuses on the decomposition of the design into individual functional or logical components that expose well-defined communication interfaces containing methods, events, and properties.
This provides a higher level of essay bachchan, abstraction than object-oriented design principles, and does not focus on issues such as communication protocols and case on social networking in our shared state. The key principle of the component-based style is the use of components that are: Reusable . Components are usually designed to be reused in different scenarios in different applications. However, some components may be designed for experience essay a specific task. Replaceable . Components may be readily substituted with other similar components. Not context specific . Components are designed to operate in different environments and contexts. Specific information, such as state data, should be passed to case on social networking in our, the component instead of being included in or accessed by aol helper the component. Extensible . A component can be extended from case in our lives existing components to provide new behavior.
Encapsulated . Components expose interfaces that allow the caller to use its functionality, and do not reveal details of the internal processes or any internal variables or state. Beatrice And Benedick Relationship? Independent . Components are designed to have minimal dependencies on other components. Therefore components can be deployed into any appropriate environment without affecting other components or systems. Common types of components used in applications include user interface components such as grids and buttons (often referred to as controls ), and helper and utility components that expose a specific subset of functions used in other components. Other common types of components are those that are resource intensive, not frequently accessed, and must be activated using the just-in-time (JIT) approach (common in remoting or distributed component scenarios); and queued components whose method calls may be executed asynchronously using message queuing and store and forward. Components depend upon a mechanism within the platform that provides an environment in which they can execute, often referred to study networking, as component architecture . Short Essay? Examples are the component object model (COM) and case study on social networking the distributed component object model (DCOM) in be specific goldberg thesis statement Windows; and Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) on other platforms.
Component architectures manage the mechanics of locating components and case on social networking lives their interfaces, passing messages or commands between components, and—in some cases—maintaining state. However, the term component is often used in the more basic sense of a constituent part, element, or ingredient . The Microsoft .NET Framework provides support for homework building applications using such a component based approach. For example, this guide discusses business and data components, which are commonly code classes compiled into on social in our lives, .NET Framework assemblies. They execute under the control of the .NET Framework runtime, and there may be more than one such component in each assembly. The following are the main benefits of the component-based architectural style: Ease of deployment . As new compatible versions become available, you can replace existing versions with no impact on the other components or the system as a whole. Be Specific Statement? Reduced cost . The use of third-party components allows you to spread the case in our lives cost of development and maintenance. Ease of development . Anti Premarital Sex Essay? Components implement well-known interfaces to provide defined functionality, allowing development without impacting other parts of the system.
Reusable . The use of reusable components means that they can be used to spread the development and maintenance cost across several applications or systems. Mitigation of technical complexity . Components mitigate complexity through the use of a component container and case on social networking lives its services. Example component services include component activation, lifetime management, method queuing, eventing, and beatrice essay transactions. Design patterns such as the Dependency Injection pattern or the Service Locator pattern can be used to manage dependencies between components, and promote loose coupling and case in our reuse. Such patterns are often used to build composite applications that combine and reuse components across multiple applications. Consider the study component-based architectural style if you already have suitable components or can obtain suitable components from third-party suppliers; your application will predominantly execute procedural-style functions, perhaps with little or no data input; or you want to be able to combine components written in different code languages. Also, consider this style if you want to create a pluggable or composite architecture that allows you to study lives, easily replace and update individual components. Domain Driven Design Architectural Style.
Domain Driven Design (DDD) is an object-oriented approach to designing software based on of experiments the business domain, its elements and behaviors, and the relationships between them. Case Lives? It aims to enable software systems that are a realization of the underlying business domain by defining a domain model expressed in the language of business domain experts. The domain model can be viewed as a framework from which solutions can then be rationalized. To apply Domain Driven Design, you must have a good understanding of the case study of experiments business domain you want to model, or be skilled in acquiring such business knowledge. The development team will often work with business domain experts to model the domain. Architects, developers, and subject matter experts have diverse backgrounds, and in many environments will use different languages to describe their goals, designs and requirements. However, within Domain Driven Design, the whole team agrees to only use a single language that is focused on the business domain, and which excludes any technical jargon. As the core of the on social networking software is the domain model, which is goldberg thesis a direct projection of this shared language, it allows the team to quickly find gaps in case study networking in our the software by analyzing the language around it. Be Specific Natalie Goldberg? The creation of on social, a common language is not merely an goldberg thesis statement, exercise in accepting information from the domain experts and applying it. Quite often, communication problems within development teams are due not only to misunderstanding the language of the on social in our lives domain, but also due to the fact that the domain's language is itself ambiguous.
The Domain Driven Design process holds the goal not only of implementing the language being used, but also improving and refining the language of the domain. This in turn benefits the aol helper software being built, since the case on social in our model is a direct projection of the domain language. In order to help maintain the model as a pure and helpful language construct, you must typically implement a great deal of isolation and encapsulation within the domain model. Consequently, a system based on aol helper homework Domain Driven Design can come at a relatively high cost. While Domain Driven Design provides many technical benefits, such as maintainability, it should be applied only to study in our lives, complex domains where the model and the linguistic processes provide clear benefits in experience essay the communication of case networking, complex information, and in the formulation of a common understanding of the domain. The following are the main benefits of the Domain Driven Design style: Communication . All parties within a development team can use the domain model and the entities it defines to communicate business knowledge and requirements using a common business domain language, without requiring technical jargon.
Extensible . The domain model is often modular and flexible, making it easy to update and extend as conditions and requirements change. Testable . Beatrice Relationship Essay? The domain model objects are loosely coupled and cohesive, allowing them to be more easily tested. Consider DDD if you have a complex domain and study on social lives you wish to improve communication and understanding within your development team, or where you must express the design of an application in aol helper a common language that all stakeholders can understand. DDD can also be an ideal approach if you have large and complex enterprise data scenarios that are difficult to manage using other techniques. For a summary of domain driven design techniques, see Domain Driven Design Quickly at http://www.infoq.com/minibooks/domain-driven-design-quickly. Alternatively, see Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of case in our, Software by Eric Evans (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-12521-5) and Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns by Jimmy Nilsson (Addison-Wesley, ISBN: 0-321-26820-2). Layered architecture focuses on the grouping of related functionality within an application into be specific natalie thesis, distinct layers that are stacked vertically on top of each other. Functionality within each layer is related by study on social networking in our lives a common role or responsibility. Communication between layers is explicit and beatrice and benedick relationship essay loosely coupled. Case Study Networking Lives? Layering your application appropriately helps to support a strong separation of concerns that, in turn, supports flexibility and maintainability.
The layered architectural style has been described as an be specific natalie goldberg thesis statement, inverted pyramid of reuse where each layer aggregates the responsibilities and abstractions of the layer directly beneath it. Case Study On Social Networking In Our? With strict layering, components in one layer can interact only with components in the same layer or with components from the layer directly below it. Natalie Goldberg Thesis? More relaxed layering allows components in a layer to study on social in our lives, interact with components in the same layer or with components in any lower layer. The layers of an application may reside on the same physical computer (the same tier) or may be distributed over natalie thesis separate computers ( n -tier), and the components in each layer communicate with components in other layers through well-defined interfaces. For example, a typical Web application design consists of study networking, a presentation layer (functionality related to the UI), a business layer (business rules processing), and a data layer (functionality related to data access, often almost entirely implemented using high-level data access frameworks). For details of the n-tier application architectural style, see N-Tier / 3-Tier Architectural Style later in this chapter. Common principles for voting experience essay designs that use the layered architectural style include: Abstraction . Layered architecture abstracts the view of the system as whole while providing enough detail to understand the roles and responsibilities of individual layers and the relationship between them.
Encapsulation . No assumptions need to case on social networking in our, be made about data types, methods and properties, or implementation during design, as these features are not exposed at layer boundaries. Clearly defined functional layers . The separation between functionality in short on amitabh bachchan each layer is clear. Case On Social Networking In Our? Upper layers such as the presentation layer send commands to lower layers, such as the business and data layers, and be specific natalie statement may react to events in these layers, allowing data to flow both up and down between the layers. High cohesion . Well-defined responsibility boundaries for each layer, and ensuring that each layer contains functionality directly related to the tasks of that layer, will help to maximize cohesion within the layer. Reusable . Lower layers have no dependencies on higher layers, potentially allowing them to be reusable in on social other scenarios. Loose coupling . Communication between layers is based on abstraction and natalie thesis statement events to provide loose coupling between layers. Examples of case on social lives, layered applications include line-of-business (LOB) applications such as accounting and customer-management systems; enterprise Web-based applications and Web sites, and enterprise desktop or smart clients with centralized application servers for business logic. A number of design patterns support the layered architectural style.
For example, Separated Presentation patterns encompass a range of patterns that the handling of the user's interactions from the UI, the presentation and premarital business logic, and the application data with which the case study on social in our lives user works. Short On Amitabh Bachchan? Separated Presentation allows graphical designers to create a UI while developers generate the code to drive it. Case? Dividing the functionality into separate roles in this way provides increased opportunities to test the behavior of anti premarital sex essay, individual roles. Case On Social In Our? The following are the key principles of the Separated Presentation patterns: Separation of concerns . Separated Presentation patterns divide UI processing concerns into distinct roles; for example, MVC has three roles: the Model, the View, and the Controller. The Model represents data (perhaps a domain model that includes business rules); the View represents the UI; and the Controller handles requests, manipulates the anti premarital model, and performs other operations.
Event-based notification . The Observer pattern is commonly used to case networking lives, provide notifications to the View when data managed by the Model changes. Delegated event handling . Short On Amitabh Bachchan? The controller handles events triggered from the UI controls in the View. Other examples of case in our, Separated Presentation patterns are the Passive View pattern and the Supervising Presenter (or Supervising Controller) pattern. The main benefits of the be specific natalie goldberg thesis layered architectural style, and the use of a Separated Presentation pattern, are: Abstraction . Layers allow changes to case in our lives, be made at the abstract level.
You can increase or decrease the level of abstraction you use in each layer of the hierarchical stack. Isolation . Allows you to isolate technology upgrades to individual layers in order to short on amitabh bachchan, reduce risk and minimize impact on the overall system. Manageability . Separation of core concerns helps to case in our, identify dependencies, and organizes the aol helper homework code into more manageable sections. Performance . Study On Social Networking Lives? Distributing the beatrice layers over study on social lives multiple physical tiers can improve scalability, fault tolerance, and performance. Reusability . Roles promote reusability. For example, in MVC, the Controller can often be reused with other compatible Views in order to provide a role specific or a user-customized view on to the same data and functionality. Testability . Increased testability arises from relationship having well-defined layer interfaces, as well as the ability to switch between different implementations of the layer interfaces. Separated Presentation patterns allow you to build mock objects that mimic the behavior of case on social, concrete objects such as the Model, Controller, or View during testing. Consider the layered architectural style if you have existing layers that are suitable for reuse in other applications, you already have applications that expose suitable business processes through service interfaces, or your application is sex essay complex and the high-level design demands separation so that teams can focus on different areas of functionality. Case On Social Networking Lives? The layered architectural style is also appropriate if your application must support different client types and different devices, or you want to implement complex and/or configurable business rules and processes. Consider a Separated Presentation pattern if you want improved testability and simplified maintenance of UI functionality, or you want to experience essay, separate the task of designing the UI from the development of the logic code that drives it.
These patterns are also appropriate when your UI view does not contain any request processing code, and does not implement any business logic. Message bus architecture describes the principle of using a software system that can receive and send messages using one or more communication channels, so that applications can interact without needing to networking lives, know specific details about each other. It is a style for short essay on amitabh designing applications where interaction between applications is accomplished by passing messages (usually asynchronously) over case on social in our lives a common bus. The most common implementations of message bus architecture use either a messaging router or a Publish/Subscribe pattern, and are often implemented using a messaging system such as Message Queuing. Many implementations consist of individual applications that communicate using common schemas and a shared infrastructure for be specific natalie thesis sending and case study on social networking receiving messages.
A message bus provides the ability to study of experiments, handle: Message-oriented communications . Case Study On Social Lives? All communication between applications is based on beatrice and benedick messages that use known schemas. Complex processing logic . Complex operations can be executed by combining a set of smaller operations, each of which supports specific tasks, as part of a multistep itinerary. Modifications to networking in our lives, processing logic . Study? Because interaction with the bus is based on common schemas and commands, you can insert or remove applications on the bus to change the case study on social networking logic that is essay used to process messages. Integration with different environments . On Social Lives? By using a message-based communication model based on common standards, you can interact with applications developed for different environments, such as Microsoft .NET and Java. Message bus designs have been used to support complex processing rules for case study many years. The design provides a pluggable architecture that allows you to insert applications into study on social networking, the process, or improve scalability by attaching several instances of the same application to the bus. Variations on the message bus style include:
Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) . Based on message bus designs, an ESB uses services for communication between the bus and components attached to the bus. An ESB will usually provide services that transform messages from one format to another, allowing clients that use incompatible message formats to aol helper, communicate with each other Internet Service Bus (ISB) . This is similar to an enterprise service bus, but with applications hosted in the cloud instead of on case study in our lives an enterprise network. Sex Essay? A core concept of ISB is the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) and policies to control the routing of logic through applications and services in the cloud. The main benefits of the message-bus architectural style are: Extensibility . Applications can be added to or removed from the bus without having an impact on the existing applications. Low complexity . Application complexity is reduced because each application only needs to know how to communicate with the bus.
Flexibility . The set of applications that make up a complex process, or the communication patterns between applications, can be changed easily to match changes in business or user requirements, simply through changes to the configuration or parameters that control routing. Loose coupling . Lives? As long as applications expose a suitable interface for natalie goldberg communication with the study on social networking in our lives message bus, there is no dependency on the application itself, allowing changes, updates, and replacements that expose the same interface. Scalability . Multiple instances of the same application can be attached to experience, the bus in order to case networking in our lives, handle multiple requests at the same time. Application simplicity . Anti Sex Essay? Although a message bus implementation adds complexity to the infrastructure, each application needs to support only a single connection to the message bus instead of multiple connections to other applications. Consider the message bus architectural style if you have existing applications that interoperate with each other to study on social networking in our, perform tasks, or you want to beatrice relationship, combine multiple tasks into a single operation. This style is study lives also appropriate if you are implementing a task that requires interaction with external applications, or applications hosted in different environments. N-tier and 3-tier are architectural deployment styles that describe the separation of be specific natalie goldberg, functionality into segments in networking in our much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier that can be located on a physically separate computer. They evolved through the component-oriented approach, generally using platform specific methods for communication instead of a message-based approach. N-tier application architecture is characterized by the functional decomposition of applications, service components, and their distributed deployment, providing improved scalability, availability, manageability, and resource utilization. Short? Each tier is case study on social networking in our completely independent from natalie goldberg thesis all other tiers, except for those immediately above and study on social in our below it. The nth tier only has to know how to handle a request from the n+1th tier, how to forward that request on aol helper homework to the case lives n-1th tier (if there is one), and sex essay how to handle the results of the request.
Communication between tiers is typically asynchronous in order to support better scalability. N-tier architectures usually have at least three separate logical parts, each located on a separate physical server. Each part is responsible for specific functionality. When using a layered design approach, a layer is deployed on case networking in our lives a tier if more than one service or application is dependent on the functionality exposed by relationship the layer. An example of the N-tier/3-tier architectural style is case on social networking lives a typical financial Web application where security is important. Study Design? The business layer must be deployed behind a firewall, which forces the deployment of the presentation layer on a separate tier in networking in our lives the perimeter network. Another example is a typical rich client connected application, where the essay presentation layer is deployed on client machines and the business layer and data access layer are deployed on one or more server tiers.
The main benefits of the case study in our lives N-tier/3-tier architectural style are: Maintainability . Because each tier is independent of the other tiers, updates or changes can be carried out without affecting the application as a whole. Scalability . Because tiers are based on the deployment of layers, scaling out an application is reasonably straightforward. Flexibility . Because each tier can be managed or scaled independently, flexibility is increased. Availability . Applications can exploit the modular architecture of enabling systems using easily scalable components, which increases availability. Consider either the N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style if the processing requirements of the case design of experiments layers in the application differ such that processing in one layer could absorb sufficient resources to slow the processing in other layers, or if the study networking lives security requirements of the aol helper layers in the application differ. For example, the presentation layer should not store sensitive data, while this may be stored in the business and data layers. The N-tier or the 3-tier architectural style is also appropriate if you want to be able to share business logic between applications, and you have sufficient hardware to allocate the required number of servers to each tier. Consider using just three tiers if you are developing an intranet application where all servers are located within the on social lives private network; or an Internet application where security requirements do not restrict the deployment of business logic on the public facing Web or application server. Homework? Consider using more than three tiers if security requirements dictate that business logic cannot be deployed to the perimeter network, or the application makes heavy use of resources and you want to offload that functionality to another server.
Object-Oriented Architectural Style. Object-oriented architecture is a design paradigm based on the division of responsibilities for an application or system into individual reusable and study on social networking lives self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. An object-oriented design views a system as a series of study design, cooperating objects, instead of a set of routines or procedural instructions. Study On Social Networking In Our? Objects are discrete, independent, and be specific goldberg thesis statement loosely coupled; they communicate through interfaces, by in our calling methods or accessing properties in other objects, and by sending and receiving messages. The key principles of the object-oriented architectural style are: Abstraction . This allows you to reduce a complex operation into a generalization that retains the base characteristics of the operation. For example, an premarital sex essay, abstract interface can be a well-known definition that supports data access operations using simple methods such as Get and study on social Update . Another form of abstraction could be metadata used to provide a mapping between two formats that hold structured data. Composition . Objects can be assembled from other objects, and can choose to study of experiments, hide these internal objects from other classes or expose them as simple interfaces. Inheritance . Objects can inherit from other objects, and use functionality in the base object or override it to implement new behavior. Moreover, inheritance makes maintenance and updates easier, as changes to the base object are propagated automatically to the inheriting objects.
Encapsulation . Objects expose functionality only through methods, properties, and events, and hide the internal details such as state and variables from other objects. This makes it easier to update or replace objects, as long as their interfaces are compatible, without affecting other objects and code. Polymorphism . This allows you to override the study on social in our lives behavior of a base type that supports operations in your application by anti premarital implementing new types that are interchangeable with the existing object. Case Study Networking In Our Lives? Decoupling . Objects can be decoupled from the consumer by defining an abstract interface that the object implements and the consumer can understand. This allows you to essay on amitabh, provide alternative implementations without affecting consumers of the interface. Common uses of the object-oriented style include defining an object model that supports complex scientific or financial operations, and case study lives defining objects that represent real world artifacts within a business domain (such as a customer or an order). Study Design Of Experiments? The latter is a process commonly implemented using the more specialized domain driven design style, which takes advantage of the principles of the on social in our object-oriented style.
For more information, see Domain Driven Design Architectural Style earlier in this chapter. The main benefits of the aol helper homework object-oriented architectural style are that it is: Understandable . Networking In Our Lives? It maps the relationship essay application more closely to the real world objects, making it more understandable. Reusable . It provides for reusability through polymorphism and abstraction. Testable . It provides for improved testability through encapsulation. Study Lives? Extensible . Encapsulation, polymorphism, and abstraction ensure that a change in the representation of data does not affect the study design of experiments interfaces that the object exposes, which would limit the capability to communicate and case study on social in our interact with other objects. Highly Cohesive . By locating only related methods and features in an object, and using different objects for different sets of features, you can achieve a high level of cohesion.
Consider the object-oriented architectural style if you want to model your application based on real world objects and actions, or you already have suitable objects and classes that match the design and operational requirements. Natalie Thesis? The object-oriented style is case study on social networking in our also suitable if you must encapsulate logic and data together in reusable components or you have complex business logic that requires abstraction and short essay on amitabh bachchan dynamic behavior. Service-Oriented Architectural Style. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) enables application functionality to be provided as a set of services, and the creation of applications that make use of software services. Services are loosely coupled because they use standards-based interfaces that can be invoked, published, and discovered. Services in SOA are focused on providing a schema and message-based interaction with an case in our, application through interfaces that are application scoped, and not component or object-based. An SOA service should not be treated as a component-based service provider. The SOA style can package business processes into interoperable services, using a range of protocols and data formats to communicate information. Clients and other services can access local services running on be specific thesis statement the same tier, or access remote services over a connecting network. The key principles of the SOA architectural style are:
Services are autonomous . Each service is maintained, developed, deployed, and versioned independently. Services are distributable . Case Networking Lives? Services can be located anywhere on a network, locally or remotely, as long as the network supports the required communication protocols. Services are loosely coupled . Each service is independent of others, and can be replaced or updated without breaking applications that use it as long as the interface is still compatible. Services share schema and contract, not class . Services share contracts and schemas when they communicate, not internal classes. Compatibility is based on policy . On Amitabh Bachchan? Policy in networking in our this case means definition of case, features such as transport, protocol, and security. Common examples of service-oriented applications include sharing information, handling multistep processes such as reservation systems and online stores, exposing industry specific data or services over an extranet, and creating mashups that combine information from multiple sources. The main benefits of the SOA architectural style are:
Domain alignment . Reuse of common services with standard interfaces increases business and case study on social technology opportunities and homework reduces cost. Case Networking? Abstraction . Services are autonomous and accessed through a formal contract, which provides loose coupling and abstraction. Discoverability . Anti Premarital Sex Essay? Services can expose descriptions that allow other applications and services to locate them and automatically determine the interface. Interoperability . Because the protocols and data formats are based on industry standards, the provider and consumer of the service can be built and deployed on different platforms. Rationalization . Services can be granular in order to provide specific functionality, rather than duplicating the networking in our functionality in number of applications, which removes duplication. Consider the be specific thesis SOA style if you have access to suitable services that you wish to in our lives, reuse; can purchase suitable services provided by a hosting company; want to build applications that compose a variety of services into a single UI; or you are creating Software plus Services (S+S), Software as a Service (SaaS), or cloud-based applications. On Amitabh? The SOA style is suitable when you must support message-based communication between segments of the application and study in our expose functionality in a platform independent way, when you want to take advantage of federated services such as authentication, or you want to aol helper homework, expose services that are discoverable through directories and can be used by clients that have no prior knowledge of the interfaces. Evans, Eric.
Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in the Heart of Software. On Social Networking In Our Lives? Addison-Wesley, 2004. Nilsson, Jimmy. Applying Domain-Driven Design and Patterns: With Examples in C# and NET. Addison-Wesley, 2006. For more information about natalie thesis statement, architectural styles, see the following resources:
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Fax Cover Sheets (How-To + 29 Templates) Even though the very first fax machine was made in 1842, today, fax machines are still not considered relics of the past. There are 17 million fax machines in study networking the U.S. alone, and 17 billion faxes are sent worldwide each year! At many jobs or internships, you may need to send faxes. Let’s take a look at why the fax machine is goldberg still thriving, and on social networking in our lives what you need to know about faxes and fax cover sheets. Below, you’ll find our free fax cover sheet templates, which you can download and print to make sending a fax easy. Online faxing has provided a new way to send faxes, but many still send them the old-fashioned way.
First, it’s a means of transmitting information using a method that’s accepted worldwide. Many places still have unreliable internet service. Smaller or older businesses may not want to invest in an expensive computer or tablet, so they send documents by goldberg thesis statement fax. Case On Social Lives? In an office with limited access to computers or the Internet, a fax machine is helpful. Fax machines are also very reliable and case study design of experiments secure. Unlike some email or online message systems, a fax machine will tell you if the fax has been sent successfully. Case Study Lives? A fax will hold up in essay bachchan court, where an email might not, and networking lives a traditional fax machine can’t be hacked the way an email can.
In fact, some places require the natalie goldberg, use of a fax machine for those reasons. For example, if you’re working in a medical office, there’s a good chance you will use a fax machine. Also, HIPAA laws require privacy, and faxing is usually the safest option. It’s a good idea to learn how to send a fax. There are two ways to send faxes today: with a fax machine, and online. How to Send a Fax with Fax Machine. First, you will put the document in the document feeder of the fax machine. An icon on the machine itself should show you which way the paper needs to be facing. The folded corner in the icon indicates whether the fax machine reads the underside or the top side of the document, thus directing you to place the study on social networking in our, paper into the machine face up or face down.
Next, you’ll enter the fax number you’re sending the document to. Then, press the “Send” button. The button may look different from one fax machine to another: it might be a green button, or have “Go” or “Start” on be specific goldberg thesis statement it. Some fax machines will give you a confirmation page once the complete fax is on social in our received. Otherwise, you will just wait until the fax is done scanning and transmitting. The document that comes through on the recipient’s side will be an exact copy of the one you just sent.
Finally, take the original document and keep it or dispose of it–if it’s sensitive information, it may need to be shredded. Different types of fax machines can have additional features. Case Study Design Of Experiments? Some work as a copy machine, scanner, or printer. Some allow you to schedule faxes to be sent later. Study In Our Lives? Ones with large memory and paper capacity may be able to send multiple documents in case study design of experiments a queue. There might also be a password you need to enter before you can send a fax. Today you can actually send a fax over the internet using your laptop, tablet, or smartphone. Using an online fax app is simple. Open the study on social in our, app or program, choose a file or enter the text you would like to send as a fax, and beatrice and benedick essay enter the necessary contact information, such as an email address.
Then select “Send” and wait for networking the app to alert you that the fax has gone through. Anti Sex Essay? The app will likely send your fax as an image or a PDF. With some online fax apps, you can not only send and on social networking in our lives receive faxes from your phone or other device, but sign and be specific thesis statement edit them as well. A fax cover sheet is an informational document that you send with a fax. You will position the cover sheet as the case networking in our lives, first sheet of the voting experience essay, fax, so that it gets received first.
Both traditional and online faxes can require a cover sheet. It is considered more professional to include a cover sheet with a fax. That way, all the case on social lives, necessary information is essay bachchan easy for the recipient to locate. You can ask at your job or internship whether they expect faxes to case study on social in our be sent with a cover sheet. What Should a Fax Cover Sheet Include? A fax cover sheet contains important information that needs to be organized and relationship essay easy to read quickly. Study In Our Lives? It identifies who the sender of the fax is, who it is intended for, and includes contact information for both parties. Study Design? This helps ensure the fax ends up in the right hands, and case study on social in our lives that the sender can be contacted easily.
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We have cover sheet templates for every need, whether it’s simple or stylish. Be Specific Goldberg Thesis Statement? Take a look and see which ones are best for you. Generic Fax Cover Sheet Templates. This fax-cover sheet uses wide margins for a clean look. Sender and receiver details are centered on the page, and plenty of room is given for a message or instructions. Size: 183 B Downloads: 275 Filename: Simple-Cover-Sheet.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:32:00 / 88801.
Sender and receiver details are organized with clean horizontal lines. Good for business or professional faxes, with four checkboxes for case on social networking lives message categorization by urgency and essay plenty of case networking in our lives space for messages. Size: 183 B Downloads: 164 Filename: Basic-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:29:00 / 88789. While this basic template lacks sender information, it has plenty of room for case study a message or additional instructions at study on social networking in our lives, the bottom of the page. Size: 58 KB Downloads: 136 Filename: Classic-Bordered.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:26:00 / 88768.
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