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Reflective essay on group work presentation

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Atmosphere: Essay on reflective work Atmosphere (1560 Words) Read this essay to learn about Atmosphere, Composition of do you underline essay, Atmosphere and Energy Balance in Atmosphere ! Atmosphere is a multi-layered envelope of different gases (just like a protective blanket) surrounding the earth which holds up life on earth and saves it from harmful environment of reflective essay on group work, outer space. It extends to a height of about 1600 kms from the earth#8217;s sur­face. Depending upon the physical characteristics such as tempera­ture, density etc., the atmosphere is divided into five concentric layers. Essay Telephone. (d) Thermosphere or Ionosphere; The lowermost layer of the atmosphere which is reflective essay on group work presentation, closest to the surface of the research social sciences, earth is known as tropo­sphere. All the living organisms depend upon this layer for their survival. Reflective. It ranges from 8 kms. (near the pole) to 18 kms. (near the equator). This zone contains mostly nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) along with traces of other inert gases. Troposphere is characterised by a steady decrease in tempera­ture with increase in height at the rate of about 6.5 °C per km. At the student health essay, uppermost layer of the on group, troposphere, the temperature may go down to -60 °C.

A thin layer at the top of troposphere whose temperature is essay invention telephone, around -60 °C and essay, which separates troposphere from stratosphere is do you underline in an essay, known as tropopause. Some important operations taking place in this sphere are as follows: (i) Movement of matter in between the environment and organism. (ii) Changes in on group work presentation the weather and climatic conditions. The atmospheric layer lying above tropopause is known as stratosphere. The thickness of strato­sphere is about 62 kms at the equator, 72 kms at the poles and essay telephone, extends upto 80 kms from the surface of the earth. The tempera­ture of this layer varies between -55 ° C to 5 ° C and it increases with the increase in altitude.

This layer is devoid of any water vapour, clouds of dust; however, sometimes thin clouds com­posed of tiny ice crystals may be seen. The major component of this layer is called as ozonosphere within stratosphere. Reflective Essay. Ozone is health, prepared by photo-chemical reaction of oxygen as per the equa­tions given below: O z + Solar energy > 2O. The ozone layer acts as an umbrella and absorbs ultra-violet r ays of sun. Hence it protects the living world from the harmful effect of UV radiation. Indeed the reason that stratosphere becomes warmer with increasing distance from the earth is that the UV-radiation absorbed by ozone is transformed into heat. Besides ozone, the other chemical species present within stratosphere are: nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), nascent oxygen (O), etc.

Mesosphere is above stratosphere and it extends up to 80-90 kms above the earth#8217;s surface. Essay Work Presentation. The tempera­ture of this layer decreases with the describing place, increase in altitude and reflective on group work, reaches the minimum of -95 °C at the highest border. The layer at essay invention telephone, which the temperature becomes -95 °C is known as mesopause. Lower temperature at mesopause is attributed to the lower mag­nitude of UV-radiation. The chemical species present within mesosphere may be nitrogen (M 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), nitric oxide (NO) etc. This layer is also characterised by very low pressure. Essay Presentation. (d) Ionosphere or Thermosphere: This layer is do you, above the mesosphere and it extends up to 500 kms above the earth#8217;s sur­face.

With increase in altitude, the temperature of this layer in­creases. The UV and cosmic radiation of sun causes ionisation of the molecules or atoms present within this layer, giving a large number of ions such as oxygen molecule cation (O 2 + ), oxygen atom cation (O + ), nitrosonium ion (NO + ), etc. Since this layer contains a number of ions, it is known as iono­sphere. The ions reflect radio wave back to earth surface and thus enable us to have wireless communication. Since this layer con­tains mostly ions which are widely spaced, high frequency audio sound waves cannot be carried. The topmost layer of the atmosphere above thermosphere is known as exosphere or outer space. This layer extends upto 1600 kms from the on group, earth#8217;s surface. Since it is nearer to student health, the sun, its temperature is reflective on group, very high. It contains only atoms, like hydrogen, helium etc. Atmosphere is the thick protective gaseous mantle surrounding earth which sustains life on earth and student essay, saves it from hostile environment of on group presentation, outer space.

It is a thick layer of odourless, colourless and tasteless gases held to the earth by the force of format, gravity. The entire atmosphere can be divided into three categories of constituent namely major components, minor components and trace components. According to Barry and Chorley (1976), the major components mainly contain nitrogen, oxygen and essay on group work, water vapours, the minor components contain argon and carbon dioxide, and on law and order, trace components contain gases like neon, helium, methane, krypton, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, xenon, sulphur dioxide, ozone, ammonia, carbon monoxide, iodine etc. The quantity of different gases vary considerably with attitude. Reflective Work. The density of the atmosphere exhibits a sharp decrease with increasing altitude. Pressure decreases from one atmosphere at the sea level to 3 x 10 -7 atmosphere at 100 km above sea level. Similarly temperature varies from -100°C to 1200 ° C. The total mass of the atmosphere is approximately 5x 10 15 tonnes which is invention telephone, nearly about one millionth of the earth#8217;s total mass.

The temperature profile of atmosphere is shown in Fig. 7.1. The sun is the great engine (source of energy) that drives winds on the earth#8217;s atmosphere, ocean currents, exogenetic or denudational processes and sustains life in the biosphere. The solar flux incident on earth#8217;s upper atmosphere is 1340 watts nr 2 min -1 . If all this energy was absorbed by the earth, then it would have evaporated long ago.But there are various complex mechanisms by means of which the earth manages to maintain its energy balance within narrow limits and essay presentation, thereby retains optimum climatic conditions for do you underline movies essay, supporting life. The earth absorbs about 65% of the solar energy incident on it (i.e. 19.5 k cal m -2 min -1 ) while it scatters back into outer space 35% (albedo) of the solar energy. The energy transport plays a crucial role in the earth#8217;s radiation balance which proceeds through mainly three mechanisms: (a) Radiation of energy in the infrared region from earth. (b) Conduction of energy through the interactions of atoms and molecules. (c) Convection of energy through massive air circulation. The latter two mechanisms are responsible for loss of heat from earth#8217;s surface through transport to cloud, and reflective essay work presentation, consequent radiation from the cloud. Essay Telephone. Out of the incoming shot wavelength solar radiations (100%) 35% is sent back to essay on group work presentation, the outer space (27% reflected from the clouds + 2% reflected from the ground + 6% scattered from the dust particles in atmosphere and format research, sent back to space = 35%), 51 % is absorbed by the earth#8217;s surface (17% from work presentation diffused daylight + 34% received from direct radiation) and 14% is absorbed by the atmosphere. The earth after receiving energy also radiates energy out of its surface into the atmosphere through long waves.

Thus, 23% energy (out of 51 %) is lost through direct long wave outgoing terrestrial radiation, 9% is spent in convection and turbulence and bakos resume, 19% is spent through evaporation. The atmosphere receives 14% of incoming solar radiation and reflective essay on group work presentation, 34% from earth#8217;s surface through various processes. Thus, the total energy received by the atmosphere from the sun and earth becomes 48% which is bakos resume, sent back to outer space: The earth receives energy directly from the sun but the atmosphere receives most of its heat energy from the earth#8217;s radiation. It may be noted that the atmosphere is more or less transparent to shortwave solar radiation and thus behaves like window glass- panes which allow the sunlight to come inside the room but stops the long wavelength radiations (infrared radiation) to escape from the room. Similarly, the atmosphere allows the solar radiation to reach earth’s surface but prevents the outflow of long wavelength terrestrial infrared radiation from the lower atmosphere. Reflective. This effect of atmosphere is called green house effect which helps in maintaining the climate and temperature on the earth#8217;s surface. Underline Movies. The average surface temperature of the earth is maintained around 15 ° C due to essay on group work, the absorption of most of the infrared radiation (2-40 ΅) by water vapour (4-8 ΅) and carbon dioxide (12-16.3΅).

Increasing agricultural and industrial outputs can bring about a drastic change in essay a beautiful place earth#8217;s radiation balance by changing the magnitude of sunlight reflected and scattered back to the atmosphere (albedo). Deforestation, soil erosion, etc. also contribute significantly to earth#8217;s energy balance. The loading of particles in the atmosphere either due to natural processes or due to reflective essay on group work, anthropogenic activities lowers the atmospheric temperature through increased scattering of solar radiation. Dark particles can absorb light whereas light particles reflect light. The former helps in the heating of the earth#8217;s atmosphere while the latter removes heat. The autotrophs of the biosphere use only do you movies in an essay, 0.02% of total energy budget of on group work presentation, biosphere for the preparation of their food through photosynthesis.

The radiation balance of the earth and its atmosphere is shown in Fig. 7.2 and a simplified global radiation/heat budget of the earth and the atmosphere is given in Table 7.1. Format Research Paper Sciences. Table 7.1: Energy Balance in Atmosphere: Leave a Reply Click here to reflective essay presentation, cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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Soft Tissue Repair and Healing Review. The inflammatory and repair processes are no longer simple events to describe in the light of the ever increasing knowledge in this field. This review is only a brief resume of the reflective work salient events associated with tissue repair, with an emphasis on the soft tissues rather than the classical 'wounds' approach. I have covered the electrical stimulation modalities for wound healing (ulcers, pressure sores etc) elsewhere (Watson, 2008). Tissue healing (or tissue repair) refers to on law and order, the body's replacement of destroyed tissue by living tissue (Walter and Israel 1987) and comprises two essential components - Regeneration and essay work presentation, Repair. The differentiation between the two is based on the resultant tissue. In Regeneration, specialised tissues is replaced by student essay, the proliferation of surrounding undamaged specialised cells. In Repair, lost tissue is replaced by granulation tissue which matures to form scar tissue. This review concentrates on the events and processes associated with the Repair process.

The potential for stem cell based therapy to on group, dominate in this field at describing some point in the future raises the possibility of regeneration of the reflective on group work presentation damaged tissue which would be clinically preferable, but as yet this treatment option remains largely lab based, or at social sciences best, experimental in clinical practice. Probably the most straightforward way to describe the healing process (Repair) is to divide it up into presentation, broad stages which are not mutually exclusive and overlap considerably. Do You Underline? There are several different ways to ‘divide up’ the entire process, but the allocation of 4 phases is common and reflective work presentation, will be adopted here these being BLEEDING, INFLAMMATION, PROLIFERATION and REMODELLING . In addition to the historically established texts (Walter and Israel, 1987; Hardy, 1989; Peacock, 1984) some more recent and detailed texts can be found at Serhan et al, 2010; Granger and Senchenkova, 2010; Pitzer, 2006; Broughton et al, 2006). The key information in this paper has been previously published in Watson, 2003; 2006. A brief overview of each phase is presented here before considering them in any detail. Essay Describing Place? Figure 1 refers to a general arrangement of the phases. Figure 1(below) is a gross representation of the key phases of the tissue repair process.

The phases identified are shown as separate entities, though in reality, they are interlinked in a very deliberate way such that one phase acts as a stimulant or initiator for the following phase. Figure 2 indicates the essay on group work integrated reality of repair rather than the bakos resume ‘convenient’ separate phase model. This is a relatively short lived phase, and will occur following injury, trauma or other similar insult. Clearly if there has been no overt injury, this will be of little or no importance, but following soft tissue injury, there will have been some bleeding. The normal time for bleeding to essay work presentation, stop will vary with the nature of the injury and the nature of the format research paper sciences tissue in question. The more vascular tissues (e.g. muscle) will bleed for longer and there will be a greater escape of blood into the tissues. On Group Presentation? Other tissues (e.g. ligament) will bleed less (both in terms of telephone duration and volume). It is reflective work presentation normally cited that the interval between injury and end of bleeding is a matter of a few hours (4-6 hours is often quoted) though this of course is the average duration after the average injury in the average patient. Some tissues may continue to bleed for a significantly longer period, albeit at a significantly reduced rate. The inflammatory phase is an essential component of the essay telephone tissue repair process and reflective essay, is best regarded in this way rather than as an bakos resume, 'inappropriate reaction' to essay presentation, injury.

There are, of essay place course, numerous other initiators of the inflammatory process (e.g. repetitive minor trauma, mechanical irritation), though for the purpose of this paper, the essay presentation injury model will be adopted. The inflammatory phase has a rapid onset (few hours at on law most) and swiftly increases in reflective on group, magnitude to its maximal reaction (1-3 days) before gradually resolving (over the next couple of weeks). It can result in several outcomes (see below) but in terms of tissue repair, it is normal and essential. The onset and resolution are swifter in more vascular tissues and research paper, slower in the relatively poorly vascularised tissues. The alternative initiators of the essay on group work presentation inflammatory events include mechanical irritation, repeated minor trauma, excessive heating and cooling plus others that may be less significant in therapy such as infection and a wide range of autoimmune disorders.

The inflammatory events are essentially the essay a beautiful same whichever 'route' is relevant for the initiation. The proliferative phase essentially involves the generation of the repair material, which for the majority of musculoskeletal injuries, involves the production of scar (collagen) material. The proliferative phase has a rapid onset (24-48 hours) but takes considerably longer to reach its peak reactivity, which is usually between 2-3 weeks post injury (the more vascular the reflective presentation tissue, the shorter the time taken to reach peak proliferative production). This peak in essay invention telephone, activity does not represent the time at which scar production (repair) is complete, but the time phase during which the essay on group presentation bulk of the scar material is formed. The production of format research a final product (a high quality and functional scar) is reflective on group work presentation not achieved until later in the overall repair process.

In general terms it is usually considered that proliferation runs from the first day or two post injury through to health essay, its peak at 2-3 weeks and decreases thereafter through to a matter of several months (typically 4-6) post trauma. The remodelling phase is an often overlooked phase of repair in terms of its importance, especially in the context of therapy and rehabilitation. It is neither swift nor highly reactive, but does result in an organised, quality and functional scar which is capable of behaving in a similar way to the parent tissue (that which it is repairing). The remodelling phase has be widely quoted as starting at around the same time as the peak of the proliferative phase (2-3 weeks post injury), but more recent evidence would support the reflective essay work presentation proposal that the invention remodelling phase actually starts rather earlier than this, and it would be reasonable to consider the start point to be in the first week. The final outcome of these combines events is work that the damaged tissue will be repaired with a scar which is not a ‘like for like’ replacement of the original, but does provide a functional, long term ‘mend’ which is capable of enabling quality recovery from injury. For most patients, this is a process that will occur without the need for do you underline in an drugs, therapy or other intervention. Reflective? It is designed to happen, and for those patients in whom problems are realised, or in whom that magnitude of the damage is sufficient, some ‘help’ may be required in order to facilitate the process. It would be difficult to argue that therapy is ‘essential’ in some sense. The body has an research social, intricately complex and balanced mechanism through which these events are controlled.

It is possible however, that in cases of inhibited response, delayed reactions or repeated trauma, therapeutic intervention is of value. It would also be difficult to argue that there was any need to change the process of tissue repair. Work? If there is an efficient (usually) system through which tissue repair is initiated and controlled, why would there be any reason to change it? The more logical approach would be to facilitate or promote the normality of tissue repair, and a beautiful place, thereby enhance the sequence of work presentation events that take the tissues from their injured to student essay, their ‘normal’ state. This is the argument that will be followed in reflective essay on group, this paper the promotion of normality, rather than trying to achieve a better normality. Essay Describing Place? The best of the available evidence would also support this approach. If the tissue repair process is slowed, stalled or in some way delayed, encouraging the reflective essay on group work presentation 'normal' sequence is the best evidenced way forward. This can be achieved with the same essential techniques as those used for a 'normally' progressing repair sequence, though it may take a 'stronger' or more 'intense' therapy to initiate a tissue response. In therapy practice, our view of tissue repair is somewhat skewed by bakos resume, the patients that are seen. On Group Work Presentation? The majority of patients whose tissues are repairing 'on track' do not need therapy help in order to achieve a quality result. The majority of the patients that arrive in the clinical environment are those for whom the normal repair sequence has been disturbed, has not happened or is in some way delayed.

Most commonly therefore 'normal' musculoskeletal tissue repair is not routinely experienced by many therapists. The mechanism through which therapy can be effective throughout the repair sequence is becoming better understood, though as a general comment, these effects appear to be achieved by 'stimulating' rather than 'changing' the events. Inflammation is a normal and necessary prerequisite to healing (Aller et al, 2006; Hardy 1989; Serhan et al 2010 with Medzhitov (2008) providing an insightful analysis). Following the tissue bleeding which clearly will vary in extent depending on the nature of the damage, a number of substances will remain in the tissues which make a contribution to the later phases. Fibrin and fibronectin form a substratum which is hospitable to the adhesion of various cells. The complex chemically mediated amplification cascade that is responsible for health both the initiation and control of the inflammatory response can be started by numerous events, one of which is trauma. Mechanical irritation, thermal or chemical insult, and a wide variety of immune responses are some of the reflective on group work presentation alternative initiators, and for a wide range of do you in an patients experiencing an inflammatory response in essay on group, the musculoskeletal tissues, these are more readily identified causes. For the purposes of this review, only the traumatic route will be pursued though the key events and control systems involved in an inflammatory response subsequent to mechanical irritation etc are all but identical.

There are two essential elements to the inflammatory events, namely the vascular and cellular cascades. Bakos Resume? Importantly, these occur in parallel and are significantly interlinked. Figure 3 summarises the essential elements of the inflammatory cascade. The chemical mediators that make an active contribution to this process are myriad. They are usefully summarised in several reviews including Jiminez and Jiminez, (2004) and Singer and Clark (1999). Whilst these are clearly not the newest reviews, they do provide a useful background to the topic. Presentation? Smith et al (2008) provide a useful review of the mediators associated with muscle injury, whilst Molloy et al (2003) have reviewed the role of these mediators in relation to student health essay, ligament and tendon injury. Rutkowski et al (2010) review the role of the complement cascade in relation to growth and regeneration. A more detailed account can be found in Serhan et al (2010).

In recent years, the reflective on group identification of numerous cytokines and 'growth factors' had led to several important discoveries and potential new treatment lines (e.g. Wagner et al 2003; Leung et al 2006). The effect of various therapies on the cytokine cascades is becoming more obvious with the increasing volume of research in this field (further reference support in the latter part of this paper). In addition to the vascular changes associated with bleeding, there are also marked changes in the state of the intact vessels. There are changes in the calibre of the blood vessels, changes in student, the vessel wall and in the flow of blood through the reflective essay work vessels. Vasodilation follows an initial but brief vasoconstriction and persists for the duration of the inflammatory response. Flow increases through the main channels and additionally, previously dormant capillaries are opened to increase the volume through the capillary bed. The cause of this dilation is primarily by chemical means (histamine, prostaglandins and complement cascade components C3 and C5 and many others) whilst the axon reflex and autonomic system may exert additional influences. There is an in an, initial increase in velocity of the blood followed by a prolonged slowing of the stream.

The white cells marginate, platelets adhere to essay on group work presentation, the vessel walls and bakos resume, the endothelial cells swell. In addition to on group work presentation, the vasodilation response, there is an increase in the vasopermeability of the local vessels (also mediated by numerous of the chemical mediators), and thus the combination of the essay and order vasodilation and vasopermeability response is that there is an reflective on group, increased flow through vessels which are more ‘leaky’, resulting in an increased exudate production. Figure 3: Key Inflammatory elements. The flow and pressure changes in the vessels allows fluid and the smaller solutes to pass into the tissue spaces. This can occur both at student health essay the arterial and venous ends of the capillary network as the increased hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to overcome the osmotic pressure of the plasma proteins. The vessels show a marked increase in permeability to plasma proteins. There are several phases to the permeability changes but essentially, there is a separation of the endothelial cells, particularly in the venules, and an increased escape of essay work protein rich plasma to the interstitial tissue spaces. The chemical mediators responsible for the permeability changes include histamine, serotonin (5-HT), bradykinin and health, leukotreines together with a potentiating effect from the prostaglandins. The effect of the exudate is to on group work, dilute any irritant substances in the damaged area and due to the high fibrinogen content of the fluid, a fibrin clot can also form, providing an initial union between the surrounding intact tissues and a meshwork which can trap foreign particles and debris. The meshwork also serves as an student essay, aid to phagocytic activity (see below).

Mast cells in reflective essay work presentation, the damaged region release hyaluronic acid and student health, other proteoglycans which bind with the exudate fluid and create a gel which limits local fluid flow, and further traps various particles and debris (Hardy 1989). The cellular components of the inflammatory response include the early emigration (within minutes) of the essay presentation phagocytes (neutrophils; polymorphonucleocytes or PMN's) from the essay and order vessels. This is followed by several other species leaving the main flow, including monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils (Lorena et al 2002) and reflective essay on group, smaller numbers of red cells (though these leave the vessel passively rather than the format research social sciences active emigration of the white cells). Essay On Group Presentation? Monocytes once in the tissue spaces become macrophages (Forrest 1983; Hurst et al, 2001). The main groups of chemical mediators responsible for chemotaxis are some components of the complement cascade, lymphokines, factors released for the PMN's and peptides released from the mast cells in the damaged tissue (Rankin, 2004; Egozi et al 2003; Luster, 1998; Vernon-Roberts 1988). Butterfield et al (2006) usefully consider the beneficial and the potentially detrimental effects of health neutrophila and macrophages in inflammation. The PMN escapees act as early debriders of the wound. Numerous chemical mediators have been identified as having a chemotactic role, for example, PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) released from damaged platelets in the area.

Components of the complement cascade (C3a and C5a), leukotreines (released from a variety of white cells, macrophages and mast cells) and essay on group work presentation, lymphokines (released from polymorphs) have been identified (see Walter and Israel 1987; Vernon-Roberts 1988; Dierich et al 1987; Smith et al 2008) These cells exhibit a strong phagocytic activity and are responsible for the essential tissue debridement role. And Order? Dead and dying cells, fibrin mesh and clot reside all need to be removed. As a ‘bonus’, one of the reflective work chemicals released as an end product of phagocytosis is lactic acid which is one of the stimulants of proliferation the next sequence of events in the repair process. The inflammatory response therefore results in a vascular response, a cellular and fluid exudate, with resulting oedema and phagocytic activation. Bakos Resume? The complex interaction of the chemical mediators not only stimulates various components of the inflammatory phase, but also stimulates the proliferative phase. The course of the inflammatory response will depend upon the number of reflective on group cells destroyed, the original causation of the process and the tissue condition at the time of student health insult. Resolution is a possible outcome at this stage on condition that less than a critical number of reflective essay on group presentation cells have been destroyed. For most patients that come to our attention, this is an unlikely scenario unless tissue irritation rather than overt damage is the initiator.

There is some considerable debate with regard 'micro injury' or 'micro trauma' and essay, whether it leads to a repair event or a resolution. It is possible that they should result in a micro repair, and if the tissues fail to work, respond in this way, the microdamaged tissue fails to mount a repair response, thus resulting in accumulative damage and format research social, possible longer term issues. This debate continues with interesting evidence e.g. Lin et al, 2004; Rompe et al, 2008; Frick and Murthy, 2010; Taljanovic et al, 2011). Figure 4: Inflammatory Outcomes. Suppuration , in the presence of infective micro-organisms will result in reflective work presentation, pus formation. Pus consists of dead cell debris, living, dead and dying polymorphs suspended in the inflammatory exudate. Clearly the presence of an infection will delay the healing of a wound (Zederfelt 1979). Health? Clearly in some areas of clinical practice, infection in the tissues is a key issue. Whilst not ignoring its importance, it will not be considered further in this context. Chronic inflammation does not necessarily imply inflammation of long duration, and may follow a transient or prolonged acute inflammatory stage (Vernon-Roberts 1988).

Essentially there are two forms of chronic inflammation : either the chronic reaction supervenes on the acute reaction or may in fact develop slowly with no initial acute phase (ab initio) (Hurley 1985). Essay On Group Presentation? Chronic inflammation ab initio can have many causes including local irritants, poor circulation, some micro-organisms or immune disturbances. Chronic inflammation is underline in an essay usually more productive than exudative - it produces more fibrous material than inflammatory exudate. Frequently there is some tissue destruction, inflammation and attempted healing occurring simultaneously (Serhan et al, 2010; Metz et al, 2007;Hurly, 1985; Walters and reflective essay, Israel 1987). Healing/ Repair by fibrosis will most likely be taking place in the tissue repair scenario considered here. The fibrin deposits from the inflammatory stage will be partly removed by the fibrinolytic enzymes (from the plasma and PMN's) and telephone, will be gradually replaced by granulation tissue which becomes organised to form the reflective essay work scar tissue. Macrophages are largely responsible for the removal of the format research social sciences fibrin, allowing capillary budding and fibroblastic activity to proceed (proliferation). The greater the volume of damaged tissue, the greater the extent of, and the greater the density of the resulting scar tissue. Chronic inflammation is usually accompanied by some fibrosis even in the absence of significant tissue destruction (e.g.

Hurley 1985; Li et al, 2007) The effects of acute inflammation are largely beneficial. The fluid exudate dilutes the toxins and escaped blood products include antibodies (and systemic drugs). The fibrinogen forms fibrin clots providing a mechanical barrier to the spread of micro-organisms (if present) and additionally assists phagocytosis. The gel like consistency of the essay on group work inflammatory exudate also makes a positive contribution by format research sciences, preventing the spread of the inflammatroy mediators to surrounding, intact tissues. Essay On Group? Transportation of invading bacteria (if present) to underline in an, the lymphatic system stimulates an immune response whilst the increased blood flow contributes to the increased cell metabolism necessary for the proliferative stage by increasing local oxygen content, supply of necessary nutrients and removal of waste products. The leucocytes provide a mechanism for the phagocytosis of foreign material, bacteria, dead cells, with the neutrophils (PMN's) and essay on group, monocytes (becoming macrophages) making the greatest contribution. There are several detrimental aspects of inflammation which deserve mention. Invention Telephone? Firstly the increased local hydrostatic pressure from the oedema can restrict blood flow if the reflective on group presentation injured tissue space is bakos resume limited, produce pain and therefore limit function and additionally reduce local oxygen levels. There have been suggestions that free radicals produced as a result of acute inflammatory responses may have detrimental effects on cell membrane processes as may overproduction of lysosomal enzymes from PMN activity. There are many aspects of the inflammatory events that can be influenced by therapeutic intervention, ranging from the mechanical to reflective work, the biochemical.

There is a growing body of evidence to essay invention, support the effects of manual and exercise therapy on the ‘soup’ of chemical mediators, cytokines and growth factors. Various therapy modalities can also exert influence when applied at appropriate doses e.g. (there are hundreds of these papers - this is a mini selection): Caltrioni et al (2008) link between exercise and plasma glycosaminoglycan levels Fujiwara et al (2005) - mechanical stress and bFGF Handschin and Spiegelman (2008) - exercise and PGC1a Kahn and work, Scott (2009) - mechanical stress and IGF Kido et al (2009) - mechanical stress and IL-11 expression Li et al (2004) Mechanical stretching and fibroblast behaviour Ostrowski et al (2000) link between exercise and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production Takao et al (2011) - mechanical stress and COX-2, interleukin-1β, PGE2. Khanna et al (2009) - LIPUS and a range of cytokine actions reviewed Leung et al (2006) ultrasound and TGF-β in knee ligament healing Li et al (2003) - LIPUS and underline, various cytokines (TNF-a and TGF-β1 and IL-6) McBrier et al (2007) - US and Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) Nussbaum and Locke (2007) - US and Heat Shock Proteins Rego et al (2010) - US and PGE2 synthesis Sugita et al (2008) - US and reflective, nitric oxide (NO) Bjordal et al (2006) - laser therapy and altered prostaglandin levels in place, the tissue (Achilles tendon) Mesquita Ferrari et al (2011) - laser therapy, TNF-a and TGF-β Safavi et al (2008) - laser and a range of inflammatory cytokines Sawasaki et al (2009) - laser and mast cell degranulation Saygun et al (2008) - laser therapy and bFGF and on group work, IGF-1. Zhang et al (2004) demonstrated link between electroacupuncture and peripheral inflammatory responses Sakurai et al (2008) - magnetic fields and prostaglandin E2 secretion. In addition to the ‘classic’ modalities in this regard, it remains possible that small (endogenous) electric currents can exert an influence (e.g.

Watson, 2008). Essay Invention Telephone? The application of microcurrent based therapies is thought to enhance this component of the inflammatory/repair sequence (reviewed in Poltawski and Watson, 2009) and whilst most electrical stimulation modalities do not have a direct influence on the tissue repair sequence, microcurrent based therapies do appear to reflective on group work, be increasingly supported by the research evidence in this regard. The repair process restores tissue continuity by the deposition of repair (scar) tissue. This is initially granulation tissue which matures to telephone, form scar tissue. Reflective Presentation? Repair tissue is essay a connective tissue distinct right from the onset in several ways from the connective tissue native to the site (Forrest 1983).

Interesting recent developments have identified that in reflective on group work, muscle there is a degree of regenerative activity post trauma, linked to the activation of a mechanosensitive growth factor and subsequent activation of muscle satellite (stem) cells (Hill et al 2003). A range of growth factors have been identified as being active in the processes of health essay proliferation, leading again to some new potential treatments (e.g. Hildebrand et al 1998). Reflective Essay On Group Presentation? The source of the majority of these cytokines is the inflammatory phase, thus 'turning off' or limiting the inflammatory events also reduces the signal strength stimulating these proliferative events (e.g. Boursinos et al, 2009; Beck et al, 2005; Dimmen et al, 2009; Radi et al, 2005). Two fundamental processes involved in the repair are fibroplasia and angiogenesis (Figure 5).

The function of the fibroblast is to repair the connective tissue (Vanable 1989). Figure 5: Key Proliferative elements. Fibroblasts appear to migrate to the area from surrounding tissue. Fibroblastic activation appears to social, be chemically mediated, particularly by chemicals released from the macrophages during the inflammatory stage. Fibroblasts migrate into on group presentation, the damaged area and proliferate within the first few days after the tissue damage.

Macrophage Derived Growth Factors (MGDF's) are a complex group of mediators responsible, at least in part for the activation of fibroblasts. Alongside the fibroblastic activation, capillaries in essay invention, the region of the tissue damage bud and grow towards the repair zone. Loops and arcades are formed together with anastamoses which re-establish a blood flow through the region, providing oxygen and nutrients whilst removing metabolic and repair waste products. On Group Work? Oxygen is critical for many of the reparative processes, but especially for collagen production (Vanables 1989, Niinikoski 1980). A wide range of health essay growth factors and chemical mediators have been identified which exert influences on the developing capillaries. Reflective Presentation? These include macrophage derived factors, PDGF, lactic acid and fibroblast growth factor (Vernon-Roberts 1988). Some of these mediators are produced during the inflammatory phase, thus making an student health, essential link between the inflammatory and proliferative phases. There is growing evidence that various therapies are able to (positively) influence these proliferative and angiogenic events include : Azuma et al (2001) demonstrate that LIPUS influences angiogenesis in relation to fracture healing. Reflective On Group Work Presentation? Reher et al (2002) demonstrate influence of ultrasound in relation to NO and PGE2 production.

Zhao et al (2004) demonstrate link between electrical stimulation and angiogenic enhancement by means of VEGF mediated response. Fitzsimmons et al (2008) demonstrate link between pulsed electric fields, chondrocyte activity and nitric oxide pathways . Chao et al (2008) demonstrate links between shockwave therapy, TGF beta and nitric oxide pathways. Rego et al (2010) ultrasound stimulation of prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis. Cheung et al (2011) ultrasound (LIPUS) and angiogenesis in osteoporotic fractures Kuo et al (2009) shockwave therapy increases several cytokines including VEGF in a wound healing model Bossini et al (2009) demonstrate the influence of laser therapy on the angiogenic events in wound repair Lu et al (2008) ultrasound (LIPUS) and VEGF regulation in fracture healing. Granulation tissue invasion follows the 'demolition' phase (when autolytic enzymes are released from PMN's and dead cells) (Walter and describing a beautiful place, Israel 1987). The activation of fibroblasts and capillary budding would normally occur by essay work, about the third day after the tissue insult. The combination of capillary budding and invention, collagen production results in a more vascular than usual repair site. The fibroblasts initially produce predominantly type III collagen which will become type I collagen as the repair matures during remodelling (Walter and Israel 1987). Essay? Fibroblasts also produce fibronectins and essay invention, proteoglycans which are essential components of the reflective essay work presentation ground substance (Figure 5) (Walter and Israel 1987, Forrest 1983, Hardy 1989).

Figure 6: Fibroblast activity during proliferation. Myofibroblasts are derived from fibroblasts activated by on law, a variety of chemical mediators, and are responsible for wound contraction and the early strength of the repair. Reflective On Group Presentation? They draw the edges of the wound together, thus reducing the size of the final scar (Gabbiani 2003; Lorena et al 2002; Peacock 1984; Hardy 1989; Wipff et al, 2009; McAnulty, 2007). Granulation tissue matures with lymphatic development (in much the same way as capillary development), nerve fibre ingrowth and mast cell invasion. Collagen fibres are oriented in response to local stress thus providing tensile strength in the required directions (see Forrest 1983 and Hardy 1989 for useful collagen reviews).

As the granulation tissue matures, there is a process of devascularisation with obliteration of the lumen of the essay vessels. The remodelling phase primarily involves the refinement of the collagen and its associated extracellular matrix. The initial deposition of collagen produces relatively weak fibrils with random orientation With maturity, the collagen becomes more obviously oriented in line with local stresses (Culav et al 1999, Gomez et al 1991). A proportion of the original fine (Type III) collagen is reabsorbed (due to the action of collagenases) and is replaced with Type I collagen with more cross links and greater tensile strength (Vanables 1989, Forrest 1983). Collagen synthesis and lysis both occur at a greater rate in reflective, a normal wound compared with non wounded tissue as old fibrous tissue is removed and new scar tissue is laid down. The maturing scar is a beautiful therefore a dynamic system rather than a static one. Figure 7: Principal events of reflective essay on group work remodelling. There are several influential factors during this long phase, including physical stress. This remodelling process is initiated whilst the proliferative stage proceeds, therefore providing a considerable overlap between the phases. Format Research Paper Social Sciences? Final remodelling will continue for months, and typically at least a year from the initial damage. See Hardy (1989) for a comprehensive consideration of collagen behaviour in remodelling and Culav et al (1999) for an excellent review of collagen and its roles).

The potential mechanism by which physical stress can influence cell and tissue behaviour is usefully considered by Ingber (2003, 2008). Kahn and reflective essay presentation, Scott (2009) and Killian et al (2012) provide more recent papers linking mechanical stress and tissue repair, as do Bring et al (2007) and Cyr and Ross (1998) whilst Mackey et al (2008) also provide a valuable review. It is suggested that the strength of the final repair, whilst impressive, will not match that of the bakos resume pre-injury strength, as illustrated in Figure 8 (after Lin et al, 2004) Figure 8: Representation of regained tissue strength (after Lin et al, 2004) Factors known to delay healing are divided into general and local: General: Age, Protein deficiency, Low Vitamin C levels, Steroids NSAID's (inhibitory effect), Temperature (lower rate when colder) Local: Poor blood supply / ischeamia, Adhesion to bone or other underlying tissue, Prolonged inflammation, Drying of the wound, Excessive movement or mechanical stress (restarts inflammation) Clearly the effects of the whole range of reflective essay on group work presentation therapies can not be considered in health essay, any significant detail here but in principle a therapy which is beneficial to the repair events is a therapy which stimulates rather than ‘changes’ the reflective on group natural sequence. Promoting or stimulating the inflammatory events is not intended to achieve a ‘bigger’ inflammatory response, but to maximise its efficiency.

Similarly, if delivering therapy during the proliferative phase, there would be no benefit in simply creating a bigger volume of scar tissue. The advantage of appropriate intervention is that it stimulates a maximally efficient response, and therefore the format research required repair material is reflective on group work presentation generated with best quality and minimal time. In the remodelling phase, the refinement of the scar tissue is the aim and the use of therapy can have a significant effect, especially given the growing body of evidence relating the effects of mechanical stress and collagen behaviour. Inappropriate therapy at any stage is perfectly capable of inhibiting these events and invention, therefore results in a less good repair therapy is not guaranteed to be beneficial one has to be mindful of the events needed and reflective essay on group work presentation, be selective of the do you underline movies in an essay most appropriate (evidenced) therapy at each stage. The other interesting recent development is that there is an increasing body of knowledge which supports the idea that existing therapies have an effect on the chemical environment of the repairing tissue (Watson, 2011). Exercise therapy, manual therapy and various modalities in electrotherapy are now known to exert such effects - some examples having been provided earlier in this paper. This need not ‘replace’ the current explanations for the mode of action of therapy, but do offer an extended effects model in which there are mechanical, neurological, gross physiological, chemical and bioelectric effects of therapy. Reflective Essay Work Presentation? The mode of action of student essay those therapies, historically employed, is actually a lot more complex than was originally conceived and hitherto understood. Conclusion: Tissue healing is a complex and essay work presentation, dynamic system which enables effective repair of damaged tissue. The repair control system and links between its various components are complex, and there is an telephone, ever increasing volume of reflective on group work literature which continues to identify new mediators, cytokines and variants.

Whilst this knowledge base continues to expand, the links between the bakos resume effects of therapy and these chemical control systems is also growing. There is little doubt that appropriate therapy has the capacity to reflective essay work presentation, influence the bakos resume process in essay presentation, a positive way and describing place, the most logical and best evidenced approach to intervention is to reflective essay work presentation, stimulate or promote the on law and order ‘normal’ events rather than trying to change them to work presentation, something better. If repair is bakos resume underway, then keep it moving. If it is delayed, then stimulate it in order to help get it back on track. Whilst there are myriad approaches, those that are most effective appear to follow this philosophy.

Aller, M. A., J. L. Arias, et al. (2006). The inflammatory response: an efficient way of life. Med Sci Monit 12(10): RA225-234. Azuma, Y., M. Reflective Essay On Group Work Presentation? Ito, et al. Essay On Law And Order? (2001). Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates rat femoral fracture healing by acting on the various cellular reactions in the fracture callus. J Bone Miner Res 16(4): 671-680. Beck, A., K. Salem, et al. (2005). On Group Work? Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the perioperative phase in traumatology and orthopedics effects on bone healing. Oper Orthop Traumatol 17(6): 569-578. Bjordal, J. M., R. A. Lopes-Martins, et al. (2006).

A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Br J Sports Med 40(1): 76-80; discussion 76-80. Bossini, P. Essay Telephone? S., R. Reflective On Group? Fangel, et al. (2009). Low-level laser therapy (670 nm) on viability of random skin flap in rats. Lasers Med Sci 24(2): 209-213. Boursinos, L. A., T. Karachalios, et al. (2009). Do steroids, conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective Cox-2 inhibitors adversely affect fracture healing? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 9(1): 44-52. Bring, D. K., A. Kreicbergs, et al. (2007). Physical activity modulates nerve plasticity and stimulates repair after Achilles tendon rupture.

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Current books on Electrotherapy with brief descriptions and links to Amazon pages for purchase. Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in the area of Contraindications.

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15 Tips for Writing in a Conversational Tone. Who are you more likely to listen to: a scholarly lecturer giving a ponderous speech, or a close friend animatedly telling a story? Naturally, you#8217;d prefer the person who talks more conversationally; that same principle applies to essay on group marketing and business writing. People pay extra attention to a message written in a conversational tone. In fact, according to a study by describing a beautiful, psychology researchers Richard E. Mayer and Roxana Moreno, when people read something that#8217;s written conversationally, it tricks their brain into thinking they#8217;re directly involved. Presentation? As a result, a conversational tone is student essay, more effective for reflective work, getting a message acrossand getting that message to stick. Unfortunately, it can be hard to find your voice when writing informally.

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Speaking requires breaks for breathing, so your sentences should be shortideally less than 35 words. Shorter sentences also make it easier for reflective work presentation, your audience to quickly scan for information. Break up your longer sentences using ellipses, commas and semicolons to visually separate ideas and increase scannability. If your sentence contains two or more complete thoughts, then use a period to chop it up into smaller full sentences. When we speak we don#8217;t necessarily worry about describing, sentence length or completeness.

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We#8217;ll make your wedding look lovely. Depending on your product, mild profanity like #8220;hell#8221; might help appeal to your audience. Reflective On Group? Photo Credit: Jill Peebles. We identify with one another through our use of slangkids have slang words that adults don#8217;t understand and health essay, vice versa. Adding slang to your copy will make you sound more authentic, especially if it#8217;s slang that your target audience recognizes. Reflective Essay Presentation? The occasional naughty word can even be effective, but only research paper social sciences use them in extremely rare cases and with the least offensive words possible. #8220;Our sauce is hot as hell!#8221; paints a vivid picture without being too vulgar.

Hot sauce is marketed to adults, so the reflective on group work presentation, audience wouldn#8217;t be offended by this mild swear word. It#8217;s important that your slang is format research sciences, accessible to reflective essay your target audience. Don#8217;t use out-of-date slang or words that only makes sense to a particular group unless you#8217;re targeting that group specifically. Describing A Beautiful? For example, #8220;cool#8221; has been a slang term for essay on group presentation, such a long time that everybody knows what it means. #8220;Keen,#8221; on the other hand, is an out-of-date term. You know what really helps your copy sound conversational?

Asking a hypothetical question. It makes the reader feels more engaged because you#8217;re speaking directly to them and giving them something to actively figure out on their own. It can be helpful to immediately follow-up your questions with an answer so that the reader doesn#8217;t have time to essay invention think of the wrong answer. On Group Work Presentation? For example: Where#8217;s the best place to get quality, organic produce? Just down the street at essay describing Green Market Whole Foods. Similarly, this ad promoting a rugged, no-nonsense gym uses a hypothetical question to appeal to its audience, turning a potential flaw into a positive. Photo Credit: Ajith Gopinat. We talk with an active voice because it#8217;s the easiest way to organize our thoughts.

Writing in active voice means the subject of the presentation, sentence is the thing performing the action. Passive voice is the opposite, when the subject is the thing being performed upon. We don#8217;t usually talk in essay place, passive voice because it sounds unnatural to the ear. Essay On Group Work Presentation? This passive voice sentence sounds awkward when spoken out loud: The place where you can get the essay describing a beautiful, best deal on your tires is Jacobs Automotive. Instead, it should be written using the active voice: Jacobs Automotive can give you the best deal on reflective on group, your tires. Use examples, similes and metaphors. We add examples and metaphors to our speech to make complex ideas easier to understand. Write with examples, similes and bakos resume, metaphors to not only sound more conversational, but to reflective essay on group presentation strengthen your message.

For example, saying #8220;We#8217;re dependable#8221; is okay on its own, but try adding a simile. We#8217;re dependable, like the best friend you can call after midnight. Paper Social? This gives the audience something they can relate to from their own lives to associate with the message. Similarly, the ad below appeals to reflective on group work presentation inventors by essay on law, using a famous example (Ben Franklin). Photo Credit: Tom Marcantel.

Write like you#8217;re telling a story to a friend. Communication is essentially storytelling. Frame your copy the same way you would frame a story to a friend. Reflective Essay? Pretend like you#8217;re trying to tell them something in an e-mail, where writing is less formal and more conversational. Research? The best stories have a clear message, moral or call to action. If you told your friend a story about something that happened at work, your end result would be to reflective on group presentation garner a reactionperhaps to have your friend sympathize with you or give you advice. Essay? Take those principles of on group work, communication and apply them to health essay you copy. How would you tell a story to your friend if you wanted to convince him to reflective presentation try a new product or service? Speak to the reader in essay, first/second person. Formal writing is always written in third person, but conversations take place using the first and second person pronouns.

First person pronouns make your brand seem more personable and second person pronouns engage the audience, bringing them into the message. Use plural first person pronouns to represent your brand; for example, #8220;We#8217;re the best in the business#8221; and #8220;Our representatives are happy to assist.#8221; However, if your brand is just one person, then using a plural pronoun will make your copy sound like British royalty. In that case, you want to reflective essay on group work presentation use singular pronouns, such as: I have twenty years of experience in professional photography. Second person pronouns are always singular except for certain slang terms like #8220;ya#8217;ll.#8221; This makes it easier to reach a wide audience while still making it sound like you#8217;re having a personal conversation with each one. Sentences like #8220;You won#8217;t find a better deal#8221; and #8220;Your home is in good hands#8221; could apply to both individuals and broad groups of people. This brochure is written in the second person to speak directly to on law and order its audience. Photo Credit: Kevin Leicinger. If you have identified your target audience, you should have a better understanding of the appropriate conversational tone that will relate to that audience. After all, having a conversation with your best friend is on group work presentation, much different than talking to your grandma. For example, if you#8217;re targeting a specific area, your copy should include elements of the local lingo. A take-out menu from the Midwest would advertise its #8220;Ice Cold Pop#8221; instead of #8220;Ice Cold Soda,#8221; while an ad in the South might use a tone of voice more tailored for that region.

This door hanger targeting households in the South uses a colloquial, conversational tone appropriate for its audience. Bakos Resume? Photo Credit: Jenny Lanier. Real conversation can be downright inefficient sometimes. We start sentences that we never finish, go off on unrelated side-tangents and use empty filler words such as #8220;like.#8221; As such, your writing should only mimic conversation, not replicate it exactly. Conversational tone isn#8217;t appropriate for essay, every situation either. Health Essay? Depending on your audience, brand or product, you may not want to be too informal. Reflective Essay Work? Some pieces of invention, copy, like a legal disclaimer, require a formal tone by default. A funeral home should be conversationally sympathetic, but avoid using slang and reflective work presentation, humor. When you#8217;re done writing your copy, read it out loudpreferably with an bakos resume, audience. Pay attention to work the places where you have to bakos resume stop and take a breath. These are places where you could probably do with shorter words and sentences.

Make note of any section that sounds awkward or feels like a tongue twister to say. Clean up these areas of your copy so they#8217;re clearer. Don#8217;t panic if you don#8217;t start immediately start writing conversationallyit takes practice to reflective on group work presentation get it right. Underline? However, it#8217;s important to track your progress over time to reflective on group work presentation see how your audience responds to your style. And when you speak to your new customers, if any of them say #8220;You sound just like you do in the brochure,#8221; you#8217;ll know you#8217;re on the right track.

Write my essay -
Reflection on Technology Group Project Karen Bufford

essay media new new What's New About New Media? Lisa Gitelman and Goeffrey Pingree. In the short space of on group presentation, a current college student's lifetime, the internet has gone from a specialized, futuristic system to the network that most significantly structures how we engage daily with the world at large. It is now obvious to anyone who uses a computer that intellectual exercises as basic as reading the research paper social sciences newspaper or doing research have become fundamentally different activities largely because of the internet. So too have our views of essay work presentation, communication in general; the very notion of globalization, so consuming in today's world, is predicated on the possibilities engendered by a technology barely twenty years old. Such is the nature of new media. Computers, and the digital systems and products for which they are currently a shorthand, are what most of us think of when we hear the student essay words new media . And why not? The world of computer hardware, software, email, and ebusiness is for reflective essay work most of us the latest communication and essay and order information frontier.

Part of our experience of digital media is the experience of their novelty. Yet if we were asked to think of other new media, we might have a harder time coming up with obvious examples. Reflective Work Presentation? We would have no problem citing instances of research social sciences, old media: typewriters, vinyl record albums, eight-track magnetic tapes, and the like. On Group Work? And we would have a point: These are, from our current standpoint, old media. But they were not always old, and studying them in essay a beautiful place terms that allow us to understand what it meant for them to be new is a timely and culturally important task, an exercise that in this volume we hope profitably to apply to media much older than we are. As our title suggests, this collection of essays challenges the reflective work notion that to study new media is to study today's new media. All media were once new media; and our purpose in these essays is to consider such emergent media within their historical contexts#151;to seek out the past on its own passed terms. We do so, in part, to counter the narrow devotion to the present that is often evident today in new media studies, a growing field whose conceptual frameworks and methods of inquiry are heavily influenced by experiences of essay describing a beautiful place, digital networks and the professional protocols of the social science of communications.

But we undertake this inquiry mainly to encourage thinking about what newness means in the relationships among media and societies. There is a moment, before the reflective essay material means and the conceptual modes of new media have become fixed, when such media are not yet accepted as natural, when their own meanings are in flux. At such a moment, we might say that new media briefly acknowledge and essay invention question the essay on group mythic character and the ritualized conventions of existing media, while they are themselves defined within a perceptual and semiotic economy that they then help to transform. This collection of essays explores such moments in order to enrich our contemporary perspective on what media are, and on do you underline essay when and how they are meaningfully new. New Media, 1740-1915 focuses on reflective essay on group presentation the two centuries before commercial broadcasting because its purpose is, in part, to recuperate different (and past) senses of media in transition and thus to essay, deepen our historical understanding of, and sharpen our critical dexterity toward, the experience of modern communication. Indeed, we have marked the years between 1740 and 1915 as boundaries for our project because this period is crucial to understanding how electronic and digital media have come to reflective essay work presentation, mean what and how they do. The term media itself hails from precisely this period, as do the structures of today's entertainment and information economies. Thus, the media forms and practices studied in this collection are new in a double sense: First, they newly receive the scholarly attention they deserve; and second, they are considered within their original historical contexts, their novelty years. In this, these essays provide a new perspective on the meaning of newness that attends to all emerging media, while they also tell us something about what all media have in research paper common. Yet our intention is not only to acknowledge the initial novelty of diverse media, but also to reflective on group work, understand better how such media acquire particular meanings, powers, and characteristics. Drawing from Rick Altman's idea of crisis historiography, we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by essay the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.

1 In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over reflective work presentation, time by that society's existing habits of media use (which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media), by essay describing a beautiful shared desires for new uses, and by essay on group the slow process of adaptation between the two. The crisis of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the paper social medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for whom and why. This collection, like Carolyn Marvin's wonderful When Old Technologies Were New focuses on such moments of crisis. 2 While it begins with the zograscope and ends in the heyday of silent cinema, the volume does not aspire to cover all forms of media that emerged during the years named in its title. Indeed, New Media, 1740-1915 addresses only obliquely some of the more influential media of its period, print media in particular.

Most of the essay on group foliowing essays (unlike Carolyn Marvin's work) focus on media#151;zograscopes, optical telegraphs, the telephone physiognotrace#151;that failed to survive for reflective essay on group presentation very long. They are, in Bruce Sterling's words, today's dead media. 3 Yet because their deaths, like those of describing a beautiful, all dead media, occurred in relation to those that lived, even the reflective essay on group presentation most bizarre and the most short lived are profoundly intertextual, tangling during their existence wlth the dominant, discursive practices of representation that characterized the total cultural economy of their day. Despite their inseparable relations to surviving systems, however, failed media tend to receive little attention from historians. Lacking the validation that comes with imitation, Altman notes, unsuccessful innovations simply disappear from historiographical record. His suggested corrective for this excessive focus on, for example, cinema-as-it-is, is an attention to cinema-as-it-could-have-been or cinema-as-it-once-was-for-a-short-time-but-ceased-to-be. New Media aims to apply some of this could-have-been and was-for-a-short-time kind of thinking to essay place, past new media.

Because our understanding of essay, what media are and why they matter derives largely from our understanding and use of the media that survived#151;those devices, social practices, and health forms of representation with which we interact every day#151;the importance of this kind of analysis is easy to overlook. By getting inside the identity crises, by reflective exploring the failures (in some cases) of older new media, the essays in this collection will help to counter what Paul Duguid has warned are two reductive futurological tropes characteristic of the experience of modern media. The first trope is the format research social idea of supercession , the notion that each new medium vanquishes or subsumes its predecessors. From this idea follows the current belief that in work presentation the digital age the on law and order book is essay presentation doomed, or, according to bakos resume, the peculiar auguries of earlier times, the conviction that typewriters would replace pens or that radios would replace phonographs. The second futurological trope is the idea of increasing transparency , the essay on group assumption that each new medium actually mediates less, that it successfully frees information from the constraints of previously inadequate or unnatural media forms that represented reality less perfectly. 4 This notion#151;that because of their greater transparency, newer media supersede their predecessors#151;shapes both the describing experience and the study of media today. Presentation? Both of bakos resume, Duguid's tropes point to a frequent and shared misconception, which supposes the value and (at least theoretical) possibility of pure avenues of information, pathways that allow knowledge to pass without interruption or interference-free of mediation.

This assumption creates an interesting paradox. The best media, it would seem, are the ones that mediate least. They are not, as we think of them, media at essay, all. A new medium therefore supersedes its predecessor because it is describing place more transparent. Few would disagree, for example, that a conversation with a friend on the telephone allows for a greater exchange of personal, idiosyncratic information than a dialogue conducted via telegraph. And to on group, a large degree, this thinking is essay persuasive.

New media generally are more efficient than their predecessors as means of presentation, communication. Essay Place? Yet there is more to understanding what happens when people communicate through a given medium than merely ascertaining what level of accuracy and amount of data the essay on group work presentation exchange involves. This observation#151;that there is more than accuracy and amount to any exchange#151;comprises a founding rationale for the field of describing a beautiful place, media studies, whether characterized aphoristically by Marshall McLuhan (the medium is the message) or more recently expressed (and complicated) in Derridian terms, that the supplement #151;the specific characteristics of material media#151;can never be mere supplement; it is a necessary constituent of [any] representation. 5 To put it simply, looking for content apart from context just won't work. Owing in reflective part to the linear progress unthinkingly ascribed to modern technology, media (so offen referred to essay and order, portentously as the media) tend to erase their own historical contexts. Whether shadows in a darkened cave or pixelated images on a luminous monitor, the media before us tend, anachronistically, to work, mediate our understanding of their past. In the process, we lose any understanding of the research paper nuanced particulars of specific media. In part, we forget what older media meant, because we forget how they meant. Once they emerge and become familiar through use, media seem natural, basic, and reflective essay therefore without history. Of course we say Hello? when we answer the telephone; of course we hear a dial tone when we pick it up to bakos resume, place a call.

Media seem inevitable in an unselfconscious way; we forget that they are contingent. Reflective On Group Presentation? Alexander Graham Bell apparently wanted people to say Ahoy! when they picked up the phone, but English speakers settled on Hello? through the sort of unthinking social consensus that attends the uses of all media. In a similar fashion, the dial tones, 12-volt lines, and modular jacks we use today all were shaped historically by a complex of forces#151;technological, to be sure, but also social, economic, and representational. When we forget or ignore the histories of each of these new media we lose a kind of understanding more substantive than either the commercially interested definitions spun by today's media corporations or the causal plots of format research sciences, technological innovation offered by some historians. Essay On Group Work Presentation? 6 For example, it is bakos resume undoubtedly important to be able to note, as many scholars have, how the invention of the cinema is linked to past practices of, say, lecturing with slides, as well as how it predicts certain elements of future practices. Reflective On Group? But what we often overlook are the kinds of things that only a deep analysis of health essay, specific media cases can offer#151;how interpretive communities are built or destroyed, how normative epistemologies emerge. No medium new or old exists as a static form. Each case invites consideration of numerous and dynamic political, cultural, and social issues.

We might say that, inasmuch as media are media of communication, the emergence of a new medium is always the on group work presentation occasion for the shaping of movies in an essay, a new community or set of communities, a new equilibrium. As we have suggested, when a new medium is reflective essay on group introduced its meaning#151;its potential, its limitations, the publicly agreed upon sense of what it does, and for whom#151;has not yet been pinned down. And part of the lure of essay and order, a new medium for any community is surely this uncertain status. Not yet fully defined, a new medium offers possibilities both positive (one of our authors argues that zograscopes helped construct polite society) and negative (another traces the threat telephones posed to Amish communities). Essay Work? In other words, emergent media may be seen as instances of essay describing, both risk and potential. Today, for example, the internet offers unprecedented possibilities for global villages to coalesce, even while it threatens national or ethnic cultural traditions and provokes anguished discussions of privacy in a connected age.

The same sorts of issues and on group work presentation anxieties surrounded the emergence of other media. Indeed, it seems that technological change inevitably challenges old, existing communities. On Law? The particulars of each case, however, are valuable to our larger understanding of how media help to shape and reshape culture. Essays in this collection therefore examine media as socially realized structures of communication, where communication is culture#151;as James Carey explains it#151;a cultural process that involves not only the actual transmission of information, but also the ritualized collocation of senders and recipients.' 7 Habits of communication mediate among people, pragmatically and conceptually. How do structures of communication reflect, challenge, reinforce, or mystify authority?

How do they help imagine community? How do they help construct the aesthetic, or the mimetic? How do they orient the production and experience of meaning? How do they acquire and carry epistemological authority? These are just some of the questions raised by New Media, 1740-1915 , which presents an open and diverse interrogation of emerging media as sites and as agents of cultural definition and of cultural change. Ultimately, then, this is a book about framing: about how particular habits and media of communication frame our collective sense of time, place, and space; how they define our understanding of the public and the private; how they inform our apprehension of the real; and how they orient us in reflective essay on group presentation relation to competing forms of representation. We have selected the cases of new media that follow because they support these inquiries, casting such habits and media into essay describing place, relief, affording a vantage point from reflective on group presentation which better to see how cultural meanings are negotiated. But this collection is health also about how we frame our own discussions of new media, for if this interrogation of emergent media is genuinely to illuminate our understanding of cultural definition and of cultural change, then we must be responsible about our own language. We must, in other words, acknowledge the key terms that are in play in our own discussions and attempt to define and deploy them as precisely as possible, not only for us now, but as they were used in essay on group work earlier#151;and different#151;contexts.

In a work on new media, terms such as media, culture , public , and representation will appear often. But insofar as this collection seeks to understand how the very idea of media evolves over time, we wish to essay a beautiful place, employ such critical terms with care and to bring questions about their use and essay work meaning squarely into student essay, the discussion itself as it proceeds. Our use of the word technology is a good example. This term denotes, as Leo Marx suggests, a necessary but hazardous concept; in this book the term helps organize our thinking about the material, instrumental conditions of reflective essay on group work, modern life, yet for many readers it will also come larded with less considered shades of meaning, assumptions about Progress with a capital P, or about format social sciences technology as a preeminent cause in history. 8 Thus although we rely on this term as an organizing device in this collection (the essays proceed from technology to technology as a form of convenience), we also wish to urge particular awareness of its hazards. Likewise with other key critical terms.

We know that we cannot exhaustively define media, for instance, any more than we can completely pin down culture (a notion that is, as Naomi Mezey observes, everywhere invoked and virtually nowhere explained). Indeed, the reflective cases we offer are about culture as struggle and media as means in that struggle#151;a fabric continually rewoven according to the interests of a given time and bakos resume place. Rather than fixing such terms and pinning them to moving targets, however, we can frame our discussions of reflective essay presentation, such pervasive concepts in self-conscious ways that make our attempts to understand them more useful. 9. In this volume we offer cases that foreground the relationship between material and idea, between what people think or believe or wish and bakos resume what they feel with their hands or see with their eyes or hear with their ears. Each of the essays in the collection thus reveals, in reflective on group work some fashion, the strong relationship between the contexts for some material, technological development, and shifts in self-imagining and format social public understanding. Erin Blake, Wendy Bellion, and Laura Schiavo, for reflective on group presentation example, consider the cultural meanings of perspective and representation in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by focusing on essay invention the emergence of particular visual media (zograscopes, the physiognotrace, and stereoscopes, respectively) and discussing how such media influenced notions of reflective essay on group, individual identity. Patricia Crain, Katherine Stubbs, and Diane Umble, by contrast, consider the cultural meanings of communication by focusing on the arrival and adaptation of particular networked media (optical telegraphs, electric telegraphs, and telephones, respectively) that helped shape notions of identity in relation to larger communities. All of the essay authors engage new media as evolving, contingent, discursive frames, sites where the unspoken rules by which Westerners know and enjoy their world are fashioned. Such rules continually change, as new media become situated and as such adjustments inevitably redraw the boundaries of communities, including some individuals, and excluding others.

Each new medium in effect helps to produce a distinct public. Reflective On Group? Erin Blake's work on zograscopes, for example, elaborates the idea that media assist in the construction of the modern, Western public sphere, with its corresponding liberal subject (today known as the consumer). Although she draws upon the work of Jurgen Habermas, Blake ignores the health essay often-mentioned circulation of print media as the basis of the public sphere, instead looking to shared social practices to understand how space is visualized. Her public is literally a sphere; in her essay the bourgeois circles of eighteenth-century London pop into 3-D as they enter the work presentation rational and impersonal arena of public space via engravings glimpsed through new optical devices. This new medium, according to Blake, helps the public to essay, map itself. Wendy Bellion's work on essay presentation the physiognotrace depicts an American public that also maps itself, but this public is one more complicated by its own experiences of both graphic and political self-representation. By analyzing the American reception of this profile or silhouette-tracing device, Bellion introduces her readers to the cartography of the public sphere, showing the ways in which new media are adapted within the on law very discursive conditions, the very rules that they help to on group work, transform. The rules for inclusion, for drawing the boundaries of a public sphere, are less concealed in on law and order Patricia Crain's essay, which examines how elaborate pedagogical systems designed to resemble new media interpellated and located their subjects, in this case by making them perform as optical telegraphs within larger, oppressive systems of cultural replication. Reflective? Like the tinfoil phonographs of Lisa Gitelman's essay, optical telegraphs were more powerfully imagined than they were implemented.

Very few were ever built or used, yet the idea of them circulated widely within the essay mentality, the public imagination, of essay, their age. Joseph Lancaster's classroom telegraphs literally disciplined students, while even broader disciplinary measures may be read in their controlling institutional contexts, as well as glimpsed in the titles of early American newspapers like the describing a beautiful American Telegraph [Conn.], Hillsboro [N.H.] Telegraph , and Lincoln [Me.] Telegraph . (None of these titles referred to electrical telegraphs, which had not yet been invented.) In Benedict Anderson's formulation, the reflective essay circulation and ritualized consumption of newspapers like these assisted in the imagination of a national community. What their titles and Lancaster's system suggest, according to Crain, is that the imagination of essay a beautiful place, media conditioned the imagination of reflective work, communities. Essay Place? Newspapers were imagined in circulation, while optical telegraphs were outright imagined. The perceived promise of any new medium can have wide-ranging import, even if those promises eventually go unfulfilled. To many observers, the tinfoil phonographs of work, 1878 promised a new, more modern and immediate type of text, as recordings might indelibly capture speech, without the intercession of literate humans wielding pencils and paper.

To other observers, the telephones that spread to rural America around 1900 promised to enlarge the very communication practices that self-defined Amish and Mennonite communities themselves attempted to regulate. The wide popular reception of the first promise, Lisa Gitelman speculates, challenged and helped to transform vernacular experiences of essay and order, writing and print, while raising questions about the instruments and the subjects of public memory. The Old Order perception of the second promise, Diane Umble shows, helped divide the aggregate Amish and Mennonite population, for this perception coincided with the ongoing regulation of intra- and inter-group communication and work presentation excommunication. Although so often the focus of student essay, great attention and optimism, new media are not, as these authors pointedly demonstrate, inherently benign; they bite back. 10 They thrive amid unforeseen consequences, often despite the best, most vigorous intentions of their inventors, their promoters, their initial consumers, or of the customary arbiters of public intelligence. Nowhere are the unforeseen consequences of new media more obvious than when they engage the culturally authoritative practices of science, with its Enlightenment logic of reflective essay on group work presentation, rational inquiry, objective experience, and accurate representation. The stereoscope, for instance, emerged from the laboratory of describing place, British scientist Charles Wheatstone as an optical instrument charged with explaining new theories of vision.

To scientists, the stereoscope could be used objectively to demonstrate that vision is subjective, that the reflective on group presentation body can produce its own experiences of depth when presented with the right cues. As Laura Schiavo puts it, Wheatstone's stereoscope newly insinuated an arbitrary relationship between stimulus and sensation. Yet within the context of commercially exploited and popularly apprehended photography, stereoscopes were ultimately recast as mimetic amusements that tendered to consumers an instructive and positivist model of how their eyes actually worked to see the world as it really is. Vernacular discourse, in other words, completely inverted the essay on law and order meaning of reflective essay, what the stereoscope proved. This inverted meaning helped to make the stereoscope popular, fueling its commercial success as later nineteenth- and early twentieth-century viewers consumed stereograph images as a form of virtual travel, appropriating the world through pictures. At stake was far more than the describing place prestige of Wheatstone or the reflective essay presentation anti-intellectualism of the marketplace. The rules by which the West knew the world had again come into movies essay, play. The popularity of stereoscopes helped redraw the very category of the real, the reflective essay on group presentation consensual practices of accurate representation.

Assumptions about what count as rules, about format research what is real or accurate or normal, are no less at issue when new media are less popular than stereoscopes were or less patently involved in describing normal human perception. Media emerge and exist in ways that both challenge and regulate notions of what it means to be human. Gregory Radick's essay provides a clear-cut case. Reflective On Group Work? An amateur ethologist using the new medium of recorded sound set out to learn the language of monkeys and stumbled into one of the hottest debates in Victorian evolutionary biology and linguistics: How is language uniquely human? In the course of his research, Richard Garner's recording phonograph became an bakos resume instrument of knowledge deployed in various philosophic and scientific controversies#151;in the tension between amateur and professional science, for example, or in reflective essay on group work the dispute over whether abstraction or instinct founds thought and language, or in discussions about the fundamental differences between humans and bakos resume animals. Garner worked on monkeys, but not without meddling with the category of the human in two ways.. First, he raised anew the definition of Man as the talking animal; second, he wielded his phonograph as if it were a necessary#151;and better#151;third ear. As Garner's third ear suggests#151;and as many authors have noted#151;new media can be viewed as an on group work presentation endeavor to invention, improve on human capabilities.

Like a telescope added to the eye of an astronomer or a microscope added to reflective essay on group work, the eye of essay invention, a biologist, media can extend the body and reflective essay on group work presentation its senses. Yet media do more than extend; they also incorporate bodies and are incorporated by them. 11 Media are designed to fit the human, the way telephone handsets or headsets literally fit from ear to mouth, but also the way telephone circuits, satellites, and antennas fit among their potential consumers, as integral parts of communication/ information networks that literally shape what communication entails for individuals in underline movies in an the modern age. And if media fit humans, humans adjust themselves in reflective essay on group work presentation various ways to fit media, knowingly and not. Hands physically adjust themselves to on law, different keyboards, different keypads, and different pointing devices, while users subtly adjust their sense of who they are. Presentation? Some of these complexities may be glimpsed in Katherine Stubbs's essay, which reads the history of electrical telegraphy in the United States against and within the fiction that appeared in telegraph trade journals. Published during the 1870s and 1880s, telegraph fiction shows how new media can remain new through the agency of users. Amid ongoing conflicts between labor and capital arising in part from the underline movies in an feminization of the reflective workforce, telegrapher-authors both used and essay represented the telegraph as a means to explore identity in on group work presentation its relation to the body. Essay Invention Telephone? In remaking themselves, by negotiating gender-at-a-distance-and-by-telegraph, for instance, telegraphers kept the reflective on group work character of their medium unsettled. In other words, the newness of new media is in an essay more than diachronic, more than just a chunk of history, a passing phase; it is relative to the oldness of old media in a number of reflective essay work presentation, different ways. As many have noted, media often advertise their newness by depicting old media.

12 The first printed books looked like manuscripts, radios played phonograph records, and the Web has pages. Ellen Gruber Garvey and Paul Young each explore less familiar instances in which the new represents the old in essay describing a beautiful place order to understand more fully the reflective on group presentation purchase that newness has on the process of bakos resume, representation. As Garvey's account of essay presentation, scrapbooks explains, scrapbook-makers took old media#151;literally the old books and periodicals they had lying around#151;and made them into new media in the form of scrapbooks. Essay Invention? Newness in this case resonated as much with personal and domestic experiences as it did with public and collective apprehensions of reflective work presentation, novelty, posterity, or periodicity. Scrapbook-makers tampered with the meanings of the scraps they collected by paper collecting them, a practice Garvey refers to on group presentation, as gleaning and connects to the composition and use of the Web today. Young, on research social the other hand, presents a telegraphic history of reflective presentation, early American cinema, reading filmic representations of telegraphs as only the most obvious link between these two media, which seem, in retrospect, so different.

As he explains, these media shared a history as the subjects of technological presentations and electrical spectacles. From the start, both became instruments of news reportage, one in essay invention telephone the transmission of stories on reflective on group the wire (that is, by health telegraph wire services like the Associated Press) and the other in the projection of stories onto the screen in actualities and protonewsreels. Reflective? Newness in this case resonated with emergent conventions for representing narrative time, with experiences of currency (of news as either new or old), and with new technology#151;all experiences that transform our sense of time and space. We hope these essays will help to broaden the inquiry of media studies by research social sciences calling attention to on group presentation, the ways media are experienced and describing a beautiful studied as the subjects of work presentation, history. Essay Describing A Beautiful? No ten essays can do more than open the essay on group work presentation question, but opening the question is crucial, we think, particularly as today's new media are peddled and saluted as the ultimate, the end of media history. Newness deserves a closer look.

To that end, we include a brief section of documents for discussion. These documents are not illustrations of format sciences, our text as much as they are artifacts that themselves point toward the rich and diverse record available to media historians. We hope that they will suggest specific historical and cultural meanings for on group presentation media and promote a broader discussion of media history. Like the essays in essay this volume, our captions to these documents are meant as initial gestures toward that broader discussion. We include them to remind readers that the on group history of media is an ongoing, highly self-reflexive conversation about what we mean and#151;literally#151; how we mean it. 1. Rick Altman, A Century of Crisis, How to Think About the History (and Future) of Technology (February 2000), and Crisis Historiography, unpublished MSS., personal communication, May 1, 2001. 2. Carolyn Marvin, When 0ld Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford Llniversity Press, 1988). 3. Deadmedia.org. See Bruce Sterling, The Dead Media Project: A Modest Proposal and a Public Appeal, n.d., http://www.deadmedia.org/modest-proposal.html, June 2001.

4. Material Matters: The Past and format research Futurology of the Book, in The Future of the Book , ed. Geoffrey Nunberg (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 65. 5. Timothy Lenoir, Inscription Practices and on group presentation Materialities of Communication, in Inscribing Science: Scientific Texts and the Materiality of Communication , ed. Timothy Lenoir, 1-19 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), 7-8. 6. As Walter Benjamin cautions, Newness is a quality independent of the use value of the paper sciences commodity. Essay On Group Work? It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by place the collective unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is fashion.

This semblance of the new is reflective work reflected, like one mirror in essay on law another, in work presentation the semblance of the ever recurrent. The product of this reflection is the phantasmagoria of 'cultural history' in which the bourgeoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full; The Arcades Project , ed. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin, trans., Rolf Tiedemann (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999), 11. 7. James W Carey, Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1988). 8. Leo Marx, Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept, Social Research 64 (fall 1997), 965-988. 9. Naomi Mezey, Law as Culture, Yale Journal of bakos resume, Law the Humanities 13, no.

1 (2001): 35. See also Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). 10. Bite back is from on group work presentation Edward Tenner's title, Why Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996). 11. The trope of bodily extension or prosthesis is not an anachronism applied to new media. Bakos Resume? As James Lastra shows, it is one of reflective essay on group work, two tropes that have played a normalizing role in the emergence of modern media (the other is that of inscription); Sound Technology and the American Cinema: Perception, Representation, Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); see Introduction and chapter 1. See also N. Katherine Hayles on incorporating practices and embodied knowledge, 199-207 in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1999).

12. The remediation of bakos resume, one medium by another newer medium has recently been explored by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin in Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999). As Rick Altman explains so succinctly, Anything that we would represent is already constructed as a representation by previous representations (A Century of Crisis, 5; see note 1 above).

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