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Residential Architecture of Washington, D.C., and Its Suburbs. Contrary to the American norm, Washington's monumental buildings have been more intensely studied than its domestic architecture. Writing Bibliography! The city's position as the capital of the United States, the national architectural significance of death of a dream essays many of the monuments and government buildings in bibliography, its central core, and copious archival documentation about them have contributed to wide-spread knowledge of Washington's greatest public architecture. Few, however, of Washington's private residences have been considered of sufficient national importance to be included in general surveys of American architecture, and only a handful of publications have been devoted exclusively to them. New Invention In 2011! Many important nineteenth-century Washington houses including B. Writing! Henry Latrobe's John P. Van Ness House (1816-7), James Renwick's W. W. Corcoran House (1849-54), and H. Of A American Dream Essays! H. Richardson's double house for John Hay and Henry Adams (1884-86), and even John Russell Pope's John R. McLean House of 1907, all within sight of the White House, were destroyed before they were recognized as outstanding examples of American domestic architecture.1. Consciously inclusive late twentieth-century historiography, coupled with the revitalization of inner city neighborhoods and the historic preservation movement, have led to a reassessment of the social and cultural values of the entire built environment. During the same period appreciation of the unique aesthetic ideas and cultural characteristics of writing every era, no matter how recent, has come with the phoenix papers, maturing of American architectural history as a scholarly discipline. Whereas visual grace and bibliography law essay the client's prominence were formerly the primary yardsticks for judging a house's architectural worth, many recent scholars consider broadly defined social and cultural values and the meaning to the community as a whole of new invention greater significance. Writing! The nature of the resume by fax, architectural drawings and related materials in the Prints and Photographs Division pertaining to Washington's domestic architecture allows for all these methodological approaches.
Washington's nearly 250-year history of domestic architecture offers a notable range of periods, styles, and types and is remarkable for the nearly intact survival of many eighteenth and nineteenth-century residential neighborhoods near the city's governing and bibliography law essay commercial centers. Moreover, most of its extensive mid-to-late nineteenth and twentieth-century suburban neighborhoods (within the city's boundaries as well as in many of its contiguous Maryland and Virginia counties) retain their original ambiance with few incursions. In-depth study of salesman most houses built during the first half of this period--including the White House--is hampered by scarce graphic and textual documentation, as well as often extensive changes in the fabric of the surviving examples. However, resources abound for research on many houses erected after 1877, the date of the earliest surviving building permits. Some of the permits, housed in the National Archives and the District of Columbia Archives, contain original blueprints or brownlines of both elevations and plans. The as yet unexplored office archives of a few of Washington's twentieth-century firms have survived, are now housed in the Prints and writing Photographs Division of the Library of Congress, and offer primarily visual documentation on a wide range of housing styles and types. Typically most of Washington's domestic commissions went to local architects, while most of the federal government buildings were designed by case on social in our, architects of national reputations, few of whom made Washington their permanent home.
A few Georgetown houses built prior to the city's founding in 1791 survive, but none within the city's original boundaries do. The location and footprints of those in bibliography law essay, Georgetown are recorded on survey maps done by B. Henry Latrobe in 1802-4 as part of his design for the Washington Canal. Those within the city's boundaries appear on a series of survey maps done by Robert King during the 1790s.2 Beginning in the 1930s the Historic American Buildings Survey did measured drawings recording some early Georgetown houses, including the exteriors and salesman american interiors of the carpenter Christopher Layhman's house (HABS DC-10-2, sheet 1 of 3) (Old Stone House, HABS: DC, GEO, 3-), located at 3051 M Street, N.W. HABS drawings for now destroyed early buildings erected within the bounds of the original federal city are more numerous and range from inexpensive wood cottages, as the Hamburgh Village House (HABS DC,10-6-) built about 1790, at bibliography, 412 20th Street, N.W., to John Mason's imposing stone house erected on Analoston, now Theodore Roosevelt Island, about 1815 (HABS DC, WASH, 131-)3. Historic American Buildings Survey; Stuart M. Barnette, del.. Row house, 2411 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Measured drawing; plan, elevations and details. Ink on paper, 1936.
HABS DC-27, sheet 2 of 2. Until single-family-house-size lots were laid out beyond Boundary (Florida, since 1890) Avenue beginning in the 1850s, rowhouses were the major house typology in Washington (HABS DC-27). Long, rectangular lots were platted specifically to of causes promote contiguously fronted buildings, but individual rowhouses initially outnumbered continuous rows built by developers. Writing Law Essay! Both groups were governed by the city's building regulations, first enunciated by President Washington's proclamation of 17 October 1791 and amended frequently over the next two centuries.4 The original eight articles stipulated building materials (brick and of causes and effects stone for party walls), access by city officials to regulate common areas, and bibliography law essay two design criteria. The heights of houses were limited to forty feet with those built on the avenues to be at least 35 feet tall. All buildings were to be parallel to the streets, but set backs could be determined by the improvers. Two early abortive proposals for development of entire squares in resume by fax, the city reflected contemporary European urban planning measures. The prizes in Samuel Blodget's second lottery scheme, announced on 20 May 1793 were six magnificant dwelling houses ranging in law essay, value from case study networking in our lives, $20,000 to $5,000 for which two beautiful Designs are already selected for the entire Fronts on two of the Public Squares; from these Drawings it is proposed to erect two Centre and four Corner Buildings, as soon as possible after this Lottery is sold.5 The lottery failed and the architect or architects of the writing bibliography law essay, two beautiful Designs are unknown although James Hoban must be considered as he designed the hotel, called Blodgett's Hotel that was erected as a result of the first lottery. The entire arrangement described by the prospectus was modelled on contemporary Dublin, Edinburgh, or London residential squares. In 1793 a French-trained architect, G[eorges ?] du Jareau, a refugée from Santo Domingo, sent the commissioners drawings and a detailed proposal for a scheme to study on social networking in our develop the writing bibliography, new city's residential squares with contiguous double houses joined together by party walls (drawings and written description in the National Archives, RG 42).
Exterior flat facades would abut the streets with entries into each unit via passageways leading to small interior courts; the compact units were then to be arranged around a large rectangular common ground in the center of each square, instead of the fenced yards and new invention in computer technology in 2011 gardens denoting private property lines that became the American urban norm. The North American Land Company's failed early rowhouse development of bibliography law essay 30 units at the corner of South Capitol and N Street, S.W., was one of the new invention technology, most ambitious housing developments of bibliography law essay its type actually built in America in the 1790s. Probably designed by William Lovering as well as built by him, the Twenty Buildings (as they were called, even though there were 30) had a short life due to the long litigation in which it played a key part in settling the debts of the salesman dream essays, developers Thomas Law, John Nicholson, and Robert Morris. In the 1930s an architectural drawing for the Twenty Buildings was seen among Chancery Court papers in the Maryland Hall of Records, but it can no longer be located.6. In most cases the writing, architects of Washington's early houses are unknown.
James Hoban, who owned extensive property in Washington at the time of on social networking in our lives his death in 1831, undoubtedly designed many private and speculative houses in and around the city, but his papers and drawings were destroyed in a fire in the 1880s. George Hadfield, whose only known surviving house is the Custis-Lee Mansion in Arlington Cemetery (1820), must also have designed many of Washington's homes before his death in 1826. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! The only surviving drawing of a house by him, dated 1798, was presumably designed for a site in or around Washington; its patron, or whether it was ever built, are unknown.7. William Thornton, architect. Preliminary design, house for John Tayloe, the Octagon,” 1799 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Floor plan. Ink, watercolor, and graphite on paper. Ca. 1800. ADE - UNIT 2581, no. 1 (A size)
Innovative and conservative house designs date from every period of Washington's history, with traditional stylistic and planning solutions predominating for low and middle income housing but both avant garde and traditional forms providing models for homes of the city's wealthy citizens. Two early architects with important Washington domestic commissions whose papers, including drawings, have survived, B. Case Study On Social In Our! Henry Latrobe and William Thornton, exemplify sophisticated domestic design from the 1790s until about 1820. Scattered archival evidence of the career of a traditionalist of the same era, architect-builder William Lovering exists, including his only known drawing (in the law essay, Philadelphia Athenaeum) for a group of rowhouses known as the essay hamlet first soliloquy, Six Buildings, erected on Pennsylvania Avenue at 20th Street N.W. about 1810. Thornton's known drawings consist primarily of conceptual sketches and writing bibliography renderings rather than final presentation, contract, or working drawings. Hence the fine finished quality of his two important Washington residences, the Octagon House for John Tayloe (ADE - UNIT 2581) and essay Tudor Place (ADE - UNIT 2588) for Robert Peter, is known from the structures themselves and from twentieth-century measured drawings of them done after changes to their original fabrics had already occurred. B. Henry Latrobe, architect. Entrance Hall, Commodore Stephen Decatur House, 748 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. Plan, elevations, and section. Graphite, ink, wash, and watercolor on paper. 1818.
ADE - UNIT 2558, no. Writing! 4 (B size). Latrobe's drawings of his residential works, both executed and proposed, form the basis for their in-depth study, as only four of his American houses survive. The best known of phoenix papers these is the cubic house he designed for Stephen Decatur (1817-8) facing Lafayette Square (ADE - UNIT 2558). Law Essay! The relationship between Latrobe's drawings and buildings is resume by fax succinctly demonstrated by his drawing for the Decatur House vestibule: his ability to convey the three-dimensional spatial quality of architecture simultaneously with the physicality of architectural form. The excitement of Latrobe's drawings is that they record with immediacy and beauty the process of his architectural thought, the transference of ideas to paper complete with information for the next step in writing, the process, the study lives, means both visual and writing bibliography law essay written to accomplish construction by artisans. No other American architect of phoenix compiler papers Latrobe's generation left such a rich graphic legacy of domestic architecture of the federal period, albeit drawings for some of his Washington houses, such as that for John P. Van Ness, formerly located at the northwest corner of writing bibliography law essay Constitution and 17th Streets, are unfortunately lost, while those for some of essay of causes his unexecuted designs survive (John Tayloe House, ADE - UNIT 2886). Latrobe's sophisticated command of bibliography small-scale architectural forms and imaginative domestic arrangements were unsurpassed in his day, and arguably stand near the acme of American residential design. Latrobe's considerable influence on salesman american contemporary builders and writing bibliography law essay architects was particularly strong in essay of smoking, Georgetown and Washington, where even details as simple as his sunken circular molding to terminate lintels that extend beyond the writing, window or door openings (bull's-eye lintels) were widely copied (HABS DC-16, drawing sheet 5 of 5 and photo HABS - DC, WASH, 28-24). During the first decades of the nineteenth century most new houses in resume by fax, Washington filled in the missing gaps of the streets initially settled along a rough diagonal swath from Capitol Hill to Georgetown.
Daniel Reiff attributes Washington's conservative Greek Revival domestic architecture from about 1820 through the 1840s to the local strength of the builder tradition. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Generally Greek Revival house forms in essay of causes and effects, Washington were essentially the same as those of the Federal period, but door and window surrounds became bolder and more planar as the delicately carved or incised ornament of the turn-of-the-century Federal style was replaced by writing bibliography law essay, broad, plain surfaces. In more stylistically advanced examples square attic windows replaced the metopes in classical friezes, a motif that the Philadelphia architect William Strickland believed to be an American contribution to networking in our the long history of writing bibliography law essay transformations of classical architectural traditions.8 Double-story Greek Revival Doric porticoes, common on important houses in of a salesman american dream essays, many parts of the country, were an anomaly in Washington. George Hadfield's massive Doric portico of the George Washington Parke Custis House, Arlington House, designed in 1820 was set atop the ridge that visually defined Arlington's skyline. It was intended to be an immense stage set when viewed from the city to mark the bibliography, site of an intended museum and monument to George Washington. No drawings by Hadfield for Arlington House are known to have survived, but two watercolors and two pencil sketches done by in computer, A.J. Davis about 1830 to 1834 depict its dominating presence in Washington's greater city-landscape.9. Gilbert White, builder.
House, Normanstone for Robert Barnard, 3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Ink on paper. Ca. 1830. Writing Law Essay! ADE - UNIT 2752, no. Of Causes Of Smoking! 5 (A size). Although few are known from this early period, builders did produce drawings of their buildings, often to accompany written specifications.
Gilbert White's drawings of about 1830 for Normanstone (ADE - UNIT 2752), a house located on what later became known as Massachusetts Avenue Heights, demonstrate Reiff's premise: they are primitive line drawings for a substantial two-story, three-bay, hipped-roof rectangular building, a vernacular house form familiar in America during the previous two centuries. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! On some of essay soliloquy White's drawings specifications appear on the same sheet, an indication that the graphic image functioned for him as a record, perhaps even a legal document, rather than as a medium to writing bibliography explain design ideas or to instruct craftsmen. No refinements of proportion or detail were included in White's drawings because he himself erected the study on social networking, house according to a familiar and accepted formula, perhaps aided by writing bibliography law essay, other workmen as well schooled in traditional forms and building techniques as himself. With the exception of William Lovering and death salesman several late nineteenth century builders, principally Robert I. Fleming, the writing law essay, careers of case networking in our Washington's important early architect-builders, such as Charles Sengstack, have not been systematically studied due to writing bibliography law essay scanty information. Examination of the membership and goals of various builders' societies established in hamlet first, the first half of the writing bibliography, century, supplemented with newspaper accounts and advertisements, would increase our knowledge of the business of new invention in computer in 2011 constructing the private city during its early and mid developmental stages.10. The rarity as well as the limited nature of writing bibliography drawings such as White's are ameliorated by other graphic and photographic evidence.
Printed views of resume by fax Washington give an overall impression of the mixture of public and private structures, as do early watercolors. The two most extensive collections of Washington views are those in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress and writing bibliography the Maachen Collection at the Historical Society of Washington. Individual houses in many lithographs can occasionally be linked to written documents to verify architects and dates of construction.11 The best known of the and effects, early watercolorists was the Baroness Hyde de Neuville, the wife of the French ambassador who lived in Washington during the 1810s.12 Watercolors done during the 1840s by August Köllner and law essay John Rubens Smith, as well as those done by Montgomery C. Meigs at mid-century, record the slow and concentrated growth of the city's residential neighborhoods between Georgetown and Capitol Hill with K Street their northernmost boundary until after the Civil War.13 Although prints and photographs of new invention technology in 2011 wartime Washington and writing its aftermath abound, no substantial corpus of essay drawings or watercolors is known that record the city under siege nor its aftermath when the writing bibliography law essay, city's streets and squares were transformed under the case in our lives, territorial government's public works projects. Meigs's post-war sketches are primarily of his own building designs. One of America's major architects of the writing law essay, first half of the nineteenth century, Robert Mills, lived in Washington from 1830 until his death in 1855, yet no important house in the city can definitely be assigned to him. He is in computer in 2011 known to bibliography have improved several lots that he owned, presumably by erecting inexpensive rowhouses on them for resale.14 Stylistic evidence suggests that Mills may have designed Matthew St. Clair Clarke's house (1836) facing Lafayette Square. Now St.
John's Parish House, it was renovated by Thomas U. Walter in research papers, 1854 into an Italianate-style mansion. Law Essay! When architectural models changed at mid-century from of smoking, ancient to Renaissance ones, Walter, one of America's premier Greek Revival architects, adopted the writing, most recent of the classical revival styles, the Italianate. Walter, the son of a builder who ended his career as president of the in computer technology, American Institute of Architects, epitomized architects who inventively transformed the classical, medieval, and Renaissance languages into varied modern American idioms. The early Victorian period (ca. 1830-1850) coincided with a rise in professional American architects as builders successfully made the transition to designers, or their sons (as in writing bibliography, Walter's case) were apprenticed to architects.15. Thomas U. Walter, architect. “Front elevation, Design for hamlet first, a Mansion for the Hon.
John Sherman,” Washington, D.C.(?) Elevation. Photographic print of drawing. 1865. ADE - UNIT 2591, no. 3 (C size)(Photo). Italianate houses designed by Walter during the Washington segment of his career included a large villa for Ohio Senator and later Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. The date 1865 is bibliography law essay recorded by case study on social networking in our lives, mounted photographs of bibliography law essay four elevation and two plan drawings (ADE - UNIT 2591) of the Sherman house. The drawings themselves are lost and it is essay first uncertain whether Sherman's country house was intended for a site near Washington, or in law essay, Ohio, although the of a salesman dream, former is more likely as Sherman lived continuously in Washington from 1855 until his death in 1900. Two surviving examples of Walter's Italianate villas, in or near Washington, the T.B.A. Hewlings House, Ingleside (1851: 1818 Newton Street, N.W.)(HABS DC-502), and the Tysen House, Glenelg (1852), in Ellicott City, Maryland, belong to the same series as the Sherman House design.
They all follow a general Italianate villa formula of intersecting masses marked by a tall crossing tower surrounded by bibliography, multiple verandas, seemingly variants on new invention in computer technology Andrew Jackson Downing's Southern Villa-Romanesque style illustrated in his Architecture of writing bibliography law essay Country Houses (1850). Charles Frederick Anderson, architect. “North East elevation for No. III Design,” American Villa Architecture (New York: Putnam? 1853. Perspective Rendering. Color lithograph. 1853. PP Case NA7586.A5, p. 16. Case Networking In Our! LC-USZC4-4585. Nearly simultaneously Downing himself designed two important Washington houses on a similar model for the brothers Robert and Francis Dodge (1850-1852), located on Q Street in Georgetown. Both houses were completed by Downing's partner Calvert Vaux, who published perspective views and plans of them in law essay, Villas and Cottages (1857).
Both of the Dodge villas survive but in considerably altered form; extensive field notes, photographs and drawings of the Robert Dodge House done in hamlet first soliloquy, 1921 by bibliography, Joseph Younger while working in Waggaman and Ray's office (ADE - UNIT 185), preliminary to its transmogrification into a pillared southern manse for Warren Delano Robbins (HABS DC-246), provides valuable additional information on the Downing-Vaux design. In 1853, Charles Frederick Anderson, an entrant in essay of causes of smoking, the Capitol Extension competition of 1850, published his own designs for eighteen Italianate houses in American Villa Architecture, many of which are comparable to Walter's buildings in writing law essay, scale and composition (LC-USZC4-4585 ; NA7586.A5 Case Y, p. 16). Only two copies of new invention in computer technology in 2011 Anderson's book, both in the Library of Congress, are known. About 1850 the number of architects in Washington increased dramatically due less to the immediate architectural needs of the city than to the staffing of federal architectural and engineering offices whose function was to provide designs for writing law essay, government buildings nationwide. Establishment of the death of a american dream essays, Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department in 1852 brought a constantly changing supply of well-trained architects to the city, many of whom moonlighted by designing residences and churches, or later established private practices in the city. Likewise many architects who came to Washington to work on writing law essay the Capitol Extension beginning in 1851, often referred to in official records as draftsmen irrespective of their level of training, contributed to essay hamlet first soliloquy the city's domestic architectural scene. Bibliography! Many who were European-trained, or from families of builders with strong European traditions, brought to essay hamlet soliloquy their somewhat inconspicuous government positions both excellent training in up-to-date engineering principles and the current design attitudes of their respective cultures. Law Essay! The majority whose careers have been at least partially examined were either German-born and trained or the sons of fathers who were. The careers of such well-known local mid-to-late Victorian architects as Adolph Cluss (1825-1905), James G. Hill (1841-1913), and Thomas Franklin Schneider (1859-1938) have been studied because the new invention technology in 2011, vitality of their prolific work excited admiration. No collections of their drawings or papers exist to bibliography provide scholars with easy access to their extensive practices which included private as well as public structures. Although none of the three can be considered great design innovators on essay hamlet first a national level, their individual interpretations of American architectural idioms of their time have left a distinctive stamp on many centrally located Washington neighborhoods.
From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle numerous brick or rock-faced stone rowhouses and free-standing homes are (or were) ornamented with decorative pressed-brick panels (associated with the Queen Anne style) or carved floriate decoration (a hallmark of the Richardsonian Romanesque style.16. Norris G. Starkweather, architect; Historic American Buildings Survey. River and drive fronts, “Camden” or “Camden Place,) country villa for bibliography law essay, William C. Pratt, Port Royal, Virginia. Perspective rendering. Photograph of original. Drawing 1857, photograph 1934.
ADE - UNIT 2201, no. 4 (B size) and HABS, VA, 17-PORO.V, 2-35. 1934. HABS VA,17-PORO.V,2-34. Only a few miscellaneous drawings of phoenix compiler research papers Washington's Victorian domestic architecture survive. Vermont-born Norris G. Starkweather, in partnership from 1868-1871 with the architect-builder Thomas M. Plowman, designed, among other important local structures, four double houses known as Cooke's Row on Q Street in Georgetown. Starkweather is represented in the Library's collections by a partial set of brownlines (ADE - UNIT 2201), copies of the original watercolor renderings, for the William C. Writing! Pratt House, Camden (1857), located in Caroline County, Virginia. Comparison of Camden's two impressionistic elevations labeled river front and drive front with the perspective rendering copied by the Historic American Buildings Survey and the house itself reveals both major and minor differences, suggesting that a study of the role of presentation drawings in the design and building process in phoenix compiler research, America is warranted.17. Seven drawings from 1879 for a double house on the southeast corner of 17th and K streets, N.W., for Richard L. and writing law essay Vinnie Ream Hoxie (ADE - UNIT 2900) help document mid-Victorian contextual urbanism. Resume By Fax! Six of the seven are unsigned, drafted or sketched in writing bibliography law essay, pencil, and show the strong influence of Adolf Cluss on Plowman. Cluss had popularized circular corner towers and multiple-story bays for Washington houses, major features of his triple row of houses built for Alexander T. Sheppard in 1872 diagonally across Farragut Square at Connecticut Avenue and K Street, N.W.
Plowman's three Hoxie house elevation drawings show the evolution of his details from neo-Renaissance to neo-Grec as he altered the Cluss prototype from study lives, a mid- to High Victorian design. W. Bruce Gray, architect. “Sketch of Entrance Hall,” Joseph M. Writing Bibliography! Toner House, 15th Street and Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Of Causes And Effects! Ink, graphite, and watercolor on paper. Writing Bibliography! Ca. 1880. ADE - UNIT 2505, no. 3 (C size). Three unsigned and undated drawings, two plans and a side elevation, for Secretary of the Smithsonian Spencer R. Baird's residence (c.
1865) at 1445 Massachusetts Avenue NW (ADE - UNIT 2109) indicate how few drawings were used to convey to of causes and effects the client and builder alike the basic forms, proportions, and internal organization for such a substantial Victorian house. W. Bruce Gray's set of sixteen drawings for the Joseph M. Toner House (ADE - UNIT 2505) that replaced Baird's residence in 1880 are notable in themselves and for what they convey. Bibliography Law Essay! Some are drawn on linen, others on hamlet first paper; color coding of materials is indicated (common for drawings of law essay public structures, but unusual for compiler research papers, private ones.) Three alternate plans speculate on how to organize living spaces and facades with either English or French overtones for the end rowhouse on bibliography a triangular corner site. Particularly enjoyable, because so unexpected, is a perspective vignette in ink on sheet sixteen of the entrance hall. Comparison of Gray's drawings with designs published in 1889 by technology, his contemporary and occasional partner, Harvey L. Bibliography Law Essay! Page, in Houses of Moderate Cost , provides insights into how two of Washington's late Victorian architects, whose main interests were the non-academic styles, perceived and dealt with house typologies.18. Leon Dessez is another important architect with a large domestic practice represented in the Library's collections. Eight drawings on linen of his 1899 house for death of a salesman dream, E. J. Stellwagen (ADE - UNIT 2305) at the corner of Biltmore Street and bibliography Columbia Road, N.W., record his typical synthetic eclectic approach, intended to blend with neighboring houses and resume by fax the landscape, rather than make any bold statements. Two internal stairwells are drawn in red ink on the west elevation to indicate their relationship to the windows that light them, a nascent step towards representing the interrelationships between interior needs and exterior patterns. Price and McLanahan, architects; Dr. C. L. Bibliography Law Essay! Marlatt, entomologist. “Carved Panels,” main hall, alterations to the “Residence” of C. L. Marlatt, 1521 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Full size details. Blueprint. 1909. ADE - UNIT 2171, no. In 2011! 15 (E size). Ornament for most Washington Victorian houses was ordered from catalogues; a study of the writing bibliography, role of architects as designers of sculptural decoration during the Victorian and Arts and Crafts periods, indeed, for soliloquy, the equally rich early twentieth-century academic architecture, would serve the academic and preservation communities alike. One rich source for such study is represented by the numerous original drawings for Victorian ornament and interior architectural details which can be found in the archive of Washington draftsman J. Goldsborough Bruff (ADE - UNIT 1929). Lemuel Norris included a partial north elevation and partial cross section in his set of contract drawings (with changes indicated and signed by the builder John McGregor) for law essay, entomologist Charles L. Marlatt's house (ADE - UNIT 2170) at 1521 Sixteenth Street, N.W. Resume By Fax! (1908). Additional sheets of full-scale ornamental and structural details by the Philadelphia architects Price and McLanahan give all the information needed to carve plant, insect, and animal forms and insert them into the surrounding woodwork for the Marlatt House.19. The Arts and Crafts bungalow was widely disseminated via printed designs; architect's drawings for them are rare.
Comparison of published examples with two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2012) signed by William Douden (1869-1946) of Washington, for law essay, W.E. Drumheller's substantial bungalow in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, might help scholars better understand the role of architects in a housing typology dominated by packaged designs. Forty-nine Arthur B. Heaton drawings (ADE - UNIT 495) for John Joy Edson's bungalow (1900-1910) in Montgomery County, Maryland, are supplemented by seven drawings (ADE - UNIT 496) for a gardener's cottage. In 1916 Heaton produced thirteen drawings for a bungalow for Mrs. Frank M. Heaton, in Washington, D.C. In Computer! (ADE - UNIT 829).
Studies of other prolific designers of fine-quality Victorian (and later) houses, including John Granville Meyers (1834-1902), Nicholas T. Law Essay! Haller, partners William J. Marsh (d. 1926) and Walter G. Peter (1868-c. 1945), and Appleton P. Clark (1865-1955), are merited but hampered because the new invention in computer technology in 2011, location of their professional papers and writing bibliography drawings are unknown or presently unavailable for study by american dream, scholars. Law Essay! Extensive records of A.B. Mullett Company, consisting of retired federal architect Alfred Bult Mullett and two of his sons, have descended in phoenix compiler papers, the family. The Mullett papers donated to the Prints and writing law essay Photographs Division adds breadth and variety to the Library's large holdings on turn-of-the-century domestic design, particularly valuable for comparisons with local contemporaries designing in resume by fax, the same vein, notably Waggaman and Ray and Waddy Wood. A. B. Mullett Co, architects. Studies for two townhouses in album, “City Houses between Party Walls.” Elevations. Writing! Graphite on essay hamlet first tracing paper, ca.
1900-1920. LOT 13041, no. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! 4 (A size). The Mullett collection includes a volume of prints cut from architectural journals of designs they admired as well as mounted photographs, most unidentified but presumably the firm's designs. Their known houses, beginning with late Victorian eclecticism and extending to resume by fax the academic Beaux-Arts and Colonial Revival styles of the first quarter of this century, are pleasant and competently designed. The firm seems to have followed most stylistic trends of the day, rather than breaking new ground, as Mullett senior did with his famous Second Empire government office buildings of the writing, 1870s and '80s.
When the entire corpus of Mullett Company works has been thoroughly compiled, their contributions, particularly to local permutations of Southern and New England Colonial Revival patterns in examples such as the resume by fax, W. Writing! H. Death Salesman Dream! May House of 1921 in Langley, Virginia (ADE - UNIT 2267), can be evaluated within the context of other east coast practitioners designing in a like manner. The group of houses for which lost or destroyed architectural records is particularly lamented are those evocative remnants of Gilded Age Washington, the mansions on or near Dupont, Sheridan, and Kalorama circles and along 16th Street, N.W., near Meridian Hill. As most now serve as embassies, chanceries, or offices for national or international organizations, their important public or semi-public functions, combined with their urbanistically integrated close-in locations, make them particularly visible exemplars of Washington's peculiar mixture of turn-of-the-century political and writing bibliography social life. Their designers were generally Washington's finest architects; drawings for them are rare, perhaps because their sheer size (frequently 30 x 40) and bulk (often dozens for a large house) led to their destruction. New Invention In Computer Technology! One small watercolor by George Oakley Totten for an unbuilt mansion on Meridian Hill is among the Mary F. Bibliography Law Essay! Henderson Papers at the Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Bruce Price De Sibour, architects. “Residence for T. T. Gaff, Esq.,” 20th and Q streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. Elevation and partial section. Graphite, ink and colored ink on linen. 1903-1904. ADE - UNIT 2014, no. 4 (E size).
Although building permits record several local houses designed by resume by fax, the firms of John Smithmeyer and Paul Pelz and Joseph Hornblower and J. Rush Marshall, as well as by prolific architects of the city's mansions, Jules Henri de Sibour, George Oakley Totten, Jr. (ADE - UNIT 2144), and Nathan Wyeth, the fate of writing law essay their office records is unknown. Fortunate survivors are linen drawings for de Sibour's very fine Thomas T. Essay And Effects! Gaff House (ADE - UNIT 2014) done in 1904-1905 in partnership with the New York-based architect Bruce Price. Only twenty drawings survive from a group numbered internally up to 220, a set originally so extensive that the entire house, now the Embassy of Colombia, could be faithfully reconstructed from them. Physically large in format, the Gaff House set of bibliography drawings include full-scale elevation details as well as plans, sections, and detail drawings; similar ones must have been common for phoenix compiler papers, contemporary houses of law essay like spatial and surface complexity.20. Occasionally the semi-public careers of architects of this period have enabled scholars to amass sufficient visual and written documentation to assess their work. Although best known as an administrator and author, Glenn Brown's surviving houses in the Logan, Dupont, and Sheridan circle areas prove him to essay hamlet first have been one of the city's most polished and erudite architects in the first half of the writing bibliography, twentieth century.
In 1896 Brown published a thoughtful overview of the resume by fax, city's contemporary houses, noting and illustrating several solutions of how local architects coped with the acute triangular lots created by the city's rectilinear street-diagonal avenue intersections. Many of the fifteen plans illustrate Brown's contention that polygonal rooms shapes and meandering circulation patterns of many late Victorian homes were due to their irregular sites occasioned by Pierre Charles L'Enfant's innovative urban plan. Brown also recorded the influential presence of actual H.H. Richardson houses in the city, all originally clustered between the White House and K Street. But his own architectural output had to be pieced together and must be studied from surviving buildings (frequently altered later) or from photographs, as no corpus of law essay his drawings is known to exist.21. This long litany of losses underlines the compiler research papers, great fragility of the paper history of private architectural firms; most of the nineteenth-century survivors in writing, the Prints and Photographs Division are by happenstance. The Library's systematic collecting of large holdings of twentieth-century architectural drawings affords scholars multiple opportunities to examine in detail Washington's suburbanization. Study Networking! The city's twentieth-century growth has been primarily suburban in character, as tract developments of free-standing homes proliferated around the old city core and extended well into writing law essay Maryland and Virginia.
The anti-urban nature of much of Washington's domestic architecture, beginning with the White House (combining the sumptuousness of research papers a palace with the convenience of a house and the agreeableness of a country seat, opined L'Enfant), suggests a suburban ideal before this concept was actually given formal expression in the 1840s. Writing! Washington clients of single family homes who could afford them, from lives, John Tayloe's city house to millionaires who erected mansions on or near Dupont and Sheridan Circles, chose urban villas rather than city palaces, in order to bibliography law essay capture and privately enjoy part of the city's renowned natural beauty. As soon as the city outgrew its original boundaries with its rectilinear street and small lot configurations intended for rowhouses, the middle class also opted for separate houses set within their own grounds. In many areas new irregular street patterns conformed to or enhanced natural topological features. On Social Networking! Certainly the extent and typological variety of writing suburban houses within or contiguous to Washington, including large numbers of study on social networking in our lives catalogue houses, those erected by builders, those designed by writing bibliography, architects for developers, and compiler research papers a large number designed for law essay, specific clients, offer a local laboratory with which to study local versions of America's most representative housing type. Each of the early twentieth century architects whose important drawings of houses are preserved in the Prints and Photographs Division is case networking paradigmatic of some variant on the academic historicism of the era, ranging from the bibliography, ultra conservative formality of Waggaman and Ray to the cosiness of Arthur B. Heaton. A few representative examples of drawings of residences by a few nationally known architects, such as John Russell Pope's superb houses for Henry White of 1910-11(ADE - UNIT 1946) and for essay of causes, Edwin Laughlin of 1920-1924 (ADE - UNIT 1945) on Meridian Hill, both now serving the cultural organization, Meridian House International, have survived.
Two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2173) by bibliography, the New York firm Delano Aldrich record neo-classical interior alterations made for client Gifford Pinchot to Washington's finest Arts and essay hamlet first soliloquy Crafts House (now the Democratic Women's Club) designed by Harvey Page in 1894. Interior alterations to existing houses, frequently quite extensive, is a particularly important aspect of Washington's twentieth-century design history that is not well represented in the Library's collections. Three of the Library's four large collections of twentieth-century domestic drawings were by architects whose eclectic designs were basically anti-academic in nature. The stylistically diverse work of Waddy Wood, working alone as well as in partnership with Edmund Donn, Jr. and William I. Deming, seems remarkable today but was a common achievement of turn-of-the-century American architects. Such versatility exhibited their wide-ranging knowledge and mastery of many architectural traditions as they strove to design contextually for writing bibliography law essay, the heterogeneous American scene or for new invention in computer technology in 2011, clients whose varied backgrounds or aspirations demanded different domestic ambiances. In Wood's case, his modern renditions of writing historical styles did not stop with exterior clothing and decorative details, but extended to the shapes and arrangements of case study on social in our his rooms where he also sought historical verisimilitude. Whether reinterpreting British, Spanish, or Dutch American colonial traditions (ADE - UNIT 1042, no. 1 (A size)), or that of the writing bibliography, Italian Renaissance or English Baroque, Wood consciously chose prototypes that differed from aristocratic French and hamlet soliloquy continental models favored by his academically trained contemporaries. One exception is his Henry Fairbanks House (1915), later owned by writing, Woodrow Wilson and now a National Trust property. Wood's model for the Fairbanks house facade was Robert Adam's very formal Society of Arts (1772-1776) in London, yet its interior was decidedly more informal, even picturesque, in its room arrangements. The Fairbanks-Wilson House (HABS DC-133) is recorded in the Library's collections by HABS field notes, measured drawings, and the original blueprints showing alterations to Wood's original design.
Thus Wood's houses, even those of a formal nature, have an intimacy associated with smaller scale American and European houses from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. His drawings, often crayon or graphite sketches, with their small scale and informal landscape settings, conjure up a typical image of an American house. Wood's exterior elevations are particularly well proportioned and detailed, often establishing a modest scale for streetscapes, as his houses on or contiguous to resume by fax Sheridan Circle, that mitigate larger, more aggressive neighbors. Wood also experimented with a variety of exterior cladding materials, particularly how different brick colors and textures might be used to promote an authentic feel of the historical styles he was evoking. Whether Wood was designing multiple rowhouses or development units, single townhouses (ADE - UNIT 1106), country guest houses (ADE - UNIT 1118), or suburban single family residences (ADE - UNIT 1685), he formed each to reflect subtly its different urban, suburban, or rural context. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Therefore Wood's houses almost invariably fit comfortably with their surroundings, whether natural or manmade. Residential architecture ranging from large scale townhouses to modestly scaled and priced suburban development houses comprised a significant part of Arthur B. Heaton's large and varied practice. In his houses he followed national trends in phoenix compiler research papers, developer versions of the law essay, Arts and Crafts and Colonial Revival styles without contributing any significant innovative ideas. Study In Our Lives! Although not the same caliber a designer as Wood, Heaton aspired to similar scenic and bibliography homey effects as Wood achieved in resume by fax, his more informal dwellings.
Heaton's larger commissions, seen in his early additions from 1900-1910 to the John Joy Edson House in Maryland (ADE - UNIT 495), the Charles F. Denley House of 1927 (ADE - UNIT 515), and his own house in writing bibliography, Spring Valley, Wendover, done in 1929 (ADE - UNIT 1040), demonstrate his long-term interest in reconciling formal and informal planning. Edward W. Death Of A Salesman Dream Essays! Donn, Jr., designer and delineator. Writing Bibliography! “Wakefield, Birthplace of George Washington, Developed from lately acquired evidence,” Wakefield, Virginia. Perspective rendering. In Computer In 2011! Photographic print. 1927. Law Essay! ADE - UNIT 2161, no. Of Smoking! 1 (Photo size) Within the local context Heaton responded to a moderate income clientele whose preferences were for traditional images of American home life. His small Colonial Revival houses were drawn primarily from mid-Atlantic brick models, Gunston Hall understandingly being a favorite prototype.
Heaton was not alone among local architects in writing law essay, his interest in the region's Colonial buildings as objects of study, of new invention in 2011 projected restorations and rebuilding, and bibliography as source material for their own works. Between 1912 and hamlet soliloquy 1914 Glenn Brown and writing Bedford Brown IV renovated Gunston Hall for its new owner Louis Hertle (ADE - UNIT 2475). In 1927 Waddy Wood's one-time architectural partner Edward W. Donn, Jr., produced a conjectural restoration of death salesman dream Wakefield, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, the birthplace of George Washington, followed in bibliography law essay, 1930 by a set of working drawings for the Wakefield National Memorial Association for the rebuilding of an early 18th century Virginia country house typifying the house in which George Washington was born in 1732. Copies of the latter, now lost, have made their way into the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS VA-393 and VA 393-B), and provided the basis for the reconstruction of Wakefield, 1931-32, by the Association, assisted by the federal government, as a National Park Service site. Other observances of bicentennial of the birth of George Washington in 1932 included an of smoking large exhibition in writing bibliography law essay, Washington, D.C., of measured drawings and topographic surveys of Mount Vernon, Woodlawn Plantation, and Gunston Hall, which apparently included a conjectural restoration of essay Belvoir on the Potomac (ADE - UNIT 2007) by writing law essay, architect H. Brooks Price.22. For his Arts and case study Crafts models, Arthur B. Heaton favored the contemporary English half-timbered cottage revival intermingled with American colonial elements rather than strict adherence to the native Stickley school of thought. Writing! His well-constructed houses combined clear, logical, and resume by fax often clever internal space planning with tame and tasteful details chosen from catalogues to produce good building quality and proven design formulas for writing, people of moderate means. Heaton's houses are neither intellectually nor emotionally exciting, but they are comfortable as well as functionally serviceable. Clarke Waggaman, architect. “Wrought Iron Gates in Entrance Arch, Residence for Mrs. Helen Meserve,” 1825 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Sketch elevation. Ink on linen. 1914. Research Papers! ADE - UNIT 41, no. 68 (C size). The cosmopolitan sophistication of Clarke Waggaman and George N. Writing Bibliography! Ray's architecture appealed especially to Washington's socially and politically prominent early twentieth-century citizens. The architects' imposing rows or individual town houses, as well as their quietly elegant mansions, imparted to the Dupont, Sheridan, and and effects of smoking Massachusetts Avenue Heights neighborhoods a decidedly European-capital flavor, an environment admired and desired by much of the wealthier segment of America's East-Coast population at the time.
Waggaman and Ray houses tended to be large in scale, often filling to capacity their urban lots, as in the Louis Lehr House of 1911-14 (ADE - UNIT 332) or sharply defining the edges of suburban ones, as in Waggaman's own house of 1917 (ADE - UNIT 363). The firm's penchant for self-contained cubic and rectilinear masses, even when building on irregular sites, extended to interior volumes which rarely have curved surfaces unlike many other contemporary Beaux Arts houses in Washington. Interior decoration and details are a notable aspect of the corpus of their drawings. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Waggaman Ray's Mrs. Helen Meserve House (ADE - UNIT 41 and death of a essays ADE - UNIT 42) was particularly notable for its interior detail drawings. The elevation drawing for the iron gate set into an arched wall of the Meserve house includes specifications and writing law essay written information on its historical source, and death american dream the plan shows the placement of the gate in a passageway leading from the drive to writing law essay a box garden and private lawn (ADE - UNIT 41, no. Phoenix Compiler Research Papers! 6 C size). Collectively their beautifully-proportioned facades follow formulas derived mainly from Italian Renaissance models, evident in the firm's 1912 commissions for writing, large townhouses for the Honorable A. B. Of A Dream! Butler (ADE - UNIT 179) and Captain Anthony F. Lucas (ADE - UNIT 357), rather than French, or other north European countries favored by their contemporaries. George N. Ray, architect. Entrance and writing bibliography law essay stair hall elevations, “Residence for Edward S. Perot,” 29th Street and Woodland Drive, N.W. (lot 808, square 2200), Washington, D.C. Sectional elevations.
Graphite and colored pencil on tracing paper. On Social Networking Lives! 1925-1926. ADE - UNIT 339, no. 51 (E size). Waggaman Ray's greatest contribution to Washington's architectural scene was to create a hybrid Beaux Arts-Georgian Revival style in which they very successfully merged the two, probably in an attempt to define a new American house that fused traditional eighteenth-century formal English colonial elements with contemporary academic ideas and ideals, as in their houses Colonel J. R. Williams (ADE - UNIT 180)(now the bibliography law essay, Embassy of South Africa), Mrs. Sidney Appleton House (ADE - UNIT 45), or that for Mr. and Mrs. William A. Hill (ADE - UNIT 79). Papers! The extensiveness of their domestic commissions attests to their popularity among many wealthy Washingtonians; their houses were quieter, more reserved, less ostentatious than the exuberant, frequently French or Baroque-inspired houses designed by Jules Henri de Sibour or George Oakley Totten, and perhaps for these reasons considered more desirable for clients with behind-the-scenes-power-brokering lifestyles. Waggaman and Ray's occasional forays into exotic or currently stylish historicism, such as the bibliography, Moorish-medieval style house for Edward S. Perot of 1925 (ADE - UNIT 339), with an essay soliloquy elaborate stairhall, still retain the firm's distinctive flat and writing restrained treatment of volumetric masses. The Waggaman and Ray collection has an additional valuable dimension as the repository of copies of other architects drawings that are otherwise unknown.
Blueprints (ADE - UNIT 424) of a house by case study in our, Hornblower and Marshall at the corner of 18th and N streets, N.W. dated 6 May 1896, of Frederic B. Pyle's S.W. Woodward House (ADE - UNIT 398) on LeRoy Place, N.W., of a stable dated 1901 by Marsh and Peter for Rudolph Kauffmann (ADE - UNIT 488) on Military Road, and Atkinson and White's design (ADE - UNIT 288) for the L. Victor Froment House (1922-1923) in law essay, Warrenton, Virginia, and J. Lakin Baldridge's drawings for resume by fax, a Washington, D. C., residence for Herbert Adair (ADE - UNIT 340) indicate the range of writing bibliography law essay talent and varying importance of commissions found in this vast collection of drawings. The Donald H. Drayer Archive complements both the study in our lives, Heaton and writing law essay Wood Archives in that it provides continuity for detailed study of informal middle class housing from the first through the third quarter of this century. Drayer with many contemporaries educated during the tumultuous shift from the historicism of the Beaux-Arts system to resume by fax modernism gave birth to a new version of American historical eclecticism. Writing Law Essay! Their sense of architectural proportions, spatial relations, and death of a salesman dream essays decorative elements were a composite, or compromise, between traditional canons and contemporary ones. Probably in response to a common desire among Americans to live in colonial houses, many of Drayer's residences were generic neo-Colonial, but filtered through the writing law essay, anti-historical bias of resume by fax modernism.
He responded to the stylistically conservative but increasingly opulent tastes of Washington developers as well as its individual clients, wrapping large, fairly expensive, historically reminiscent exterior envelopes around spatially varied and ornamentally stripped interiors. Drayer included historicizing elements to traditional compact house shapes, as Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow's house (ADE - UNIT 1484) erected in Bradley Hills in 1969, or the Senator Albert Gore House (ADE - UNIT 1358), where the echoes of America's honorable past mask its present-day amenities. Historical fragments appeared in details such as rug, marble, and marquetry designs for the Lawrence N. Brandt House of 1972, in Washington ( ADE - UNIT 1632), or even bookcases, in additions to two Lyndon B. Johnson houses in Washington (ADE - UNIT 1414 and ADE - UNIT 1415). The Brandt house plan--three rectangles around a circular central hall--was derived from William Thornton's Octagon House. In general, fine proportions and elegant architectural detail gave way during the 1940s, '50s, and '60s to new kinds of communal space.
Costly new appliances and heating and air conditioning systems offering physical amenities and comforts gave more pleasure to more people than did finely tuned design elements. Drayer's drawings while recording in detail the taste of mid-twentieth century America through design features such as raised flag stone hearths of the J. Writing! A. Mathews House in Montgomery County, Maryland, of 1952 also are of great value in documenting emerging technological innovations that changed American home life. The Mr. Research! Mrs. Nathan Landow Residence (ADE - UNIT 1484) in Bradley Hills, Maryland, had a three-car garage appended to writing an elaborate stone and phoenix compiler stucco, hipped roof mansion; its historicizing decorative details (as a carved keystone) attest to the vitality of writing law essay Colonial Revival tradition in 1969. The J. A. Mathews House in death american essays, Bannockburn Heights, Maryland, (ADE - UNIT 1225) has all of the new communal spaces--family room, TV room, and rec room--associated with mid-to late twentieth-century life in America, as well as expanded storage areas (work shops as well as purpose-built closets), efficient modern kitchens, and multiple bathrooms that are now part of writing law essay standard house designs. The role of networking in our property developers in Washington's architectural history needs thorough scholarly examination.
Most Washington houses, whether rowhouse or single family residence, were built as part of bibliography real estate developments. Soliloquy! James Hoban, often working in partnership with the law essay, house builder Pierce Purcell, was actively involved in death of a salesman american dream, designing and erecting speculative housing judging from his property transactions. Robert Mills also bought city lots, improved them and writing then sold them for a profit, presumably financing as well as designing pedestrian brick rowhouses. Several prolific Victorian era architects either served as their own developers--as did Thomas Franklin Schneider--or worked for businessmen who financed large house building ventures; Adolf Cluss designed many rows of houses for Alexander R. Shepherd, prominent Washington developer as well as political figure. Many of the city's current firms of real estate brokers, as Shannon and Luchs, began as developers, acting as financial intermediaries between contractors, architects, and clients. Washington neighborhoods as desireable and diverse as Kalorama, Cleveland Park, Spring Valley, and American University Park were largely developed as real estate ventures. The Prints and Photographs Washingtoniana architectural collections contain the most comprehensive materials for study of the role local architects played in the real estate industry, particularly its twentieth-century growth.
Questions as diverse as overall development objectives to contemporary building materials and methods can be examined in on social lives, detail using the Waggaman and Ray, Wood, Heaton, and Drayer archives. Bibliography Law Essay! Two aspects of the city's domestic architectural history greatly facilitated by the existence of such extensive drawing collections are the evolution of designs due to essay and effects of smoking architect-client consultations and law essay the study of interiors. When architects maintain excellent records, as Waggaman and Ray did, surviving drawings of alternate designs presented to clients allow scholars to hamlet first ask and perhaps answer questions about taste, the arrival and acceptance of new domestic amenities, and even attitudes about how to shelter automobiles. Twentieth-century societal and technological changes have effected housing design to a greater or lesser degree. Garages, TV and media rooms, swimming pools and related structures, increasingly sybaritic bathrooms, solariums and spas, modern kitchen appliances, even rug and fur coolers (ADE - UNIT 42, no. Law Essay! 39 E size), have had to be accommodated in houses of traditional as well as contemporary design. Access to new invention in computer in 2011 most Washington interiors is difficult for scholars and many have been radically changed with original planning and decoration obliterated. Writing! As photographs present a limited perspective, surviving drawings offer the best vehicle to examine many aspects (color excluded) of their historical development. Washington was a local proving ground for government-sponsored low-to-median-income suburban housing developments.
Those modelled on socially and study in our architecturally progressive prototypes that began in Europe, as the town of Greenbelt, Maryland, have been frequently studied, while the ones like Arthur B. Heaton's traditionally-inspired Union Homes, also for Greenbelt, have been of less interest to scholars until recently. Heaton designed the writing bibliography law essay, Union Homes in the 1940s for new invention in computer in 2011, the Office of War Information as temporary houses, but their forms, details, and amenities are similar to much of the inexpensive catalogue and factory-built housing of the era. Comparisons within the typology between those inspired by writing bibliography, European and those by American prototypes is a worthwhile study that could be undertaken utilizing the in computer technology, Library's collections alone. Which have endured the longest with the least amount of change and why? The outward appearance of lower, and even medium, cost houses undertaken by writing law essay, private developers is often not markedly different from public housing units; the differences lie within (see for example, Mihran Mesrobian's designs in essay hamlet first, 1932 for the D.C. Writing Bibliography! Developing Company (ADE - UNIT 2216), where architects consciously provided better creature comforts. Arthur B. Heaton, architect.
Night study, house for the Misses McEwen, 3324 Newark Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective rendering. Graphite and watercolor on paper. 1906. ADE - UNIT 1050, no. Death Salesman! 1 (A size). Heaton's picturesquely composed Charles F. Denley House of bibliography 1927 has Colonial Revival clothing (ADE - UNIT 515), but a free-flowing, open interior comparable to of causes and effects of smoking a Frank Lloyd Wright house. His McEwen House of 1906 (ADE UNIT - 1050), located at 3324 Newark Street in Washington's Cleveland Park neighborhood, is recorded by a rare nighttime watercolor view (pl. 10.12). For the Clay Coss House of writing bibliography law essay 1936 (ADE - UNIT 1039) in the Spring Valley neighborhood, Heaton attached the garage directly to the kitchen, a portent of essay and effects future accommodations for the automobile.
Heaton's Corby House (ADE - UNITS 528 to 538), Ishpiming, erected in an exclusive part of Chevy Chase, Maryland, offered him an opportunity to design a formal informal house on a grand scale (ADE - UNIT 536, no. 30 E size). Pattern-book houses are one of America's most venerable architectural traditions, apparently beginning in bibliography, the early eighteenth-century with imported illustrated treatises but still viable today. Fundamental to this practice was the very real possiblity of designing (and perhaps building) one's own home. In 1921 the Own a Home Exposition Company with offices in resume by fax, Chicago and New York sponsored a competition entitled Own Your Home Competition, in which architects were invited to provide designs for modest suburban homes in four categories established according to materials. Washington architect Louis Justement won first prizes for his four-room frame Colonial cottage as well as his house constructed with metal lath, back plaster and stucco (ADE - UNIT 2879, no 17 A size).
His entry for a six-room stucco cottage earned a mention, but his brick house did not place. Justement's designs as well as many other competitors were copyrighted and seem to have formed the basis for bibliography, a series of catalogue or factory-built houses destined for middle-class developments. Washington had at least one mail-order house design business. Standard Homes Company published a series of books of designs from the 1920s through the salesman dream essays, 1950s, including editions of the Plan Book of writing law essay Modern American Homes (1921; NA7127.S777), 101 American Homes (1921: NA7127.S755), Better Homes at Lower Cost (1926-30, NA7127.S775), Homes of Comfort at Low Cost, Homes of Today (ca. New Invention Technology! 1929, NA7127.S777), Homes of Brick and Stucco (ca. 1929; NA7127.S7764), and Standard Construction Details for Home Builders (ca. 1950, TH151.S66). Law Essay! Daniel Theodor Morgan (b. 1901) began working for Standard Homes in November 1921 and seems to have spent his entire career there.
Morgan, with a formal education through the ninth grade, and a few classes in essay of causes, structural design at George Washington University in 1943 a job requirement for the war effort, was registered an an architect in Washington in 1951. Standard Home Company's low to medium cost house designs fit into the comfortable genre of standardized designs offering a variety of period houses, most of which were variants of the popular Colonial Revival. By 1930 they began offering customized designs. (LC TH151.S66 and NA7127.S766 n. 7). Hugh Newell Jacobsen, architect. Writing Bibliography! Residence for technology, Dr. and Mrs. James L. Kahn,” Lima, Ohio. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Axonometric projection. Ink and graphite on acetate drafting film. Essay Hamlet Soliloquy! 1981-1982. ADE - UNIT 2613, no.
21 (F size). . The Prints and Photograph Division's twentieth-century architectural drawings are predominantly of historicist house designs because the vast majority of Washington and Washington-area houses are traditional. Not surprisingly the work of the city's premier modernist architect of the late 20th century, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, is bibliography law essay fundamentally conservative in essay hamlet soliloquy, its essential tastefulness. Jacobsen's international reputation rests perhaps more on his series of beautiful houses, many in bibliography, and near Washington, as on his public commissions. He approached each of his residential designs as an individual problem of site conditions, client lifestyle, and appropriate historical precedent; each is an example of consummate artistry where sensitive and sensible design are realized through superb building craftsmanship. Salesman American Essays! Jacobsen's definition of houses as series of interconnected rooms with clear external volumetric expressions--a unit approach which he terms pavilions--also includes historical contextualism, as each is writing law essay a fresh contemporary expression of an earlier American house type. Mansard roofs and papers bay windows of the James Newmyer House (ADE - UNIT 2609) of 1966 reflect not just forms associated with Victorian styles in Washington, but also their materials, high basements, and ordered asymmetry. At the same time, while Jacobsen's contemporaneous Trentman House (ADE - UNIT 2608) responds sensitively to its Georgetown streetscape, it is writing law essay avowedly and unashamedly modern.
By retaining but reordering and abstracting their essential geometries, Jacobsen's transformations of American rural farm house, updated in the Bryan House of 1987 in the Worthington Valley, Maryland (ADE - UNIT 2607) and vernacular forms such as the Cape Cod house redux in of a essays, the John Drier House of 1977 in northwest Washington (ADE - UNIT 2602), or the modified board-and-batten vocabulary of writing bibliography his Kahn House in Lima, Ohio, of 1982, has transferred, without sentimental claptrap, their essential hominess into exciting contemporary idioms.23. While Jacobsen's work exemplifies a basically sensual approach to contemporary house design, a cerebral strategy is resume by fax represented in bibliography, the Library's collections by drawings of educator-architect Cesar Pelli. Tracking the gradual transformation of Pelli's conceptual sketches of suburban house projects exhibited at new invention technology, the Venice Biennale (ADE - UNIT 2370) in 1976, through their intermediate stage as the Long Gallery House design (ADE - UNIT 2373) offered for sale in writing bibliography, 1980, to its concrete realization as the Maryland House (ADE - UNIT 2374) erected in 1985-1989 in new invention in computer, suburban Montgomery County, is to undertake with the architect a journey of self-conscious historical inquiry. The recent interest among architects and the public at large in architectural history has led many contemporary architects to realize that their own place in history can only be correctly understood if drawings recording their complete design cycle are preserved intact. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! If published, as in Pelli's case, these drawings participate in essay soliloquy, the profession's ongoing theoretical-historical dialogue, influencing as well as having been influenced.24. In 1976 Pelli's interest was axial primacy in writing, architecture and the intersection of solid and transparent, of rectilinear (manmade, or architecture) and death american dream essays curvilinear (nature-made). By 1980 a long glazed gallery as a central spine supporting alternating house units and landscape segments had emerged. Bibliography! The idea of on social networking in our a house's circulation route becoming its central public space is an law essay ancient one with echos in american dream, the American Georgian or Anglo-Palladian central hall plan house. It is entirely appropriate that the Gewirz House with its simple geometric forms and strong colors was built in suburban Washington, a fitting accompaniment to the area's long tradition of historically connected houses in concert with nature. The essentially conservative nature of the majority of Washington houses is rooted in writing bibliography law essay, the strong sense of American history that has always pervaded the city.
The predominant style remains that of the new invention technology, city's founding era, permutations on the so-called American Colonial house. For at least the writing bibliography, last two centuries a recurring theme for many American architects has been how to transform European historical prototypes to convey images that bespoke America. The issue was not just how to respond to different climatic and social conditions, but how to express contemporary perceptions of what the American house should look like. Hamlet! Although seventeenth and eighteenth century America was dotted with buildings representative of the colonists differing national traditions, from law essay, French Mississippi Valley poteaux-en-terre houses to Dutch stepped-gable brick rows in new invention in computer in 2011, New York, Georgian houses from the English colonies emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the image of the writing, generic American house. The strength of the English Colonial tradition in Washington can partially be linked to study networking lives the city's function as the national capital and partially to its location in the mid-Atlantic region. Sentimental or patriotic nostalgia about the Revolutionary era, the crucial roles played by law essay, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison (all owners of near-by English Colonial houses) in the city's founding, identification by many local residents (particularly government employees) with American values, near-by sites of important Colonial houses, including Williamsburg and Annapolis: all have contributed to the sense among many twentieth-century Washingtonians that the archtypal Washington house should express American more strongly than elsewhere. Holdings Outside the Library of Congress. Many institutions have individual drawings or small collections relating to Washington houses. Nicholas King's 1798 drawing for Edward Langley's house on and effects of smoking South Capitol Street is in bibliography law essay, the Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. R. Snowdon Andrew's perspective watercolor of the George Riggs House (1856) at phoenix research papers, 1617 I Street near Farragut Square is in the John Beverly Riggs Collection in Wilmington, Delaware.
William Lovering's drawing for the Six Buildings on bibliography Pennsylvania Avenue, Thomas U. Walter's drawings for his own house and american dream essays that for Alexander Ray, and Paul Cret's drawings for the Mary Stewart residence are in the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. Law Essay! The records of the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, both preserved in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, frequently include plans, and occasionally elevation drawings, of Washington houses insured with them between the 1820s and 1890s.25. The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, has a George Hadfield drawing dated 1798 for an unidentified house, Carrère and Hastings drawings for the William R. Castle (1929-1931) and David A. Reed (1929-1930) houses, Charles A. Platt's drawings for the James Parmelee House (1912-1914), Ogden Codman's drawings for the Martha Codman House (1908-1910), Hoppin Koen's George B. Essay Soliloquy! McClellan House (1922), and an unidentified house at 34th and O Streets NW (1939) by William Muschenheim. Montgomery C. Meigs's drawings for his own house on K Street and those by McKim, Mead, and White for writing bibliography, several Washington houses are in the New York Historical Society; Meigs' sketches for phoenix, many Washington houses are among his papers in the Manuscript Division, Library of bibliography law essay Congress. The Berla Abel, Edward W. Donn, Jr., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Keyes, Condon Florence, and Chloethiel Woodward Smith collections in the Archives of the American Institute of case on social networking lives Architects Archive all contain substantial materials relating to Washington's domestic architecture. 1 . Significant early books on Washington's domestic architecture include Mary S. Lockwood, Historic Homes of Washington (New York: Belford Co., 1889); Deering Davis, et. Writing Law Essay! al., Georgetown Houses of the Federal Period (New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1944); and Harold D. Salesman Dream! Eberlein and Cortlandt V. D. Hubbard, Historic Houses of Georgetown and Washington City (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1958). Recent scholarship includes Georgetown Residential Architecture-Northeast (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts and Historic American Buildings Survey, ; Commission of Fine Arts, Massachusetts Avenue Architecture . 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973-1975); Sue A. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson. Writing! Sixteenth Street Architecture . On Social Networking In Our Lives! 2 vols. (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1978-88); and Kathryn Schneider Smith, ed. Washington at Home (Washington: Columbia Historical Society, 1988).
Numerous destroyed Washington houses are illustrated and discussed by James M. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Goode, Capital Losses. A Cultural History of Washington's Destroyed Buildings (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979) 3-158. back to text. 2 Library of Congress, Geography and networking Map Division, Plans and Sections of the Proposed Continuation of the Washington Canal from Rock Creek to the Little Falls of the Potomac, Washington, D. C., G3852 .W28 .G45 s07 .L3 Vault. Robert King's drawings are in the Cartographic and Architectural Archives, National Archives. back to text. 3 Nancy B. Schwartz, comp. Historic American Buildings Survey. District of Columbia Catalog . (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974).
Several Washington houses have been documented by HABS since 1974; consult records in the Prints and Photographs Division. back to text. 4 Alison K. Hoagland. Writing! Nineteenth-Century Building Regulations in case study on social networking in our lives, Washington, D.C. Bibliography Law Essay! Records of the Columbia Historical Society 52 (1989) 57-77. back to text. 5 Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser , 21 May 1793: 3. back to resume by fax text. 6 Allen C. Clark, Daniel Carroll of Duddington, Records of the Columbia Historical Society 39 (1938): 22-3; the 1796 drawing for the Seven Buildings, rowhouses erected by a consortium of developers, is in the Athenaeum of Philadelpia. back to text. 7 Hadfield's drawing located at the Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University, was identified by its cataloger as Commodore Porter's House on Meridian Hill on no internal evidence. Hadfield's former student William Parker Eliot bought his drawings at bibliography, an Orphan's Court auction of phoenix compiler research papers Hadfield's property on 16 February 1826; the location of writing law essay Eliot's papers is in computer technology in 2011 unknown. National Archives, R.G.
21. back to text. 8 Daniel Reiff, Washington Architecture 1791-1861 (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1971): 70. William Strickland, H.R. 267, 28th Congress, 1st Session. [T]he American plan of putting windows in the blank space of the writing bibliography law essay, frieze. . . Death American Dream Essays! . is bibliography purely an American improvement in the art of building, to get rid of phoenix compiler a blank space which has always given a heavy appearance to writing the attic. Strickland was mistaken; the window metope was used during the Italian Renaissance, one example being the Villa Madama.
Eighteenth century English and French examples abound. Case Study Networking In Our Lives! back to text. 9 A.J. Davis Collection, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. Writing Law Essay! back to text. 10 Orlando Rideout V., Building the Octagon (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1989); Melissa McLoud, Craftsmen and Entrepreneurs. Case On Social Networking In Our Lives! Builders in Late Nineteenth-Century Washington, D. C., Ph. D. thesis, George Washington University, 1988; District of Columbia Building permits began to be issued in writing, 1877; those for houses (the vast majority of permits) sometimes include blueprints, plans, or especially plans for of causes, projections (which were technically over public land); Paul Kelsey Williams' house histories, done for private clients, are on deposit in writing law essay, the library of the Historical Society of death salesman american essays Washington, D. Law Essay! C. New Invention In Computer Technology In 2011! back to text. 11 See John W. Writing! Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1984) and Reps, Washington on View. The Nation's Capital Since 1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). First Soliloquy! back to text. 12 The Hyde de Neuville collection of watercolors are in the New York Historical Society. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! back to text. 13 The Köllner and Smith collections are in the Prints and Photographs Division; Meigs's drawings and sketches are scattered between the National Archives, Library of phoenix compiler papers Congress, and Historical Society of Washington. back to text. 15 Jeffrey A. Cohen, Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians , 53 (June 1994): 139-183. Bibliography Law Essay! back to text.
16 See Tanya Beauchamp, Adolph Cluss and the Building of the resume by fax, U. S. National Museum. An Architecture of Perfect Adaptability. Writing Law Essay! M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1972; Margaret Gordon Davis, James G. New Invention! Hill, Victorian Architect, Washington, D.C. M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1981. Candace Reed's extensive research on Schneider is unpublished. [Thomas Franklin Schneider], Selections from the Work of T. F. Schneider, Architect, Washington, D.C. (Washington: Privately Printed, 1894). back to writing law essay text.
17 Starkweather's corpus of drawings are in a private collection in Philadelphia. Camden is discussed and illustrated in Mills Lane, Architecture of the Old South. Virginia (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984): 223-5. A full set of new invention technology in 2011 elevations and a perspective, in the possession of Camden's owners, Mr. Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, are illustrated in William B. O'Neal, Architectural Drawing in Virginia, 1819-1969 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia School of Architecture, 1969): 76-9. back to text. 18 Harvey L. Page, Houses of Moderate Cost (Washington: Gibson Bros., 1889). back to text.
19 The Marlatt house drawings are discussed and illustrated in Sue A. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson, Sixteenth Street Architecture (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1988) II: 332-363; George E. Thomas, William L. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Price: Arts and Crafts to Modern Modern Design (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000). back to text. 20 Anne E. Peterson, Hornblower Marshall, Architects (Washington: Preservation Press, 1978) includes a catalogue of the resume by fax, firm's works. Much of the work of writing bibliography law essay de Sibour, Totten, and Wyeth is presented in the four volumes on Massachusetts Avenue and Sixteenth Street compiled by the Commission of Fine Arts ( see note 1) . back to text. 21 William Brian Bushong, Glenn Brown, the American Institute of Architects, and the Development of the Civic Core of Washington, D.C. Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1988; Glenn Brown, Domestic Architecture in Washington City, Engineering Magazine (January 1896): 434-460. In Computer Technology! Richardson's drawings for his Washington houses are located at Harvard University. James F. O'Gorman, Selected Drawings. H.H. Richardson and His Office (Cambridge: Harvard College Library, 1974). Writing! back to text. 22 Charles Moore to Senator Simeon D. Phoenix Compiler Research Papers! Fess, Vice Chairman, George Washington Bicentennial Commission, Report of the Commission of Fine Arts (1936), 74th Congress, 2d sess., S. Document No.
214, 70-71. back to text. 23 Kevin W. Green, ed., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Architect (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1988). back to text. 24 Mario Gandelsonas and John Pastier, Cesar Pelli. Buildings and bibliography law essay Projects, 1965-1990 (New York: Rizzoli, 1990): 252-63. Compiler! back to text. 25 A detailed finding aid to the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company records is currently being prepared. back to text.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Bibliography Law Essay? Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: email@example.com. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at study networking in our lives, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in resume by fax the world today. It destroys jobs and bibliography holds back growth, costing the case study networking in our lives, world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the writing bibliography law essay, revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. Resume By Fax? The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in writing bibliography law essay the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to death of a american dream essays cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at writing bibliography, home? In the of causes and effects, end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and writing migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the technology, national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on bibliography, these issues – and case on social networking lives so there is a hesitation in law essay raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for essay those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Writing? From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority.
From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and in our lives controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the bibliography law essay, inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to case study on social in our the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.
I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from bibliography law essay around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and hamlet considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on bibliography law essay, a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.
Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the of causes, Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about writing bibliography law essay telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the phoenix research, most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Law Essay? For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the soliloquy, world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and bibliography education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and study in our its damaging effect on the moral fabric of law essay our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of resume by fax corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for writing bibliography law essay so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to compiler follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the bibliography, essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is essay of smoking, a clear message here.
We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the writing bibliography, national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to on social in our impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is bibliography, also a striking frankness and directness in salesman american the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in writing Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. Resume By Fax? He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only law essay, deliver real change if there is true political leadership.
Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and new invention in computer in 2011 mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is law essay, a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by resume by fax Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Writing? But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the on social in our, Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the writing bibliography, essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and new invention in computer the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from law essay immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact.
Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the new invention in 2011, OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and bibliography law essay 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in case study networking in our combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over writing bibliography law essay, a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for networking a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from writing standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to essay of causes of smoking report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from writing law essay a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to papers hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and writing accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance.
We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is death of a, used and writing bibliography law essay they can demand that people are held to account when it is case study on social networking in our lives, stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the writing, extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on essay hamlet first, transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Well-structured, transparent and networking accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to writing journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and phoenix research corrupt officials all over bibliography law essay, the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and dream comprehensively with the corruption we expose.
That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the writing bibliography law essay, corrupt, prosecute them and send them to resume by fax jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of writing bibliography prosecutors having to essay of causes and effects prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the bibliography, accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for essay of causes and effects of smoking extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in writing law essay the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and essay and effects as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the writing bibliography law essay, corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from death salesman american dream essays corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to writing law essay return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. Case Study Lives? It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for law essay so long. Of Smoking? This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and writing bibliography made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.
From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of essay hamlet probity and writing honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Essay And Effects Of Smoking? In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the writing bibliography, information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and study individual citizens to come together in law essay a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of essay of causes and effects this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at writing law essay, the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of on social in our political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in writing this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against of causes of smoking, corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Writing Law Essay? Francis Fukuyama: What is study on social lives, Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Bibliography? Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. Of Causes And Effects? What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and writing bibliography law essay their families. Countries from death of a american dream Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of writing ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of hamlet soliloquy elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to writing law essay spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the essay hamlet first, reality of writing law essay democratic choice.
However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. Resume By Fax? It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Writing Bibliography? Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in resume by fax a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to writing bibliography focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of papers their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and law essay Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by study on social networking right of bibliography ownership, but out of new invention a kind of social contract by writing law essay which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and death salesman american essays security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and writing bibliography private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over new invention in computer technology in 2011, which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the writing bibliography, common good in salesman political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.
A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. Writing Law Essay? But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). In Computer Technology? People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the bibliography, matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in case on social in our lives most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to writing a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.
So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. Resume By Fax? The first is the creation and writing extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In Computer In 2011? In economics, a rent is technically defined as the writing law essay, difference between the cost of resume by fax keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the writing bibliography law essay, most important sources of papers rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the bibliography law essay, cost of pumping it out of the ground.
Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. First? Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the writing bibliography law essay, customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by compiler research markets and to see rent creation and law essay distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of resume by fax governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is bibliography law essay, a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an new invention technology in 2011, idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of writing time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.
While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of essay and effects stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the law essay, appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is hamlet first soliloquy, a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and writing law essay power, usually involving favours given by the patron to resume by fax the client in law essay exchange for essay of causes and effects the client’s loyalty and political support.
The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to law essay a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is in computer technology in 2011, sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and writing bibliography law essay clients and resume by fax exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of writing bibliography law essay favours between patrons and in computer technology clients, often requiring a hierarchy of writing law essay intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of resume by fax voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.
Of course, voters in hamlet first soliloquy advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of bibliography law essay justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of essay soliloquy democratic participation. In the writing, United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support.
In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to and effects be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and bibliography law essay some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and phoenix compiler whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out writing bibliography their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by case study on social networking replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and writing bibliography theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the new invention in computer technology, world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and writing bibliography law essay low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the of smoking, World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of bibliography Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity.
In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of essay first capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of writing law essay pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is study networking in our lives, less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by writing development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and resume by fax promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. Writing Bibliography? More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of first soliloquy agent behaviour and bibliography law essay creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in of causes and effects a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and law essay special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in research countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in writing bibliography government behaviour. On Social Lives? For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by bibliography law essay news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and case study on social personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth.
There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of writing bibliography law essay existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for phoenix compiler overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is writing, why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Resume By Fax? Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of writing corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in and effects the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the bibliography law essay, voter base and presenting politicians with the resume by fax, challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Bibliography? Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon.
This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the resume by fax, railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from writing law essay business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for resume by fax a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the writing law essay, assassination of the in computer, newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into bibliography law essay passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. On Social Networking In Our Lives? merit- based) officials met strong resistance and law essay did not become widespread until after the essay, First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of writing bibliography both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the resume by fax, incentives that led to the creation of the writing bibliography, clientelistic system were deeply political.
Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups.
The American experience is suggestive of how progress in hamlet the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. Writing? The period that saw the emergence of an essays, industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of writing education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.
One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of compiler research papers professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in writing turn, were the product of the resume by fax, far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to bibliography the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. And Effects? Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in writing bibliography Germany, Britain, France, Japan and resume by fax elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the bibliography law essay, process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. In 2011? Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and bibliography law essay resources that will make government reform more feasible.
This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of compiler international conflict and instability in today’s world. Law Essay? But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and death salesman american dream essays Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of law essay Trust in Society. Case On Social Networking In Our Lives? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011. Writing Law Essay? The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution.
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in essay of causes of smoking Asia. Bibliography? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. Essay Of Smoking? 521–32. Writing Law Essay? Mauro, P. New Invention In Computer In 2011? 2002. Bibliography Law Essay? The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No.
02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essay Hamlet First Soliloquy? Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Bibliography Law Essay? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.
Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in hamlet first pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.
Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free.
Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is bibliography, not normal: it is death of a, therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is bibliography, concentrated in in computer in 2011 pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the writing bibliography, same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for resume by fax many years. Writing? Similarly, honesty is persistent.
In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. Salesman American? This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into writing bibliography an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. Of Smoking? In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to law essay squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. Case On Social Networking? But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Bibliography? Positions were bought and sold and first soliloquy contracts were awarded in writing bibliography return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to essay first soliloquy shock governments into change.
Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Writing? But its success reveals the key components of death american dream essays how change can be brought about.
Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by bibliography law essay corruption can do for case on social themselves. However, the writing bibliography, globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to of causes and effects of smoking encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.
Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of writing it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. In Computer In 2011? Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Writing? Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to essay first a weakest-link problem.
Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the writing bibliography, major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. New Invention? There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is writing bibliography, also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to and effects of smoking do business with them to law essay comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. Technology? In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector.
In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Writing Bibliography? Meanwhile the EITI is new invention in computer, becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for writing bibliography law essay the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to new invention in 2011 be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to writing bibliography law essay such co-operation is papers, a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. Bibliography Law Essay? There is, equally, plenty of scope for american dream contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office.
Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of writing bibliography law essay Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is of causes and effects, a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in bibliography several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the death salesman american dream essays, options available to writing law essay corrupt tax officials.
It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to case study in our lives those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is writing bibliography law essay, paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for salesman american dream essays private gain is seen as both more prestigious and law essay more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and death salesman essays the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in writing bibliography which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. New Invention Technology? Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of writing corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and first soliloquy fellow tax inspectors. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal.
A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of phoenix compiler staff in law essay both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of papers modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to writing bibliography law essay a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the death of a essays, official to writing bibliography a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the resume by fax, tax code to make the rest of law essay government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. Case On Social In Our? 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to writing bibliography create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to new invention in computer persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the bibliography, staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and case study on social hence the same choice.
There are already a few examples of writing bibliography law essay institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for resume by fax International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in essay of causes and effects the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.
Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on bibliography law essay, peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in death american essays low-income countries try to law essay keep donor agencies ‘out of resume by fax their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of of causes of smoking companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades.
The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. Bibliography? But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of phoenix research high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the bibliography law essay, governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for resume by fax OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to bibliography law essay make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to death be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!
More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to writing forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from essay of causes of smoking a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to writing law essay be extended well beyond government: part of the on social in our, ‘big society’ can be direct links between the writing, civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to technology in 2011 development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of bibliography tackling corruption is new invention in computer technology in 2011, resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. Bibliography? The two approaches of closing off opportunities for essay corruption and writing law essay reducing the prestige and new invention technology satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office.
Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to bibliography crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Essay Of Causes And Effects? Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Law Essay? New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of essay first soliloquy retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. Law Essay? An international initiative against of a salesman dream essays, corruption provides an opportunity for writing national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of and effects risks and rewards and writing law essay the sources of essay hamlet first prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and bibliography their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of death of a salesman behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is writing law essay, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is hamlet first soliloquy, Exodus: How Migration is bibliography law essay, Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the phoenix research papers, Sotho word for writing bibliography a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to study on social networking lives mean, among other things, corruption.
Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of bibliography Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in resume by fax many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed.
The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. Writing? The concept of shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the essay and effects of smoking, ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the bibliography, local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in research papers the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to bibliography law essay relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. Death American Dream? East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence.
Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for writing being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for technology citizens of the law essay, region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of new invention corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is writing, one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to in computer in 2011 Africans at writing bibliography law essay, large. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the resume by fax, 28 countries, the law essay, feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in essay hamlet Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the law essay, terms ‘theft’ and essay hamlet first ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and law essay ambiguous concept to many Africans.
As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and first soliloquy punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and bibliography recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of compiler research papers theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in writing law essay the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in on social in our lives developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is writing bibliography law essay, too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to case on social networking in our lives bear on it at the national and writing bibliography law essay global levels. Integral to this are the case networking, principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is writing bibliography, essential: the rule of hamlet first law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and bibliography traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and resume by fax the traditional ways in which meaning is made.
By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Writing Bibliography? Our success depends on how effectively we bring and case on social lives use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by essay first soliloquy the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.
This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the law essay, attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to new invention in computer technology be returned urgently to the heart of the writing bibliography, global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage.
This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and resume by fax security sector and writing bibliography law essay areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for new invention in 2011 the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. Bibliography? The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to new invention identity and writing personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. Of A Salesman American Dream? 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. Writing Law Essay? This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by death essays the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over writing law essay, the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and death of a salesman american dream processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the writing law essay, same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in resume by fax multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to bibliography law essay allow them to case study networking in our act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. Bibliography Law Essay? The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.
Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of case on social in our complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and law essay reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for of smoking private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013).
Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. Writing Bibliography? 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the compiler papers, recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the bibliography law essay, legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially.
Indeed there is of causes, almost an law essay, unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to resume by fax scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the writing, temptation for some businesses to rely on death of a salesman dream essays, the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Writing Law Essay? The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at technology in 2011, a critical juncture. It calls for writing law essay a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. In Computer Technology In 2011? For example, there has been a debate about creating an writing law essay, International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of death of a american essays powers granted to international weapons inspectors to bibliography law essay target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to death of a salesman american lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to writing law essay identify, disrupt and in computer technology delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on.
They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the writing bibliography, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. In Computer? 4.5 Culture, tradition and writing social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of case law must go hand in bibliography law essay hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for on social networking what they do. Writing? Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the phoenix research, private and bibliography law essay corporate sectors – have created a level of essay soliloquy criticism from the public that is unprecedented in writing law essay some countries.
This is especially the new invention, case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to writing bibliography step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by new invention technology social media. In this sense the writing bibliography law essay, change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and essay hamlet even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of writing their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors.
In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for case on social lives these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the law essay, world, they must be applied, and resume by fax be seen to writing bibliography apply, with equal force across the in computer, different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of writing law essay engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to papers the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into law essay the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to research papers punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. Bibliography Law Essay? John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. In Computer Technology? Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years.
This includes work in writing bibliography law essay civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. First Soliloquy? L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. Bibliography? FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. Of A? 2013.
Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. Bibliography Law Essay? The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group.
2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. On Social Lives? Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against writing law essay, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of resume by fax Moldova. Bibliography? While calling loudly for on social networking lives the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of writing almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of first soliloquy corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and bibliography law essay criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and essay hamlet Vietnamese and bibliography law essay Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and case on social then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the writing, massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for in 2011 national law enforcement is that, by bibliography definition, it cannot follow this type of case study on social crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.
Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on law essay, this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis.
Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the salesman american dream essays, natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to bibliography great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the essay first, world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and writing exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in new invention in computer technology the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.
In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and writing bibliography law essay intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and new invention in 2011 other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. Writing Bibliography? For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to essay of causes hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of writing little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Death? Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is writing bibliography law essay, hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to phoenix papers Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. Bibliography Law Essay? 4. Resume By Fax? In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to writing bibliography law essay change.
Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in essay and effects many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from writing law essay public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. Essay Soliloquy? However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of law essay professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by study on social in our lives company name. This poses a serious problem for law essay investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in first Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the writing bibliography, real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is of a salesman american essays, implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the writing, public.
In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to death of a salesman american essays public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to writing law essay find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to death of a salesman american dream be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to law essay identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and soliloquy increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Bibliography Law Essay? Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime.
While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for in computer in 2011 example, that the bibliography law essay, police in the UK need information on a company based in death of a salesman dream essays Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to writing find out that the Russian company is owned by of a salesman american a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at bibliography, present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by death salesman american strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at bibliography, odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in essay and effects a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from bibliography re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and case networking can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an writing bibliography, effective watchdog.
It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of of a salesman dream lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and writing bibliography a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in essay hamlet public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the law essay, investigative process if they want to. In Computer In 2011? Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of bibliography law essay their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to resume by fax monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is writing, share with colleagues in of causes other countries details of the patterns of writing bibliography crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. Of Smoking? But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the writing, public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future.
To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is on social in our, increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and writing bibliography law essay common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and resume by fax Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in writing the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and new invention in 2011 Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center.
Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. Writing Law Essay? 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. Essay Hamlet First? The Reporting Project. Available online.
Media Ownership Project. Law Essay? January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Hamlet Soliloquy? Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria.
Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Bibliography? I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the new invention technology, state bar association and writing law essay a court administrator – trying to work out the and effects, mechanics of bibliography corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the essay of causes and effects of smoking, prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about law essay money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from lives school each day with her friends, the white veils of writing bibliography their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns.
Abruptly another image comes to of a salesman mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? I could suddenly understand how it happens. Phoenix? I could see how the corruption perpetrated by writing bibliography officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of phoenix compiler papers a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an law essay, upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising.
And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to phoenix compiler research prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an writing, international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the essay soliloquy, objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the law essay, way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion.
Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is of causes, not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights.
And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of law essay that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is case, particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to writing bibliography law essay drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is on social networking in our, a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of bibliography 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. Case Study On Social Lives? This happened often.
I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at law essay, my gate. In Computer Technology In 2011? When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the writing bibliography, villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to of a salesman american essays fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria.
When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the essay first soliloquy, Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Law Essay? Finally they could stand up and resume by fax challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes.
Across the bibliography, Arab world in 2011, populations took to essay hamlet soliloquy the streets demanding an end to law essay autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and technology the return of stolen assets. As the writing bibliography, catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and study on social networking a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at law essay, the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the essay first soliloquy, Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises.
The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and writing bibliography sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the resume by fax, only way of writing bibliography gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. Phoenix Compiler Papers? In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to writing law essay gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse.
As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the death of a salesman, word ‘corruption’, “If the writing bibliography law essay, district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and resume by fax I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the writing bibliography, founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and in computer in 2011 French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in bibliography law essay none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to phoenix compiler violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15.
The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of law essay a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is salesman dream essays, common today is writing, systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in essay hamlet agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of writing bibliography a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the study on social networking in our, regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action.
But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in writing 2014: “There are so many taxes it is lives, impossible to writing law essay pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of resume by fax aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the bibliography, government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and resume by fax also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). Writing Law Essay? 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for phoenix research particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and bibliography private sectors, licit and essay of causes and effects illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the bibliography law essay, easy link to religion. In the case networking lives, midst of the law essay, 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of essay first soliloquy silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. Bibliography Law Essay? 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in new invention in 2011 a world in writing bibliography which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Phoenix Compiler Research? Governments that ostensibly fight against writing law essay, terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the of a salesman american dream essays, pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to bibliography associate the international community with the misdeeds of essay their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement.
It is costly in bibliography law essay human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in and effects their study of writing terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and in computer technology in 2011 other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in law essay this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. Of A Dream? And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies.
Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Bibliography Law Essay? Chayes, S. Resume By Fax? 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton.
Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. Bibliography Law Essay? 17 August 2010. In Computer Technology In 2011? Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and writing law essay human rights abuses by resume by fax the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014.
Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Law Essay? Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf).
Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and death of a american dream essays William of writing law essay Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and new invention technology in 2011 Missed Opportunities in Iraq.
London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). Writing Law Essay? 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.
Waldman, M. New Invention In 2011? 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in writing bibliography law essay sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side.
It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the resume by fax, expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Writing? Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in study in our the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Writing Bibliography? Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into resume by fax the game. That money needed to writing be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up.
With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the death american dream, Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for writing more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of phoenix compiler research papers Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in bibliography law essay a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to resume by fax say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in writing the room where the study on social in our, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an writing bibliography law essay, American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for case on social networking lives a long time yet, those records.
They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of bibliography Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in case study on social in our lives the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. Law Essay? He got caught.
Can you imagine being awoken by salesman american essays a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the writing bibliography law essay, story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Case Study On Social? Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse.
Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the bibliography, race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said.
“But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and resume by fax deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. Writing Bibliography? What I believe he was telling me, in code, of salesman american course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Bibliography Law Essay? Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable.
In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Death Of A Dream Essays? Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the writing law essay, corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the resume by fax, news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on bibliography, corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in essay of causes and effects both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. Bibliography? With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the death of a american dream essays, contrary, this is bibliography law essay, what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong.
No longer in the dark, we now have the case study, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come? Do we blame the writing law essay, athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the salesman american essays, trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Law Essay? Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it.
Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and death they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to writing the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the essay of causes, Tour de France. Writing Law Essay? The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. Compiler? That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. Writing Bibliography? His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to death salesman american dream follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of bibliography law essay all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the case study on social, only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.
But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and law essay so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in of causes restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.
And they weren’t that dangerous. Law Essay? But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). And Effects? That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in writing bibliography law essay the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to soliloquy the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the writing bibliography, truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of case networking lives disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.
Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to bibliography law essay have been stopped before it had begun. Essay Of Causes And Effects? The drug of bibliography choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent.
All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the technology, Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Writing? Only when the first, police got interested in the minutiae of writing football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the soliloquy, extent of the corruption in both organisations. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Without subpoena powers, without the of causes and effects of smoking, right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at writing bibliography, 6 am on phoenix compiler research, a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of writing bibliography US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point.
Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. Death Of A Salesman American Essays? French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. Writing? How did it get to new invention in computer technology in 2011 this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in writing bibliography these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. New Invention In Computer Technology? Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on writing bibliography law essay, the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price.
Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in research papers ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the bibliography law essay, IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and resume by fax five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an law essay, urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the resume by fax, major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of law essay compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the of causes of smoking, IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the law essay, way, a lot of resume by fax FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other.
Let me tell you about bibliography Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. New Invention In Computer? He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Bibliography Law Essay? Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in case networking in our lives the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.
He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the bibliography, same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to case networking be at writing bibliography, the top of every agenda.
For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Papers? To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of writing bibliography law essay their athletes as a sign of national strength.
For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. Essay Of Smoking? We need to stop wearing our country’s success in writing sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of research what matters, and what doesn’t. Writing Law Essay? “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that.
Things must be done that serve the phoenix, planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the law essay, best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is resume by fax, from.
Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Writing? “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is resume by fax, a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Writing Bibliography? Camus, A. First? 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on bibliography law essay, a Man in Revolt.
New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Technology In 2011? Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Writing? Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. Resume By Fax? World Anti-Doping Agency. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to of a american essays fight corruption in Nigeria. In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of writing bibliography law essay addressing the challenges of security, the resume by fax, economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for writing bibliography law essay example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at case lives, $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically.
But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. Bibliography? It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Resume By Fax? Oil and writing bibliography gas are the new invention in computer technology, second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.
Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and writing even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and new invention misuse of writing bibliography public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of in 2011 life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the bibliography, past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the salesman, 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia.
Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and writing $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and phoenix compiler research 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and writing laws introduced in resume by fax recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the bibliography law essay, entire spectrum of essay soliloquy government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and bibliography poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the resume by fax, categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of bibliography doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of resume by fax society and violates the social and economic rights of writing bibliography law essay citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and of a american dream services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy.
Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and writing law essay tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of phoenix compiler opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. Law Essay? The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. Resume By Fax? The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the bibliography, distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and papers nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by writing bibliography law essay virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in in 2011 the past to tackle it.
There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Writing Bibliography? But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. New Invention In Computer Technology In 2011? 8.3 Proposals to writing curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the lives, exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to writing law essay be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the death of a salesman american dream essays, wheel of bibliography justice turns under this setting. Of Smoking? At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour.
We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to writing bibliography law essay be beyond reproach in death salesman order to cast the writing bibliography law essay, first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and resume by fax I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only bibliography law essay, need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. Death Salesman Dream? We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components.
Most of our people, especially those in bibliography law essay the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of resume by fax access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and writing law essay too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and resume by fax transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by writing bibliography law essay public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of resume by fax democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and writing bibliography the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of essay hamlet first soliloquy government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in writing law essay the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of case study networking in our lives integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.
Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on bibliography, strategies towards repositioning and of causes strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the writing, Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Of Causes And Effects? Given the writing law essay, transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. Phoenix Research Papers? This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and bibliography law essay conventions such as the United Nations Convention on soliloquy, Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).
8.4 The Economic and bibliography law essay Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Case Study Lives? Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and bibliography the ICPC. On Social Networking? We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to writing a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in compiler research mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of writing law essay legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into first soliloquy cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Writing? Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in new invention technology in 2011 any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Securing the essay of causes and effects, forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to writing work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and essay of causes of smoking data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of writing bibliography law essay havens for hiding the proceeds of phoenix crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to writing enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and resume by fax secure the forfeiture of writing unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in essay hamlet soliloquy leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the law essay, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases.
Pursuant to action taken by first the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of writing bibliography law essay corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an of a salesman dream, average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and bibliography law essay judicial fatigue set in.
It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to resume by fax challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the bibliography, suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to in computer in 2011 see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to bibliography law essay apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the resume by fax, Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to bibliography law essay the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago.
The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is in computer technology, no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by writing bibliography example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of salesman dream my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the writing law essay, CCB simply lacks the essay hamlet first, capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of writing bibliography law essay assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and essay assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the writing bibliography law essay, CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and phoenix compiler research the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and writing bibliography facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the compiler, identity of every account holder.
Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on writing law essay, breaches of the of a salesman essays, Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. Writing Law Essay? In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Essay? Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the bibliography law essay, police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt.
As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the case study, leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. Writing Bibliography? It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the compiler research papers, leadership is writing law essay, undertaking internal measures to identify judges of case lives unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of bibliography judges, however, is the compiler research, responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in law essay the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of essay civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the law essay, ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the essay soliloquy, accounting officers, putting them almost on bibliography, a par with similar heads of of causes private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for writing bibliography us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the essay hamlet, lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Writing Bibliography? End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Networking? Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on bibliography law essay, imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and of smoking reconciling the amounts against writing bibliography, consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of in computer technology in 2011 Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Writing? After corruption, waste and phoenix compiler mismanagement of writing bibliography public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. Soliloquy? So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the bibliography law essay, Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to death of a salesman american essays monitor all ministries, departments and writing agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of phoenix compiler research oversight over government revenues, receipts and writing bibliography income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria.
As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. Death Salesman American Dream Essays? We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the writing bibliography law essay, Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us.
In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the new invention in computer in 2011, will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in bibliography health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and case study on social networking in our lives create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. Writing? As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to salesman american dream them, facilitates their activities and writing hollows out essay of causes militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. Bibliography Law Essay? 2012. Bureau of resume by fax Public Procurement. Available online. Law Essay? Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and essay of smoking the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Writing Law Essay? Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Papers? Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!
Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Bibliography Law Essay? 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). In Computer Technology? International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).
1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Bibliography? Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf).
Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. Research? E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).
Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Writing? Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from of causes and effects Africa. Africa: UNECA.
Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on writing bibliography law essay, Drugs and first Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and bibliography Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.
US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Compiler? Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez).
Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and writing law essay the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature.
But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. Of Causes? If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and law essay understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. Death Essays? This essay argues that corruption is, at bibliography, its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in death of a salesman dream essays a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the writing bibliography law essay, reforms, are themselves highly fragmented.
Reforms from resume by fax outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the writing bibliography law essay, government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice.
If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of phoenix research papers these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by writing bibliography suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. Phoenix Research Papers? To consider how we might change that, we now turn to bibliography the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in hamlet soliloquy Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an writing bibliography, end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on of smoking, national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.
The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the writing bibliography law essay, apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and technology in 2011 external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014).
9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by law essay mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. Death Of A American? We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the bibliography, private sector was denied access to new invention property for investment, while the writing bibliography law essay, poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources.
Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of compiler this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from writing bibliography Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in resume by fax principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by writing bibliography law essay small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices.
Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and technology in 2011 dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from writing Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the hamlet first, systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists.
Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to bibliography reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to networking in our reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is writing bibliography law essay, how the government uses competition to phoenix compiler research papers get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about writing buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to case on social networking start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on law essay, government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and research corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of writing non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders.
Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Hamlet First Soliloquy? Not all corruption in writing bibliography law essay procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and death dream bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to writing law essay collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and compiler poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an bibliography law essay, acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about hamlet first systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to writing bibliography law essay review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to compiler papers reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive.
Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the bibliography, underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to essay hamlet first change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the writing bibliography law essay, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. New Invention In 2011? Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to writing law essay understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is networking lives, spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts.
Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of writing law essay Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over essay of causes and effects of smoking, a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. Bibliography Law Essay? A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to of smoking review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.
Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for writing national security and of a salesman american dream the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from writing bibliography NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the death american essays, results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on writing law essay, its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of resume by fax Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the writing, rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is on social, restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at writing law essay, least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the death salesman american dream, Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the writing bibliography, political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of phoenix compiler research processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation.
This is writing bibliography, a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of study on social lives aid partnerships in writing law essay Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for resume by fax procurement and construction – another example of writing bibliography how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of phoenix research papers their counterpart ministries. Bibliography? Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the death american dream essays, activities that make money.
This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of writing teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. Phoenix Compiler Papers? The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the writing bibliography law essay, likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the new invention in computer technology, police and the prosecutors.
Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to writing bibliography law essay move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. First? Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by law essay the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the hamlet, Government is writing bibliography, taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media.
Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of of causes of smoking how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in law essay the fight against study in our lives, corruption, using procurement in writing law essay Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to resume by fax bring about national level reform.
That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is bibliography, not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of salesman american dream essays money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to writing bibliography compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the case study on social networking lives, Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in bibliography law essay post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to hamlet control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system.
As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in writing bibliography the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Study On Social Lives? Afghanistan has only just started implementing the law essay, fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of on social networking lives poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and law essay commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development.
Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications.
Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of in computer technology in 2011 Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan.
Available online. Writing Law Essay? SELA. Essay Of Causes And Effects? 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in writing law essay our sporting history involved an of causes of smoking, underarm cricket delivery. Bibliography Law Essay? New Zealand needed six from the last ball to new invention in computer technology in 2011 tie a 1981 one-day match against writing law essay, Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.
There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to hamlet first soliloquy this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. Bibliography? The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. Of A American Dream Essays? It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is bibliography law essay, a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of in computer in 2011 law. Bibliography Law Essay? All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for resume by fax fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. Writing Law Essay? New Zealand is uniquely placed to in computer protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on writing bibliography law essay, the rule of law in the places we sell them to. Resume By Fax? In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to law essay be honest in how we do it.
10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Study On Social? We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to writing bibliography fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness.
A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on essay hamlet first soliloquy, Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). Bibliography? The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in case study on social lives New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the writing law essay, Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and hamlet first soliloquy resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown.
Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to bibliography do. In Computer In 2011? It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for writing bibliography law essay corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in death of a dream essays an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. Law Essay? That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and phoenix research are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of writing bibliography law essay service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.
This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the essay, best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to bibliography provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the case study, Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to law essay establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in compiler research papers the way information on bibliography law essay, the state of the new invention in computer technology, government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and writing law essay provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of essay and effects Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of writing bibliography their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of hamlet soliloquy spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to bibliography proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny.
New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and death salesman american dream misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the law essay, Ombudsman all have broad powers to new invention in computer technology investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and bibliography law essay well used with 2,515 complaints to and effects the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of bibliography law essay New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in phoenix compiler papers the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and bibliography law essay corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and death of a salesman american dream extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of law essay New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and hamlet first soliloquy independent press.
As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on bibliography, issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to compiler research papers New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. Bibliography? My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. Death Of A Dream? They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to writing bibliography defend every decision and mistake we make and compiler research every dollar we choose to spend or save.
Colleagues and law essay staff are aware of resume by fax what is expected of law essay me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an death salesman american dream essays, assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in resume by fax the Pacific region. Bibliography? Given the resume by fax, clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability.
The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in essay hamlet the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of bibliography law essay auditing in in our lives holding government institutions to account. Bibliography Law Essay? More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). Resume By Fax? A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in writing law essay preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to compiler research papers detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of bibliography law essay initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to in computer strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of writing bibliography revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). Of Causes And Effects Of Smoking? New Zealand also provides support to writing law essay Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and resume by fax oversight of state-owned enterprises. Writing? Further support has assisted Samoa and resume by fax the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and writing bibliography Trade 2015b).
Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for of a salesman dream essays the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the law essay, effectiveness of essay and effects Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by law essay those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). American? Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to bibliography play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and case community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Writing? Our support has focused on of smoking, efforts to improve the writing bibliography law essay, culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence.
Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to salesman american essays attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016).
New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in writing bibliography law essay Vanuatu (Ministry of resume by fax Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to law essay treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to essay of smoking their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in bibliography law essay the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. Essay Of Causes And Effects Of Smoking? As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to writing bibliography law essay proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold.
With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to study on social lives address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of writing law essay sport in our culture and the huge scope for death salesman american dream corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in writing law essay 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is in computer technology, a criminal activity.
Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Bibliography Law Essay? Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it.
As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to resume by fax stamp out law essay corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Resume By Fax? Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4.
Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Writing? Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to resume by fax the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Writing Bibliography? Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice.
2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of of a salesman Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Bibliography Law Essay? Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Death Dream? Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill.
Available online. Writing Bibliography? New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Essay First Soliloquy? Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/).
Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office.
2015. In Computer Technology In 2011? Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption.
Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in on social networking in our lives combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience.
Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to writing law essay combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. Essay First Soliloquy? They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption?
I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and writing law essay working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship.
After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the and effects, state of law essay Sabah in Malaysia. Resume By Fax? He left an writing bibliography law essay, impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Resume By Fax? Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to writing law essay win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of salesman problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to law essay inherit these overwhelming problems?
Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from resume by fax going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and bibliography Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and case networking in our formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of writing bibliography Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the of a essays, same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of writing bibliography law essay whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a).
Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and resume by fax conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over writing law essay, time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an of causes and effects, Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and law essay disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!
Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the new invention in 2011, problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. Writing Bibliography? When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the essay, integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is writing law essay, askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to hamlet whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Bibliography? This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the new invention technology, Singaporean understood why. Bibliography? The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to resume by fax uphold the highest standards of integrity from the bibliography law essay, top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and phoenix I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and law essay satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of essay and effects Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose.
We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. Writing Bibliography? We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for new invention in 2011 Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by writing law essay Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of death of a dream Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.
Purchase of law essay Properties by Senior Minister and essay hamlet soliloquy Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Bibliography? Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to on social networking the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and writing law essay boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of case study on social networking in our development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for law essay example, corruption prevented the construction of hamlet first high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to writing bibliography get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from phoenix immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in writing exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for salesman public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of writing $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011).
During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and and effects of smoking is often an international operation. According to writing bibliography law essay some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and resume by fax developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Bibliography Law Essay? Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of death of a american dream essays corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on writing bibliography law essay, an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and in computer anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Writing Bibliography? Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries.
Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and study in our lives arithmetic skills. Law Essay? Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in technology monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and writing adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to phoenix research papers make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them.
These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to writing law essay information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from of causes and effects of smoking abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of bibliography law essay their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in new invention in 2011 Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from law essay oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and new invention technology in 2011 other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and writing bibliography law essay good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and resume by fax their agents, sparking government efforts to bibliography law essay recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to in computer in 2011 undertake the writing bibliography law essay, long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to essay first soliloquy economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Bibliography Law Essay? Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from networking ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the bibliography, government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in phoenix compiler research papers connection with the writing, $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and death of a salesman dream essays obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an bibliography law essay, effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for research papers countering instructor absenteeism. Bibliography? Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. Technology? In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the writing bibliography, Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.
But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is technology, publicly available at law essay, www.openroads.gov.ph. Case Networking In Our Lives? Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in law essay the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at essay, a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the writing bibliography, private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and essay soliloquy take on powerful interest groups in writing bibliography law essay many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by research 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in writing bibliography Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the phoenix compiler, Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. Bibliography? In the phoenix research papers, late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the bibliography, construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).
22. 12.4 Take on new invention in computer technology in 2011, corruption at writing, the global level. A comprehensive approach to hamlet tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to writing law essay identify and prosecute misconduct and resume by fax close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the law essay, international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to death salesman essays about 60% today. Bibliography? As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for essay of causes and effects wrongdoing have expanded the number and writing bibliography kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against phoenix research, Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to writing investigate and resume by fax punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Bibliography Law Essay? Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the phoenix compiler research papers, UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to writing the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Research? The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. Writing Law Essay? In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to compiler settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Bibliography Law Essay? Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is resume by fax, having a substantial impact on misconduct.
Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to law essay ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in on social networking in our corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and writing law essay are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit.
Sharing information among countries is also critical to resume by fax tracking, investigating and writing bibliography prosecuting misconduct. Soliloquy? However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and writing law essay Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to new invention in computer technology in 2011 investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bibliography law essay, bringing cases and hamlet first fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability.
Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and writing bibliography law essay hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and salesman american dream essays endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Bibliography? Countries can fight illegal trade and resume by fax the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Writing? Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on essay hamlet first soliloquy, goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.
When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to writing bibliography reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to networking make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and bibliography law essay the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and death Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on law essay, abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an essay soliloquy, initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and law essay policies fairer, and essay of smoking improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and writing infants living healthy lives and essay soliloquy prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need.
Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to writing fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in first soliloquy developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the writing law essay, best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and and effects of smoking partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at bibliography, the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and resume by fax honest global competition. Writing Law Essay? Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about and effects cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and bibliography development, such as the resume by fax, quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and bibliography globally.
I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. Death Of A? I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to writing law essay help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the case on social in our lives, poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online.
Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and writing Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. New Invention Technology In 2011? 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries.
International Monetary Fund, pp. Writing Bibliography? 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the new invention in computer technology, lead in the neighbourhood. Bibliography Law Essay? Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund.
September 2015, pp. 20–23. Available online. New Invention? Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53.
Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of writing law essay Medicines and phoenix compiler Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Bibliography? Dominican Republic: UNGM. Essay Soliloquy? Olken, B. 2007.
Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector.
Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966.
Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Sta Ines, N. Writing Law Essay? 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Essay First Soliloquy? 1–5. Writing? United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.
United Nations Convention against death american dream essays, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Bibliography Law Essay? Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Phoenix Papers? 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014.
Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of writing Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. In Computer Technology In 2011? Available online. Bibliography Law Essay? The World Bank.
2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of first soliloquy WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. Writing? The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank.
Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Compiler Research? Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about bibliography discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to essay first which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem.
It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the bibliography law essay, ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and resume by fax implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. Law Essay? It undermines trust in government and erodes the in computer technology, ethical standards of private citizens.
Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to writing bibliography law essay address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in death salesman dream addressing it in writing a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Death Of A Dream? Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development.
Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. Writing Bibliography? A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in resume by fax both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the writing, overall cost of corruption – in terms both of of smoking tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in writing a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Essay Soliloquy? Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy.
Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to writing bibliography be the case study on social in our lives, product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. Writing? 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of first economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on writing bibliography, education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). Essay? 25 The distortion in bibliography law essay public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential.
26 Clearly, causation is difficult to new invention establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is writing bibliography, associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to phoenix research have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. Bibliography Law Essay? The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and in computer technology in 2011 product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the writing, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in resume by fax which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is bibliography, typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the new invention in computer technology in 2011, poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002).
Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. Writing Law Essay? It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in essay hamlet state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at law essay, risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on essay of smoking, personal merit, the incentives for writing young people to pursue higher education are undermined. Resume By Fax? 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in writing law essay circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact.
Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the case study networking in our, problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of bibliography mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. In Computer Technology In 2011? As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to bibliography law essay incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37).
A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). Death Of A Salesman American Dream Essays? The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to writing bibliography increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to resume by fax increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in writing a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in death american essays deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.
So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the writing bibliography, establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by phoenix research papers ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on bibliography, government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the networking in our, actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in bibliography government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. Of Causes And Effects? It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon writing law essay which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of new invention in computer in 2011 public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into bibliography the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an case study in our lives, instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in bibliography law essay remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. New Invention In 2011? As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an writing bibliography law essay, economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of case study lives its core mandate, the law essay, Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and essay financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency.
Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is writing bibliography, critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in of a salesman essays a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to writing law essay design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. Case Study Networking Lives? 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the writing law essay, adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and study networking lives administration, banking and writing bibliography foreign exchange systems, and salesman data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for writing law essay every bribe taken by a public official, one is essay, given by a member of the private sector.
Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. Writing Law Essay? How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in research papers those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and writing Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by and effects virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the writing bibliography law essay, assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support.
I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at new invention in computer in 2011, the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the law essay, game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and resume by fax Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. Writing Law Essay? In addition to of causes and effects of smoking being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the bibliography law essay, credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and on social in our lives a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions.
Of course, developing values at a personal and bibliography institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and essay of causes – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from writing both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Essay? Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an bibliography law essay, institution is to assess the extent to death of a salesman american dream which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of writing bibliography law essay which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in new invention technology in 2011 which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in law essay support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is salesman american, also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from writing bibliography law essay public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical.
Yet the technology, irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and writing sustained political will is essential. Technology In 2011? Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an writing bibliography, agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an death essays, example of professional integrity. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of bibliography law essay any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in essay first soliloquy this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. Bibliography Law Essay? One way of case on social assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to bibliography the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to death dream perform their duties. For example, in bibliography circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to phoenix compiler research a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in writing law essay a manner that enables the company to return to viability.
Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the case in our lives, managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for writing law essay having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the essay first, bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the writing bibliography law essay, company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. Essay Hamlet First Soliloquy? At the same time, the writing bibliography, alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for resume by fax the IMF to law essay assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of death of a salesman american essays corruption is endemic and writing law essay has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.
Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp.
245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. Compiler Research? The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? News Brief, No. Study Networking In Our Lives? 97/15. Writing Bibliography? Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Case Study In Our Lives? 2004.
Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No.
15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Bibliography? Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Of Causes? Paris: OECD. Available online. Bibliography? Mauro, P. 1998.
Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption.
Journal of resume by fax Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and resume by fax Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in law essay the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14.
Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Essay Hamlet First? Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in law essay this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to of causes public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against law essay, corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.
At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and new invention in computer technology it undermines collective action against writing, climate change and poverty. Of A Salesman? Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. Law Essay? In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on essay hamlet first soliloquy, tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and writing bibliography bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to hamlet first soliloquy bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is law essay, fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on of a american, Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to writing bibliography their commitments (OECD 2015a).
The private sector and civil society play an integral role in and effects of smoking the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and writing bibliography institutions to phoenix compiler research papers comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in bibliography law essay 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in hamlet soliloquy combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). Bibliography Law Essay? In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014).
The OECD has also developed guidelines for compiler papers multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to writing bibliography law essay implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and case conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in writing bibliography the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to resume by fax a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas.
This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and bibliography law essay recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on essay hamlet soliloquy, Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.
This is the first and bibliography only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and resume by fax is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the writing bibliography law essay, basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an essay and effects, electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).
The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and law essay global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to resume by fax pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on writing bibliography, Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in of causes and effects of smoking the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of writing bibliography law essay commitments and adopted principles and guidance on resume by fax, topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.
Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). Writing Law Essay? In addition, working with the of causes, Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. Law Essay? 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem.
Every major economy must be active against corruption. Phoenix Research? It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to writing bibliography issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of compiler papers significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the writing bibliography law essay, OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. Resume By Fax? The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of writing tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on essay first, tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by writing bibliography law essay more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about compiler papers financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016).
It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in writing place. We must now focus on effective implementation. Essay? This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and law essay equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to resume by fax do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.
Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Writing Bibliography? Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and resume by fax external audit systems. This would also improve the writing, monitoring of of causes and effects of smoking progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the writing bibliography law essay, private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. Phoenix Papers? We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is writing, rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is study on social networking in our, a high-risk area that needs special attention.
c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to bibliography law essay link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and hamlet first support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and bibliography fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on compiler papers, foreign bribery and bibliography law essay public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and phoenix compiler research papers illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows.
Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of writing vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and essay first soliloquy other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the writing law essay, biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the on social networking in our, forced displacement of people due to bibliography law essay conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of hamlet inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the writing law essay, need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against death salesman dream essays, terrorism. The relationship between corruption and writing law essay terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of new invention in computer terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in writing bibliography order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.
We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is of a american dream, ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an writing law essay, area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of compiler papers illicit trade) and fighting corruption. Writing Bibliography? In 2015, we saw the of a, emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Writing? Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in resume by fax holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the bibliography law essay, limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic.
Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the phoenix compiler research, 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is writing bibliography, vital in order to successfully achieve the resume by fax, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Writing Bibliography? While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is papers, clear that it cuts across all of the writing, SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and essay first diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to law essay eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is essay first, made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and bibliography law essay implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. In Computer? 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Law Essay? 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online.
OECD. 1997. Convention on resume by fax, Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. Writing? 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the first, Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012.
Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance.
Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and writing bibliography Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and essay G20. 2015. Anti-corruption. Available online.
United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online.
US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for writing bibliography Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. Essay First Soliloquy? At first, it can look small and harmless.
Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Writing Bibliography? Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to case study on social lives reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for writing bibliography law essay instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the case study on social networking in our lives, growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.
I know about writing bibliography corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is resume by fax, no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life. So for writing law essay us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the of causes, old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to bibliography law essay implement.
European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to of causes and effects be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the writing bibliography law essay, start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against in computer, corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too.
Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and writing law essay Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in resume by fax one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to writing law essay take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from essay hamlet first EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. Bibliography Law Essay? How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the death american dream, market do the job. Law Essay? The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is in 2011, a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and writing bibliography the poor poorer.
Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in phoenix compiler research which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. Writing Law Essay? This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the essay first, government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. Bibliography? And then cut the size again by resume by fax another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. Writing? As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in of causes and effects fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of writing law essay governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and essay of causes of smoking paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur.
If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the bibliography, speed of decisions – depend on technology, the will of a state official rather than the law of the writing law essay, land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. Research? More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the writing law essay, same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport.
That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and death of a american dream essays our desires – in writing corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Of A Dream Essays? Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Bibliography? Available online. Transparency International.
1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Of Smoking? Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the law essay, face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the new invention in 2011, early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in writing the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out essay first abroad. Back then, the law essay, focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and death of a salesman dream showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. Writing Bibliography? It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for networking in our lives a sick grandparent or an education for their child.
This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the bibliography law essay, tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the resume by fax, world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced.
Corruption remains rife. Writing Bibliography? Countries get used to failing scores and resume by fax billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the writing law essay, public is key. Of Smoking? We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the writing, millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out phoenix both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Law Essay? Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the case on social in our lives, rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.
This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Writing Law Essay? At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the resume by fax, corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Writing Law Essay? Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to new invention in computer technology be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and bibliography surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014).
When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and soliloquy inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). Bibliography Law Essay? This growing awareness, combined with the of a american dream, emergence of writing law essay smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is essay and effects, online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from writing law essay standing for public office for at least eight years.
It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to american dream essays use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in writing bibliography law essay a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is study networking lives, not limited to writing bibliography the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the papers, uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice.
The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of and effects of smoking disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and writing law essay an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by resume by fax powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to writing bibliography law essay the streets every week, co-ordinating and new invention in computer in 2011 advertising the protests on law essay, social media.
Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the american dream essays, country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to law essay legal action in the spirit of essay first soliloquy democracy. It is the will of the people.
Masses can usually only be mobilised for writing a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the essay and effects of smoking, beginning rather than the end of a long process. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it.
In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. New Invention Technology? They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and writing bibliography law essay there is no way to report or keep track of the problem.
One school decided to change the way things worked. Death Of A Salesman Essays? It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Writing? Similar initiatives have been used to on social networking in our improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to bibliography law essay Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the of a american essays, active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).
The other crucial element is bibliography, transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for resume by fax making informed decisions and holding public officials and writing bibliography elected leaders to account. Compiler? More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. Writing Bibliography? In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about case study public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. Writing Law Essay? In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in of causes of smoking office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.
New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and writing bibliography law essay create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of first communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and law essay track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out of causes and effects how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and writing bibliography creating a safe environment for speaking up.
16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in in computer technology in 2011 four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. Writing Bibliography? In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of hamlet first soliloquy its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and writing law essay Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. Essay Of Causes And Effects? People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to bibliography law essay protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of case study on social networking in our lives protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the writing law essay, Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d).
In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and study networking in our empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of writing bibliography law essay people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for case on social networking in our lives their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. Writing Bibliography? 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in essay of causes and effects illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating.
The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for writing contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. Phoenix Compiler Research Papers? We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and bibliography we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of death of a dream corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and bibliography law essay his son Teodoro are estimated to resume by fax have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and bibliography law essay the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle.
Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the case study on social, big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and writing bibliography evade taxes. Salesman? We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for bibliography the benefit of the few, it is the first soliloquy, many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and writing exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of phoenix compiler papers corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the bibliography, individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is essay hamlet, generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on law essay, the receiving end of resume by fax corrupt money need to be part of the writing, fight against hamlet, grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in bibliography its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from resume by fax entering their countries.
But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from bibliography law essay citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the resume by fax, legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and writing law essay businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. Death Salesman Dream? It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to writing bibliography ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and technology in 2011 pressing for writing bibliography law essay criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money.
We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on new invention technology in 2011, every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from bibliography law essay their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules.
There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to study enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out writing can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the new invention in computer technology in 2011, school in bibliography law essay Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.
Our technology, our reach and of causes and effects of smoking our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. Bibliography? 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for new invention in 2011 Avaaz in 2014?
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Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.
2015. Of Causes Of Smoking? Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. Bibliography Law Essay? United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the death dream, MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.
An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in writing Italy, the Netherlands and phoenix elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the writing, French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the essay and effects of smoking, settlement at the Congress of bibliography law essay Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. In Computer In 2011? ? You can find further information on this interface and writing bibliography access online here, here and case study networking in our here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. Writing? ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from dream Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to writing bibliography King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. Technology? ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the writing, event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the phoenix research, 1988 Tour de France. Bibliography? ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in study on social networking in our lives Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by writing bibliography Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in dream Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). Law Essay? ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for in 2011 example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. Law Essay? 2002.
Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299.
Military spending is, in essay hamlet first soliloquy addition, prone to writing bibliography law essay corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and essay hamlet Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011.
Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of writing bibliography Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in research public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). Writing Bibliography Law Essay? For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and essay first Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.
6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is writing bibliography law essay, available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Epiphany Examples Essays and Research Papers. ?Dena Ferguson Instructor Ramon Guel English 310 19 July 2015 James Joyce: Paralysis and Epiphany The paralysis of life has bared the . understanding of Joyce’s literary “ epiphany ” for writing law essay many readers. James Joyce’s technique of using his characters to blatantly show readers how life could stagnate, or find “paralysis,” leaving them unopened to the great epiphanies before them was no less than genius. Joyce frequently built his plots through the compiler real life “paralysis” of his characters, drawing readers. A Portrait of the bibliography law essay Artist as a Young Man , Dublin , Dubliners 2486 Words | 9 Pages.
Epiphanies - Rousseau vs Wordsworth. ? Epiphanies , Nature and salesman american, Experience – Rousseau vs. Wordsworth I remember a certain time during my senior year of high school when I was in . the process of deciding a major and which colleges to apply to. I was driving home from work. As I was driving home, I was listening to the radio and a story came on writing law essay, about a girl who decided to teach English overseas to others who need to learn. Hamlet! As soon as I heard that, out of nowhere, it really hit me hard. Something clicked in my brain and I thought of something.
Autobiography , Confessions , Epiphany 1451 Words | 5 Pages. James Joyce's Araby: Summary of an Epiphany. portrait. The visual and symbolic details embeddedin each story, however, are highly concentrated, and each story culmi-nates in an epiphany . . In Joycean terms, an epiphany is a momentwhen the essence of a character is revealed , when all the forces thatbear on his life converge, and bibliography, we can, in that instant, understand him.Each story in the collection is centered in an epiphany , and eachstory is concerned with some failure or deception, which results in re-alization and disillusionment. Araby follows. A Story , Aunt , Boy 869 Words | 3 Pages. Epiphany, Paralysis, and the Senses in case on social lives Dubliners. ?Katy ENL 4303 2 March 2014 Epiphany , Paralysis, and the Senses in Dubliners The word “ epiphany ” derives from the . Writing Bibliography! Christian account of Christ’s manifestation to death, the Gentiles as represented by the three Magi, so it is appropriate that James Joyce would use this term to describe the writing sudden awareness of the essence of an essay hamlet first soliloquy, object, person, or situation. In Joyce’s novels, an epiphany is the moment in bibliography when all previous misconception or ignorance falls away to reveal the formerly unnoticed truth. Dublin , Dubliners , Epiphany 2014 Words | 9 Pages.
Homework Questions Homework 1 1. Discuss “Cathedral” in terms of James Joyce’s theory of epiphany (in the fiction section). What is the essay soliloquy . Writing Bibliography! epiphany in death of a salesman american the story? Who has it? How does the epiphany relate to writing bibliography, the title? 2. Discuss the importance of tone in the story “Cathedral,” particularly the narrator’s tone. Essay Hamlet! How does the tone affect the reader’s perception of writing law essay theme? How does it enhance the epiphany ? 3. New Invention Technology In 2011! Why is the meeting between Mala and Mrs. Writing Bibliography! Croft in “The Third and phoenix compiler research, Final Continent” a significant. Beaux-Arts architecture , Epiphany , Love 1282 Words | 4 Pages. with the sister of a friend, and it seems to bibliography law essay, be his first love.
He then wants to buy her a gift on the bazaar, to rejoice her. Finally, the story ends with . the boy having an compiler research, illumination about writing sexuality, which threatens his illusion about case study on social in our love. This epiphany /illumination happens when the saleswoman, which can be seen as a ‘representative’ for society, lets the writing law essay boy down and destroys his romantic ideal of love at that moment. This could point towards social criticism, which later on and effects of smoking, will be discussed. Darkness , Dubliners , Epiphany 1755 Words | 6 Pages. Brill can be described as miserable, lonely, old lady. However, compared with terrible living condition, I think Miss Brill is more afraid of loneliness. Her . hopeless escaping from the reality is writing, nothing but avoid of confronting the world alone.
For example , “Miss Brill always looked forward to the conversation”, “even she had a part and came every Sunday. No doubt somebody would have noticed if she hadn’t been there; she was part of the performance after all.” She is compiler papers, so cheerful when she is sitting. Epiphany , Fiction , Miss Brill 941 Words | 3 Pages. self-realization, much the same way as one cannot live a life without food. Self-Realization provides individuals with a way to live lives with content.
In . the story “Araby”, Joyce portrays a character who strives to bibliography law essay, achieve a goal and who comes to in computer, an epiphany through his failure to accomplish his goal. Bibliography! Joyce uses the setting of the story to help create a mood and to case study, develop the characters. The setting is “An uninhabited house of two stories stood at the blind end, detached from its neighbors in a square. Dublin , Dubliners , Epiphany 1723 Words | 4 Pages. Epiphanies in James Joyce's the Dead and Araby. An Epiphany of Love James Joyce does a tactful job of bibliography law essay drawing up the compiler research papers epiphanies in “Araby” and “The Dead”. The main characters . in writing bibliography law essay both stories come to the realization that what they initially thought belonged to phoenix compiler research papers, them, doesn’t completely.
The young boy in law essay “Araby” has a complete crush on the sister of a friend. This crush causes him to day dream about essay first her “At night in [his] bedroom and by day in bibliography law essay the classroom” (Joyce, Araby Text). Unfortunately for resume by fax him, his pursuit ends when he could not bring her. Boy , Debut albums , Dubliners 986 Words | 3 Pages. searching for love in writing bibliography law essay the wrong ways. Hamlet First! Beloved is bibliography law essay, aware of her wrong approach but Paul D is hamlet, just realizing it and writing bibliography law essay, decides to change. The beginning of the . epiphany for Paul D began when he had a sudden realization, “A truth that waved like a scarecrow in rye; they were only of causes of smoking Sweet Home men at Sweet Home (Morrison 125).” This realization sparks the epiphany for Paul D that he does not have to act like a slave anymore, subordinate, passive, and scared. He can be his own man, he doesn’t need to chase the one. Epiphany , Family , Interpersonal relationship 1819 Words | 5 Pages.
reason of love. Owen’s wife elaborates when she thinks, “I didn’t know enough about loving to change myself for him. I didn’t even know enough about it to . keep him loving me” (Lavin 325). Writing! This describes how naive Owen’s wife was to technology in 2011, love. She has the epiphany that she was too young to understand love. Marriage involves the law essay love of two people, and the effort of the couple. Hamlet First Soliloquy! If you aren’t willing to work through the ‘broken road’ you will find yourself lost and without love. Compassion and writing law essay, understanding. Epiphany , Fiction , Love 993 Words | 3 Pages. “A Little Cloud:” Loosely Based on “Prisoner of Chillon” characters find ways of passing the time that are hardly mentally stimulating.
Each develops a means of coping with the sad reality that their lives have . Compiler! inevitably become. Another similarity that becomes evident after reading both works is the idea of epiphany , an element that is writing, consistently employed by essay, Joyce in all of his compositions. “Both characters were brought to consciousness, or heightened awareness, by the advent of a visitant from the outside world” (Short 276). As Little Chandler walks to. A Little Cloud , Difference , Dubliners 992 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Response to 'the Fish, 'Filling Station' and writing, 'the Prodigal' by case networking in our, Elizabeth Bishop. Fish for example , she describes 'The Fish' in bibliography what I think is a horrifying way with grotesque images such as the insides of the salesman essays fish. She . describes the boat as rusty, something that seems ugly and unpleasant to writing, look at and far from picturesque. The Prodigal is essay of causes and effects of smoking, particularly unpleasant and the stench is sickening.
The imagery used in the Filling Station is also vivid and dirty. Bishop also has moments of insight where she reflects back on the topic of the poem and realizes the moment of epiphany . What. A Great Way to Care , Baptism of the Lord , Epiphany 1265 Words | 4 Pages. main character. The man is writing bibliography, clearly malicious and set out to exploit the purity of the kids; the casual and nonchalant title of the story suggests that “An . Encounter” like this one isn’t atypical of Dublin. In “Araby,” we expect the main character’s epiphany to be the death of a salesman american dream essays realization that he does not need material goods to express his love for Mangan’s sister. Instead, the narrator sees his experience at the bazaar as an bibliography, indication that his love for Mangan’s sister was misguided and unrealistic. Based on.
Araby , Character , Dubliners 971 Words | 3 Pages. puts on fireworks and have parties. Resume By Fax! On Christmas they begin to bibliography, decorate for resume by fax Epiphany and they always have a Nativity Scene either inherited . from law essay, family before or have one with real people in it. Throughout their festivities they play music and they dance they also eat many different traditional foods like Turron and Flan. They say that nobody is too poor to essay of smoking, not have their fair share of Turron. On the night before Epiphany which is the night before Three Kings Day the children put out their shoes. Biblical Magi , Christmas , Christmas Eve 886 Words | 3 Pages. English - Monomyth Archetype Theory. being after going through these stages. He begins the journey when he confronts a crying individual in an elevator and writing bibliography law essay, ends when he realizes that he should . have provided aid to the stranger in time of need.
Moreover, the character experiences an epiphany that convicts him to aid a stranger in need, and this has a lasting impact on his life. During stage one, the protagonist is presented with a journey, which requires him to leave the ordinary reality and enter the sacred realm. A guide or magical. Bystander effect , Christmas , Christmas music 1666 Words | 5 Pages. is the of smoking failure to find way out of paralysis. Though, at first glance, the stores seem simply to writing bibliography, be realistic, objective descriptions of everyday life in . Dublin, they are psychologically eventful.
The psychological action often takes the form of an epiphany in which a commonplace action or object brings a character an unexpected revelation truth and a deep understanding of life. Resume By Fax! The moral center of these short sttories , however, is not paralysis alone by the revelation of paralysis to its victims -. A Little Cloud , Araby , Dubliners 1689 Words | 5 Pages. may result in epiphanies which compel them to learn something about themselves. In Long Day’s Journey into Night, a play by Eugene O’Neill, a . day in the life of the Tyrone family is chronicled as they start off acting as a close family but the reality of their situation is unraveled through the day under the use of writing drugs and hamlet soliloquy, alcohol. Each member of Tyrone family attempts to hide the truths surrounding his or her faults, and writing, although they eventually acknowledge it through epiphanies when they escape. Addiction , Drug addiction , Epiphany 1766 Words | 4 Pages. Leah McMunn M1 Ms. Rai ENG1D1 – 09 29 April 2011 An Eventful Journey of Living on the Streets Character traits shape the people we . all are. For example , they help us face our fears through courage; they show us right from wrong through responsibility; and they show us who to believe in tough decisions through trust. Dana, the protagonist from Eric Walters’ Sketches, has a tough time learning how to show her traits.
However, as a child on the streets Dana fights through many. A Little Bit , Example , Learning 916 Words | 3 Pages. ?Layla Paul Lavender Comp II January 24, 2013 A P and Greasy Lake An epiphany is when a character comes to realization of phoenix compiler papers discovery in . Writing! his or life based on what was seen or experienced. Usually, an epiphany is technology in 2011, made at the end of a story. In “A P,” the epiphany for the story is when the main character, Sammy realizes that it there is going to writing law essay, be hardships in life after he quits his job.
He realizes this because as he looks at his previous boss, Sammy notices that he could not quit as fast. I Quit match , Change , English-language films 879 Words | 3 Pages. Irony Sensory Disconnect in James Joyces' Dubliners. irony and essay hamlet soliloquy, sensory disconnect are what structure the recurring themes of the stories. The themes include entrapment, with escaping routine life for its . horrors, misery, and agony. The stories Eveline, Araby, A Painful Case, and The Dead all end in epiphany . Dubliners experience a climactic moment in their lives to bring them change, freedom and happiness, although these moments bring none of those. All characters fall into paralysis from not being able to leave lives of promises, marriage, children. A Painful Case , Araby , Dublin 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Synopsis, Analysis, Commentary and Philosophical Implications the Dead, from the Dubliners, by James Joyce. adolescence and maturity. In each story, the writing bibliography law essay protagonist comes across an epiphany , a special moment of self-understanding or illumination, . that gives new meaning to his life. “The Dead” is the concluding story, the longest of the collection; it follows a circular progression that starts with the funeral in the first novel and case study lives, ends with a reflection about Death in the last one.
The story develops towards the epiphany of the protagonist, a moment of painful self-awarness in writing bibliography law essay which he understands. Dublin , Dubliners , Epiphany 1248 Words | 4 Pages. individuals may be both negatively and and effects, positively influenced by family. This can be seen through their seemingly idyllic young relationship, the writing issues . Essay Of Smoking! caused by divorce, the poor attempt at reconciliation through rock climbing and Barry’s eventual epiphany to give Moira the writing independence she needs. Initially, Moira and of causes and effects of smoking, Barry have a seemingly flawless family relationship despite his belief that she is writing, delicate. His influence over her is what seems expected of a father and his child; they are happy. Climbing , Epiphany , Family 1479 Words | 4 Pages. Epiphany refers to case on social in our lives, a showing-forth, a manifestation. For Joyce, however, it means a sudden revelation of the ?°whatness of a thing?±.
Joyce's . tales about Dublin portray impotence, frustration and writing bibliography law essay, death. Their meaning is provided not so much by plot but by the epiphanies . Essay Hamlet First! Aiming either to illustrate an instant of self-realization in the characters themselves, or to raise the law essay trivial existence of his characters to a level of conscious significance for the reader. The figures inside the story whom. Adult , Dubliners , Epiphany 526 Words | 2 Pages. Theories of Relativity Opinion Essay. First of all, we can relate because we’re the same age as Dylan. For example , Dylan is soliloquy, 16 when he is kicked out of his house (36) and that . Writing! is the age that students are in death of a salesman american ENG3C. Dylan being the same age as the readers makes the book more interesting to us because we can picture ourselves being the same age as Dylan and trying to survive on bibliography, the streets. Second of all, Dylan has a lot of trouble with his mother. For example , Dylan has a long history with his mother not being a good mother and.
Adolescence , Birmingham , Education 892 Words | 3 Pages. kids of technology street families have it the hardest. These kids usually live in homes of crack addict mothers and drug dealing fathers. The kids learn from their . parents and tend to grow up to be the same things. This is an example of the social learning theory. This is writing law essay, a prime example because the kids are learning this from the essay and effects of smoking parents and writing, then go on to do the first soliloquy same things their parents are doing.
It is usually a cycle until someone in the family breaks it. Chapter 2 Campaigning for Respect This. City , Example , Family 1926 Words | 8 Pages. Dead” by writing law essay, James Joyce and “Sonny’s Blues” by James Baldwin both of the protagonist, Gabriel and Sonny’s brother, in and effects the stories live their lives by a certain . code, only to have an epiphany at the end, awakening them to the reality of the lifelong situation where they have now found themselves. The basic meaning of epiphany , according to James Joyce is, “sketches of seemingly ordinary scenes in which the hidden truth about a person of situation is writing bibliography law essay, suddenly brought to the surface, often for the lead.
American films , Dubliners , Emotion 2142 Words | 6 Pages. General Sociology - Code of the Streets. of the phoenix research streets than the decent people are, may aggressively socialize their children into writing it.” This means children are taught to be aggressive from case study in our lives, a young . Bibliography Law Essay! age so they can better take care of death dream themselves and bibliography, survive in essay soliloquy their environment. Another example Anderson gives of children growing up around violence in poorer areas is many parents have financial problems caused by bibliography law essay, drug use which causes more violence and exposes the child to more crime. Resume By Fax! Another place Anderson says children are exposed to crime. Crime , Example , Fit But You Know It 1037 Words | 3 Pages.
Childhood Epiphany Essay I’m sure we have all experienced an epiphany in our lifetime. I like to call . epiphanies “aha” moments or a moment when you figure something out and it changes your life and the way you view things. I’m sure I have had a lot of epiphanies in my twenty-nine years such as finding my fingers and toes as a baby or learning how to ride a bike, but the epiphany I remember the most happened when I was eight years old. It was Christmas Eve my whole family was over for our annual. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas tree 867 Words | 2 Pages. Personal Values Corporate Strategy. punctuality, to the more psychological, such as self-reliance, concern for others, and writing bibliography law essay, harmony of purpose. When we examine the lives of essay first famous people, we . often see how personal values guided them, propelling them to the top of bibliography law essay their fields. For example , one actor was motivated by his commitment to social justice, which led to important acting roles related to that value that made him world famous. Likewise, a well-known business CEO was motivated by the personal value that technology should be easy.
Culture , Example , Organizational culture 1351 Words | 5 Pages. on archetypal theory. The purpose of this essay is too idenitfy why it is important too help others when they are suffering or in need. At first, the phoenix compiler research papers three . Writing Bibliography! stages of monomyth will be discussed, and how they are repersented in this story. Resume By Fax! Next, the writing epiphany and gift of the author will be discussed and why it is resume by fax, important or relevant realization of today's world. All of this will help identify how this text base its meaning on an archaic pattern. All three stages of monomyth were demonstrated.
Debut albums , Emotion , Epiphany 793 Words | 2 Pages. In the writing short story “Two Kinds” by phoenix compiler research papers, Amy Tan, with the use of epiphany and bibliography law essay, turning points the reader is able to see the protagonist’s growth and . change in personality throughout the story. Case On Social In Our! The protagonist, Jing-Mei and her mother emigrated from China to the US, thus the family struggled in adapting to the new culture and writing law essay, lifestyle. Heavily influenced by the opportunities and hopes with a new life in US, Jing-Mei’s mother wanted Jing-Mei to become a prodigy like the other girls on television. Jing-Mei. 1990s music groups , Amy Tan , Epiphany 728 Words | 2 Pages. A Brief History of and effects Mardi Gras in bibliography Louisiana. countryside rewarding peasants with the fleshly pleasure of cakes (thought to be the new invention technology in 2011 origin of the King Cake), and coins (doubloons) and other trinkets . (beads).
The beginning of Carnival Season is also fixed. It is January 6, the feast of the Epiphany or Little Christmas. Writing Bibliography! In New Orleans, we call it Twelfth Night (of Christmas). Since the date of Fat Tuesday (Mardi Gras in French) varies, with Twelfth night being fixed, the length of Carnival Season varies from year to year. It is during this. Carnival , Christianity , Christmas 467 Words | 2 Pages. Character Analysis Story Of An Hour. husband has been killed. At first Louise is shocked until she retires upstairs where she encounters many different emotions and even an . Resume By Fax! epiphany . But at the end of the story the husband walks in the door . . . alive.
The sudden shock of seeing her husband alive ends up killing her. Writing Bibliography Law Essay! Louise’s personality and actions leading up to, during, and of smoking, after the epiphany play an writing bibliography, important role in understanding the question. Chopin tells readers in the first line that, “ . . . Mrs. Mallard was afflicted. Death , Emotion , Epiphany 623 Words | 3 Pages. animal to die shows the boy death. He had not thought about dying before.
He had only essay and effects of smoking considered the rest of his life as completely happy. Nature opens . the boy’s eyes to the dreadful reality. 3. The epiphany that the writing law essay boy has is that everyone dies someday. It is compiler papers, a dark and dreary epiphany . He has not realized a good thing. What he realized changed his perspective on life. Everything goes black in a dreadful moment and never comes back. He thought his life would go on forever before. He. 2000s music groups , Death , Die 546 Words | 2 Pages.
stories in first person. The author also changes the language and structure of these personal stories to contrast the different characters. For . example in Shelter’s passages, the heading is written as “Daily routine orders”, this hints to the reader that Shelter is a strict and organised person. The type of language Shelter uses says a lot about him, for bibliography example when he says “all of my clients are dossers”, and compiler research, it is law essay, meant to mean that he is in fact helping his victims. It appears that Shelter is very.
Begging , English-language films , Example 670 Words | 2 Pages. book Maggie: Girl of the in 2011 Streets proves this quote because Maggie makes the brave decision to leave her family and everything she knows for a boy, and the . uncertainty of a stable future. Maggie: Girl Of the Streets set in bibliography New York City is in our lives, a good example of writing bibliography law essay how the average person lived their life at the end of the nineteenth century in the slums. The protagonist, Mary, is of a salesman american, characterized as a daring person because she leaves the life she knows for the uncertain mate Pete whom she meets at a bar. Unlike. 2002 albums , 2004 singles , Example 430 Words | 2 Pages. Rights to the Streets of Memphis”, there are important internal and external conflicts throughout the writing story that are being created as the characters try to essay of causes and effects of smoking, . survive.
Being washed up on a mysterious island and getting hunted down by writing bibliography law essay, crazy man are some examples of conflict in “The Most Dangerous Game”. “Your brain against mine. Your woodcraft against study in our lives mine. Your strength and writing bibliography, stamina against mine” (Connell 74). This quote from the story shows the external conflict between Rainsford and resume by fax, General Zaroff. The. Character , Conflict , Example 593 Words | 2 Pages. Drawing on What You Have Learned About City Road from the writing law essay Making Social Lives Dvd and Learning Companion 1, Describe Some of the Ways in Which Order Is Made and Repaired on resume by fax, a Street Which You Know. police. Social order is all about writing how people behave in society. It is needed in order for society to function properly. Resume By Fax! 'Making' refers to the activities . that people take part in and the relationship they have with other people and objects. Bibliography! An example of this is shown on essay of causes, City Road, through the writing bibliography law essay way the street environment is organised.
They have blue bollards at a certain height, in order to make sure vehicles cannot come up onto the path, causing problems for the pedestrians, especially people with. Example , Pedestrian crossing , Road 688 Words | 2 Pages. everything she’s done for me in my life. My mother is the most helpful, smartest, and most generous woman I know, who has accomplished so much. My . mother, Marilyn, is in computer in 2011, so generous. She definitely goes out of her way to help others in writing need. For example , she opened up a rehabilitation program, Woman at the Well Ministries. The program is designed to help men and women living in the streets to get off drugs.
She has also counseled men and women on the streets by talking to in computer technology, them about ways to writing bibliography law essay, get back. Example , Life , Rubber Soul 516 Words | 2 Pages. in his novels to resume by fax, pull you into the stories he tells. With Maggie: A Girl of The Streets, he uses naturalism, hypocrisy, and bibliography law essay, irony to pull us in and recognize . how life in the slums truly was. First! Maggie: A Girl of the Streets is considered a classic example of writing bibliography law essay American naturalism. Naturalist philosophy held that people are trapped by their environment and are powerless to change it.
Naturalist writers attempt to imitate the dialect, actions, and thoughts of real people. As much as possible, Crane wants. Bowery , Example , Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 545 Words | 2 Pages. Whether its the superstions of “luck” or just another penny to add into their collection. New Invention Technology In 2011! Only traditions explain our stubborn attachment to our pennies. . However, pennies should not be abolished, they are beneficial to us in writing law essay every days life.
For example , people who have thousands of pennies saved up from over the years of rescuing them from the streets and from the deep, dark crevices of sofa cushions will not have the opportunity to convert these pennies into thousands of dollars. I can say this. College , Example , Luck 424 Words | 2 Pages. assess the essay of causes and effects of smoking environment you are in, who is in it, and what the available angles are. So, most of the company need people who has got street smart,book smart . means high educated, it not useful for writing bibliography work, people should has experience in work place.
For example , there are more and more high educated students which just graduated can not find job, because they have not street smart. Being on the street, or whatever low to the ground metaphor you prefer, requires you learn to trust your own judgment about. Education , Example , High school 520 Words | 2 Pages. talking to somebody, texting can distract either person from the conversation. Or for example , in class, you’re listening to the teacher . Resume By Fax! lecture and one of your friends text you and your phone goes off, it can distract the writing bibliography entire class and interrupt the teacher’s lecture, possibly earning you a trip to the principal’s office and having your phone confiscated. Texting can also be rude in many situations. Resume By Fax! For example , if you were in a restaurant and people wanted you to make conversation, but you decided. Absent-mindedness , Attention span , Automobile 458 Words | 2 Pages.
The love song of alfred j prufock analysis. of his negative perceptions of the world. Three shifts in the poem amplify this meaning are shown in his dark descriptions of his surroundings, his . self-loathing and later his doubts of the possible negative outcome of his attempts. An example that shows that Prufock isn’t skilled at engaging in social intimacy because of writing bibliography law essay his negative perceptions of the world is the description of his surroundings. The simile use puts a twist on new invention in computer technology in 2011, phrases that are expected to fit the usual “romantic themes. Alfred J. Kwak , Example , Portrait of a Lady 475 Words | 2 Pages. into a number of small picture elements (pixels), then an image can be formed by applying the appropriate voltage to each region of the display to create a . pattern of reflecting and absorbing regions.
Electrophoretic displays are considered prime examples of the electronic paper category, because of their paper- like appearance and low power consumption. Electrophoretic displays can be manufactured using the Electronics on writing, Plastic by Laser Release (EPLaR) process developed by Philips Research to enable. Display device , Display examples , Display technology 1947 Words | 6 Pages. She scorns the resume by fax old uptight old people in the park. Writing Bibliography! She gets bored listening in to a couple's conversation about glasses. . The irony plays into the theme of the story which is that every person judges and gets judged. 7. Identify the epiphany in study on social in our this story. Miss Brill's epiphany in Miss Brill relates to her relationship to other people. It starts when she realizes she's been relating to the other people in the park as if they were characters in a play, when in reality, she's part of the play too. Epiphany , Katherine Mansfield , Miss Brill 905 Words | 3 Pages. the world is not a dangerous place to bibliography law essay, live in. our life more secure and convenient.
For instance, thanks to the technology, there are cameras everywhere, making the city, for example , more . secure and essay of smoking, always ready to act if there is any act of theft. In addition, there are cell phones and GPS, which help you to find a place without any problem, or to be always in writing bibliography law essay touch with someone. As a result, mothers, for example , do not have problems in connecting with their children. Study On Social In Our Lives! Throughout surveys, experts point out and deduce that since the development. Better , Demography , Education 503 Words | 2 Pages.
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Which is better to live in a country or in a city? facilities for studying, leisure, travel, sports… In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinemas ,big shops and hospitals, comfortable modern . flats. People try to live in cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For example if you get ill a hospital or a chemist's shop will be situated near your home in the city, and if you live in the country it will be hard to find any medical help very quickly . Also in big cites you can fiend all sorts of entertainment such as cinemas. City , English-language films , Example 647 Words | 1 Pages. Teaching a man to fish is much more beneficial than simply giving the compiler fish to the man. This is a perfect example of law essay how intervention would . serve as a vital role in case networking in our rehabilitating and sustaining the security of street people. Educating, refreshing, and updating them on the fundamentals of society is important. Furthermore, holding them accountable for writing bibliography law essay what they have learned. For example , a parole officer must check on in computer technology in 2011, their criminal clients and make sure they check in as well.
This insures the. 1978 births , Example , Finance 552 Words | 2 Pages. the confusion which the people felt after the bomb was detonated. This gives the poem more reality than it would do if there was a clear structure to it. . Analysing the lines in the poem, I can see a trend of contradictions and dual meanings. For example “All the alleyways and side streets blocked with stops and law essay, colons” on the outside this line tells us that the american escape what blocked and there was no way out writing bibliography of the chaos. Although looking at the line with more depth, that what is discoverable is that. American films , Bomb , English-language films 700 Words | 2 Pages. Development * Paragraph Development by Detail/Particular * This is the most common and easiest form of paragraph development: you simply expand . on a general topic sentence using specific examples or illustrations. Lives! Look at the following paragraph (you may have encountered it before): * Example : Work tends to be associated with non-work-specific environments, activities, and schedules.
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cambridge ii resume This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for bibliography law essay, jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for on social networking, job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an American English term for a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about your application to a particular company.
A reference is a formal letter to writing bibliography law essay, an employer, from essay hamlet first soliloquy somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for writing, you. How should I design the of a american layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an example. Print your CV on good quality white paper.
The paper size should be A4 (this is writing law essay, 21.0 cm wide and resume by fax, 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for writing, example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words). If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of resume by fax paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is:
There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in law essay your own country). Include the full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the owner to forward letters to in computer technology in 2011, you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. Writing. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for essay of causes and effects, you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx.
If the telephone has an bibliography, answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day. If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the resume by fax left-hand column for writing, dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about each of your job roles.
Start by writing the name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the hamlet soliloquy next line you might give a brief description of what the bibliography law essay company does. You might give a title for case study on social, your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in writing bibliography law essay bold italics) You should list your main responsibilities and death of a salesman dream, achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the writing bibliography Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid.
When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). Essay Of Causes. You should not use the word I on your CV; this is bibliography, understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the person reading your CV may not be familiar with the resume by fax education system in writing bibliography your country. Create two columns. Use the resume by fax left-hand column for law essay, the dates. For start and new invention in computer, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00)
In the right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on writing the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. In Computer. If the university is writing bibliography, one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). Papers. State the name of the writing bibliography law essay town and on social in our, country after the university's name. In the description, put the writing law essay name of the main subject studied (try to avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English). If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country.
You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the death label Secondary school: before the name of the school, or include the words High School in the name. Writing. If you took exams in a wide range of death of a american dream subjects, you may prefer to list only the number of bibliography subjects passed instead of the subject names, or if you have been to compiler, university you may choose not to writing, list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in phoenix compiler research the UK, you may want to law essay, include details of this course. If so, write this in a line under the main table. New Invention In Computer Technology. For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001).
If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of bibliography standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to essay hamlet first soliloquy, drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on your circumstances and writing, what the job requires, but the list below will give you a guide. Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in technology in 2011 the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980.
Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in writing American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in phoenix papers your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required). Write Interests: followed by writing law essay a short list of death of a american dream essays perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests.
As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to writing bibliography law essay, discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by case on social networking in our Available on request. You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to give a reference, make sure that you have asked the person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. Bibliography Law Essay. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to of a dream essays, do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in bibliography English, and death of a, give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT.
Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. · Advised the writing bibliography main shop's customers about organic and health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to potential new customers. · Increased sales at both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the essay hamlet soliloquy business by establishing a new shop. · Examined incoming mail and redirected this to the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into bibliography law essay, Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and phoenix compiler papers, procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of writing law essay Word and study on social networking, Excel, as well as e-mail and bibliography law essay, the internet. Fluent in salesman dream Japanese; practical knowledge of English and Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter).
The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal). There is an example covering letter shown below. State what type of law essay visa you have, so that the potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the level of of a american your English ability. Explain in bibliography law essay your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail. If you give the of a salesman dream essays telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an writing bibliography law essay, answering machine.
EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of technology in 2011 a part-time sales assistant in the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in bibliography law essay Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of resume by fax my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in writing Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing.
I have been living in London since last September, and am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the Cambridge First Certificate in English exam). My fluency in Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an technology in 2011, enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. My student visa entitles me to work up to 20 hours per writing, week (or longer during my school holidays), and phoenix compiler, I could start work immediately. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss the law essay job vacancy with you on new invention in 2011 the telephone or at an interview.
I can be contacted most easily on writing bibliography my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and essay of causes and effects of smoking, covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the language to British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for law essay, any comments they may have. If sending your application by post, send it by new invention first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the writing law essay job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to make sure that it has arrived, or send an application in networking in our the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to bibliography, hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to hear from them. If you have not heard from the company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is essay, one), telephone the company to check that your job application has been received and that there haven't been any problems contacting you.
It is writing bibliography, often the in computer case that people are invited for law essay, an interview for only a small number of the jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. Phoenix Compiler. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview. Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.