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Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia University Thesis. Claim: Barack Obama#8217;s thesis for Columbia University, entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; noted that America#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom.#8221; Example: [Collected via e-mail, October 2009] I saw someone online claim that the following is a quote from artist essay Barack Obama#8217;s thesis at Columbia contains the following segment: #8220;#8230; the Constitution allows for research introduction, many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom. While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is not even mentioned. While many believed that the essay, new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the viewpoint essays, shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Origins: In academia, a thesis is artist, a typical requirement for a graduate degree (although some schools require a thesis for a bachelor#8217;s degree as well), an original research project submitted by doctoral dissertation mathematics, a student on a topic related to his major. Many universities keep their students#8217; theses on file and make them available to the public as library resources. In recent years, theses written by U.S. presidential candidates and their spouses have become subjects of great interest, particularly for the possibility that they might provide some insight into the thinking and artist mindsets of opposing viewpoint, their authors, including the disclosure of once-held viewpoints that might be now be considered controversial and essay disadvantageous to their current political careers (or those of doctoral help, their spouses). Artist Essay? Accordingly, major political figures have become more circumspect about allowing public access to their theses: Former First Lady Hillary Clinton#8216;s 1969 Wellesley College thesis on community organizer Saul D. And Report Writing (in English)? Alinsky, for example, was not available for examination by the public during the eight years of her husband#8217;s presidency, and current First Lady Michelle Obama#8216;s 1985 Princeton University thesis on #8220;Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community#8221; was the subject of controversy when access to artist essay, it was initially blocked during her husband#8217;s campaign for the presidency. Help? (The Obama campaign made a copy of Michelle#8217;s thesis publicly available in February 2008, and Princeton#8217;s restriction on access to it was likewise lifted.) Throughout the 2008 presidential campaign (and afterwards), one of the items that was frequently cited as a #8220;missing document#8221; connected with Barack Obama was his own thesis for artist, Columbia University, a school from which he graduated in history always repeats itself essay, 1983 with a bachelor#8217;s degree in political science (with a specialization in international relations). Politico noted in October 2008 that: There#8217;s not a whole lot of artist essay, information available about Obama#8217;s time at Columbia University in mathematics, New York, which he attended for three years after attending Occidental College in artist essay, Los Angeles for one year and research introduction length from which he graduated in 1983.
His campaign would not release his transcripts, and artist it says it does not have a copy of his thesis, which dealt with Soviet nuclear disarmament and which has drawn intense interest. As far as has been determined, Barack Obama did not produce a formal thesis for research introduction, his degree at artist essay, Columbia University; the cruel thesis rei asuka, closest match is a paper he wrote during his senior year for an honors seminar in artist, American Foreign Policy. However, Columbia University has said it did not retain a copy of that paper, Obama spokesman Ben LaBolt has said that Barack himself does not have a copy, and the professor to whom the paper was submitted has said that he no longer has a copy in his possession either: In 1983, as a senior at buying paper, Columbia in New York, Barack Obama enrolled in an intense, eight-student honors seminar called American Foreign Policy. His former professor, Michael Baron, recalled in an interview with NBC News that Obama easily aced the year-long class. Artist Essay? But Baron says he never had any inkling that the gangly senior would scale such heights. [Baron] had saved Obama#8217;s senior paper for years, and even hunted for always repeats essay, it again [in July 2008] in some boxes.
But he said his search was fruitless, and he now thinks he tossed it out essay, [in 2000] during a move. Opposing Essays? described [Obama#8217;s] paper as a #8220;thesis#8221; or #8220;senior thesis#8221; in several interviews, and said that Obama spent a year working on it. Baron recalls that the topic was nuclear negotiations with the Soviet Union. #8220;My recollection is that the paper was an analysis of the evolution of the arms reduction negotiations between the Soviet Union and the United States,#8221; Baron said in an e-mail. #8220;At that time, a hot topic in foreign policy circles was finding a way in which each country could safely reduce the large arsenal of nuclear weapons pointed at the other #8230; For U.S. policy makers in both political parties, the aim was not disarmament, but achieving deep reductions in the Soviet nuclear arsenal and keeping a substantial and permanent American advantage. As I remember it, the paper was about those negotiations, their tactics and chances for artist essay, success. Barack got an opposing, A.#8221; Baron said that, even if he could find a copy of the paper, it would likely disappoint Obama#8217;s critics. #8220;The course was not a polemical course, it was a course in decision making and how decisions got made,#8221; he said. #8220;None of the essay, papers in the class were controversial.#8221; So would it provide any political ammunition today? #8220;I don#8217;t think it would at buying, all,#8221; Baron said. #8220;It wasn#8217;t a position paper; it was an analysis of decision-making.#8221; In October 2009, a purported excerpt from Barack Obama#8217;s #8220;missing#8221; Columbia thesis began circulating widely on essay the Internet, one which claimed the paper stated that the business and report writing, Constitution drafted by American#8217;s founding fathers #8220;did not allow for economic freedom#8221; and failed to mention #8220;the distribution of wealth#8221; (a play on the common campaign charge that a redistribution of wealth was one of artist essay, Barack Obama#8217;s political goals). Had someone finally turned up Barack Obama#8217;s elusive senior paper? The Pajamas Media web site reported on 21 October 2009 that writer/reporter Joe Klein had been permitted to read the first ten pages of it and had revealed that the paper (supposedly entitled #8220;Aristocracy Reborn#8221;) included the excerpt reproduced above.
However, that claim seemed dubious, as a paper on #8220;Aristocracy Reborn,#8221; with musings about the Founding Fathers#8217; supposed lack of angel thesis misato, interest in #8220;economic freedom#8221; and #8220;the distribution of wealth,#8221; would have been rather unusual content to artist essay, find in a senior paper on the topic of dissertation mathematics, Soviet nuclear disarmament, written for artist essay, a seminar on American foreign policy. A Thesis Paper? In fact, the putative excerpt was fictitious, something lifted from a bit of satire published on the Jumping in artist essay, Pools blog back on 25 August 2009: Obama was required to write a #8216;senior seminar#8217; paper in order to graduate from Columbia. The subject of this paper, which totaled 44 pages, was American government. Entitled Aristocracy Reborn , this paper chronicled the long struggle of the working class against, as Obama put it, #8220;plutocratic thugs with one hand on always itself essay the money and the other on the government.#8221; In the paper, in artist, which only the first ten pages were given to the general media, Obama decries the plight of the poor: #8220;I see poverty in every place I walk. In Los Angeles and viewpoint New York, the artist essay, poor reach to me with bleary eyes and cruel angel thesis all I can do is sigh.#8221; In part, the future President blames this on the current economic system: #8220;There are many who will defend the #8216;free market.#8217; But who will defend the single mother of artist essay, four working three jobs. When a system is allowed to be free at cruel angel, the expense of its citizens, then it is tyranny.#8221; However, the President also singled out the American Constitution: #8220;#8230; the essay, Constitution allows for many things, but what it does not allow is the most revealing. The so-called Founders did not allow for economic freedom.
While political freedom is supposedly a cornerstone of the document, the distribution of wealth is not even mentioned. While many believed that the writing, new Constitution gave them liberty, it instead fitted them with the shackles of hypocrisy.#8221; Pajamas Media issued a notice a few days after its original report acknowledging that the information about Barack Obama#8217;s Columbia thesis was a hoax. Artist? Joe Klein also affirmed that he had never seen the paper in question. Last updated: 25 October 2009. Dedman, Bill. #8220;Reading Hillary Rodham#8217;s Hidden Thesis.#8221; MSNBC.com.
9 May 2007. Popkin, Jim. #8220;Obama and doctoral help the Case of the Missing #8216;Thesis.'#8221; MSNBC.com. Essay? 24 July 2008. Saul, Michael. Buying A Thesis Paper? #8220;Limbaugh Falls for essay, Obama Thesis Hoax.#8221; [New York] Daily News. 25 October 2009. Angel Rei Asuka? Scott, Janny. Artist Essay? #8220;Obama#8217;s Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say.#8221; The New York Times. Research? 30 October 2007. Vogel, Kenneth P. #8220;What Are the Candidates Hiding?#8221; Politico.com.
23 October 2008. Got a tip or a rumor? Contact us here. Published: Sep 28th, 2012. Are the Spires on essay Disney World#8217;s Cinderella Castle Removable in essay, Case of Hurricane? Oct 2nd, 2017 An old but still thriving urban legend about Walt Disney World in Florida holds that the theme park's tallest structure, Cinderella Castle, was built such that it can be fully or partially dismantled in the event of a hurricane. Oct 2nd, 2017 The musician suffered cardiac arrest a week after he and his group the Heartbreakers had concluded their 40th anniversary tour. Essay? Are NFL Players Required to Stand on the Field During the opposing viewpoint essays, National Anthem? Sep 24th, 2017 Confusing claims about whether the NFL's rulebook or game operations manual specifically requires players to essay, stand on the sideline during the pre-game playing of the U.S. national anthem. CBS Fires Lawyer Over Facebook Comments About Las Vegas Mass Shooting.
Oct 2nd, 2017 The comments, which have since been deleted, express a lack of sympathy for opposing, shooting victims in artist essay, Las Vegas because they may have been Republicans. Business Communication And Report (in English)? Did Donald Trump Bankrupt a Golf Course, Leaving Puerto Rico with $33 Million in Debt? Sep 27th, 2017 A viral string of artist, tweets gets some facts right about a failed business venture involving a Trump company, but it also leaves out some important context. #8216;Nothing, Nothing.#8217; Aid Lags in Hurricane-Torn Puerto Rico. Sep 27th, 2017 Many of the more than 3.4 million U.S. citizens in Puerto Rico were still without adequate food, water and fuel five days after Hurricane Maria hit. Updated What appears to be a $100 (or $50) coupon giveaway by Lowe's is actually a scam. Was a Protester Throwing Explosives Into a Berkeley Crowd Before She Was Punched? Apr 20th, 2017 There's no evidence Louise Rosealma was using a glass bottle she appeared to be holding as an incendiary device. Did a 1950s TV Episode Feature a Character Named Trump Who Offered to viewpoint essays, Build a Protective Wall?
Jan 9th, 2017 An episode of the 1950s western TV series 'Trackdown' featured a character named Walter Trump who claimed he would build a wall in essay, order to protect a town from the angel thesis, end of the world. Did Jeff Sessions Say He#8217;s Amazed a Judge #8216;On an Island in the Pacific#8217; Can Block Executive Orders? Apr 20th, 2017 The Trump administration's Attorney General expressed his amazement on a radio talk show. Updated Rumor holds that conservative rocker Ted Nugent evaded the Vietnam-era draft by taking drugs and acting crazy during his pre-induction physical.
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Idioms Denoting Parts of Body Essay. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts. They exist in association in artist language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in the literary or poetic language. Research Introduction Length. It is also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is utilized to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of artist conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the paper introduction length non-metaphorical or direct way of expression. The more developed the society is, the more necessary the need of communication becomes; especially in the process of globalization, the communication has spread beyond the boundary of a country. Together with the development of the society in the era of integration, language has been clearly recognized as a very important tool in communication with many purposes.
Language can be used to show one’s feeling, attitude, and evaluation. And through communicating, reading newspapers etc., I realize that people often use words, phrases denoting human body to show their feeling, emotion… In our daily life, we can easily recognize words denoting our body parts used plentifully, not only individual words but also word combinations containing more than one human body part. Regarding to essay, word groups denoting human body parts, their meanings are not the combination of dissertation each word’s meaning only, in some cases, their meanings are quite different from the original meaning. Learning of idioms is important, especially for the foreigner learners. Idioms correspond to a valuable vein in English language, so they need for explanation. Idioms are fixed expressions whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meaning of its components. Learners of English must be aware that the meaning cannot be taken as a combination of words which the idiom consist of. Also behaviour of idioms in sentences is different. Artist Essay. One cannot understand literally the meaning of an viewpoint essays idiom. Sometimes it seems that it has no sense or it is illogical.
Idioms cannot be changed; especially one cannot use related words when the idiom is concerned. Many of them cannot be used in passive form. The structure of idioms is extraordinary. That is why learners of artist English must know that the most important thing is not learning idioms by rote, but learning how to opposing, use them. Artist Essay. If speaker of English knows a lot of idioms and he can use them in a right context, he will be able to communicate more easily.
Idiomatic expressions are phrases which use language in a non-literal way. This is why interpretation of idioms is very hard. Idioms are group of words, phrases that meaning cannot be concluded from the individual words. Every idiom has a deeper, metaphorical meaning. Idioms are very important in life because it is impossible to speak, read, write and listen to English without knowing idiomatic expressions. Native speakers of English feel more comfortable using idiomatic phrases; however, non-native speakers can be frustrated because the true meaning of an opposing idiom is not always clear. One should remember that idioms can be used when every speaker master a language completely. Nowadays, idioms are essential elements that enrich the artist essay language. However, one should remember that speech which is cruel rei asuka misato overloaded with idioms loses its originality. Artist. On the other hand, lack of angel thesis rei asuka misato idioms make that oral or written speech loses much in its expressiveness. A large number of phrases and sentences in the English language are related to body parts.
Some of them are descriptive while others, elusive. Their origins are dated from Biblical times to the recent days. Each generation adds new idiomatic expressions which are connected with their culture. The meaning of artist essay idiomatic expressions is indefinable. They show that metaphors are very important in our lives and that we do not look at things in the way they are in reality, but rather we perceive them through our understanding and our experience of the world.
The present thesis is an attempt at an analysis of writing (in english) English idioms with a body component. Its goal is to study and essay present the nature of always essay idioms, their connection with culture and context. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of essay concepts. They exist in thesis misato association in language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor.
Metaphor is used in artist the literary or poetic language. It is also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is utilized to research introduction, express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the essay non-metaphorical or direct way of business expression. Achilles’ heel= the only vulnerable spot in a person or thing that is otherwise strong; a serious or fatal weakness/ fault After one’s own heart = to like someone because of essay similar interests An eye for an eye (and a tooth for a tooth)= retaliation/ retribution in kind, a punishment that is as cruel as the crime An eye opener = a surprise; a startling or enlightening experience Armed to the teeth = heavily armed. Behind one’s back = when one is not present. Blue blood = having the qualities of being of noble birth.
Can’t put one’s finger on paper = can’t locate immediately, can’t find the answer Can’t see beyond the end of essay one’s nose = limited vision concerning decisions of the future Crocodile tears = false tears, pretended grief. Face to face/ eyeball-to-eyeball = confronting each other. Foul mouth = a user of profanity. Hand in hand= in close association. Hands are tied = restrained from acting. Heart-to-heart = intimate speaking freely and seriously about a private subject I could have bitten my tongue off= sorry you said something. In one ear and out the other = does not heed or pay attention It’s in your hands = it is your responsibility. On the tip of one’s tongue= at the point of telling or recalling One foot in the grave = old and decrepit.
Over one’s dead body= against one’s strong opposition. Right-hand man= chief assistant. To (not) lift a finger= not to help in the slightest degree. To be all ears = to listen attentively. To be loose–tongued = to talk too much. To be up to one’s ears = immersed in, caught in. To break someone’s heart = cause great sorrow, disappoint someone To breathe down someone’s neck = to follow someone closely in doctoral pursuit, the action of a superior who is looking for something wrong or watching someone very closely To bury one’s head in the sand = to refuse to accept facts To catch one’s breath = to rest to regain normal breathing To cry on someone’s shoulder = to go to someone to talk to about a problem To foam/ froth at the mouth= to artist, be very angry. To force one’s hand = make one reveal his plans. To get one’s hands on= obtain.
To get out of hand= become uncontrollable. To get through one’s head= to business (in english), understand or believe. To give one’s right arm = make a big sacrifice; give something of great value To give someone a hand= help, assistance. To go to artist, one’s head= cause dizziness. To have a big mouth= to talk too much. To have a sharp tongue= harsh or sarcastic in speech. To have an eagle eye= to communication and report, have an excellent eyesight. For the first time the term ‘phraseology’ appeared in 16th century and it meant ‘style’ or ‘vocabulary’. In 18th century it got terminological meaning such as ‘a group of word units’. At the same time in artist most of opposing essays European languages ‘phraseology’ meant ‘empty words’. New linguistic branch ‘phraseology’ developed in 20th century, mostly in East Europe.
The forerunner of phraseology was Charles. Bally, Swiss linguist. He used the term phraseology when he wrote about different types of artist word-groups which differ in degree of stability from free word-groups to phraseological units. The study on phraseology was developed by Russian linguists A.A. Shakhmotov and (in english) A.D. Polivanov. M. Tarasevitch (1991:448) claims that “[…] linguists became aware of the existence in artist the language of special larger-than-words units: word-groups consisting of viewpoint two or more words whose combination is integrated as a unit with a specialized meaning of the whole […]. Russian linguists made an artist essay attempt to study various word-groups on a scientific basis. They pointed out the need to establish a new branch of linguistics that would study unusual feature of word-groups.
In linguistics, ‘phraseology’ is a term used for describing the context in which a word is used. Viewpoint. The term also describes various structural and semantic types of phrases characterized by different degrees of idiomacity in given language. It includes typical sequences such as idioms, phrasal verbs, multi-word unit and collocations. “ Phraseology – the words and phrases used in essay particular profession or activity or a particular way of putting words together to viewpoint essays, express something” (Macmillan English Dictionary 2007:1119) Phraseology studies compound meaning of two or more words e.g. Essay. like a knife through butter. The meaning of the phrase is different from the words used alone. Phraseology studies why such meanings come in everyday use, and what possibly are the laws governing these word combinations. Buying Paper. At present phraseology is a branch of linguistics studying phraseological units.
According to artist, M. Tarasevitch phraseological units are stable word groups that are not based on the generative patterns of free word groups and they are characterized by an elaborate meaning. Tarasevitch claims that phraseological unit should have: * Stability of cruel rei asuka misato use; * Complexity of meaning and. * Word-groups are not built on the generative pattern of free word-groups. Stability of use means that phraseological units are language units which are members of a language community. Phraseology is connected with culture and artist speech community.
Structural separateness helps to distinguish praseological units from compound words. Complexity of meaning signifies the non-compositionality of communication phraseological units, which mean that the meaning of the artist essay whole phrase is different from the sum of literal meanings of the words. Business Communication Writing (in English). Each unit is constituted according to its own unique rule, which cannot be predicted. One of three groups of phraseological units is essay idioms. Phraseological units are stable word groups and they have partially or fully transferred meanings (e.g. kick the bucket). They are lexicalized word group in common use. What is an idiom? “A group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words” (Oxford Advanced. Learners Dictionary 2000:672) “An expression established in doctoral dissertation mathematics the usage of a language that is peculiar to itself either in grammatical construction or in having a meaning that cannot be derived as a whole from the artist conjoined meanings of its elements” (Webster’s Third New International Dictionary 1993:1123) “[…] an idiom is a lexicalized, reproducible word group in always repeats itself essay common use, which has the syntactic stability, and may carry connotations, but whose meaning cannot be derived from the meanings of its constituents” (Cowie 2001:125)
The word ‘idiom’ comes from the Greek root idio, meaning a unique signature. An idiom is an expression, a phrase or a combination of words that has a meaning that is different from a meaning of the individual words. Each language contains expressions which make no sense when they are translated literally into another language. Sometimes idiom can have literal meaning in some situation and artist essay different idiomatic meaning in another situation. Buying A Thesis. It is an expression or a phrase which does not always follow the artist essay normal rules of meaning and grammar. If somebody (especially a foreigner or a person outside a given culture) does not know that some words convey a meaning that is unrelated to the individual meaning of those words, he may does not understand what someone is saying. For example: kill two birds with one stone can literally mean that somebody killed two birds with one stone. But the idiom has totally different meaning: one resolves two difficulties or matters with a one single action.
Many idioms are similar to expressions in opposing essays other languages, can be easy to artist, understand and its meaning is opposing essays usually obvious. For instance, black ship of the family in Poland can be easily understood because there is an artist identical idiom and cruel thesis rei asuka misato it can be easily translated. Other idioms come from artist essay, older phrases which have changed their meaning over time, for example, kick the bucket originally referred to suicide victims standing on inverted buckets, they kick them away and in buying this way hang themselves, but now it means simply to die. Shelley (1995) suggests that some idioms are slang. “Slang seems to mean everything that is below the standard of essay usage of present-day English” (Galperin 1971:96). Business. Galperin cited a definition of slang of “Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language”: “1. Originally, the specialized vocabulary and idioms of criminals tramps, etc. The purpose of which was to disguise from outsiders the meaning of what was said; now usually called cant. 2. The specialized vocabulary and idioms of those in the same work, way of life, etc.; now usually called shoptalk, argot, jargon. “ (Galperin 1971:96). Essay. According to Thomas (1995) idioms are known as cliches. Cliches are expressions that have been used over and over again. They are overused and common expressions.
Idioms are perceived as a very interesting part of the language because they are different from simple words and phrases. They make language life and rich because they take existing words and combine them with a new sense and create totally new expressions. “[…] language is a living thing […]. Living things grow and change, so does language.” (Seidl and buying McMordie 1988:11) English language being flexible enriches its vocabulary with the words invented by language speakers, which makes English more colourful with new idiomatic expressions. Since idioms have unpredictable meaning, structure and collocations, they are linguistic curiosities. In many schools, dictionaries and books idioms are omitted because they are perceived as insignificant. They are rarely used in classrooms.
But in spoken language idioms are used quite often because of its metaphorical meaning. According to Seidl and McMordie (1988) the attitude to language is still changing. Essay. It is itself observed in some parts of grammar (case, number and tense), and in artist style. Some words which were deemed as slang in the past now are considered informal or colloquial. Idioms are not any longer colloquial expressions. They appear in paper introduction formal style, in poetry and in the language of the Bible. Idioms and culture. “By culture we understand the essay ability of members of speech community to orientate themselves with respect to social, moral, political and history always essay so on values in their empirical and mental experience. Essay. Cultural categories […] are conceptualized in the subconscious knowledge of cruel angel thesis rei asuka misato standards, stereotypes, mythologies, rituals, general habits and other cultural patterns”. (Cowie 2001:57) The term idiom refers to a group of words which are usually confusing to people who are not familiar with the language. Nevertheless, many phrases or expressions from natural language are in fact idioms or have idiomatic origin and they have been assimilated into the language.
Idioms are often colloquial metaphors. They often combine in their semantics more than one type of artist essay cultural information. It means that they require some foundational knowledge, information and experience which are used only within a culture where groups must have common reference. As cultures are localized around some area, idioms are not useful for communication outside of that local context. But there are some idioms that can be more universally used than others, they can be easily translated and their metaphorical meaning can be more easily deduced. Those common idioms have deep roots in many languages, they can be translated in other languages and tend to become international. Business Writing. Idioms are an essential part of English style language study. One cannot say that he know English history, culture and society without understanding the essay meaning and the roots of English idioms. Each generation has added its new non-literal expressions which are defined by the values, beliefs, traditions, customs and events of the times.
If you master idioms you will be on your path to writing, better understanding English culture, customs, society and artist lifestyle of English people. The idiomatic phrases capture the true essence of society better than its equivalent prosaic description. When one uses idioms among English friends and even business associates, he can create emotional bands that bring him closer to their culture. A Thesis Paper. Mastery of idioms can lead to better understanding of people. Essay. Often background information on the origin or popular usage of idioms provides important insight into culture. Different aspects of an idiom. Seidl and McMordie (1988) said that idioms are not only colloquial expressions, but they also appear in formal style and in poetry. Idioms often occur in journalism, radio and magazines to make information, stories and articles more interesting. However, idioms are often connected with informal language. The construction of an research paper length idiom is strict and for one it can be odd (e.g. not by artist, a long chalk).
Sometimes the construction seems to be illogical (e.g. for two pins). This is why learning idioms is not only very difficult task but also very exciting and intriguing. People who do not know certain idioms cannot easily understand the repeats essay others. Such a phrase would not make sense and one cannot deduce what is actual meaning of the expression. These features causes that idioms have to be learnt as a whole expressions without any changes. Sometimes idioms have alternative forms without any change in their meaning (e.g. to drop a brick and essay put one’s foot in it mean to say something tactlessly or blue-eyed boy and golden boy – a favoured person). In some cases several verbs can be used in opposing one idiom and the meaning is the essay same, but sometimes there are slight changes in meaning connected with the verb which it substitutes (e.g. keep/bear someone in mind, come/get to/reach the point). An idiom is natural to native speakers of the language and history always only people who are possess English very good can use idiomatic expressions in artist their speech. Idioms have different structures and combinations.
They can be short or long, they contain various parts of speech and they are unpredictable, but sometimes one may guess meaning from the research paper length context, when the idiom is used in a particular situation. Foreigners know the meaning of the idiom when it is related to artist, the mother tongue of the speaker (e.g. be in seven heaven in Polish its mean byc w siodmym niebie). Some idioms are so difficult that one cannot guess the meaning from the context correctly. It is difficult to learn them. Idioms can change their meaning during period of time or simple phrase can transform into idiom and get deeper meaning as it was with kick the business communication and report writing bucket.
Learners of foreign language have to learn idioms as a single item with their meaning. Essay. It is essential to master the research paper length rules of their use in essay sentences. They are strict in paper their structure and they do not allow the word order to artist, change. A learner must know how to viewpoint, use an idiom in the correct way. Idioms are not separate part of language, but they are very important part of lexicon.
Languages contain a large number of idioms and sometimes native speakers use them in the unconscious way. There are many problems with idioms. The main problem is that it is not usually possible to translate them literally. Essay. There are exceptions, for instance, take the research length bull by the horns can be translated literally into Polish as wziac byka za rogi, which has the same meaning. Mostly, the artist essay use of normal rules in order to history always itself, translate idioms will result in illogical phrases. Idioms have to be treated as single units in artist translation. There are idioms which are ‘frozen’. It means that an idiom appears in the same form and in mathematics the same order (e.g. for good – ‘forever’).
But, there is problem with idioms which change the form of the verb, which varies according to essay, tense, person and number. For example, kick the bucket (‘to die’) one gets she kicks/kicked/will kick the bucket. Some people have problem with recognising idioms because they behave like a simple sentence. One can think that the person really kicks the bucket and he does not imagine himself that the person died. Research Paper Introduction Length. The interpretation of idioms for one can be surprising. It is better to recognise idioms which have ‘frozen forms’. Idioms pragmatics and context. “Pragmatics – the study of the way in which language is artist used to business communication (in english), express what somebody really means in particular situations, especially when the actual words used may appear to mean something different.” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English 2000:1031). Pragmatics is involved with the comprehension process. The ability to understand another speaker’s aim is called pragmatic competence.
It is essay a linguistic study of the way in which people use language to achieve different goals. Suppose a person wanted to ask someone else to reveal a secret. These could be achieved in the different ways. The person could simply say ‘do not tell a secret, please’ which is direct and with clear meaning. Alternatively the dissertation mathematics person could say ‘do not spill the beans’, which implies a similar meaning but is indirect and therefore requires pragmatic competence.
Idioms play very important role in those studies. Because idioms have general meaning they are rather used to express attitude then give specific information. They are used to artist, express approval or disapproval and admiration or criticism. According to Collins Coubild Dictionary of Idioms (1995) idioms sometimes have connotations and pragmatic meaning which are not always obvious to people who do not know the meaning and then the meaning of the help expression can be missed. It may happen that somebody can use an artist idiom and do not realize that it can be interpreted as critical or disapproving. It can cause wrong reaction of the person they are talking to. Pragmatics is one of the most challenging aspects for language learners to comprehend, and can be learned by experience. The interpretation of what the speaker wanted to say using particular words is often influenced by factors such as listener’s assumption or the context. In pragmatics two contexts can be distinguished: linguistic context (is the doctoral set of words that surround the lexical item) and artist physical context (is the location of given words, the situation in which the word is used, as well as timing, all of them lead to proper understanding of the words). 1.2. Practical Value.
When we use idioms? According to Seild and McMordie (1988) one should know in which situations it is correct to use idiom and weather an idiom can be used in a formal or an informal situation. English native speakers use idioms all the time, and they often do it in an unconscious way. Doctoral Dissertation. This means that the communication with them can be very difficult. They use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly. Artist Essay. Of course choice of words depends on the person who is speaking, on the situation and the place.
If people are friends and they are talking in private there is no reason to opposing viewpoint essays, avoid using idioms, slang or jargon. But, if in the same situation one of speakers is foreigner they should not use idioms until this person will master the language completely. Learning idioms cause a lot of artist essay troubles to English learners because they do not know the culture and history behind the viewpoint idioms. That is way they often use idioms inappropriately. Learners use idiomatic expressions carefully because they are afraid of artist essay using them incorrectly. In formal situations, it means when one is cruel angel rei asuka misato talking with a stranger or speaks publicly than one should shun idioms. Using idioms one should know whether an idiom is appropriate in certain situation. When idioms are used judiciously, they can even improve the essay atmosphere of one’s formal writing and provide more interesting descriptions. History Always Repeats Essay. But when one uses too many idioms, he will damage his work and it will create a wrong impression. Learners of foreign language should know that they cannot translate idioms exactly because they achieve ridiculous effect.
The results of foreigner’s translation may be bewildering to the English native speaker. Sometimes one may be lucky that the two languages have the same vocabulary. It is essay connected with close relation between language and culture. Idioms can be learnt only by listening to native speakers or reading texts which contains idioms. “Mastery of buying a thesis paper idioms comes only slowly, through careful study and observation, through practice and artist essay experience.” (Seidl and McMordie 1978:8) Idioms with a body part component. Many English idioms are related to repeats itself essay, external and internal organs of the human body. Body parts idioms contain following aspects: ? body parts which are connected with senses. ? limbs and artist limbs’ elements. ? other body parts.
Body idioms connected with senses. Ear – is an organ of essay hearing. Artist Essay. It is a part of human auditory system and it is history always repeats essay used to listen to essay, the sounds. Ear idioms have both positive and negative meaning. Half of them are positively loaded; the other part is negatively loaded. Eye – is an organ of vision. According to Macmillan dictionary (2007) eye is buying a thesis paper one of two body parts used for seeing. Most of the idioms are positively loaded.
Nose – it is a part of people’s face that is used for smelling and essay breathing. Half of nose idioms have a positive meaning the other half have a negative meaning. According to Mcmillan English dictionary (2007) skin is the external layer of human’s and animal’s body. Skin also enables feeling. Body idioms connected with limbs and itself limbs’ elements.
Arm – is an upper limb of human body with your hands at the end. Six arm idioms have a positive meaning, one is rather neutral and artist essay the others have a negative meaning. Shoulder – it is one of two parts of the body between one’s neck and the top of one’s arms. In dictionaries there are many different uses of word ‘hand’. As a body part ‘hand’ is at the end of each arm that people use for picking up and holding things, but it is also used for moving and cruel angel rei asuka touching things. Hand provides a good source for metonymic extensions and hand-based idioms convey both positive and negative meanings. That said, a hand that takes does not give, your hand and not the artist essay charity of rei asuka others, someone’s hand outruns his/her tongue (speech), someone’s hand and strike, someone with a long hand, someone’s hand on his/her heart, someone with an empty hand, someone with a loose hand, someone with a short hand, someone with a dry hand, someone dug his/her grave by hand, someone withdrew his/her hand from someone/ something, soften your hand (imperative), as left by artist essay, your hand, no power in hand, putting one’s hand in another’s throat and nobody hit him/her on the hand are all instances of hand based idioms that express negative meanings. Fingers are the long, thin parts at the end of essays human’s hands. Half of the finger idioms have a positive meaning and the other part is negative.
Leg – is artist a lower limb of human body with your foot at the end. Bigger parts of leg idioms have negative meaning (5), one is neutral and the rest are positive. Foot – the part of your body that is at the end of the leg on which a human or an animal stands. Six idiomatic expressions are negatively loaded and four of them have a positive meaning. Toe is the one of the writing individual parts at the end of essay human’s foot.
Only one idiom (be/keep on one’s toes) have a positive meaning, one is neutral (from top to toes) and the rest are negatively loaded. Heart is the organ in human’s chest that makes blood flow around the body. The term refers to our feelings and emotions in reference to people’s character. Heart is paper considered as the most important and artist influential part of human body. It is the place where people’s deepest emotions come from. It is believed that heart controls emotions and it is used to cruel angel rei asuka, talk about love and artist essay happiness. This is always why, the artist most of idioms are positively loaded. 80% of heart idioms contain the word ‘heart’ in Polish and 20% of idioms are not related to heart or feelings. Bone is one of the hard parts that form a fame inside the human’s or animal’s body. Bone function is to move and protect the internal organs of the body. Bones create the skeleton.
This is why they used to represent death. Nowadays, bone idioms are more general and they are not connected with death any more. Most of them (six) have a negative meaning, three are positively loaded and research length one is neutral. Tongue is the organ in your mouth. It is a long piece of flesh fixed to the bottom of human’s or animal’s mouth. People use it for tasting and speaking.
Tongue, mostly is use to talk but it also stands for a style of essay expression, a particular way of speaking and writing. Almost all tongue idioms have a negative meaning, which is surprising. It is the first body part which is cruel angel so negatively loaded. None of idioms have a clear positive meaning. Only one is neutral: have something on the tip of one’s tongue. Other body parts idioms. Head is the top part of essay human’s or animal’s body that has brain, eyes, mouth and nose.
Head can also stand for research paper, mind and essay thought. It is often connected with reason, thoughts or memories. There are many various uses of the term, which are listed in Macmillan Dictionary (2007). Six head idioms have a positive meaning and four of them are negatively loaded. Head provides an essential source domain for a thesis, characterizing people human states and behavior. The implicit meanings of head-based idioms are predominantly negative. This being the case, someone’s head getting big – which is essay equivalent to doctoral help, the English swollen-headed – is used rhetorically as a metonymy to essay, stand for someone who is arrogant, whereas someone with a big head refers metonymically to any knowledgeable person (scientist, engineer or professor) who is most appreciated by others, or to any person in power (minister, prime minister, or university president) who has mastery over issues others do not. Someone with a heavy head, which is equivalent to the English sleepy head, symbolizes a person who is less likely to wake up early and almost misses the clock alarm. Other idioms which also implicate negative meanings include someone’s got dry or solid head, which is a metonymy for the attribute of stubbornness and which is parallel to the English hard-headed, and someone’s head and pillow, which symbolizes loneliness (unmarried or friendless person) and metonymically stands for opposing viewpoint essays, anybody who need not look after anyone except him/herself.
When someone constructed roads in my head – which is equivalent to the English drilling a hole in artist essay someone’s head – is said by someone, then the speaker is complaining that he/she is tormented by someone pertinacious, one who is persistently nagging and over-enquiring about thesis rei asuka something in a very unpleasant manner. The conventional pragmatic implications of the artist idioms could also be either positive or negative. Instances of opposing viewpoint essays metonymic face-based idioms of negative implications which are of frequent use include someone has been eating my face, someone should not be given face, someone with a bloodless face, someone slept on his/her face = someone slept on belly, and someone’s face stops the livelihood. Someone has been eating my face is artist essay a metonymic expression used to stand for dissertation help mathematics, someone who relentlessly asks about something and insists on his request. This idiom is artist essay also used to angel, stand for creditors who insist on their request and seek to recover debt from debtors. Someone should not be given face is also a metonymy for a meddling person and this idiom is used as advice not to establish a relationship with any such type of people. There are some people who are intrusive overbearing in a very intolerable way, and if someone shows them a good welcome and smile in their faces once, they are encouraged to come back and hope to get more and more, and essay ask someone at every opportunity to history always repeats essay, give them what they want. If someone forgives and disregards an essay intrusive person’s mistakes, then the apologizer might go too far and keep insulting and hurting the apologize unless the cruel angel thesis misato apologizer is stopped from essay, doing so.
Further, there are some disturbing people who overstay their welcomes, in that if respected and welcomed in someone’s home or workplace, they come to visit someone every day in order for the host to undertake the cruel rei asuka misato duty of hospitality. For all these possible reasons, some people might use the metonymical idiom of someone should not be given face. Someone with a bloodless face is a metonymic expression that symbolizes rude and shameless people who are likely to speak in a way that may be hurtful and offensive to others; people who do not care whether they are right or not due to over brazenness and lack of modesty and understanding. The metonymical idiom of someone slept on his/her face is artist normally used to describe someone who slept worried or slept because of the severity of fatigue. Finally, the expression someone’s face stops the angel thesis livelihood is artist used to describe pessimistic people who are likely to get someone down. Repeats Itself Essay. It is normally said when someone failed to fulfill something following running into a pessimistic person. Metonymical face-based idioms of positive implications are relatively few and they include you can see your face in it and your face and essay not the moonlight.
The former is used as a metonymy to signify anything tremendously clean such as car, door, floor, etc. It is so clean that one can see one’s face in it as if it were a mirror. The latter is said while addressing the beloved person and opposing used to express the longing and welcome to the beloved person after a long absence. Also, someone with white face is a metonymy for a peaceful person who is innocent of essay some charges blamed on him/her accidently. Back is the body part that is opposite side to people’s chest, it is between the neck and viewpoint the top of legs. Half of back idioms are positive and artist the other half has a negative meaning. Idioms are one of the most difficult parts of the vocabulary of any language because they have unpredictable meanings or collocations and grammar. One of the main difficulties for learners is deciding in which situation it is correct to doctoral, use an essay idiom, i.e. the viewpoint level of style (neutral, informal, slang, taboo, etc. idioms). Learners of English may also have difficulty deciding whether an artist idiom is natural or appropriate in a certain situation. It is extremely unwise to translate idioms into history itself essay, or from one’s native language. One may be lucky that the two languages have the same form and essay vocabulary, but in most cases the result will be utterly bewildering to the English native speaker – and possibly highly amusing. (Seidl 1988)
Today’s English has a general tendency towards a more idiomatic usage. Even educated usage has become more tolerant, so the use of idiomatic expressions increased in history repeats frequency. Idioms are, in a very broad sense, metaphorical rather than literal: they are effectively metaphors that have become ‘fixed’ in language. In some cases, it is fairly easy to see how the idiomatic meaning relates to the literal meaning, in other cases, the literal meaning may make no sense at all. The primary goal of artist essay this study was to investigate the positive and opposing essays negative pragmatic implications of artist essay body-based idioms that are enhanced by metonymy. It was found that metonymical idioms that include lexis for head, face, eye, hand, tongue, and leg predominantly implicate negative meanings. Also, whereas metonymy-enhanced idioms that include body parts such as hair, nose, tongue, teeth, back, skin and blood were found to be expressing positive and negative meanings almost equally, metonymical idioms that are based on viewpoint essays mouth and essay neck were found to be conveying positive meaning only. It might be possible to argue that the cruel thesis misato use of the majority of body-based idioms is enhanced by the need to be polite. Having said that, we could say that the use to which these idioms are established and maintained is to protect the speaker’s and/or the addressee’s face. Idioms in artist general and those examined in this study in cruel thesis particular are all examples of indirect communication of opinions, human states and behaviour.
Almost every body idiom is related to artist essay, human being, to its behaviour, qualities and everyday life. Understanding of the metaphorical meaning of idiomatic phrases is related to everyday experience and opposing viewpoint the world around us. It causes that metaphors are very important in people’s lives. Artist. This is whyone should know idioms especially when he is opposing learning language. Metaphors are part of the language. Artist Essay. If one understands idioms, he will understand culture of foreign people. 3. Some Examples. If you are all ears, you are very interested and business communication ready to listen to what another person wants to tell you. Artist. Tell me what happened – I’m all ears. All in your head.
If something is doctoral mathematics all in your head, you have imagined it and it is not real. Stop thinking that everybody hates you. It’s all in your head. Cost somebody an arm and a leg. If something costs an artist essay arm and a leg, it is very expensive. This television set cost me an arm and leg. It wasn’t cheap at all. Armed to opposing viewpoint, the teeth. A person who is armed to the teeth is using or carrying a lot of weapons.
The enemy soldiers were armed to the teeth. It was impossible to artist essay, defeat them. At each other’s throats. If two people are at opposing viewpoint, each other’s throats, they are arguing in an angry way. It looks like they are at artist essay, each other’s throatsagain. Opposing Viewpoint Essays. They just can’t agree on anything.
If you have the guts to do something, you are brave enough to do it. He has the guts to express his opinions in artist public. If you hit a nerve, you upset someone by talking about an a thesis paper uncomfortable topic. I think you really hit a nerve when you mentioned her divorce. Pain in the neck. If someone or something is essay a pain in the neck, he/she/it is very annoying. Angela is a real pain in the neck. Angel Thesis. She annoys just about everyone she meets. Pick someone’s brains. If you pick someone’s brains, you ask the person for advice, suggestions and information.
I need some ideas. Can I pick your brains? If you play something by ear, you deal with a situation as it develops rather than according to artist essay, any plan. We don’t have a plan. We’ll just have to play it by ear. Pull someone’s leg. If you pull someone’s leg, you make someone believe something that is not true, usually as a joke. Buying Paper. Don’t take her seriously. She’s just pulling your leg. Put your foot down.
If you put your foot down, you stop something from happening by using your authority. Artist Essay. She was out of control but her parents finally decided to put their foot down. 1. Business And Report (in English). Courtney, R., Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs, Essex England: Longman Group UK Ltd, 1994; 2. Gibbs, Raymond W. (1994): The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Under-standing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essay. 3. Gibbs, Raymond W. Berg, E. Viewpoint. (1999): Embodied metaphor and perceptual symbols.
Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 4. Essay. Gibbs, Raymond W., Lima, Paula Francuzo, Edson (2004): Metaphor is a thesis grounded in embodied experience. Journal of Pragmatics 36, 5. Artist. Gibbs, Raymond W. Wilson, Nicole L. (2002): Bodily Action and Metaphorical Meaning. Thesis Misato. 6. Goossens, Louis (1990): Metaphtonymy: The interaction of metaphor and artist metonymy in 7. expressions for linguistic action. Cognitive Linguistics1, 8. Halliday, Michael A.K. (1985): An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Buying Paper. London: Edward Arnold.
9. Hansen, Gyde (2005): Experience and Emotion in artist essay Empirical Translation Research with 10. Think-Aloud and Retrospection. Meta 50, 11. Flavell, L. and R., Dictionary of Idioms and their Origins, Kyle Cathie LTD, London, 2002; 12. Manser, M., Dictionary of Word and cruel Phrase Origins, London: Sphere Books Ltd., 1990; 13. Artist. Rogers, J., The Dictionary of Cliches, New Jersey: Wings Books, 1994; 14.
Seidl, J., English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988; 15. Warren, H., Oxford Learner’s. Dictionary of dissertation help English Idioms, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994; 16. ***, The COBUILD Dictionary of Idioms, London, Harper Collins Publishers, 1995 17. Essay. ***, The Longman Dictionary of English Idioms, Longman Group UK Ltd., 1979; 18. ***, The Oxford Dictionary of Idioms, New York, Oxford University Press Inc., 1999; 19. ***, The Penguin Dictionary of English Idioms, Penguin Books Ltd., 1994; 20. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Idioms, Ware: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993; 21. ***, The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase Fable, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Ltd., 1993. University/College: University of business and report writing California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Idioms Denoting Parts of Body. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Roles Responsiblities of essay, Teaching – PGCE. As a teacher there are wide range of roles and responsibilities that we must fulfil in order to ensure we are successful. Paper. There are many different audiences which we have to adhere to, not just students, but parents/carers, social workers, case managers, schools, examination boards and our managers. Artist. Wilson (2009, Pg 6) describes a vast list of roles and responsibilities of essays, a teacher. In this list she highlights a variety of artist, areas from essays duties surrounding planning schemes of work and lessons, assessing, verifying and essay, reviewing students learning, marking work and entering students for cruel angel thesis misato, qualifications and examinations, having a duty of care, creating a safe environment for all and artist essay, many more. I feel that within these roles and responsibilities I have some strengths and some areas for improvement. Throughout this report I will discuss many of the research introduction length roles and responsibilities which I feel are important in my role as a teacher, and evaluate them in terms of my strengths and my personal areas for improvement. Need essay sample on Roles Responsiblities of Teaching – PGCE ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. I will also discuss in this report some of the most challenging aspects of my role, and evaluate how I could develop further in these areas. Wilson (2009, Pg 4) states that as teachers “We are charged with ensuring our learners gain their qualifications in artist essay a manner which is favourable to their own learning needs and those of the awarding bodies”.
Through this she highlights our main aim as teachers to help ensure that all students achieve their qualifications. However, she also describes how it is imperative that all students learning needs are met. These learning needs could include a variety of different aspects varying from Learning Difficulties and Disabilities, Emotional Behavioural Difficulties, Social Issues, family circumstances and many more. Through having a good understanding of our students learning needs we can ultimately provide an inclusive and conducive learning environment (Wilson, 2009 Tadeo, 2010). Artist Essay. 7 One of the ways in which it is possible to ensure all this information, and more, is gained and viewpoint, accessible to all staff is through the Initial.
Assessment process. I believe Initial Assessments to be one of the most important and crucial times in education. I feel that the importance of understanding the individual and engaging them from the outset is vital. Petty (2009, Pg 532) highlights this in explaining that Initial Assessments are important as “teachers need to know a good deal about their students if they are to place them on the right programme, and also to teach them well”. Initial Assessments are often used to determine the level which the learner should be placed upon, and can provide vital information about individual’s learning needs and ensure the learner is supported throughout their learning experience (Excellence Gateway, n. d. Tadeo, 2010).
Wilson (2009, Pg 134) describes the huge range of information we need to gain from Initial Assessments: “…personality, character and behaviour… attainment and potential and skills gaps, aspirations, support needed and level of ability”. This highlights the huge variety of artist, methods needed to always repeats employ to ensure we know all of this information about our learners. During the early stages of Initial Assessments my responsibility as a teacher mainly lies in ensuring I am familiar with the information provided about essay, each student prior to them attending college, for example from the interview process and doctoral help, through information gained from outside agencies, such as Statements of Educational Needs. Working with students with Emotional Behavioural Difficulties makes this an even more imperative task, and means that we really must ensure that as much information about each student is gained as possible to artist ensure they can provided with a positive, supportive and successful college experience. Within Initial Assessments it is repeats itself essay vital to gain information pertaining to the individuals background, for example previous educational establishments, any qualifications already gained and artist essay, any social, emotional, learning or behavioural difficulties exhibited. Once the student has come into dissertation help, college I am able to take a much more active role in essay the Initial Assessment process. My responsibilities mostly pertain to business communication writing (in english) 8 introducing myself to the students, getting to know them, and assessing their current competencies. I vital part in my role within Initial Assessments is essay ensuring all students complete tests which measure the level of their iteracy and numeracy using Target Skills Gold. This enables me to ensure students are entered at opposing viewpoint, the correct level of essay, qualification (Petty, 2009).
Tadeo (2010) highlights the reliability of such objective tests in the initial assessment process. This responsibility also continues on throughout the year, as I must ensure that all students who arrive throughout the year complete these assessments. I believe the most vital area of Initial Assessments is getting to know your students, and I also believe this is one of my main strengths as a teacher. It is imperative that we understand why they are with us, what they are interested in, any social and emotional issues they may be willing to share, their family situation and much more information. For this reason, within the first few days I ask all students to create an ‘About me’ poster in which I ask them to put photos and images of things they enjoy and are interested in, photos of their friends, family and pets, and any other information about themselves. This also provides the opportunity to assess students’ capabilities with Computers, and often literacy.
I feel that through this it is viewpoint highlighted to each student that I am interested in them as an artist essay, individual, and enable me to adapt teaching methods to suit not only their learning needs but also their interests. This notion and method of getting to know your students is supported by Craven (n. d. Thesis Rei Asuka. , para. 4) in which she states “good things for students to share are information about their families, hobbies and interests, and any other fun facts… [in] building your classroom community”. Working within the Fourteen Plus provision, which is artist essay a provision for a thesis, students who have been excluded from mainstream education for a variety of reasons. These students can exhibit particularly challenging behaviour, and are often extremely difficult to engage. I feel that building a good rapport with any student, but especially students with Emotional Behavioural Difficulties, help in creating a supportive and welcoming environment. I am always keen to 9 learn about the students’ interests and hobbies, and am quickly learning the positive impact of tailoring lessons and tasks to their interests, and linking the work to make it applicable to their lives (Cowley, 2003 and artist, Craven, n. d. Angel Thesis. ). The behavioural problems can prompt the most challenging aspects of my role. Often students are very challenging to engage. Petty (2009) highlights the importance making learning enjoyable and fun in artist essay order to motivate and engage students. Business And Report Writing (in English). He highlights the importance in relating tasks to the individuals in motivating students, stating “…students, like most people, find something more interesting if it relates directly to their own lives or own enthusiasms” (Petty, 2009, Pg 51-52). Artist Essay. I feel that I am developing this skill of making tasks both applicable and exciting currently and am hopeful that with this skill behaviour and attitude will continue to introduction improve.
Another role I must play in the Initial Assessment process is to ensure all students are placed in the correct group, at artist essay, the correct level of itself essay, qualification. This is partly assessed from the students’ target skills gold results, determining their current level. However, there are many other factors to artist consider. Writing (in English). These include the artist essay students commitment and cruel angel thesis rei asuka, attitude towards their study, any learning needs which may mean students are more suited to smaller groups with more support from Learning Assistants. This is mostly carried out as a group discussion between the Course leader, another lecturer and myself. I feel that perhaps this is an artist, area in which I am lacking confidence. Although I have been working within this provision for over three years I still lack confidence when discussing matters with my colleagues. I feel that if I was to improve my confidence I could make a more positive contribution to such decisions.
One of my main strengths is in understanding individuals learning needs. I am always keen to ensure that all students are supported in all aspects of their learning. This may not only include supporting their learning difficulties and barriers to learning, but also in providing pastoral support and advice. I am understanding of students social, emotional and research length, personal issues and able to 10 support them where need be, and knowledgeable of policies and procedures in referring students to relevant areas, such as Counselling, Connexions, Anger management etc. Another key role and artist, responsibility of a teacher is creating a positive teaching environment, managing the classroom and viewpoint essays, challenging and managing challenging behaviour. I feel that this is another of my strengths as I have been working with students with challenging behaviour for over three years in a variety of capacities. I feel that this has given me a wide range of behaviour management skills and techniques. I have also taken part in a course on Working with Aggression and Violence Effectively which has given me a variety of de-escalating techniques and greater confidence in dealing with aggressive students, which is artist essay common issue when working with such challenging students. Creating a safe environment for all to feel confident and secure in (Petty, 2009 and Wilson, 2009).
Petty (2009) highlights how “mutual respect [based on]…his or her teaching skills, personal qualities, knowledge and professionalism” is key in ensuring a good relationship between the teacher and student. Whilst meeting with my colleague he suggested that this is one of research paper length, my main strengths. I am good at showing each student respect, getting to know them, their likes and artist essay, dislikes, their passions and mathematics, enthusiasms. Cowley (2003) highlights how happily engaging students in artist conversations makes the student feel as though the lecturer is interested in them and actually likes them, making the cruel rei asuka classroom a warm and welcoming environment. Being a good role model to my students is one of the artist most important aspects of being a teacher. Cowley (2003, Pg 163) supports this view in stating “Children… need good role models to dissertation look up to artist and learn from. Their teacher or teachers can have a huge, positive influence on them, particularly if they respect and like them”. There are many aspects to being a good role model as a teacher such as always being organised, prepared and on paper introduction length time to lessons. These are all attributes I hope and expect from my students, and by artist essay, 11 showing them myself I am creating a positive role model for them. Another way of being a good role model is to always be polite and history always repeats essay, courteous to artist my students. Thesis Rei Asuka. Cowley (2003) expresses the importance of being polite, even when confronted with the difficult situations and rudest students, highlighting that the other students present are learning from you.
I always aim to be a good role model to my students, being punctual, organised, prepared, polite and proactive in engaging all students in their learning. I feel that this helps students in respecting me. Another aspect of being a good role model to students is ensuring my knowledge of the curriculum and subject is good. I have a clear understanding of the GCSE curriculum and artist essay, scheme of work, and a thesis, am confident in all areas of teaching this. However, as the Functional Skills qualification is a new qualification to artist us I am still getting used to the structure of the assessment.
I need to ensure I am more familiar with this in order to develop and be successful as a teacher. Help. Within this I must also ensure that all my lessons are planned well and I am fully prepared. My preparation is good, and I am always organised for my learners. However, timing is an area which I need to develop. Due to nature of the students it can be unpredictable how much work they will achieve at any one time. I find this is making it difficult for me to assess how much time each individual task will take. I know my students well and am understanding of their barriers to essay learning, but feel that if I was able to plan the time more precisely during lessons I would be a more successful teacher for viewpoint, my learners.
One of the biggest challenges I have in my current role is verifying the students learning. I feel that working with students who are very challenging to artist essay engage anyway make this task even more challenging. It is cruel angel thesis misato often the artist essay case that students want to history always repeats itself essay get on with their work and essay, go, they do not want to sit and tell me what they have learnt, or listen to me explain to research paper introduction length them what they have done well, or what they need to improve. I realise that this is essay probably my most important area for improvement and development. I feel that I need to employ more exciting and active methods of viewpoint essays, teaching in engaging students 12 further, ensuring they understand and giving them and myself the confidence to ensure all learning is verified.
I feel that if I try to address all the areas of essay, development mentioned above I will be a more successful teacher, and ensure all students achieve and have a successful college experience.
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construct art essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the artist, Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41) If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for introduction length men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from artist essay obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the paper length, term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. Artist Essay! The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. These magazines are seen by angel rei asuka misato some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and artist are openly sexist.
This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves. The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at the style and content of the magazines in history always repeats terms of the construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and artist essay rhetorical representations of women. Opposing Viewpoint Essays! Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to be at the top end of the market, and Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and essay can change within different contexts and over time.
A shift in the attitudes and doctoral help lifestyles of British men over the past 10 years opened up a market for artist men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in thesis the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of artist essay, style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at help, the new style conscious male readership. Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and development of general interest men's magazines. In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to have a high readership. Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. Artist Essay! beer, sex and babes, to introduction, be the most successful, consequently even the more upmarket titles are beginning to artist essay, turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of length, men's power that has resulted in such publications.
The celebration of 'laddishness' is essay, a desperate attempt to grasp what is left of traditional male identity. He states that the loss of power is a positive issue, but is worried that the thesis rei asuka, danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen. Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the artist, certainties of the paper, gender order. This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male. The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to a world where gender relations are changing. Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to essay, gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and history repeats essay an attempt for men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in artist essay other words to return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.'  Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the angel thesis, swaggering loutish lad ousting the feminised new man. Immaterial of whether these publications were the artist, result of opposing essays, a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis.
Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in essay western culture is in deep crisis. With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on a thesis male dominance in public areas of life has tended to obscure the essay, emotional poverty of many men's lives. Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and always ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Artist! Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to buying, the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable. 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to essay, others.' Buckingham is business communication and report writing, asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in essay order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. In discussing the release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in length an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.'  There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is obviously missing from this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is essay, how men's needs for research reciprocity and essay emotional warmth are to be met.' (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today.
The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex. Cruel Thesis! What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the artist essay, magazines try to avoid, a sense of the fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to research paper length, established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers. By looking at the style and artist content of two major men's magazines, the extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. Opposing! He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in short he is that most ghastly of artist, all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'. (Edwards, 1997)
GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of executive concerns and doctoral pitching itself at artist, a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and cruel angel thesis rei asuka misato style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the artist, media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to cruel angel rei asuka, hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an artist essay, interest in health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to business communication writing, join the artist essay, new style elite, the angel thesis rei asuka, high-profile advertising, and artist essay the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the right shops, and get seen in the right apparel. This leads to the construction of masculinity in terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of rei asuka misato, how one looks and not what one does. Artist! Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of communication and report writing, magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the artist essay, emphasis on cruel thesis rei asuka misato commodities is essay, still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine.
GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. Research Introduction Length! For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market. The garden furniture featured is aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the Loaded man.
The model is artist, young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is opposing essays, admitting he is guilty of artist essay, being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of cards and the play boy wallet. His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by this revelation. This man is buying a thesis paper, a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Artist Essay! Firstly, he would suggest that it is the viewpoint essays, culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the artist, culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of creativity, independence and research genuine happiness. Adorno would be unhappy with the artist essay, commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in introduction that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.
Sexism is an artist, infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is essay, believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from essay '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only history repeats worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of artist, stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' . But isn't this the communication and report writing, problem? Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into artist essay, the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to be lost on angel thesis misato the bog standard 16 year old.'  Peter Howorth, the previous editor of essay, Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' . This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects. This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is paper, beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Segal argues in response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and artist that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity. A further characteristic evident through the style and content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers.
Edwards states this is due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of communication and report writing, off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned. The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is artist essay, represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and business communication where one is truly free to artist essay, do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of cruel thesis rei asuka, consumption and sexual freedom.'  This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the fashion photography that the new coding's of masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated. Menswear is seen primarily in artist essay terms of utility. The main example is the dissertation mathematics, suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and a uniform of respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages.
Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the artist, profile of the shoot immediately, and repeats essay involves an element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability.
Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in artist essay Loaded (April, 2000). Always Repeats Essay! It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is artist, featured of the communication and report writing, model is his feet, but he is obviously relaxing on a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man. The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is artist, a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is taken too seriously by those who don't know better. Business Communication And Report Writing! But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of artist essay, capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader.
Foucault, would structure his argument around power. In 'The History of Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and paper all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at essay, the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and cruel thesis misato reaching on essay more and more limited groups to the very depths of the social body'.  (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .' This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.'  John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. History Always Essay! In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. Essay! adequate space for different people to make different meaning'. (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by the people for the people.
'It cannot conceive of the buying, text as a site of struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and artist pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the angel thesis misato, producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.' (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women. They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of artist essay, mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to opposing essays, harm anyone in an attempt to provide entertainment. Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time of your life.'  Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to artist, the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to buying a thesis, reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and essay The Media (Manchester, 1993)
Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Opposing Essays! Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and essay Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and cruel angel misato Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Artist! Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in and report (in english) Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of artist, Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000)
Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000)
Strinati, D. Dissertation Help! 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. Essay! 'Gender and Media Reception', in Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994) Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.
 Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. Doctoral Dissertation Help Mathematics! 16-17.  Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to essay, Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. Itself Essay! The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135.
 Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of essay, Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377.  Kenny, M and introduction length Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. Artist Essay! The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137.  Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in length Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.  Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26.  Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and artist The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89.  Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in buying paper European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379.  Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82.
 Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74.  Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000)  Carter, H. Artist! 'New Man, Old Myth?' in doctoral help mathematics 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. Artist Essay! 29, pp. 16-17.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376.  Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.  Segal, L 'Sexualities' in mathematics Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.
 Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378.  Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4.  Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and essay Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166.  Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54.  Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and opposing Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58.  Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the artist essay, text nor the cruel rei asuka misato, audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61.  Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were:
Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the artist, grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.
This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of always itself essay, Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.