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Integrated Communications Sample Business Plan. Today the world is defined by the term ‘Information Age.’ All businesses, both large and small, require effective and efficient business communication solutions in custom book report, order to continuously meet their customer expectations and attain a competitive advantage, and therefore be successful. Point By Point. Whether a company is large or small it is custom report, realized that, the right amount of the boy striped pajamas financing, materials, talent, and experience are not enough to succeed without a good communication system in place that enables smooth transaction sealing. Communications is at the heart of regional and international integration, with the development of an efficient, cost effective and technologically advanced communications infrastructure essential to Botswana’s success in the global market. With the economies of custom most countries becoming increasingly sophisticated and knowledge-intensive, there is the boy essay, a greater need for the existence of an efficient network that will enable decision-makers to have access to timely and accurate data to facilitate decision-making and transaction sealing. We are on the brink of penetrating a lucrative market in a rapidly growing industry. The current increase in custom report, the number of the boy in the striped pajamas entrepreneurs, and competition among existing companies presents an report opportunity for Aero Technologies to penetrate the market. Our services/products will be positioned very carefully. They will be of extremely high quality to ensure client satisfaction, supported by impeccable customer service. Aero Technologies will offer the expertise that a proactive oriented and market-opportunity seeking company needs to develop and maintain a good communications system.
We intend to provide a number of necessary services the business community and to the public. Initial plans are to introduce five main lines of school services, with the primary focus on Multimedia, Call Centre facility, Data Communications and IT, Financial Services, and Knowledge Consulting. We realize that, for us to prosper, there is need to be flexible and responsive, to delight clients by providing them what they want, when they want it, and before the book, competition can offer it. The company intends to achieve this through a systematic approach that is oaks sessay, customer-centric, and in which the customer’s business objectives enjoy top priority. This involves not only skill and depth of knowledge, but time devoted to studying a customer’s needs. Report. Aero Technologies will view the provision of value-added services over the entire scope of our customers’ requirements as not only relativism essential, but as a competitive advantage which the company protects as a key asset; from service concept to service provision, the intention will be to ensure that every policy and procedure, system and custom book process has the objective of improving the flexibility and response of the whole company.
There is a need for interaction between all functional areas, particularly between marketing and service logistics, if the project is to point, realize its full potential, with marketing being employed as a strategic weapon. Once the needs and processes are understood and described, leading edge products and best-of-industry skills will be applied to report, design and relativism essays develop a fitting solution to satisfy the book report, need and enable the school uniform essay hook, client’s business in the most cost effective way. Our marketing strategy will be based mainly on ensuring customers know what need the service(s) is custom, able to fulfill, and making the right service and information available to the right target client. We intend to implement a market penetration strategy that will ensure that our services are well known and respected in our respective industry. Our marketing strategy will convey the on the mirror plath, sense of custom quality and satisfaction in every picture, every promotion, and every publication. Our promotional strategy will involve integrating traditional advertising, breakfast seminars, events, Internet marketing, personal selling, public relations, and direct marketing, details of which are provided in the marketing section of this plan. We intend to build our project management team correctly.
We need the oaks sessay, right people in the right place at the right time if we are to ensure optimum growth. Book Report. We intend to develop our team so that our people can grow as the company grows — a mutually beneficial relationship. The intention is to go into partnership with NNN Limited, a company registered in QQQ, and provide financial, IT, and data communications consultancy services to industries in the application and use of latest technologies such as data communication and Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), enabling cellular telecommunications. In a nutshell, we don’t just intend to market and sell our service, but to market and provide a service that will ensure our client’s customer satisfaction, ease of on the poem plath communication, improved corporate logistics, and cost savings on transactions ensuring a total-quality environment. This will ensure we establish and maintain a reputable corporate image. However it should be noted that timing and information provision will be of the utmost importance and custom significance in terms of the project’s introduction onto the market. In addition we are appreciative of the fact that entering such a market is not a bed of roses, particularly as it is still a relatively new concept needing to be implanted in people’s minds in terms of the benefits it may bring to them, as well as the number of by point ‘laggard’ firms who often do not easily appreciate the need for change, be it to their benefit. In such a case the custom report, need will exist to essay on the plath, aggressively market the concept to these organizations and individuals through various means. Report. Hence the intention is to utilize the technical and business know-how of technical partners in order to implement and the boy attain our business objectives. NOTE: All currency values in this plan are expressed in Botswanan Pula [P].
Our business strategy will revolve around the need to provide quality service and products to our various target clients, in custom book report, the process fully satisfying their needs. This shall be undertaken through recruitment of a professional telemarketing, sales and essay on the by sylvia plath technical team and the provision of good quality custom-designed services, catering for report, the clients’ particular needs. With time our marketing campaign will increase the knowledge of our services to the various market segments we shall be targeting. This is particularly so with organizations looking at establishing a competitive advantage(s) on the market due to increased competition, hence providing them with the opportunity to focus on essay poem by sylvia, their core activities whilst procuring increased business from custom book report new and existing customers. Marketing material shall be professionally done so as to be reflective of relativism our intended image and reputation.
We shall position ourselves as a quality total communications solution service provider that strives to provide effective and efficient communication solutions. We intend to custom book report, establish a good rapport with all the relevant stakeholders. In summary we intend to attain the following objectives: Continuously provide professional quality services on time and on budget. Develop a follow-up strategy to gauge performance with all our clients. Implement and maintain a quality control system and assurance policy. To continuously formalize and measure cross-functional working communication so as to ensure that the various departments work harmoniously towards attainment of company objectives. To instill a culture of continuous improvement in beating standards of customer satisfaction and efficiency. We are fully committed to supporting growth and development in the economy. Aero Technologies, Ltd. offers marketing oriented organizations a reliable, high-quality alternative to in-house resources for business development, market development, and channel development on a local and regional scale. A true alternative to in-house resources offers a very high level of practical experience, know-how, contacts, and confidentiality.
Clients will know that working with Aero Technologies is a more professional, less risky way to essays, undertake communication with its various stakeholders, than working completely in-house with their own people. Custom Report. Aero Technologies must also maintain financial balance, charge a reasonable value for its services, and deliver a higher value to its clients. Initial focus will be development in the regional markets, or for international clients in Botswana. Aero Technologies is also an the boy striped pajamas essay excellent place to custom book, work, a professional environment that is challenging, rewarding, creative, and respectful of oaks sessay ideas and individuals. Aero Technologies ultimately provides excellent value to its customers and fair reward to report, its owners and employees. Internally we intend to create and nurture a healthy, creative, respectful and enjoyable office environment, in which our employees are fairly compensated and encouraged to respect the customer and the quality of the on laser interaction, service we provide. In addition follow-up will be mandatory so as ensure customer satisfaction and make any improvements as recommended by the customers in future. We seek fair and responsible profit, enough to keep the company financially healthy for the short and long term, and to fairly compensate investors for the money and risk. The keys to this project’s success will undoubtedly be effective market segmentation through identification of several niche markets and implementation strategies.
Along these lines the company intends to implement personal selling and report direct marketing strategies to the target markets. School Uniform Hook. Hence the key success factors will include the report, following: Excellence in fulfilling the promise: Completely confidential, reliable, trustworthy expertise and service(s) through the provision of an uncompromising service. This dictates that we have in place the latest technology, hardware and software, and well-trained personnel so as to school essay hook, fulfill the aforesaid. Book. Timely response to clients’ orders: We cannot afford to delay our clients for whatever reason, as this will have a negative bearing on our image and reputation, including future business. Hence we need to be continually communicating with the client ensuring we provide needs-based solutions.
Skill and depth of knowledge: Considering the nature of our services and their relative infancy on the market, the skill and depth of oaks sessay knowledge of our personnel shall be of utmost importance in determining the provision of the custom book, service(s) to the end-users. Marketing know-how: In a relatively volatile market there will be a need to aggressively market our business and the services we provide so as to be continuously at the top of our prospective and current clients minds. This will also act as a temporary deterrent for companies contemplating entering our market. Essay On The Mirror Plath. Advertising shall be one of our competitive advantages. Leveraging from a large pool of expertise: The company’s various alliances with technological partners shall prove invaluable considering the skills and intellectual capacity these partners will have in the fields of custom design and system integration, implementation and execution, lifecycle support and understanding, and in the application of new technology. This has the potential of proving to be an important differentiator on relativism, the market. Aero Technologies, Ltd. was founded in book report, November 1999 as a Private Limited Company through the uniform, foresight and vision of the three directors. It was formed as a division of TTT with the directors having identified a large potential market for their products and services. Book. For most of its initial existence, the oaks sessay, company intends to book, utilize the large database and experience of its directors in obtaining orders, with the intention of establishing close relationships with its clients. Aero Technologies is a company incorporated at the Registrar of Companies by XXX, YYY, and ZZZ. Though relatively new, the directors realize their company’s vast potential market and opportunity for growth given implementation of the appropriate strategies, aided by the necessary finances.
Aero Technologies was established with 3,000 shares equally distributed amongst the directors. Total start-up expenses covered (including legal costs, logo design, stationery and related expenses) came to approximately P1,192,000. Start-up assets required and utilized included personal computers, vehicles, office furniture, and other office equipment. Aero Technologies offers the expertise a proactive oriented and technologically inclined company needs to perform its operations efficiently and effectively, through allowing it to oaks sessay, concentrate on its core activities whilst deploying the latest communication implements. Its wide range of solutions will incorporate and embrace customer contact centres, technology enabled relationship management, technology enabled marketing and technology enabled selling solutions, multi-service data and voice networking as well as Individualized Customer Relationship Management centres, integration services and Knowledge Management Consulting. Hence we intend to provide a number of necessary services to the business community, primarily the upper echelons, as well as the public. These can be summed up in five main areas: Multimedia Call Centre Facility Data Communications and IT Financial Services Knowledge Management. Hence we intend to offer the expertise a high-technology company needs to develop new product distribution and new market segments in book, new markets. Essay By Sylvia Plath. However it should be noted that the Knowledge Management Centre will invariably incorporate the functions of the other divisions. We are presently in a highly lucrative market in a rapidly growing economy.
We foresee our strengths as the ability to respond timeously to the market dictates and to provide custom designed technological services. Our key personnel will have a wide and thorough knowledge of the book, technological services we intend to provide, and expertise, which will go a long way towards penetrating the market. Relativism. Below are the summarized strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and book report threats. Research indicates that the mirror plath, younger more ambitious market presently in the executive and overall business sector, being more educated and aware of the custom, global environment, assesses and implements its core activities to the boy striped pajamas, a much higher degree than past trends have indicated. This is custom, exacerbated by the increase in competition in all industries. Therefore with the emergence of this generation of individuals, the appreciation of quality services and business communication solutions/recommendations that provide for and enable company growth, dictates that our service lines will be popular. The current drive by the government towards a more diversified economy presents an opportunity for our business to propel and excel in our intended markets, benefiting from the essay, support of the concerned institutions and trade bodies. Book Report. In addition with the relativism, country increasingly becoming an economic hub, we foresee a demand for high quality business communication solutions. Through undertaking our business activities professionally, we foresee that it should not be too difficult to gain market acceptance if we deliver the book report, final service timeously and of good quality, at paper on laser interaction competitive rates.
The business will begin with a general services brochure establishing the positioning of the company and services clients are able to benefit from. These shall be designed for report, the decision-makers ensuring they are not too technical, but short and concise. Literature and school uniform essay mailings shall also be designed in such a way that they establish a high-quality look and feel, in order to create and fulfill the right sense of professionalism. Breakfast seminars shall be undertaken in the initial period of the project targeting decision-makers and ensuring they understand the benefits of our services in book, today’s business environment. Another important marketing tool will be CD-ROMS.
These shall be targeted at moral essays business executives who often do not have much time on custom book, their hands and are looking at utilizing every second productively. These CD-ROMS shall be most useful as they will listen to them whilst in transit from one business meeting to another. We also intend to have well designed posters, table tents, T-shirts, mouse pads, keys-holders, and oaks sessay mugs distributed at strategic points and procured through reputable manufacturers so as not to compromise on custom book, quality. Essay Hook. Potential strategic points for our literature include hotels, lodges, computer hardware and software distributors amongst others. Aero Technologies will strive to maintain the latest business communication hardware and software capabilities so as to custom report, ensure we are continuously at the forefront in our market arena. The one certainty in moral essays, our industry is report, that technology will continue to evolve and develop, changing what we market as well as how we market it. Our aim will be to be aware of the implications of this new technology and utilize it in our existing framework where possible. The Boy In The Striped Pajamas Essay. Complete presentation facilities for preparation and delivery of multimedia presentations on book, Macintosh or Windows machines, in formats that include on-disk presentation or video presentation are also possibilities that still are being looked into. We also intend to have the latest and essay by point most efficient software in place to enable smooth operations. Custom. Please see the capital equipment for point by point, further details. In putting the custom, project together we have attempted to offer enough services to point by point, allow us to always be in demand by our clients.
However, technological developments have provided us with a new era of opportunities for the various organizations in which we can only guess at the needs. For example, current rapid innovations/ development of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) technology, which is custom report, seeing a new service being introduced almost on a fortnightly basis overseas, presents an point opportunity to be realized, particularly focusing on WAP enabled cellphones that enable individuals to access or send their email messages over the cellphone. There is also the book, possibility to introduce video-conferencing, as we will have the necessary infrastructure in place. Striped Pajamas Essay. Applications such as banking by book report cellphone, online telephone directories and delivery of breaking news headlines are also future services to be utilized. However, the most important factor in developing future services will be market need. Our understanding of the needs of our target market segments will be one of our competitive advantages. It is critical to our effort to develop the paper interaction, right new services. We are today experiencing a rapid growth in the economy of unsurpassed nature.
This has been brought about by, amongst other things, the custom book report, relaxation of interaction foreign exchange policies and macroeconomic policies geared towards attracting foreign investors into the country. The fiscal and monetary policies of the government geared towards maintaining growth with social justice have largely contributed towards this, evidenced by our economy averaging a growth rate of 7% since 1990 — very high by international standards. The current drive and emphasis by the government on diversification of the industrial base away from the minerals sector presents an opportunity for custom book report, Aero Technologies to make a valuable contribution towards achieving this goal. This will result in implementation of modern Information Technology services and techniques, and transfer of knowledge. Moral Essays. Aware of the fact that we will be operating in custom book report, a predominantly infant market we intend to ensure that our marketing strategies are considerate of the importance of the fit between our services capabilities and benefits, and striped pajamas the target market, so as to develop a strong sustainable competitive position in the market.
As a result we intend to implement a niche marketing strategy, focusing on certain target markets. It should be appreciated that entering such a market is not a bed of roses, particularly considering its infancy and report hence the intention will be to implement an aggressive marketing strategy, well supported by the other business functions. The above prognosis influenced our decision to enter the IT business communication service provision/consultancy industry. We will be focusing on term, proactive, market seeking organizations, who want to sell into markets in the region and overseas. These are mostly larger companies, and occasionally medium-sized companies. Our most important group of potential customers are business executives in large, medium and small corporations. These are marketing managers, general managers, sales managers, sometimes charged with international focus and sometimes charged with market or even specific channel focus.
They do not want to waste their time or money looking for bargain information or questionable expertise. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very sensitive to risking their company’s name and reputation. Hence the need to professionally market our services and business as a whole, offering impeccable expertise. Custom Book. Our intention will be to offer an attractive development alternative to the company that is term interaction, management constrained and unable to address opportunities in new markets and book report new market segments due to technological shortfalls. 4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy.
Our marketing strategy will be based mainly on plath, making the right service(s) available to the right target customer. We will ensure that our services’ prices take into consideration organizations’/peoples’ budgets, and that these people appreciate the custom book, service and know that it exists, including where to find it. The marketing will convey the sense of essay on the quality in every picture, every promotion, and every publication. Our intention will be to target those innovative or proactive companies contemplating transferring a part of their marketing activities on the Internet, in order to benefit from the advantages offered by this unique system of communication. We realize the need to focus our marketing message and our service offerings.
We need to custom book, develop our message, communicate it, and make good on it. Aero Technologies intends to provide customers with the necessary systems and services to provide cutting-edge customer service, by essentially offering a certain spectrum of communications solutions, primarily the interaction applications. We understand that our target markets need more than just continuous communication and information from their various stakeholders, but communication and information that will enable them to make more informed decisions and transactions at the earliest opportunity. We don’t just intend to on the poem mirror, provide a service(s), but to provide one of unparalleled nature relative to the market. Book. Our target market are not businesses that want to make decisions solely on the basis of price, but instead are mainly concerned with having reliable providers of expertise and point by point a good communications network in place. Today we are passing through a technological discontinuity of epic proportions.
The growth of the Internet shows no signs of abating and has profound implications for businesses not only in Africa, but also throughout the world. Though e-commerce is largely developed country-led, with the Americas and custom book report Europe in the forefront, this is slowly changing with more and more servers being set up in poem mirror by sylvia, Asian and African countries, Botswana being no exception. As e-commerce knows no boundaries the intention of Aero Technologies will be to assist clients in undertaking communication and transactions with ease, initially on a regional level, but also at the global level. This has resulted in custom book, the significant trend toward greater international sales and communication between organizations throughout the term paper plasma interaction, world. Another important trend is the one toward greater use of specialized and focused consultants, instead of in-house resources. Custom Book Report. Companies are increasingly looking for more out-sourcing and, in general, a preference for variable costs instead of paper interaction fixed costs. Book. This shall have important implications on the acceptance of our services on the market. In summary, the range and volume of products sold online are likely to increase vastly in the future, expanding the size and value of the electronic market.
However, encouragement may be obtained from the fact that in its pursuit of diversification the Government of term on laser interaction Botswana would very much encourage an additional player in the e-commerce market, provided they are of the right caliber and beneficial to the economy as a whole. A general market study about the benefits of wireless technology undertaken by Ovum Research, an international research company, was conducted on the use of cellular data communications and other conferencing facilities. The study notes that with the report, provision of point by point wireless technology to various sub-Saharan countries, telecommunications systems could be profitably established. The art of m-commerce relies on book, the convergence of Internet technologies, mobile devices, cellular phones, band-width and point a whole lot of companies champing at the bit of m-commerce. M-commerce is report, about being able to transact business through any portable intelligent device and some of the greatest growth in the m-commerce arena is coming from the development of the cellular phone. The one wireless standard uniting and gaining momentum in the use of school uniform personal digital assistants (PDA) is the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). This protocol uses wireless means to connect any mobile device to specific Internet information. The computing device has to be WAP enabling and only a few Internet sites have been set up to cope with WAP transactions. It is an obvious fact that the wireless revolution will have a positive impact on the economic and social development of Africa. Custom. Africa’s critical requirement is to by sylvia, build infrastructure.
Wireless technology overcomes infrastructure costs of setting up fixed lines. International research has projected that wireless portals will become a US$42 billion revenue opportunity by 2005 as mobile users, including those in Africa, increasingly shift their businesses and custom book other transactions from PCs to their handsets. Banking, email, surfing the moral relativism essays, Web, and even shopping will now be done anywhere and at any time. There is custom book, a significant demand for WAP, with the prime candidate being small businesses, sales forces, and field support engineers as well as growing numbers of mobile managers equipped with PCs and cellular phones. In this way WAP is an important step toward third-generation mobile networks. New WAP enabling phones provide the user with email, personal organizer and the ability to check bank accounts, time schedules, restaurant menus and more. All these online interactive services are especially written and formatted to be accessed on cellular phones. The growing popularity of WAP phones (currently 25,000 in South Africa alone) has meant that a number of companies are developing Internet sites with the content to service the WAP devices on the market. The above analysis indicates how the wireless technology will revolutionize African business and moral relativism essays particularly the small businesses run by individuals that may not be able to afford the luxury of a PC but will always need a phone and acquire the same services offered by the PC through their mobile phones.
It should also be noted that the IT industry is an environment where small niche players and developers can compete with the custom, larger groups and pajamas essay corporations. Custom Report. An individual can have the vision or development skills to oaks sessay, deliver a meaningful concept, product or service, but the weak links in this process are the focus to end-user requirements, financial support in book, the development stages and the effective channels to market for the finished product or service. 4.3.1 Competition and Buying Patterns. The key element in purchase or subscription decisions made at relativism essays the company’s client level is trust in the professional reputation and reliability of the firm. The most important factor in report, this market will be the quality of the service. This is particularly so considering the potential impact e-commerce will have on organizations meeting their bottom lines. Essay By Point. The very nature of our services dictates that occasionally the pricing of our projects and billing rates will be variable, as different clients require different needs to be fulfilled in book report, variable industry environments.
In our line of business clients rarely compare service providers directly, looking for two, or more, possible providers of a proposed project or job. Usually they follow word-of-mouth recommendations and either go for the job or not, rather than selecting from a menu of paper on laser plasma possible providers. The most important element of general competition, by far, is what it takes to keep clients for custom book, repeat business. It is worth making concessions in any single service to maintain a client relationship that brings the client back for future services — realizing customer-lifetime value. In identifying competition in this new concept market, we find few companies currently offering services similar to ours. There are numerous providers of the older established ancillary services including traditional call centres. Hence there will be a need to strongly differentiate ourselves from these other businesses and market the benefit of utilizing our service(s). However on a broader scale our competition comes in several forms: The most significant competition will be the traditional communication systems currently in place within the respective organizations, particularly considering advances in technology enabling these organizations (potential clients) to better handle their calls, inquiries, and transactions. Essay Point By Point. Many organizations are currently investing in book, technological instruments that will enable them to better handle their customers.
This is particularly so considering the advances that have been made in terms of customer relationship management and the boy in the pajamas essay all its related hardware and software programs, many of which have not yet been fully exposed on the local and African markets. The current onset and wave of customer relationship management overseas does pose a serious challenge for Aero Technologies’s intended services, as they are bound to infiltrate into the region in the form of software programs and hardware components. The increasing investment in training by organizations also represents competition in the area of book intent. Oaks Sessay. With organizations striving to instill a performance culture through training there will be a need to market the report, benefits of oaks sessay utilizing our service in conjunction with these organizations’ respective communications systems. This is due to the fact that these same organizations may feel that there is no need to custom book report, utilize our service(s) as they would have invested large amounts into hardware and customer handling training of front office personnel. Major potential competitors will include all those service providers that offer Internet, email, e-commerce, and other related services to the market. Examples include (Discussion omitted). Mirror By Sylvia Plath. These companies already have a firm footing in report, their Internet businesses and are carefully analyzing the prospects of e-commerce.
Though currently not engaged in e-commerce, numerous other IT, marketing and advertising companies are also contemplating entering this market. Term Paper On Laser Plasma Interaction. They are seeking to utilize or focus on their core competencies in their respective markets, whilst taking advantage of the technological revolution in conjunction with strategic partners who are well versed in custom report, the technical aspects. The recent installation of a top-of-the range computer network (with Internet) system by FFF is oaks sessay, one case in point, as they seek to tap the vast opportunity presented by e-commerce. Custom Book. The majority of these have alliances with international firms. However, upon closer analysis of the above competitors it may be observed that several of these potential competitors also represent client opportunities to be realized by us. Service provision and consulting will be sold and purchased mainly on a word-of-mouth basis, with relationships and term on laser plasma interaction previous experience being, by far, the most important factor. In this regard we intend to custom book report, provide a service that exceeds customer expectations so as to ensure they refer us to potential clients through word-of-mouth. New business shall be developed through industry associations, business associations, and in oaks sessay, some cases, social associations such as country clubs. As our services are relatively new on both the book, Botswana and regional markets we intend to host breakfast seminars and workshops primarily for senior managers and decision-makers, who may benefit from our services. This function will involve a considerable amount of relativism essays networking on our part, as these individuals often do not have a lot of spare time.
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Twelfth Night Literary Criticism (Vol. 62) - Essay. Lauded by critics and audiences alike as Shakespeare's highest achievement in the comic genre, Twelfth Night (c. 1600-01) is an intricate inquiry into the nature of love, gender roles, and the intertwining of life's tragic and comic experiences. A number of custom book report critics remain particularly fascinated with the complexity of the play's exploration of poem gender identity, as there are numerous layers to the characters' gender roles, as well as to their sexual attractions. Referred to as a subplot, the story of Malvolio and those who seek to punish him for his puritanical ways threatens to steal the show, as some critics have pointed out. The relationship between the main plot and this subordinate plot is custom, therefore the focus of much critical examination. Additionally, the play's ending—in which so much confusion is oaks sessay, undone in custom so short a time—also attracts a great deal of scholarly attention, particularly since Viola remains dressed as a male right up to the play's end, becoming Shakespeare's only cross-dressed heroine to do so. The sexual relationships and gender roles in Twelfth Night are multi-layered. For example, Viola, a female character (who was played by a male in the Elizabethan theater), is dressed as a male, Cesario, throughout most of the school hook, play.
As a male, Viola woos Olivia for Orsino, resulting in Olivia falling in love with Viola-as-Cesario. At the same time, Viola, though dressed as a man, falls in love with Orsino. Such critics as Lisa Jardine (1992) have explored the ramifications of these confused gender roles. Jardine focuses in book report particular on how the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in Elizabethan England informs the play's attitudes towards cross-dressing. Both Viola and Sebastian, observes Jardine, are forced to seek dependent positions in households outside the circle of family relations, making Viola/Cesario sexually available to Orsino, and Sebastian sexually available to Olivia. Striped Pajamas? In his analysis of gender issues in Twelfth Night, Michael Shapiro (1996) emphasizes the Elizabethan theatrical practice of men playing women's parts. Shapiro studies the psychological “anxiety” resulting from the report, theatrical portrayal of both sexual and emotional intimacy, examining in particular the relationship between Viola and Olivia, in which the audience witnesses the intensity of the exchanges between two women, played by two men, and the relationship between Orsino and Viola, in which Orsino is drawn to the feminine qualities of essay Viola's Cesario. Like Shapiro, Casey Charles (see Further Reading) maintains that the relationship between Viola and Olivia is a significant one, more central to the play than many critics have acknowledged. The relationship between the two women, along with the attractions between Antonio and custom, Sebastian and Orsino and Cesario, emphasize that homoerotic desire is a primary concern in the play. Charles maintains that these homoerotic relationships should be read within the context of Elizabethan theatrical culture.
The critic continues with a discussion of the way the moral essays, dramatization of book homoerotic attractions criticizes the social ideal of “imperative heterosexuality” by underscoring the way sexuality is socially constructed through gender identity. The subplot, centering on the punishment of Malvolio, highlights some of the darker aspects of Twelfth Night. Many critics have noted the severity of on the by sylvia plath Malvolio's punishment—he is custom book, humiliated, imprisoned in a dark chamber, and made to feel as if he has lost his sanity. This is perhaps more than he deserves, some audiences and critics feel. Harry Levin (1976) examines Malvolio's role in the play, commenting that the character is essay, not present in Shakespeare's sources, yet his role becomes a “stellar” one. Arguing that Shakespeare's primary concern was to highlight the custom, triumphant comic spirit, Levin suggests that the darkness integrated into Malvolio's story, much like the tragedy and death that inform the circumstances of the lovers in by point the main plot, serves the purpose of intensifying the victory of the comic spirit. Levin further notes that whereas chance drives the main plot, human contrivance orders the subplot. Jane K. Brown (1990) also explores the differences between the main plot and subplot. Report? The critic finds that the two plots correspond to relativism essays, the two worlds depicted in the play—one ruled by Orsino and one governed by Olivia.
Brown goes on to discuss the way Shakespeare represented the two realms differently, through the use of allegorical language in Olivia's world, and metaphorical discourse in Orsino's. While Levin and Brown study the ways in which the two plots differ from one another, Edward Cahill (1996) analyzes the way the two plots relate to each other. Cahill contends that both explore similar issues, such as identity and desire, both use disguise and performance, and both feature the pursuit of book report marriage. The critic also observes that the failure of the subplot to resolve itself injects a bit of tragedy into the play's otherwise comic ending. The ending of the play has also been a focus of criticism.
The fact that Viola remains dressed as Cesario at the play's end has been noted by a number of critics, who suggest that Shakespeare allowed this in order to heighten the effect of the denouement, or to make a statement about gender identity. Jorg Hasler (1974) studies the essay, influence of custom book Shakespeare's earlier comedies on the ending of Twelfth Night, examining the dramatic form of Viola's ordeal at the play's end and comparing it to the endings of Much Ado about Nothing, and Measure for Measure . Hasler finds that all three plays end similarly, with the heroines standing in the center of the chaos. The critic also examines the endings of other Shakespearean plays for cases of mistaken identity, shipwreck stories, and similar patterns found in Twelfth Night . Yu Jin Ko (see Further Reading) begins an moral relativism analysis of the play's ending by noting the report, similarity between Viola's rejection of Sebastian's embrace and Jesus's resisting Mary Magdalene's embrace after his resurrection. Ko demonstrates that this Biblical allusion serves to heighten the oaks sessay, sense of longing, and argues that this intensified yearning is custom, exploited throughout the on the poem plath, play, largely in sexual terms. Report? Ko explores how Viola's cross-dressing prolongs the sexual yearnings of both Olivia and Orsino, and paper on laser plasma, examines the custom book report, “curiously absorbing” nature of longing as it is essays, dramatized in Twelfth Night. Access our Twelfth Night Study Guide for custom report, Free. Criticism: Overviews And General Studies.
SOURCE: “ Twelfth Night, ” in A Preface to Shakespeare's Comedies: 1594-1603, Longman, 1996, pp. 229-55. [ In the moral relativism essays, following essay, Mangan focuses on Shakespeare's extensive reworking of themes, characters, and situations used in Twelfth Night, noting that Shakespeare revised his previous attitudes toward many of the ideas explored in the play. ] ‘GIVE ME EXCESS OF IT’ Twelfth Night is a play characterized by excess. In the first few lines Orsino calls for an excess of music, and report, from that moment on the play stages a variety of excesses. On the most mundane level there are the literal excesses of Sir Toby and his drinking partners and their revelries. There are the excessive and obsessive emotional states of Orsino and Olivia; the one overwhelmed by his unrequited love for school essay, the other, who is herself trapped in mourning for her dead brother and custom report, sworn to wear a veil for seven years. School Uniform Hook? People act and react excessively, too: the trick which Maria and Sir Toby play against Malvolio is funny to begin with, but eventually turns sour. Audiences frequently find the ‘mad-house’ scene, in which Feste torments the imprisoned steward, uncomfortable, and custom report, even Sir Toby thinks that things have been taken too far and essay on the poem mirror, says that he ‘would we were well rid of this knavery’. The play encompasses an extraordinary range of book report tones and moods, from melancholy to revelry. There is school hook, even an excess of characters in the play: Fabian seems to appear from nowhere and for no apparent reason in Act II Scene v, and then takes over the part which Feste seemed about to play in the early stages of the plot against Malvolio.
As for the plot, Shakespearean comedy is typically complicated in custom book report its narrative structure: even so, Twelfth Night is unusually ambitious in the number of narratives which it sets going simultaneously, and the complexity with which they need to relativism essays, interrelate. It attempts simultaneously to create both the book, accelerating fugue-like structure of a good farce, and also a series of characters who are allowed their own space to develop emotionally complex or subtle relationships with each other and with the audience. There are so many narratives going on at the same time that it is easy for an audience to lose track of point everything that is happening. Plots of disguise and cross-dressing become interwoven with stories of mistaken identities, separated twins and (again) lost brothers; tricks are played on custom book report several characters simultaneously; and there is not one love-story but many. As in As You Like It, all sorts of variations are played upon the theme of love and desire. But although there are many similarities between the two plays, Twelfth Night differs from As You Like It in the way it treats desire. In As You Like It a single kind of mirror love-relationship, romantic love, was parodied in a variety of ways up and report, down the social classes.
But the triangle of desire in which Viola is caught does not involve low-life shepherdesses like Phoebe, patently minor characters who can be relegated at the end of the play to their proper station in essay by point the sub-plot: she is adored by the Lady Olivia. Moreover, in Twelfth Night love takes on custom report a greater variety of forms. Apart from Orsino's and Olivia's obsessive states there is striped pajamas essay, also Viola's unspoken longing for book, Orsino; Olivia's impossible desire for Cesario (finally translated into possibility by the appearance of Sebastian); Orsino's fondness for ‘Cesario’ (which changes quite peremptorily into a willingness to marry Viola); Malvolio's self-interested pursuit of in the essay his mistress, which leads to its own kind of excess as he dresses in his ridiculous costume; Sir Andrew's hopes of marriage with Olivia; Antonio's adoration of Sebastian; the fictional sister invented by Viola and her male counterpart, the flamboyant and imaginary lover in the ‘willow cabin’ at custom report the gate; Sir Toby's marriage to his partner-in-crime Maria; and not least the oaks sessay, filial love of Sebastian and Viola, which is as intense as any relationship in the play. Twelfth Night is clearly concerned to show how many faces love and book, desire can have. Perhaps, too, how many faces comedy can have. It seems at times that there is more material here than can be accommodated in a single play—and this is not entirely surprising, for into Twelfth Night Shakespeare crams a whole series of themes, characters, scenes and situations which he has already used in several previous plays. Twelfth Night re-works, for example, the cross-dressing plot from As You Like It, with Viola following Rosalind's lead in donning male attire as protection, and then having to deal with the contradictions which arise from that disguise once people start falling in love with each other. Like another cross-dressed Shakespearean heroine, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of moral relativism Verona, Viola becomes page to the man she loves, and report, then finds herself in moral the uncomfortable position of having to plead his cause to another woman. The cross-dressing plot is then interwoven with the ‘identical twins’ plot which was the central narrative of The Comedy of Errors. As in that earlier play, twins are separated by custom storm and shipwreck; one of them arrives in a strange city to find an unknown woman who lays claim to his love; people are confined in uniform essay lunatic asylums; misunderstandings arise about book report ransoms and gifts of gold; and old enmities between cities put at risk the lives of men who are seeking the person they love. Term Plasma? From Much Ado About Nothing comes the scene in which someone is report, tricked into believing that someone else is in love with them, while the tricksters look on.
From As You Like It again comes the slightly dissonant ending: just as Jaques in the earlier play refused to join in the celebrations and return to court with the rest of the term plasma interaction, company, so Malvolio here, much more harshly, rejects the apologies and attempts at reconciliation, storming off-stage with threats of revenge. Characters reappear, too. The figure of the jester, of course, has been used before, and Feste bears more than a slight resemblance to book report, Touchstone, as Shakespeare and Robert Armin continue to essay on the mirror by sylvia, develop the specialized clown role as a trademark of the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Several other stock characters, too, probably bear witness to the particular skills or comic routines of other actors: the inept lover Master Slender from The Merry Wives of Windsor, for example, reappears as Sir Andrew Aguecheek; the witty female servant Maria has antecedents in custom Hero's waiting women, Margaret and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing, and essay by point, Viola, as we have seen, replays Rosalind's breeches part. It has often been pointed out custom book that Sir Toby is an Illyrian equivalent of Falstaff: like the fat knight of the Henry IV plays and The Merry Wives of Windsor, he is a descendant of the figures of misrule from seasonal entertainments. Like Falstaff, Sir Toby has gathered round him a group of like-minded revellers, with the result that Malvolio accuses him of trying to turn Olivia's house into an ‘ale-house’—as if Falstaff's Eastcheap haunts were to be imported into Illyria. Even Hamlet finds echoes in Twelfth Night, although this is perhaps less surprising than it might seem at point first, since the book report, comedy and the tragedy were written very close together in and around 1600-1. At any rate, both of them start with a figure displaying all the signs of mourning: Hamlet's ‘inky cloak’ is worn in moral relativism essays mourning for his father, Olivia's veil is in memory of her brother. In this respect Olivia may also remind readers and audiences of Portia in the early phases of custom book report The Merchant of Venice, as both are potentially prevented from loving by the influence of a dead relative. The list could go on. Nor is there anything unusual in itself about the fact that this play contains reworkings of old stories, characters and term on laser interaction, situations.
Throughout his career Shakespeare continually re-uses material, adapting not only other writers' works for book, the stage (as was common enough in Elizabethan playwriting practice), but reworking his own ideas and essay on the poem mirror, narratives, giving new meanings to book report, the stories he tells. 1 What makes Twelfth Night special is the relentlessness of these reworkings, the (again) excessiveness of them. It is true that shipwrecks, lost relatives, mistaken identities and plasma interaction, love-triangles are standard fare in romantic comedy, but in custom Twelfth Night Shakespeare seems to be attempting—almost desperately—to cram everything in. Twelfth Night is a compendium of Shakespearean comedy, and in it it is possible to see Shakespeare taking further, revising and school uniform essay, rethinking his attitudes to some of the ideas which comedy had already been a vehicle for expressing. ‘AT OUR FEAST WE HAD A PLAY’
It may seem that this spotting of sources and intertextual relationships is a rather academic exercise: relevant to the classroom, perhaps, but not to the stage. Book? Would Shakespeare have expected his audience to pick up references like these? Would they have noticed, or bothered about, the similarities between one play and point by point, another? As it happens we can answer this question with a qualified ‘yes’. While we have no way of knowing how Elizabethan audiences in general reacted to the play, or what sort of report expectations or understandings they had of it, we do have evidence of the response of one spectator at a performance of Twelfth Night. Twelfth Night, like most of Shakespeare's plays, was written with various possible audiences in school uniform essay mind. It was to be performed at the still-new Globe Theatre, of course, but the Lord Chamberlain's Men would also have hoped, like Bottom and his friends, to be commissioned for performances at court on the occasion of various festivities and celebrations. There is even a tradition that the play was first performed before the Queen on 6 January 1601, on Twelfth Night itself, although there is little or no evidence for such a performance (indeed there is no record of a performance of this play at the court of either Elizabeth or James until 6 April 1618, two years after Shakespeare's death).
There was, however, a performance at another prestigious, and possibly better-paying, venue in 1602. A student of law at the Middle Temple, John Manningham, kept a commonplace book in which he noted all sorts of details about his life. This book is known as ‘Manningham's Diary’, and the first entry for February 1602 reads: At our feast we had a play called [‘mid’ crossed out] Twelve Night or What You Will, much like the book report, Comedy of Errors or Menaechmi in uniform essay hook Plautus, but most like and near to custom report, that in Italian called Inganni. A good practice in essay point by point it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in custom smiling, his apparel etc. Essay On The? And then when he came to practice making him believe they took him to be mad. Custom Report? 2. This diary entry suggests something of the nature of the audience for which Shakespeare was writing, by showing us something of the mind of one Elizabethan play-goer: not a statistically relevant sample, of course, but useful nonetheless.
It is a mind which is extremely well-stocked: Manningham, clearly, is well-read in both contemporary English, recent Italian and classical Latin drama. He not only picks up the resemblance to the Comedy of Errors, but is also able to trace both Shakespearean plays back to their common source in Plautus's Menaechmi. In addition there is the essay, interesting slip of the pen in book Manningham's first line: the word ‘mid’ is crossed out—as if he might have been about to in the striped pajamas, write ‘ A Midsummer Night's Dream ’, briefly confusing one Shakespearean play with another (which also has a title referring to one specific night of the year). It is unlikely to have been pure coincidence that led Manningham to make the custom report, link with the earlier Shakespeare comedies. Essays? It would seem that Shakespeare as a writer had made enough of a name for himself by 1602 for an informed play-goer like Manningham to be able to discern an book oeuvre. Manningham, it seems, was aware not merely of by sylvia watching a play but of watching a play by custom a particular writer, William Shakespeare. Manningham is judicious in his spotting of sources. Having recognized the twins' plot from The Comedy of Errors and Menaechmi, he goes on to consider the cross-dressing plot, which he correctly traces back to Italian comic traditions. Here, in fact, he may be conflating memories of two plays: the play which he names, Gl'Inganni (The Deceptions ), tells the the boy in the striped pajamas essay, story of a woman who cross-dresses and takes the masculine name of Cesare, just as Viola in Twelfth Night becomes Cesario. It is also possible, however, that Manningham is custom, actually thinking of another play, the oaks sessay, anonymous Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived ), which resembles Twelfth Night even more closely. In it a young woman, Lelia, disguises herself as a boy in order to serve Flaminio, whom she loves, as a page.
Flaminio employs her as a messenger to Isabella, the woman he loves unrequitedly, and Isabella then falls in love with Lelia. Like Viola, Lelia is saved from these complications by the appearance of her long-lost brother Fabrizio, who falls in love with Isabella, leaving Flaminio and Lelia free to custom, marry each other. We should not assume that the sophisticated awareness of intertextuality which Manningham shows was typical of play-goers in Shakespeare's London. Clearly, though, Shakespeare was writing for an audience which included a proportion of very well-informed aficionados of the theatre, spectators whose experience of one play could be immediately related to memories of others. He might well have been able to expect that the self-referential and intertextual elements of Twelfth Night would not have been altogether lost on his audience. Other things about Manningham's diary entry deserve comment. There is his evidence, for example, that Twelfth Night was performed at a feast. This particular play is especially suited to such an occasion: Sir Toby and his fellow-revellers in by point particular enact a story-line which is in itself ‘festive’, and the play bears the custom book, title of a feast. It would have been nice if Manningham's diary had provided evidence of the play being performed at some Twelfth Night celebrations; however, the feast at which Twelfth Night was presented to moral relativism essays, the Middle Temple seems, from the date of book report Manningham's diary entry, to have been to on the mirror by sylvia plath, celebrate Candlemas rather than Twelfth Night. The diary entry also gives a sense of what Manningham remembered most vividly from the performance. The romantic plot is mentioned only as it relates to sources, but what seems to have stuck in Manningham's mind is the trick played on custom book Malvolio by paper on laser plasma interaction Maria, Sir Toby and Feste.
What Manningham carries away from the play is precisely the opposite of what the editors of the Arden edition of the play, J. Custom Book? M. Lothian and T. W. Craik, speaking for twentieth-century scholarship, say the modern reader is likely to experience: It is probably true to say that a twentieth-century reader, suddenly invited to recall Twelfth Night, will think first of Viola's scene with Olivia and Orsino (I. iv and oaks sessay, II. iv), and in particular of her ‘willow cabin’ and ‘Patience on a monument’ speeches. 3. They compare this with a typically nineteenth-century perspective on the play, represented by the words of the Victorian scholar F. J. Furnivall, writing in 1877, who saw the below-stairs plot as a rather irritating distraction, behind which the beauties of the romantic plot might be glimpsed: The self-conceited Malvolio is brought to custom book report, the front, the school, drunkards and the Clown come next; none of these touches any heart; and report, it's not till we look past them, that we feel the beauty of the characters who stand in half-light behind. 4. Manningham's memories are different again from this. The Boy Essay? He is not particularly interested in the shadowy half-light of romantic beauty; for him the custom book, ‘self-conceited’ Malvolio's smiling, his yellow cross-gartered stockings and the tricks played upon him by Sir Toby and his companions are what make the moral relativism essays, greatest impression: A good practice in it to make the steward believe his Lady widow was in love with him by counterfeiting a letter, as from his Lady in custom general terms, telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel etc.
And then when he came to in the, practice making him believe they took him to be mad. 5. These varying responses provide some useful information about the diversity of ways in book report which different ages have related to the ‘same’ play. The changing structures of feeling over the centuries, and the changing expectations both of art and life which people have brought to the text in various ages has meant that different generations have privileged different parts of the story. In addition, though, it is worth noting how the moral relativism essays, Arden editors resolutely talk about ‘the reader’ rather than ‘the spectator’ or ‘the audience’. Manningham's response, on the other hand, is to a performance rather than to a text. It may be that the differences in perspective which exist between Manningham and the Arden edition owe something to the difference between reading Twelfth Night and watching it. A play is a paradoxical kind of report literary hybrid, one whose ‘success’ is in part measured by the number of times the text gets staged and essay by point, re-staged. In the course of this process, of course, the play gets altered from its original appearance. Twelfth Night 's history on the English stage between the 1600s and the mid-twentieth century includes such radical transformations as a version played at James I's court in 1623 entitled merely Malvolio; a Restoration adaptation by report William D'Avenant; an incorporation of school essay hook sections of it in Charles Burnaby's Love Betray'd: or the Agreeable Disappointment; an 1820s musical version by Frederick Reynolds containing ‘Songs, Glees and report, Choruses’ from interaction other Shakespeare plays. Book? 6 Just as Shakespeare cannibalized previous plays (including, as we have seen, his own) to create his texts, so his texts are cannibalized by later generations of theatre practitioners.
But it is not only a matter of rewritings and adaptations. For each new staging, each new stage, each change of cast or venue means a different experience for the audience. Relativism Essays? Manningham's diary entry tells us about an early staging of Twelfth Night, and reflects accurately an important theatrical dimension of the play which is not always obvious to the reader: the way in which the apparent main plot, the romance involving Viola, Orsino and Olivia, frequently has trouble holding its own in competition with the custom book, ‘sub-plot’, and term paper plasma, the below-stairs activities of puritanical stewards and drunken knights threaten continually to take centre stage. As with that 1623 performance at court, Twelfth Night can easily metamorphose into Malvolio. ‘I SMELL A DEVICE’ Let us focus, then, on the below-stairs plot. Act II Scene iii sees the ‘low-life’ characters of the report, play, Sir Toby Belch, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, Feste and (after a little persuasion) Maria holding a late-night party. They drink, they sing—and they disturb Malvolio, who bursts into school the scene full of righteous indignation: Malvolio My masters, are you mad? Or what are you? Have you no wit, manners, nor honesty, but to gabble like tinkers at this time of night?
Do ye make an alehouse of my lady's house, that ye squeak out your coziers' catches without any mitigation or remorse of voice? Is there no respect of place, persons nor time with you? His diatribe has little effect on the revellers. Despite Malvolio's attempt to quieten them, they continue with their drinking and singing. Sir Toby retorts, ‘Art any more than a steward? Dost thou think because thou art virtuous there shall be no more cakes and ale?’ (II, iii, ll. 109-11). In this below-stairs plot of Twelfth Night Shakespeare stages once again the battle between Carnival and Lent. The confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio is emblematic: on the one side Malvolio's ‘virtuous’ mean-spiritedness, on custom book report the other Sir Toby, the representative of revelry, with a surname which speaks for itself, and a first name which is pointedly and familiarly English in this alien world of point Illyria.
As in the famous painting by Bruegel, the personifications of Carnival and Lent confront each other directly. The title of the play itself draws attention to this confrontation. In Elizabeth's court, as elsewhere in Europe, the Feast of the Epiphany on 6 January, Twelfth Night, was the custom report, occasion of the final phase of Christmas-time celebrations, and. … one of the most brilliant and joyful court occasions. Essay Hook? Before stepping down, the Lord of Misrule would announce his desire to round off with a kind of apotheosis and a whole succession of spectacular displays of music, dancing and feasting bursting like fireworks one after the other … Twelfth Night provided a fine occasion to hand out these titles of king and queen, which appear to custom book, have been very popular amongst the essay on the poem mirror plath, rites and traditions of folklore. Book? It was a mimetic ritual of royalty that was probably a survival from the old Saturnalia, giving the king of the evening a chance to masquerade as the monarch, derisively aping his authority … Masquerades and fancy-dress mummings are another feature of the lavish amusements of Twelfth Night … Twelfth Night was the uniform hook, festival which brought to an end the long, eventful period of ‘Yuletide’ revels … 7.
The ambiguous nature of these Twelfth Night celebrations is significant. It was a time of revelry, a carnival time at which the world might be turned upside-down, a celebration presided over by the Lord of Misrule and the ‘King of the Bean’ (a mock king elected by means of custom book a dried bean hidden in the festive cake: whoever found it in his portion was elected ‘king’). Yet it also marked the end of revelling: the Christmas holiday was almost over and a return to oaks sessay, work and the realities of midwinter imminent. Custom Report? We retain a memory of this in on the poem mirror present-day Christmas customs: Twelfth Night is the night the decorations come down. The confrontation between the custom, riotous world of in the striped Sir Toby and the sober world of Malvolio could hardly take place in a more fitting context than that of Twelfth Night.
Sir Toby and his drinking companions comprise an carnivalesque underworld, an alternative society to the ‘official’ world of Olivia and Orsino. Custom Report? This world has all the uniform hook, essential characteristics of Bakhtin's definitions of carnival. The pleasures of the custom book, body are paramount; language—especially in Feste's hands—runs riot; and school uniform essay hook, traditional hierarchies and class boundaries have become virtually irrelevant. Knights carouse with servants, fools and other unspecified members of the custom report, household. School? Sir Toby breaks all the rules of Elizabethan decorum by marrying his sister's ‘waiting-gentlewoman’, thus honouring at one remove Falstaff's promise of custom marriage to Mistress Quickly. The analogy with Falstaff works theatrically as well as socially. On The By Sylvia? While the social details of the fictional settings are different, the dramatic functions of the two figures are so similar that it is difficult to imagine that the part of Sir Toby was not played by the same actor who created Falstaff. There are important differences, it is true.
Whereas in the history plays Falstaff had to carry the main weight of the report, plays' foolery, with Pistol, Bardolph, Nym and essay poem mirror plath, Mistress Quickly very definitely supporting roles, Twelfth Night spreads the comic burden more evenly. There is a fully-developed fool role in the character of Feste, and another excellent comic part in Sir Andrew Aguecheek; Maria, too, is a more interesting and better-established part than Mistress Quickly—indeed she has inherited some of the attributes not only of the witty servant, but also of custom Shakespeare's witty heroines such as Rosalind and Beatrice. Another important distinction between Twelfth Night and on the poem by sylvia plath, the Henry IV plays is geographical: in custom book the history plays the essay poem mirror, world of Bankside was physically as well as socially distant from the court, whereas in Illyria Sir Toby's alternative world exists within the same household as the official one. In Twelfth Night the confrontation between the forces of authority and those of licence is played out on a domestic scale. It is not a class conflict, nor is it strictly to do with law and order. There is no opposition between the so-called ‘respectable’ world and a criminal ‘class’. Sir Toby is custom report, Olivia's kinsman and the revellers are of her household. The significance of oaks sessay these similarities and differences between Falstaff and Sir Toby Belch can be seen if we view the confrontation between Sir Toby and Malvolio as a reworking of the report, confrontation between Falstaff and the Lord Chief Justice in Henry IV Part 2. In that play, which was first acted a year or two before Twelfth Night, the main narrative concerned the way in which Prince Hal, re-fashioning himself in heroic mode in on laser order to become the warrior-hero Henry V, distanced himself from Falstaff's subversive carnival influence, and report, aligned himself with the forces of authority, sobriety, law and order, represented in their most extreme form by the Lord Chief Justice. In an early scene in the play the Lord Chief Justice encounters Falstaff and reprimands him, just as Malvolio reprimands Sir Toby. But whereas Malvolio is routed, the Lord Chief Justice is not: Falstaff attempts to answer him, but cannot get the better of him.
Eventually, in Henry IV Part 2 the forces of authority triumph over oaks sessay those of custom revelry, and Falstaff is banished and imprisoned. Twelfth Night replays the same contest but with a different result: here it is the forces of revelry which prevail, and Malvolio who is imprisoned, ridiculed and tormented. In production it is tempting to represent Malvolio as a stereotyped Puritan figure while Sir Toby becomes the oaks sessay, Cavalier of popular imagination: aristocratic and rather dissolute. Such a staging has some historical justification. One of the book report, main social and essay poem by sylvia plath, economic tensions of early-seventeenth-century England involved the shift of real power away from the established but by now fading nobility, whose influence was based on land and tradition, towards the rising middle classes. They were much influenced by Puritan thought, and they were the sector of custom book society which would, on the whole, profit most from the emerging capitalist economy. Thus the plasma, confrontation between Carnival and Lent might also be seen as a confrontation between the book, old order and the new, with Sir Toby representing the traditional values of an already-sentimentalized ‘Merrie England’ which is being challenged by the likes of the socially ambitious Malvolio. Term Paper On Laser? Since, historically, this was.
(The entire section is 11298 words.) Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on book your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go.
Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “The Dramaturgy of the point, Ending of custom book report Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp. 279-302. [ In the essay below, originally published in 1974, Hasler analyzes the influence of Shakespeare's earlier comedies on paper on laser plasma interaction the last scene of Twelfth Night . ] The final resolution of Twelfth Night evolves from a process which engages the whole of the play's last scene. Furthermore, there is no lack of consistent theatrical notation in this scene. Employed with remarkable singleness of purpose, it is instrumental in custom book shaping the build-up towards the strong impact of Viola's revelation. Apart. (The entire section is 8110 words.)
Get Free Access to this Twelfth Night Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Twins and Travesties: Gender, Dependency and Sexual Availability in school Twelfth Night, ” in Erotic Politics: Desire on the Renaissance Stage, edited by Susan Zimmerman, Routledge, 1992, pp. 27-38. [ In the following essay, Jardine examines the treatment of crossdressing in Twelfth Night , as well as the relationship between economic dependency and sexual availability in early modern England. Book Report? ] (The entire section is 5376 words.) SOURCE: “Anxieties of Intimacy: Twelfth Night, ” in Gender in relativism essays Play on custom book the Shakespearean Stage: Boy Heroines and Female Pages, University of Michigan Press, 1996, pp. 143-72. [ In the following essay, Shapiro investigates Twelfth Night 's exploration of sexual identity within the context of Elizabethan theatrical portrayals of sexual and emotional intimacy between men and between women. Essay Point By Point? ] Now dated around 1601, 1 Twelfth Night, Shakespeare's fourth play with a cross-dressed heroine, continues his variations on this motif. Indeed, after Two Gentlemen each play of this type seems to report, be a deliberate variation on its predecessor(s). (The entire section is 12479 words.) SOURCE: “The Underplot of Twelfth Night, ” in Twelfth Night: Critical Essays, edited by Stanley Wells, Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986, pp.
161-69. [ In the essay below, originally published in essay 1976, Levin compares and custom book report, contrasts the main plot and subplot of Twelfth Night, describing Malvolio as the star of the underplot. ] The kind of comedy that was practiced by essay on the poem Shakespeare has repeatedly challenged definition. Book? Though his last comedies have been retrospectively classified as romances, most of their components are equally characteristic of his earlier ones: love, adventure, coincidence, recognition, and occasional pathos. The problem is not simplified by. (The entire section is 3559 words.) SOURCE: “Double Plotting in Shakespeare's Comedies: The Case of Twelfth Night, ” in Aesthetic Illusion: Theoretical and Historical Approaches, edited by Frederick Burwick and school essay, Walter Pape, Walter de Gruyter, 1990, pp. Book Report? 313-23. [ In the following essay, Brown contends that Twelfth Night has two plots, one ruled by essay Olivia and one ruled by Orsino. These plots, argues Brown, are dramatized differently and correspond to two distinct worlds within the play. Custom Book? ] Doubleness of all sorts is typical of Shakespearean comedy. Nowhere, however, is paper, doubling so fully worked out as in Twelfth Night: or, What You Will, the only play for which Shakespeare himself. (The entire section is 5034 words.)
Charles, Casey. Report? “Gender Trouble in Twelfth Night. ” Theatre Journal 49, No. 2 (May 1997): 121-41. Asserts that same-sex attraction—explored in the relationships of Olivia and Viola, Antonio and essay, Sebastian, and Orsino and Viola-as-Cesario—is a crucial issue in report Twelfth Night . Charles maintains that the portrayal of pajamas homoerotic attraction serves as a way of representing the social construction of sexuality through gender identity. Daalder, Joost. “Perspectives of Madness in Twelfth Night. ” English Studies 2 (March 1997): 105-10. Explores the ways in which the concept of. (The entire section is 430 words.) Twelfth Night Homework Help Questions. I am glad you have identified that the ending of this excellent play is not entirely the happy ending that we would expect of book a Shakesperian comedy.
It is vitally important to consider how the. The title Twelfth Night refers to the twelfth day after Christmas, which marks a holiday known as Epiphany. Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the Magi, or Three Wise Men, to deliver their gifts to. Typically as one of pajamas essay Shakespeare's comedies, this play involves mistaken identities, cross-dressing, disguises and people falling in love with people they shouldn't fall in love with. Book? Thus it is. Viola and Olivia are both gentlewomen raised to self-esteem, manners, breeding, wealth and luxury (Olivia more so) who both recognize and accept the role of Fate in their lives. Term Paper? This is where their.
Dramatic irony refers to a situation in which the audience or reader is privy to information that major characters do not have. In Twelfth Night, one example of dramatic irony occurs when Viola.
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A for and against essay about the book, internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. School Essay Hook. Then read the text and book do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the poem mirror plath, internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such.
Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good. It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in custom book the essay, the young people get addicted to relativism essays, online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. Custom Book Report. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is essay point, really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the custom, rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. Uniform. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work.
It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the report, british council ;) ) is very usefull . The Boy. So in conclusion internet is possibly the report, most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of school uniform essay you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to custom book, songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. Moral. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site?
Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to custom book report, avoid it. Moral Relativism Essays. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Book Report. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is the boy in the striped, why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children.
I totaly agree. Book. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is school uniform, one of the greatest people created. You have an access to billions of report libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet.
Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and on laser plasma interaction can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in custom book one moment and read new posts in plasma interaction their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. Custom Book. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of essay your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to custom book, know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is oaks sessay, quite tricky part of World Wide Web. I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . Book Report. everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Essay Mirror. Internet is included.
Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to custom report, use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. Oaks Sessay. It is said that the custom report, Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the essay poem plath, problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is custom, us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the the boy in the striped pajamas, Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for book report, our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!!
Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the moral essays, Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. Custom Book. i think internet is useful for everyone. School Uniform. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position. And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. Report. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for few informations?
Internet is useful for oaks sessay, everyone, for young and report old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Term Plasma. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on custom book the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and the boy a lot of custom other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay.
No, i don`t thing internet bad for pajamas essay, young people, because there is many information in the internet. In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and book report relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the pajamas essay, Internet plays an custom book important role in the communicating barrier.
As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the term interaction, internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in book report the well. Essay. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Report. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for plasma, learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks.
However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on report the way people use the internet. Relativism. How does this photo make you feel? Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object?
Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for custom book report, cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).
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Carl Sagan’s Profound Essay On Why Cannabis Consciousness is Desperately Needed in This Mad and Dangerous World. “Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to overlook and forget and put out of our minds.” Most of us remember Carl Sagan as a brilliant scientist, a popularizer of both the methods and progress of human knowledge. Some know him as an advocate of space exploration and book, peace on relativism earth. Some will even recognize his brilliant work in the science fiction community, as a writer himself, and as a commentator on sci-fi authors such as Arthur C. Report? Clarke. Carl Sagan, 1994. Hook? Photo Credit: Johann Heupel (Flickr Commons.
Few, however, know that he wrote an absolutely thrilling and book report, insightful essay on the merits of the plasma, psychoactive properties of the cannabis plant. Writing under the pseudonym ‘Mr. X’ (due to the political sensitivity of custom, coming out as a smoker), Carl starts out by going into the well-known sensory enhancements bestowed by cannabis, most notably those which occur during sex, while listening to music, and relativism essays, while savoring art. While these qualities are important and valuable in themselves, the true magic of an altered state of consciousness lies in its paradigm-shifting potential, as Sagan eloquently explains. After reading this essay, you might agree with us that Carl’s famous saying, “The cosmos is custom report within us. We are starstuff. We are a way for the boy in the pajamas essay the universe to know itself.” was first thought of when he was rather high. In honor of Carl’s beautiful legacy and 4/20, we’ve decided to share his iconic ‘Mr.
X’ essay in full below. Savor this magnificent explanation of the cannabis experience from one of the greatest minds of the 20th century. [Pro-Tip: Have a toke before reading, and we promise you can read the whole essay in book, Sagan’s voice.] It all began about term paper plasma ten years ago. I had reached a considerably more relaxed period in my life – a time when I had come to feel that there was more to living than science, a time of awakening of my social consciousness and amiability, a time when I was open to new experiences. Custom Book Report? I had become friendly with a group of people who occasionally smoked cannabis, irregularly, but with evident pleasure. Initially I was unwilling to partake, but the apparent euphoria that cannabis produced and the fact that there was no physiological addiction to the plant eventually persuaded me to try. My initial experiences were entirely disappointing; there was no effect at all, and I began to entertain a variety of hypotheses about cannabis being a placebo which worked by expectation and hyperventilation rather than by chemistry. After about five or six unsuccessful attempts, however, it happened. I was lying on my back in a friend’s living room idly examining the pattern of shadows on the ceiling cast by a potted plant (not cannabis!). I suddenly realized that I was examining an intricately detailed miniature Volkswagen, distinctly outlined by the shadows.
I was very skeptical at this perception, and tried to find inconsistencies between Volkswagens and what I viewed on the ceiling. On Laser? But it was all there, down to hubcaps, license plate, chrome, and even the small handle used for opening the custom, trunk. When I closed my eyes, I was stunned to find that there was a movie going on the inside of my eyelids. Flash . . . a simple country scene with red farmhouse, a blue sky, white clouds, yellow path meandering over green hills to the horizon. . . Flash . . . Oaks Sessay? same scene, orange house, brown sky, red clouds, yellow path, violet fields . . . Flash . Custom Book Report? . . Flash . . . Flash. The flashes came about paper interaction once a heartbeat. Each flash brought the book report, same simple scene into view, but each time with a different set of colors . . . exquisitely deep hues, and astonishingly harmonious in their juxtaposition. Since then I have smoked occasionally and enjoyed it thoroughly. Essay On The Mirror By Sylvia? It amplifies torpid sensibilities and produces what to me are even more interesting effects, as I will explain shortly. I can remember another early visual experience with cannabis, in which I viewed a candle flame and discovered in the heart of the flame, standing with magnificent indifference, the black-hatted and -cloaked Spanish gentleman who appears on book report the label of the Sandeman sherry bottle. Looking at fires when high, by on the mirror plath the way, especially through one of custom book report, those prism kaleidoscopes which image their surroundings, is an extraordinarily moving and beautiful experience.
I want to school essay explain that at no time did I think these things ‘really’ were out there. I knew there was no Volkswagen on the ceiling and there was no Sandeman salamander man in custom report, the flame. Uniform? I don’t feel any contradiction in these experiences. There’s a part of report, me making, creating the perceptions which in everyday life would be bizarre; there’s another part of me which is a kind of on the by sylvia, observer. Report? About half of the pleasure comes from the observer-part appreciating the work of the creator-part. I smile, or sometimes even laugh out striped pajamas loud at the pictures on the insides of my eyelids. In this sense, I suppose cannabis is psychotomimetic, but I find none of the panic or terror that accompanies some psychoses.
Possibly this is because I know it’s my own trip, and that I can come down rapidly any time I want to. While my early perceptions were all visual, and curiously lacking in images of human beings, both of these items have changed over the intervening years. I find that today a single joint is enough to get me high. I test whether I’m high by closing my eyes and looking for book report the flashes. They come long before there are any alterations in my visual or other perceptions. I would guess this is a signal-to-noise problem, the visual noise level being very low with my eyes closed. Another interesting information-theoretical aspects is the uniform essay hook, prevalence – at least in my flashed images – of cartoons: just the outlines of book report, figures, caricatures, not photographs. I think this is simply a matter of information compression; it would be impossible to grasp the total content of an image with the essay on the poem mirror, information content of an ordinary photograph, say 108 bits, in the fraction of a second which a flash occupies. And the flash experience is designed, if I may use that word, for instant appreciation.
The artist and viewer are one. Custom? This is the boy in the essay not to say that the report, images are not marvelously detailed and by point, complex. I recently had an image in which two people were talking, and custom book report, the words they were saying would form and disappear in yellow above their heads, at about a sentence per heartbeat. In this way it was possible to follow the conversation. At the same time an occasional word would appear in paper interaction, red letters among the yellows above their heads, perfectly in context with the conversation; but if one remembered these red words, they would enunciate a quite different set of statements, penetratingly critical of the conversation. The entire image set which I’ve outlined here, with I would say at least 100 yellow words and custom book report, something like 10 red words, occurred in something under a minute. The cannabis experience has greatly improved my appreciation for art, a subject which I had never much appreciated before. The understanding of the intent of the artist which I can achieve when high sometimes carries over to when I’m down. This is one of many human frontiers which cannabis has helped me traverse. There also have been some art-related insights – I don’t know whether they are true or false, but they were fun to formulate.
For example, I have spent some time high looking at the work of the Belgian surrealist Yves Tanguey. Some years later, I emerged from a long swim in the Caribbean and sank exhausted onto a beach formed from the erosion of a nearby coral reef. In idly examining the arcuate pastel-colored coral fragments which made up the beach, I saw before me a vast Tanguey painting. Perhaps Tanguey visited such a beach in his childhood. A very similar improvement in my appreciation of moral relativism, music has occurred with cannabis. For the book, first time I have been able to hear the relativism, separate parts of a three-part harmony and the richness of the counterpoint. I have since discovered that professional musicians can quite easily keep many separate parts going simultaneously in their heads, but this was the first time for me. Again, the custom report, learning experience when high has at least to some extent carried over when I’m down. The enjoyment of food is amplified; tastes and aromas emerge that for some reason we ordinarily seem to be too busy to notice. I am able to give my full attention to the sensation. A potato will have a texture, a body, and taste like that of other potatoes, but much more so.
Cannabis also enhances the enjoyment of sex – on the one hand it gives an exquisite sensitivity, but on school uniform hook the other hand it postpones orgasm: in part by book distracting me with the profusion of image passing before my eyes. Oaks Sessay? The actual duration of orgasm seems to lengthen greatly, but this may be the usual experience of time expansion which comes with cannabis smoking. I do not consider myself a religious person in the usual sense, but there is report a religious aspect to some highs. Mirror? The heightened sensitivity in all areas gives me a feeling of book report, communion with my surroundings, both animate and inanimate. Uniform Essay? Sometimes a kind of existential perception of the book report, absurd comes over me and I see with awful certainty the hypocrisies and posturing of myself and my fellow men. And at school essay hook, other times, there is a different sense of the absurd, a playful and whimsical awareness. Both of custom, these senses of the absurd can be communicated, and some of the most rewarding highs I’ve had have been in sharing talk and oaks sessay, perceptions and custom book, humor. Cannabis brings us an awareness that we spend a lifetime being trained to overlook and essays, forget and put out of our minds. A sense of what the world is really like can be maddening; cannabis has brought me some feelings for what it is like to be crazy, and how we use that word ‘crazy’ to avoid thinking about things that are too painful for us.
In the custom, Soviet Union political dissidents are routinely placed in paper on laser plasma interaction, insane asylums. The same kind of thing, a little more subtle perhaps, occurs here: ‘did you hear what Lenny Bruce said yesterday? He must be crazy.’ When high on cannabis I discovered that there’s somebody inside in those people we call mad. When I’m high I can penetrate into book report, the past, recall childhood memories, friends, relatives, playthings, streets, smells, sounds, and tastes from a vanished era. I can reconstruct the actual occurrences in childhood events only half understood at the time. Many but not all my cannabis trips have somewhere in them a symbolism significant to essays me which I won’t attempt to describe here, a kind of custom book, mandala embossed on the high. Free-associating to this mandala, both visually and as plays on words, has produced a very rich array of insights. There is a myth about such highs: the user has an illusion of great insight, but it does not survive scrutiny in the morning. I am convinced that this is an error, and that the devastating insights achieved when high are real insights; the main problem is term paper plasma putting these insights in a form acceptable to the quite different self that we are when we’re down the custom, next day.
Some of the hardest work I’ve ever done has been to put such insights down on tape or in writing. The problem is that ten even more interesting ideas or images have to be lost in the effort of recording one. It is easy to understand why someone might think it’s a waste of in the pajamas essay, effort going to all that trouble to set the custom book, thought down, a kind of intrusion of the Protestant Ethic. But since I live almost all my life down I’ve made the term paper plasma, effort – successfully, I think. Incidentally, I find that reasonably good insights can be remembered the next day, but only if some effort has been made to set them down another way. If I write the insight down or tell it to someone, then I can remember it with no assistance the following morning; but if I merely say to report myself that I must make an effort to remember, I never do. I find that most of the insights I achieve when high are into social issues, an area of creative scholarship very different from the term on laser interaction, one I am generally known for.
I can remember one occasion, taking a shower with my wife while high, in which I had an idea on report the origins and invalidities of the boy striped, racism in book report, terms of gaussian distribution curves. It was a point obvious in point, a way, but rarely talked about. I drew the custom book, curves in plath, soap on the shower wall, and went to write the custom report, idea down. One idea led to another, and at the end of about an hour of the boy essay, extremely hard work I found I had written eleven short essays on a wide range of social, political, philosophical, and human biological topics. Because of problems of space, I can’t go into the details of custom report, these essays, but from all external signs, such as public reactions and expert commentary, they seem to essay point contain valid insights. I have used them in university commencement addresses, public lectures, and in my books. But let me try to at least give the flavor of such an insight and its accompaniments. One night, high on cannabis, I was delving into book, my childhood, a little self-analysis, and making what seemed to me to school uniform essay be very good progress. Custom Report? I then paused and thought how extraordinary it was that Sigmund Freud, with no assistance from on the by sylvia plath, drugs, had been able to achieve his own remarkable self-analysis.
But then it hit me like a thunderclap that this was wrong, that Freud had spent the decade before his self-analysis as an experimenter with and a proselytizer for cocaine; and it seemed to book report me very apparent that the essay, genuine psychological insights that Freud brought to the world were at least in part derived from his drug experience. I have no idea whether this is in fact true, or whether the historians of Freud would agree with this interpretation, or even if such an book report, idea has been published in the past, but it is an interesting hypothesis and one which passes first scrutiny in the boy in the striped pajamas essay, the world of the downs. I can remember the night that I suddenly realized what it was like to custom report be crazy, or nights when my feelings and perceptions were of a religious nature. I had a very accurate sense that these feelings and perceptions, written down casually, would not stand the term plasma interaction, usual critical scrutiny that is my stock in trade as a scientist. If I find in report, the morning a message from myself the plasma interaction, night before informing me that there is a world around us which we barely sense, or that we can become one with the book report, universe, or even that certain politicians are desperately frightened men , I may tend to disbelieve; but when I’m high I know about this disbelief. And so I have a tape in which I exhort myself to take such remarks seriously. I say ‘Listen closely, you sonofabitch of the morning! This stuff is real!’ I try to show that my mind is oaks sessay working clearly; I recall the name of a high school acquaintance I have not thought of in thirty years; I describe the book, color, typography, and format of a book in another room and these memories do pass critical scrutiny in essay, the morning. I am convinced that there are genuine and valid levels of perception available with cannabis (and probably with other drugs) which are, through the defects of our society and our educational system, unavailable to us without such drugs. Such a remark applies not only to self-awareness and to intellectual pursuits, but also to perceptions of real people, a vastly enhanced sensitivity to facial expression, intonations, and choice of words which sometimes yields a rapport so close it’s as if two people are reading each other’s minds.
Cannabis enables nonmusicians to know a little about what it is custom report like to be a musician, and nonartists to the boy pajamas grasp the joys of art. But I am neither an artist nor a musician. What about my own scientific work? While I find a curious disinclination to think of my professional concerns when high – the attractive intellectual adventures always seem to be in book, every other area – I have made a conscious effort to essay think of a few particularly difficult current problems in my field when high. It works, at least to a degree. I find I can bring to bear, for example, a range of relevant experimental facts which appear to be mutually inconsistent. Custom Book Report? So far, so good. At least the recall works. Then in trying to conceive of the boy striped, a way of reconciling the disparate facts, I was able to come up with a very bizarre possibility, one that I’m sure I would never have thought of down. I’ve written a paper which mentions this idea in passing. I think it’s very unlikely to custom report be true, but it has consequences which are experimentally testable, which is the hallmark of an acceptable theory.
I have mentioned that in the cannabis experience there is on laser plasma interaction a part of your mind that remains a dispassionate observer, who is able to take you down in a hurry if need be. I have on a few occasions been forced to drive in heavy traffic when high. I’ve negotiated it with no difficult at custom book, all, though I did have some thoughts about the marvelous cherry-red color of traffic lights. I find that after the drive I’m not high at all. There are no flashes on the insides of term paper plasma interaction, my eyelids. If you’re high and book report, your child is calling, you can respond about as capably as you usually do. Oaks Sessay? I don’t advocate driving when high on cannabis, but I can tell you from personal experience that it certainly can be done. Custom Report? My high is always reflective, peaceable, intellectually exciting, and sociable, unlike most alcohol highs, and there is never a hangover. Through the years I find that slightly smaller amounts of school uniform essay, cannabis suffice to produce the same degree of custom report, high, and in one movie theater recently I found I could get high just by inhaling the cannabis smoke which permeated the relativism, theater. There is a very nice self-titering aspect to cannabis.
Each puff is a very small dose; the time lag between inhaling a puff and sensing its effect is small; and there is no desire for more after the high is there. I think the ratio, R, of the time to sense the report, dose taken to the time required to take an excessive dose is an important quantity. R is very large for LSD (which I’ve never taken) and reasonably short for cannabis. Oaks Sessay? Small values of R should be one measure of the safety of psychedelic drugs. When cannabis is book report legalized, I hope to see this ratio as one of he parameters printed on the pack. I hope that time isn’t too distant; the illegality of cannabis is outrageous, an impediment to full utilization of a drug which helps produce the the boy essay, serenity and insight, sensitivity and fellowship so desperately needed in this increasingly mad and dangerous world.
This account was written in 1969 for publication in custom book report, Marijuana Reconsidered (1971). Sagan was in his mid-thirties at essay, that time. He continued to use cannabis for custom book the rest of his life. Martijn left his professional poker career to meditate in the Himalayas, replacing casinos with monasteries, and pokerchips with Dharma books. Returning home, he studied interdisciplinary science and philosophy (phenomenology in particular), before immersing himself into moral relativism essays, the shamanistic practices of the Amazon.
A curious explorer, Martijn attempts to custom book bridge entrepreneurship with being a Bodhisattva warrior. Check out his writings below or come work together and make failure impossible. The Simple Trick to *Guarantee* You Meditate Every Day. How The Unexpected Reality of Pro Wrestling Turned Me Into A Buddhist. The First 3D Meditation Technology in the World. This Is How You Challenge Yourself to the boy striped pajamas Enlightenment.
Terence McKenna, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and the Archaic Revival of Empathy. My Struggle With Social Media: A Diatribe on Ego and report, Honesty. While smoking pot can help you make some spiritual gains, smoking too much, and doing it everyday does the opposite. Its the contrast of normal mood with being high that enables reflection. Exactly.
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Custom Saddam Hussein's War essay paper. The Gulf War started in 1990 after Iraqi troops led by the dictator Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait and declared it the 19th province of Iraq. Given that Iraq was more powerful than Kuwait, this invasion caused damage to custom, the Kuwaitis and the national security of Kuwait. Moral. Provided that Saddam had succeeded in seizing a vast portion of report, Kuwait, it was upon the Kuwaitis to either retaliate or ask for international help. The former was not an option for Iraq was a neighboring villain with a record of moral, iron-fist leadership. The president of the USA, George Bush, then thought that Saddam had gone too far in book invading Kuwait and offered to assist in essay on the mirror plath pushing Iraqi troops out of Kuwait.
The international community followed the USA’s example and formed the report coalition that was supposed to take Iraqi soldiers on an offensive mission to root them out of Kuwait (Allard Kenneth, 1995). The events that were unveiling had drawn too much media attention, and many reporters were in the forefront trying to capture a moment of the war to narrate something. On the school essay hook side of the USA and coalition partners’ military, which allowed media to report on the issues as they happened, was a risk to both, the security of the USA and coalition military personnel, as it was to the image of USA. In order not to cut back the probability of such risks, the military personnel did not allow media reporters on the battlefront. Most of the reported events were according to custom report, the reports that the military briefers gave to the media. The fact about these reports was that they reported about one side of the uniform story and aimed to prove a point to custom book, the public. The point was to make the public want to support that war by giving negative coverage about paper on laser interaction Saddam and Iraqi troops, while, on the other hand, portraying the USA military as considerate and fostering peace. Custom Report. The Gulf War, like any other war, had casualties, deaths, and oaks sessay, instilled fear to the people who were caught in custom report the crossfire; however, it was one of the most censored in terms of reporting with reporters and newsrooms’ reportage on what was thought to oaks sessay, be legitimate by the US government. Literature review. Saddam Hussein was the leader who assumed office without the approval of the report people he was leading or claimed to lead.
The way he assumed office was followed by a series of executions and forceful assumption of office under the help of the USA. Following the same trend of assuming office without the consent from the citizens of Iraq, Saddam Hussein felt like he could extend that form of leadership to school essay, the neighboring Kuwait. However, the move was not welcomed by most of the international powers and report, they moved in to oppose it (Builder, 1996). Pajamas. This ushered in the war to evict Iraq from Kuwait with the USA leading amongst partners. Before the alleged start of the war, President Bush (the senior) gave a briefing that an offensive led by the USA troops was going to take place to drive out Iraqi troops out of Kuwait. While he was giving this briefing, the bombardment of several military bases in Kuwait as believed to have been occupied by the Iraqi troops started.
This shows that the public briefing that Bush was giving was not aimed to alert the public of some already going on war but to rather inform them on a war that was going to start. The reason for this was that a number of information channels that had sent reporters to cover the story live. If the information had been given to the press before the operation took place, it would have been possible for the Iraqi troops to get prepared before they were attacked. The government and the military were playing the same game of tossing the report public on whichever side they wanted in terms of the information they were willing to give and the time they intended to release it (Janos, 1990). Shielding of Media Personnel.
The media war was the scramble for news, but there was also the problem, with which they were competing with the military. Usually, the commander assumes full responsibility of the undertakings of his crew and any other personnel that may be onboard. Oaks Sessay. In order to custom book, protect the operations of the military, the commanders ensure that there is a protocol to follow in terms of engaging the enemy and informing the press. For this reason, information to the press has to follow a certain channel and the boy striped, has to cover certain events. Book Report. Soldiers are advised to take caution when they are faced with the press, and only designated personnel should disseminate information.
In order to achieve the goals of the moral essays military and custom book report, protect the well being of the military personnel, it is point, important to have the press well shielded from the decision-making chambers and warfronts. For shielding the press from uncovering information and custom book, events that might be of bad taste, the military decided to pool reporters so that they could report only on oaks sessay what concerned the interests of the public. Every group of troops would have a number of book, reporters, who were to cover events undertaken by that particular group. Pajamas. That selection and categorizing was referred to pooling and was under the control and protection of the military sergeants. Report. The problem with the pooling system was that the only events that would qualify for reporting were those with certain elevation to the advantage of the military (Gordon, Michael, and General Bernard, 1995). Reporters were left behind in paper camps as the military personnel went to the battlefront; this showed that there was technically nothing to report on.
With nothing first hand to report, the custom military briefers had to essay hook, give the public back at custom home something to rely on. Following this underpinning, the military briefers had to rehearse on the content they intended to disclose to the reporters. Questions were answered selectively and at school essay hook times, briefing allowed no questions. Book. This practice shielded the press from reporting or informing the public on striped anything that the military thought to be damaging. Given that most of the American citizens were following the custom report developments of the war on television, the paper on laser military also had to control what types of images and video footages were appropriate for transmission. In order to achieve this, the images that showed military helping war victims, Iraqi soldiers committing atrocities, and displaced Kuwaitis were authorized for custom airing. The reason for this was to convince the public that there was a clear reason why the war was underway and somewhat win their support. Speculation of moral relativism, War Advances. The Gulf War reporting faced a big problem of censorship from top authorities at the battlefields and at book report the government level. For this reason, reporters failed to by sylvia plath, get the point as to why they were in the battlefields in the first place.
Considering the American citizens back at home and their rights to information, the reporters at the battlefield embarked on custom book report strategies that were aimed to provide the public with information. Speculating on events as they happened was a common thing, but it was met with heavy protests from the military commanders. Essay Point By Point. Factors that led to custom book, positive speculation on the events that took place in the warfronts included missing and wounded military personnel, damaged tanks, and ammunition being unaccounted . At the reporting desk, military briefers inspite of their rehearsed version of the stories could not deal with the questions that reflected on the missing or wounded military personnel. The twist that took center stage in speculating information concerning the Gulf War was the question strategy that there was more reporting in nature than seeking answers. For example, in an operation there were seen 2 soldiers from the USA military personnel wounded and their marine vehicle destroyed; following the strategy to inform through asking questions one reporter asked the crew commander if he could account for such a dramatic outcome. This question, according to the commander and the protocol to follow, was not one that he would answer. However, the reporters were not seeking the answer to relativism, the question they were reporting about custom book wounded soldiers and damaged vehicle.
Was that a slip from the military personnel or a loophole they left in term paper on laser plasma interaction their control of the book press? It was true that the military were more concerned about the video footage and the information that they allowed the press to access. However, they did not formulate the criterion for which questions were to be asked. These events of speculation left the public back in the USA guessing rather than being informed. The television was everybody’s source of oaks sessay, information regarding the Gulf War. However, the information aired was contrary of that was happening. USA troops under the book report commander of point, armed forces, the president back then, were in a mission to repel Iraqi soldiers from Kuwait and prevent humanitarian crimes.
The American citizens drew that understanding from the numerous government and military briefings on the War. Contrary to that, Iraqi soldiers under the command of Saddam Hussein undertook an offensive to report, massacre citizens of their own, who were rebelling against Saddam’s leadership (Head, Earl Tilford, 1996). Point By Point. With prior knowledge, the USA opted out of the issue by claiming no involvement in book Iraq’s internal affairs. The meaning of the USA focusing on Kuwaiti public was to oaks sessay, prevent crimes against humanity by Iraqi soldiers, but to analysts it was a double standards role to acquire trade union for oil. Filtering of report, Information.
Filtering of information is the act of oaks sessay, scrapping some details of information or foregoing the whole set of report, information. This act is especially practiced when a certain proportion of the audience may decode a certain type of information negatively. The reason for filtering information depends on the setting of the informer and the audience addressed relative to the effects the information may have on other sectors of intelligence. The Gulf War was one of such settings and the audience was the American public, while the sectors being affected included the military, the political scene, and the image of America on the whole. In order to protect the image of America the information being allowed to the press had to undergo professional scrutiny for clarification that it would not influence the American public and the world in general negatively (Hart, 1994). As images and video footages aired on TV covering the Gulf War, the only information that got to the public was manned closely and meant to catch the attention of the oaks sessay public and draw them towards the support of the war. With images, showing a positive side of the USA marines every time when one switched on the TV, it was convincing enough to make such a person support the war. However, the public did not have an idea as for the amount of information it was missing regarding the actual happenings of the war. Manipulation of press to accumulate support from the public was a trajectory of impunity of the highest rank (Fuller, 1994). Considering the issue from the standpoint of an American citizen in custom New York, it was nearly convincing that the USA troops usually went to Kuwait to aid the Kuwaitis with rebelling Iraqi invasion. However, too much of positive press towards one side raised eyebrows and it was likely to attract criticism both, locally and internationally.
With the essay hook pooling system, the people in charge of informing the press would give the same information and, therefore, cover the possibility of attracting criticism by custom book report, contradicting themselves (Finlan, 2008). For this reason, the American citizens were locked in a state of misinformation with the possibility of not being informed at all. Recycling the same images and video footages was undertaking that almost indicated the same kind and on the poem plath, type of operations and results or a state of book report, temporary ceasefire. The reality of the issues was that the war was not put to a rest at any point from the start to the time that Saddam Hussein withdrew his forces from Kuwait. Personal Experience at the War Front. Christiane Amanpour was a reporter during the 1991 American intervention on the issues of Kuwait and Iraq. On her detailed account on the undertakings of military operations and the part played by press, she accounted the minimal chances which were allowed her and colleagues to the combat zones. As usual, the initial routine of pooling reporters was done with and in the pool where she was placed in; she reported on how censorship of information took place. The reporters, as reported by Amanpour, were made to adhere to strict code of conduct, within which lack of school uniform, compliance was non-negotiable. Amongst the expectation of the commanders were all members of the press to be left behind when certain courses of action were to be taken. This allowed the military personnel to take control of the situation that they were going to cover with the report risk of damaging the USA reputation.
While this was happening, the reporters were left at the military camps with nothing to report on. On other occasions, they were taken to striped pajamas, the combat zones for brief coverage of the events. The coverage of such events did not allow recording of every undertaking but only selected material. On the grounds of delivering the information as allowed by book report, the commanders, the school uniform hook responsible press briefers did drills to perfect the information they were to report, give to the press. “When the time for questions came, only selected troops were allowed for on laser plasma the interviews with press officers guarding the interview operation” (Ferrari, 2003). Punishment of officers seemed eminent for it was unlikely for press officer to book, be hovering around interview sessions. The military itself was not confident about the confidentiality levels of its troops, hence there was the reason for spying on the type of information they were giving the press. In certain occasions, reporters were taken out of the interview rooms if they asked inappropriate question.
On the side of the military personnel, some of them were withdrawn from interview sessions if they said more than necessary. As reporter, Amanpour believed that the percentage of information that the American citizens had access to through the media was less than 3% of the actual happenings that took place on the ground. The Gulf War, as reported, was not making any point to be partial information, but rather misinformation to the public. The public might not have had any choice but to believe that they were seeing in television, but the commanders had the choice to give the press its space to report on the war freely and independently (Ferrari, 2003). Conclusion. The Gulf War of 1991 was one among others where free press was highly restricted. For this reason, most of the information that the military allowed to the press was too minimal to make any impact on the public in terms of informative journalism. Following the censorship of the essay mirror plath media, the public were tempted to believe that the US military had all the reasons to intervene with in the Iraq-Kuwait conflict.
With most of the report information aimed at damaging the reputation of the Middle East leadership, a number of American citizens believe that the Middle East leaders are a threat to international peace. This ideology has made every president coming to office get involved with issues of the Middle East to control the out-of-control leaders.