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A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Sexual Abuse. Each of these actions may seem completely farfetched to the average person; however, actions similar to these are a reality for nearly 5. 8 million adults in the United States that suffer from an illness called bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder, historically referred to as manic depressive illness, is an umbrella term used to describe cyclic, recurrent, polarizing mood disturbances that range from euphoria, elation, and mania at to write, one pole to irritability, dysphoria, and depression at the other. We will write a custom essay sample. on A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Sexual Abuse or any similar. topic specifically for you. This is the case of our client Marya. She suffers from Bipolar 1 which is the worst level of Bipolar disorder. As a class assignment we were assign Madness: a bipolar life written by our client Marya, who has been diagnosed with this debilitating disease as an adult after many misdiagnoses. The focus of essays on gangster genre, this paper will be to understand whether our client Marya was sexually abused as a child.
I will be taking the stand of her not being sexually abused as a child and that her symptoms can be explained by her bipolar disorder. In researching the topic of childhood sexual abused in relation to bipolar disorder there is to write a poem, not enough evidence to support the idea that a child that suffered from sexual abuse will developed bipolar later in materialistic essay life. The symptoms of our client Marya are strictly symptoms of help to write, her bipolar 1 disorder. Nice Essay! Some symptoms of bipolar 1 include: flying suddenly from one idea to the next, rapid pressured and help to write a poem, loud speech, increased energy with hyperactivity, a decreased need for sleep, inflated self-image, excessive spending, hyper sexuality and substance abuse. According to an article written by David Finkelhor sexual abuse can be defined as sexual contact with a child that occurs under one of three conditions: When a large age or maturational difference exists between the partners, when the nice partner is in a position of help, authority over or in a care-taking relationship with the child or when the acts are carried out against the child by using violence or trickery. In reading Madness: a bipolar story I did not get the impression that our clientMarya had been sexually abused as child. Page 2 A Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Sexual Abuse Essay. I did not perceived that any adult had taken advantage of her, sexually or of any other form. While sexual abuse can be hard to detect, especially in writing bibliography children because the abuse often occurs in secrecy and there is a poem, not always anyphysical evidence of the abuse, some child sexual abuse survivors may show symptoms of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
They may behave in a nervous, upset way and may have nightmares. Another symptom many be reenactment of the abuse in their play time. Tips For Writing Letter! They mmay show fear and constant worry. Young children may lose skills they once learned and act younger than they are. For example, an abused child might start wetting the bed or sucking their thumb. Some sexual abuse survivors show out-of-place sexual behaviors that are not expected in a child. They may act seductive or they may not maintain safe limits with others. In reading Madness, our client Marya did not displayed any of the above mention symptoms.
As a result of a study from The British Journal of Psychiatry named Impact of childhood abuse on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. To Write A Poem! The study was conducted with a sample of a 100 patients at an academic specialty centre for the treatment of bipolar disorder. The research found that a history of severe childhood abuse is to be found in approximately half of dissertation help, adults with bipolar disorder with multiple forms of having occurred in about a third. Distinct negative impacts on clinical outcome were associated with childhood physical, sexual or emotional abuse histories, with evidence suggesting more extensive suicidality, rapid cycling and help, possibly comorbid substance misuse associated with multiple forms of for writing an effective, childhood abuse. This study helped me come to to write the conclusion that Marya was not sexually abuse as a child. In my opinion since the study suggest that only half of the materialistic essay 100 people showed symptoms of severe childhood and to write a poem, sexual abuse was included within this half it is not enough evidence to conclude that our client Marya has been sexually abused.
While child sexual abuse survivors may show symptoms of and responsibilities of a sports, PTSD as well as symptoms that may include anxiety, low self esteem, difficulty setting safe limits with others and relationship problems. Help A Poem! Survivors may have bad dreams. They may act out aspects of the abuse in their play. They might show other fears and worries. Young children may lose skills they once learned and act younger than they are. For example, an abused child might start wetting the bed or sucking his or her thumb. Some sexual abuse survivors show out-of-place sexual behaviors that are not expected in a child. Sexual abuse can be very confusing for dissertation children.
For a child, it often involves being used or hurt by a trusted adult. The child might learn that the only way to get attention or love is to give something sexual or give up their self-respect. Some children believe the a poem abuse is essays genre, their fault somehow. They may think the abuser chose them because they must have wanted it or because there is something wrong with them. Marya had childhood that in my opinion was different than most children, like for an example when at the age of four she described that she could not fall asleep due to a goat being in her room. While going thru these emotions can be difficult, I don’t think it suggest that she was sexually abused. Marya family from her father side appeared to to write a poem have a history of mental illness which leads me to dissertation help in london the understanding that her bipolar is to write, hereditary. And that her symptoms manifest as a result of her illness and roles sports coach essay, not as victim of child sexual abuse. Help! I took the tips cover stand of our client Mary not being sexually abused as child, it is important to understand the study of bipolar disorder because it is help, more common than most people think. Many people often joke with friends and family about the materialistic essay possibility of having this disorder but it is an help illness that should not be overlooked or ignored.
Many adolescents find themselves happy one day and angry the essays on gangster next. This common change of emotion is help to write a poem, a characteristic of bipolar disorder, leading to the drastic fluctuation of emotions. After observing how serious bipolar disorder is and the negative effects it can have one’s life and the lives of those around them, hopefully others will understand the complexity of this devastating sickness. References Garno, Jessica L. , Joseph F. Goldberg, Paul Michael Ramirez, and Barry A. Ritzler . #8220;Impact of childhood abuse on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. #8221; (2005): n. page. Web.
9 Feb. Hornbacher, Marya. Nice! Madness: A Bipolar Life. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. Print. 2013. A Poem! Ogata , Susan N. Ph. D , Kenneth R. M. D. Silk , Sonya Ph. Writing Law Essay! D Goodrich , Naomi E. Ph. Help To Write! D. Lohr , Drew Ph.
D. Roles And Responsibilities Sports Coach! Westen , and help to write, Elizabeth M. Ph. D. Materialistic Essay! Hill . #8220;Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse in Adult Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder. Help To Write A Poem! #8221; American Journal of Psychiatry. Dissertation In London! (1990): 147:8. A Poem! Web. 12 Feb. 2013. Sonne , Sonne C. , Sonne C. PharmD , and kathleen T. M. D. Ph. D. Brady . #8220;Understanding the impact of coach essay, alcohol on help a poem, human health and well-being . #8221; National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism . n. page. Roles And Responsibilities Coach! Web.
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Michael C. Vanier: computer programming skills resume. Most of help to write a poem, my thesis work involved building realistic computer simulations of the brain (specifically the mammalian olfactory cortex). In the process of doing this work, I discovered that I really liked programming and on gangster, I've ended up spending a lot of help a poem, time learning new programming languages and programming tools just for fun. Dissertation Help. I have a particular fondness for unusual programming languages and help to write, new programming paradigms, which I guess is why I'm making a living teaching programming now ;-) I've also periodically done part-time jobs to make extra money, all of which have been programming-related. I describe my computer skills and the jobs I've worked on below. NOTE: Some parts of this document are obsolete and need an overhaul. What this means in practice is essays on gangster, that I actually know and have worked on more stuff than is in this document, though I try to keep it reasonably up to date.
The HTML also needs to to write, be cleaned up. Large programming projects I've worked on. Personal Spider, Inc. Dissertation Help In London. During the dot-com boom, I was one of the core programmers in an internet startup company called Personal Spider Inc. (PSI). I'm was also one of the company founders, was on the board of directors, and was the help a poem chief science officer. I've done a limited amount of management of other programmers as well. Due to NDAs, I can't disclose the details of the work I did with PSI, but in general it involves building internet tools for medium-sized web sites. There was a considerable amount of pattern-recognition and language processing work involved as well, which nicely leveraged a lot of the titles skills I've learned in the course of my work at Caltech. The code was entirely in Python. This company failed to secure adequate funding and is now defunct. Tspice and Wedit I worked part-time for 18 months at Tanner Research Inc. as a programmer.
While there I worked on several projects, using a combination of C, C++ and Python as programming languages. All of these involved developing tools for simulating VLSI circuits. Most of my work was on Unix platforms, mainly Sun Solaris. The projects included: Porting two graphically-oriented software packages from help to write Windows to Unix. One package was a circuit-simulation package (Tspice), while the other was a graphical display package for visualizing the outputs of the Tspice program (Wedit). Enhancing the Tspice circuit simulation program so it could work over a network. This was Unix-specific.
Adding capabilities to the Tspice circuit simulation program; specifically, I modified the program to: support dependent voltage and current sources (VCCS, VCVS, CCCS, CCVS) whose branch characteristic equations were polynomials in the dependent source values. handle impact ionization parameters in a broad class of transistor models. Working on adding algorithms to the Tspice simulation package to make it work on parallel computers. Gambit I worked for several months with Richard McKelvey in bibliography law essay, the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech. Help. I'm did a variety of programming jobs involving the nice essay Gambit game-theory simulator, which is help, written in C++. Originally, I was working on essay building a GUI record/playback system. I built a prototype, but the project money ran out after that. I also ported the help to write a poem gambit GUI to use the wxxt-1.67 implementation of tips an effective, wxWindows for Unix using Xt widgets only (i.e. which doesn't require Motif), and set up a CVS code archive. A database-backed web site This was a prototype for a commercial web site that involved collecting form data from individuals, storing the results in a database, computing values based on those results, and returning these results to the user. In other words, it was like every other commercial web site on help to write a poem the planet. I used Python, MySQL, PHP, and materialistic, apache to build the site.
Interestingly, the person I worked for on this project turned out to be dishonest, and he still owes me over to write $1000 for roles and responsibilities sports coach essay the work I did for to write a poem him. GNU shogi This is my hobby project. GNU shogi is a program that plays shogi (Japanese chess), and it's part of the GNU project. The program is described in great detail in the link above. C++ I've worked on tips for writing letter a couple of medium-to-large projects in help, C++ (the Wedit program and the Gambit game-theory simulator), mostly on maintaining, porting, and/or extending previously-existing projects. I've also written some neural network simulations in C++. Essay Titles. I believe that C++ is better for large projects than C due to its object-oriented features. It's also probably the fastest OO language.
However, it can be difficult to use effectively because of its great complexity. And, as mentioned for C, the lack of garbage collection discourages you from help using many kinds of data structures, although C++ is at essays on gangster least far superior to C in this regard because of help, destructors. In addition, there are freely-available conservative garbage collectors for C++ such as the Boehm-Demers GC which could in theory make C++ programming much more pleasant (I say in theory because I've never done it in C++, although I have done it in C). One thing I will say about C++ is that, unlike Perl, where the dissertation language seems arbitrarily complex for no good reason, the complexity in C++ is an accurate reflection of the kinds of things that are typically done in the language. Whether a simpler language with equivalent power could be created is an interesting research problem; I find it revealing that C++ is to write, essentially the nice essay titles only language in its design space (object-oriented languages that fully support low-level programming). Modula-3 had some of C++'s low-level features but never caught on (and had much weaker OO support). Java The largest Java program I've written was a prototype neural simulator in Java (as an exploration of the language as a possible future implementation language for GENESIS). This came to help to write, about 7000 lines of code.
Java is nicer in most ways than C++. It's safer, cleaner, and has very few weird features. Having automatic garbage collection is also a huge win from the programmer's standpoint. Roles Essay. They left out some features of a poem, C++ I liked (templates and operator overloading) but there are compilers that support those features too (and the Java standard has already generics, which solve many of the same problems that templates solved, albeit in materialistic essay, a completely different way). To Write A Poem. The main problem with Java is speed: it's about in london, 10-20 times slower than C when run byte-coded, and maybe 1.5-3 times slower when using a JIT (just-in-time compiler). This makes it much less attractive to people like me who do simulations, where you can never have enough speed. However, it is a poem, extremely attractive when portability is more important than speed. The Java environment is materialistic essay, also quite nice, and eliminates most of the hassle from to write a poem doing e.g. portable graphics or network programming. One thing I dislike about help, Java is its verbosity; code in Java is often much longer than equivalent code written in to write, other languages because of the plethora of mandatory declarations.
Python Python is dissertation help in london, my scripting language of help to write, choice. I've written innumerable little data-munging scripts in Python (several thousand lines of code). I've also made a version of the GENESIS neural simulator that used Python as its extension language instead of the standard GENESIS script language. I built a networked version of the materialistic Tspice circuit simulation program using Python to handle the help a poem networking connections between the graphical interface and the computing engine. The database-backed web site I worked on had Python code which generated thousands of lines of PHP code (!). Nice Essay. The Personal Spider project is to write a poem, written entirely in nice, Python. In addition, these web pages are created from template files written in Python. I like Python because it can do everything Perl does, but it's much cleaner in help to write a poem, design, is object-oriented, and law essay, the code is more readable than in any other computer language I know of. It's also a great extension/embedding language for large software packages.
Check out the Python home page for more details. I worked on help a fairly large prototype of roles of a coach essay, a commercial web site involving putting a database up on a web site where PHP was the server-side scripting language. It came to about 10,000 lines of PHP code, of which about half were automatically generated (by Python scripts that I wrote :-)). Help To Write A Poem. Server-side scripting languages are a great idea and are essential for this kind of roles and responsibilities coach essay, work. However, PHP is sucks big time as a computer language; in fact, I never want to use it again as long as I live. The way arrays are implemented is particularly hilarious. To Write A Poem. (Maybe the language has improved now; I don't know.) If I do this kind of work again I'll look into alternatives such as Ruby on Rails or one of the Python web frameworks, or else write my own web framework.
Lisp and Scheme I've done bits and pieces of Lisp and Scheme programming (Scheme is a dialect of Lisp) but no very large projects. I did write a formatter for the C language in Emacs lisp which is about 400 lines long in its current version. Nice Essay Titles. I've written a prototype implementation of help a poem, a computer language in Scheme, but I switched to Ocaml for the final implementation. I've read several books on Lisp and Scheme (e.g. Abelson and Sussman's Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs and Graham's ANSI Common Lisp and On Lisp) and subscribe or have subscribed to several mailing lists for various implementations of Scheme. Finally, I teach Scheme as part of the CS 1 course at Caltech. I like Lisp and Scheme a lot, because they're among the most flexible, powerful and roles and responsibilities sports essay, extensible computer languages ever invented (not surprising, considering that they're based on lambda calculus). Lisp is a poem, usually thought of as an artificial intelligence (AI) language but it's actually general-purpose; it's just that other languages aren't flexible enough for AI, so Lisp is used in that domain by materialistic essay default. Lisp has a prefix syntax which uses lots of to write a poem, parentheses that many people find ugly and hard to understand, but I've found that you get used to it quickly (and I actually prefer it because it's so unambiguous). Also, most people think Lisp is slow, but it's not: several Common Lisp systems have compilers that can produce code which is almost as fast as C ( e.g. within a factor of 2). An Effective Cover Letter. A good recent example of this is Steel Bank Common Lisp.
The reason Lisp and Scheme are important is that they're virtually the only computer languages that combine the help to write following: full support for essays on gangster both imperative and functional programming (OK, Ocaml also gives you this, but Lisp is more general). Help A Poem. macros, which allow you to materialistic essay, write code that writes code. These are not like macros in C; Lisp macros operate on the syntactic structure of the code, not just on the string representation of code. Macros are one of the key elements that make it possible to implement support for new programming paradigms ( e.g. object-oriented programming, logic programming) within the language itself. Read Paul Graham's book On Lisp (currently out of print, but downloadable for free) for much more on macros. I used to be keen on Guile, a dialect of Scheme designed to be a scripting language, but that project has had a number of problems, the most serious of which is a chronic lack of decent documentation. Right now I advocate mzscheme, the Scheme implementation for the Dr. Scheme project.
Mzscheme is a beautifully-written version of help a poem, Scheme which works well as an help extension language. In addition, it has great documentation and its developers include some of the foremost names in the Scheme world. I encourage everyone who is really a serious programmer and who needs a scripting and/or extension language to look at mzscheme. To Write A Poem. Realistically, however, I know that most programmers are incredibly conservative and will never be able to get past Scheme's somewhat odd syntax. Objective CAML (Ocaml) and nice titles, Standard ML These languages have strong static polymorphic type systems and mainly support functional programming with strict evaluation, although they also support imperative programming. Help To Write. If you understood that last statement, you probably spend WAY too much time programming :-) These languages are very interesting for serious programmers, and are very pleasant to program in. The largest project I've done in Ocaml so far is an implementation of of a sports coach essay, a dynamically-typed functional programming language (which I also designed). This language is basically a cross between Forth and Scheme; the Ocaml code came to about 4500 lines of code, which is pretty small for a full language implementation. Ocaml, in particular, is so great that it has become one of my languages of help to write a poem, choice for materialistic new projects.
Just look at help a poem what it gives you: full support for imperative, functional, and object-oriented programming; amazingly fast execution (often beats C++ on speed tests); strong static polymorphic type-checking (this catches a HUGE number of bugs at materialistic compile time); a very powerful type system, which lets you describe the help to write program structurally in terms of its types so that if it passes the type checker it is almost correct by construction; type inference, so you usually don't have to declare types; a very efficient generational garbage collector; portable bytecode compilation or fast native-code compilation; a large standard library; a large user base; a powerful module system with functors and separate compilation; language customization using camlp4 (caml pretty-printer and preprocessor); a foreign function interface to C code; and lots more ;-) Ocaml only has two problems. First, its syntax is idiosyncratic and materialistic, somewhat grungy, especially for imperative programming. To Write. The syntax is also too free-form for my taste (over 100 shift-reduce conflicts in the grammar). The other (much more serious) problem is that ocaml totally spoils you; after you get over on gangster the (admittedly large) learning curve, programming in C or C++ feels like Chinese water torture and programming in Java or Python feels like playing with children's blocks. On the positive side, you'll probably program five times as fast and help to write, spend 1/5 the time debugging as you would in nice titles, those languages. A Poem. Ocaml is not a perfect programming language but it's so far ahead of the nearest competitor that it's just incredible. Incidentally, the writing law essay CAML in ocaml stands for Categorical Abstract Machine Language; I hope that clears that up ;-) Haskell Ah, Haskell. how do I love thee? Let me count the ways. ;-) Haskell is my new favorite language, even though I recognize that it isn't yet suitable for many tasks.
It's the help a poem most beautiful computer language I've ever used. Writing Bibliography Law Essay. It is a pure functional language with lazy evaluation, type classes, and uses monads (an advanced concept that comes from category theory) to help a poem, handle input/output, state transitions, and much more in a purely functional setting. Materialistic. Well-written Haskell code is so concise and elegant it will make you cry. If C code is a poem, one step up from assembly language, good Haskell code is one step down from essays poetry, or from a poem a beautiful mathematical theorem. And one of the things I like most about roles and responsibilities, it is that it was two of my students (Brandon Moore and Aaron Plattner) who were responsible for turning me on to Haskell (being a teacher has its perks). Haskell also has an incredibly rich and deep literature, a very active user base consisting of to write a poem, some of the smartest programmers in the world, and of a coach essay, is just a joy to use. I think the big lesson of help to write, Haskell is compositionality : the ability to take small things and essays genre, build bigger things out of them. This is much like the component concept you see in large-scale programming, but brought down to the micro-level: every piece of code in Haskell is essentially a black-box component, because the language is completely referentially transparent (that's what purely functional means, after all). I used to think I understood functional programming well when I programmed in Scheme and Ocaml, but learning Haskell has shown me that pure functional programming is potentially much more powerful than impure functional programming (which is a poem, what Scheme and Ocaml represent). I could go on dissertation in london for pages about how great Haskell is, but instead I'll just point you to help to write, the Haskell home page. Forth I've played around with Forth for years and have done some simple neural network simulations in it.
Forth is a low-level but extensible and interactive threaded-interpreted language which is mainly used for embedded systems programming due to essay, its low memory usage. It has an unusual stack-based postfix syntax that is not conducive to to write, writing readable code. It's a lot of fun to play with, because you can extend any part of the language (the implementation is completely exposed, for better or for an effective cover letter worse), and most of the language is written in itself. It's also fast for help to write an interpreted language. Essay. However, it's too slow for serious simulation work and too difficult to use for help scripting, so I don't use it anymore, except when I get bored :-) To me, Forth is a fascinating example of a language that is too simple for its own good i.e. it violates Einstein's dictum of make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler.
In Forth's case, the excessive simplicity of the parser means that simple grouping operations are unreasonably difficult (unlike in Lisp/Scheme, where the parentheses take care of grouping). I believe there is room for higher-level stack-based languages inspired by Forth and nice titles, Lisp, and I even implemented one ;-) That project is currently languishing in a poem, the I'll-get-back-to-it-when-I-get-bored category. GENESIS neural simulation system The GENESIS neural simulation system forms a large part of my thesis work. GENESIS includes a simple script language of help in london, its own called SLI (which means, imaginatively enough, Script Language Interpreter). SLI is an atrocious scripting language; it would take pages to describe how awful it is. However, one virtue of a poem, GENESIS as a whole is writing, that you can add new data types and commands to the language fairly easily. Matlab Matlab is the well-known data-analysis and numerical computation program. A Poem. I've used Matlab for lots of small data-analysis jobs and (mainly) for graphics. I dislike the Matlab language, which is roles coach essay, very poorly designed, but Matlab's numerical routines are very useful and the graphics that Matlab produces are excellent. Mathematica I use Mathematica whenever I have a really gnarly algebra or calculus problem to deal with.
I like it; it's a lot like Lisp with a nicer interface (although the to write Mathematica people don't give credit where it's due e.g. to the MacSyma program which predated it). However, I don't like proprietary software, so I don't use it much. Genre. I'd love to help to write a poem, see an open-source program of comparable abilities. Unix shells: sh, csh, zsh I've written loads of shell scripts in sh, csh, and zsh (usually sh). I nearly always switch to Python when the job gets sufficiently big (which usually means over twenty lines long), but shell scripts are great for gluing other programs together.
Much of the data analysis work I've done has involved a combination of an effective letter, shell scripts, Python scripts, and C programs, usually strung together in a long pipeline. make Make is the program used to coordinate a complex series of commands when compiling a program. It took me a while to realize that make is a programming language in its own right, albeit one very different from the ones I'm used to; it's more like a rule-based AI language such as Prolog. The GENESIS Makefiles are pretty nasty and I've hacked on them extensively. Help A Poem. I've also worked on lots of Makefiles for other projects I've been involved in.
I use GNU make exclusively; it has some very useful extensions over writing standard makes. Perl Perl is help a poem, a scripting language which combines the power of a lot of Unix tools into one language ( e.g. sh, sed, awk, and some of C). Tips An Effective Cover Letter. I've written many small throwaway scripts in help to write a poem, Perl. The largest thing I did in Perl was a series of scripts to convert files representing neural morphologies into files representing simpler morphologies that are roughly equivalent. This is an essential part of my thesis work, and was about 2500 line of tips an effective, Perl code.
Perl is quite fast for help a poem a scripting language, and is good for text and file manipulation, but it's very complex and I loathe its weird context dependencies and its syntax, which is full of funny magic characters and tips for writing an effective, assorted bogosities too numerous to name here. I also hate the fact that there are way too many ways of help a poem, doing exactly the same thing (or much worse, ALMOST the same thing but not quite). I find that most of the complexity in Perl is totally unnecessary and is mainly the result of bad design choices made early on, in contrast to Python, which has equivalent power but is much easier to learn and writing bibliography law essay, use. I gave up Perl completely as soon as I learned Python, and help to write, so should you. Tcl/Tk I've done some simple neural network simulations with a graphical interface in Tcl/Tk.
Eiffel also has some issues involving its type system which requires programs to nice, do whole-program analysis at link time to make sure a program is help to write, valid; this makes the language much less attractive in the internet world where dynamic loading of code libraries is a normal part of life. Smalltalk SmallTalk was one of the earliest object-oriented languages (not the first, though: Simula was the first). Nice Essay. It has not really caught on, probably because its syntax is quite odd, but it has had a major influence on newer languages like Java and help a poem, Python. There is a recent reimplementation called Squeak which is materialistic essay, really wonderful, is a poem, free software, and is attracting a lot of roles and responsibilities, attention; if you're interested in Smalltalk, you should start there. Although Smalltalk's syntax is a poem, odd, it's very consistent, and this makes Smalltalk extremely easy to learn; you could summarize the entire language in one page. That makes sense, since it was originally designed to be a language that children could use.
Smalltalk has also been a heavy influence on other languages, notably the scripting language Ruby. All computer language designers should study Smalltalk carefully; there is bibliography, much to learn from to write a poem it. Personally, studying Smalltalk gave me a big aha! moment: I never really understood the essence of object-oriented programming until I learned Smalltalk. Dylan Dylan is essentially a dialect of lisp with optional static typing and an infix syntax. If Dylan ever becomes more widely available it could become very popular as a fast scripting language. Materialistic Essay. Definitely worth watching. Ruby Ruby is help a poem, a scripting language that is sort of like a cross between Python and Smalltalk, with a dash of Perl thrown in for bad measure.
It's more purely object-oriented than Python is, which I like, but it's also more syntactically heavy, which I dislike. Essays. If Python didn't exist, Ruby would be my scripting language of help to write a poem, choice. J and APL J is the modern dialect of APL, the famous array-processing language with all the funny characters. J uses ASCII characters only (fortunately) but is still incredibly cryptic. It's also proprietary, although free versions are available. In the right hands, I think J could be a pretty cool data-analysis language. Modula-3 Modula-3 is another object-oriented language descended from Pascal. Essay. It's no longer used much, but it was a major influence on Java and Python, so its genes live on help to write a poem :-) To me, one of its coolest features is the writing bibliography law essay notion of an a poem unsafe module that can perform low-level tasks usually done using C or C++. An Effective Cover. This gives it much of the power of those languages, but unlike them, Modula-3 is help a poem, safe by nice essay default. The C# language adopted this feature. Prolog Prolog is basically an AI language which operates by defining facts and rules for deriving new facts from to write old ones.
I've read one book on of a sports coach essay Prolog but haven't done any real programming in it. It looks fascinating, though: it's a whole new paradigm of programming. m4 macro language I used this for setting up the automatic configuration for my hobby project (GNU shogi). It only a poem, required about a couple of hundred lines of m4 code, which is just as well; it's pretty nasty. sed, awk These are Unix text-processing mini-languages. I've used them as part of shell scripts, but don't claim to be an expert in either. An Effective Cover Letter. Anything awk can do can usually be done better by help to write a poem Python or Perl anyway. Programming languages I've written or worked on.
The GENESIS neural simulator I worked with for my Ph.D. Writing. thesis included a home-brew script language imaginatively called SLI (for script language interpreter). Help A Poem. I hacked on it a bit, but it was such a poorly designed piece of crap that I lost interest quickly. It served as a useful illustration of how not to design a language. I wrote an interesting scripting language called Tap (named after the fake rock band Spinal Tap). I designed it myself and on gangster genre, wrote it entirely from scratch in help to write, ocaml. The idea behind Tap was to create a hybrid of Forth and Scheme.
It would have a postfix syntax like Forth (which means it has a lexer but no real parser; every token is writing law essay, executed immediately), but would also be a full-fledged functional language like Scheme, with a full environment model, first class functions, yadda yadda. I was interested to see if merging the Forth approach to help to write a poem, programming with the Scheme approach would be interesting. And, in fact, it was interesting. Here is some sample Tap code: I learned a lot from working on Tap, even though I don't work on it or use the language any more. I found that I had to essay titles, fight the tendency to make the language overly complex, because ocaml made it so easy to make big changes (even stupid ones). Even so, I'm not happy with the result -- for help to write one thing, the internals are too complex for my taste. I also tried too hard to make it Lisp-like, for instance by trying to essay titles, support things like syntactic macros which don't fit in nicely with a postfix model of computation. Similarly, I tried too hard to make the base syntax user-modifiable. Help. In contrast, I neglected vitally important things like modules which do fit in to the model and are essential for any real programming language IMO.
Also, using ocaml as the implementation language was a mixed blessing. It certainly improved my skill with the language, it gives you garbage collection for free, and it's generally a joy to work with, but it's too restrictive in some ways. Essay. For instance, you can't have native-code shared libraries, which is a huge lose for a scripting language. Perhaps the biggest mistake I made with Tap is that I didn't have an to write application area defined before I started working on it. It's usually a good idea to have a specific application or set of applications to of a sports essay, guide the language design. Picoforth is a Forth dialect (much more so than Tap, which was merely inspired by Forth). It preserves the things I liked about Forth (extreme interactivity, easy factoring, easy access to data representations) while getting rid of the many things I hated about it. Help. Its goal was to on gangster, be a scripting language for to write a poem applications or libraries written in C (much like most scripting languages) and it's was written in C. It features conservative garbage collection, a much richer data model than Forth (which isn't saying much), and essay titles, a better module (vocabulary) model.
The implementation is basically an indirect-threaded interpreter like Forth. One of help a poem, these days, though, I really have to sit down and write a Forth implementation from scratch in assembly language, if only to essay, teach myself assembly language. To Write. That's how Chuck Moore did it originally, and nice titles, if it's good enough for Chuck. BogoScheme started as a tiny Scheme interpreter I wrote in a few hours in ocaml for an ocaml course I teach. Help A Poem. There was nothing particularly interesting about the original version, aside from the fact that it was a Turing-complete Scheme interpreter in tips for writing cover letter, about 700 lines of code, with first-class functions and correct lexical scoping. The bogo- prefix doesn't mean that the a poem language is broken; it just means that it (currently) lacks huge numbers of features that full-fledged Scheme interpreters have. Also, I liked the on gangster genre idea that source code files would have names ending in .bs . Truth in advertising! Of course, no language ever stays small for long, and since I wrote BogoScheme I've been systematically expanding it, with the to write a poem goal of making a full R6RS-compliant Scheme implementation (the R6RS standard isn't finalized yet, but a draft is available at http://www.r6rs.org ). I also want to experiment with writing a Scheme compiler for law essay the language, something I've been interested in ever since I read Abelson and Sussman's Structure and help, Interpretation of Computer Programs.
And, of course, it's really fun. My longer-term goal is to use BogoScheme as a vehicle for tips cover web programming. I have technical reasons for believing that Scheme would be a superb language for web programming, and I'd like to try it out. Of course, I could use a pre-existing Scheme implementation, but that wouldn't be nearly as much fun. Other programming projects of mine. mosh is a Unix shell I've written in Ocaml. It's very primitive at help the moment, but I want to bibliography, expand it until I can ditch bash and zsh entirely (at least, for interactive use).
The goal of mosh is to be a superb interactive shell, not a shell scripting language. I don't care much about shell scripting, because my shell scripts are never long (if they get longer than about twenty lines, I switch to a real scripting language like python instead). However, I do care a lot about comfortable interaction with a shell, and help, I want to use mosh to experiment with new features while simultaneously avoiding the gigantic amount of cruft that plagues zsh . Admittedly, this isn't an Earth-shaking project; it's mostly for fun and on gangster, learning. The name mosh stands for M ike's O caml SH ell. Apache is the help most-used web server in the world, and is totally open-source. I've compiled and set up an nice essay titles Apache server for my database-backed web site project. To Write. I set up the essay server to support PHP and MySQL as well, which required a little cleverness (but not much). I like Apache; it seems to be robust and effective. TeX/LaTeX The document-processing systems.
I use these to typeset all my scientific papers. I hate LaTeX, but I don't have a better alternative. I especially hate the TeX language that is at the heart of LaTeX. Don Knuth may be a genius in the field of computer algorithms, but that doesn't make him a genius in computer language design. Ugh. CORBA I've played around with CORBA a bit, mainly using a Python ORB called Fnorb.
I was once excited about the potential of to write, CORBA for making network programming easier and for roles of a making it easy to integrate modules written in different languages, but now I've lost interest. CORBA is help to write a poem, too big, too bulky, and help in london, has too much overhead for my tastes. Also, it has a design-by-committee feel to it. CVS and Subversion. I have used CVS (Concurrent Version System) to manage source code revisions for several projects. It's not perfect, but it gets the a poem job done.
I've also set up CVS archives for the Gambit project and for other projects. Then I switched to Subversion, which I preferred, but not by much. Now I use Darcs (written in Haskell, by the way). Lex, Yacc and friends. Lex and Yacc (or their GNU equivalents, flex and bison) are, respectively, lexer and parser generators. They enable you to writing law essay, write parsers for new programming languages fairly easily, by stating the parsing rules. Help. I've done some work on nice essay titles Yacc for the Tspice project, and I used lex extensively for my cellreader library in GENESIS. I also know the Ocaml equivalents, ocamllex and ocamlyacc , quite well.
Emacs and help a poem, Vim Emacs and Vim are two great programmer's text editors. I used Emacs exclusively for years until I finally discovered Vim, and dissertation in london, I haven't used Emacs since. Vim's modal editing really saves time. SWIG SWIG (Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator) is a nifty tool that makes it very easy to build scripting interfaces to to write, C or C++ code. I used it to build a version of GENESIS that used Python as its scripting language.
autoconf autoconf is another cool tool that I used to automate the configuration process for my hobby project (GNU shogi). If you've ever had to materialistic essay, hack through a dozen Makefiles to make a program compile on a different version of help a poem, Unix than the one it was written on, then you can appreciate what autoconf does. With autoconf, you just have to do configure; make; make install and you're (usually) done.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and help a poem, Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the tips for writing standard format of how you should write an essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. A Poem! You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction.
All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to in london, raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to help to write a poem, the next level? That’s what this article is about. Bibliography Law Essay! feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to help, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes.
What an SAT Essay Score of essay 8 Means. If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to help a poem, score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Essays Genre! Good News and Bad News by to write, Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.
Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and roles sports coach, writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out help your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of materialistic essay than others. You'll need to help a poem, use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to for writing an effective cover, base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay.
The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the to write difference is materialistic essay, between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in a poem each of those three areas). We’ve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of writing bibliography substantive errors of fact and help to write, interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an roles sports, understanding of the source text.
The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is help to write, free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of nice titles textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the to write a poem source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in in london the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an help, effective analysis of the roles and responsibilities of a sports coach essay source text and help, demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task.
The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant and materialistic, sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the help a poem task. The response offers an dissertation in london, insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the help a poem analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of essay titles evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and help a poem, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing.
The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. Roles Of A Sports Coach Essay! The 4 essay delves into the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. Help A Poem! The writer not only states the techniques used in dissertation the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the to write text.
The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an materialistic, effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. To Write A Poem! The response includes a skillful introduction and dissertation in london, conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of to write a poem precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. Materialistic Essay! The response shows a strong command of the to write a poem conventions of standard written English and writing, is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is help to write a poem, written fairly well.
In addition, the dissertation help in london 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the help 3 is essays genre, just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to help a poem, fully support the materialistic essay writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and help a poem, make note of dissertation help how it fits the to write criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in dissertation in london which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to help a poem, persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to essay titles, strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.
Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the to write a poem passage. The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and titles, we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the to write amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and and responsibilities of a sports coach essay, evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and help, compelling language. Goodman begins the article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics.
He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in essay the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of these facts and help, figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the essays on gangster genre groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an help to write, opinion piece – his opinion is backed by and responsibilities coach, the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says.
Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the help to write a poem reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention. Titles! When the reader does the help to write a poem math to find a drop of nice titles 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in to write a poem just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the nice titles counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and help to write a poem, man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.
It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the help in london reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices.
Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and help a poem, admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the cover reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim.
Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in help to write yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the same way. But the elements in for writing letter this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for help a poem the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in essay practice? Read on to find out help to write what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. Materialistic! SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and to write, precise language helps support and explain the writing author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization.
The writer's clarity extends to help a poem, her logic as well. Sufficient background is given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs. The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the dissertation help in london author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on the reader? The organization of the essay follows the help to write a poem organization set out in of a coach the introduction: the help to write a poem writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is in london, aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of to write errors remain consistent from start to writing bibliography law essay, finish.
The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of help to write a poem how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by for writing an effective, Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of words (marked in help a poem blue) and in london, sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and help to write a poem, phrases used to help, describe the same phenomenon of non-professional foreign news correspondents. Help To Write! Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to writing law essay, agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. Help A Poem! The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to nice essay, be detailed—this author uses the a poem space to give lots of context for her examples. Dos and help, Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on a poem the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for of a things to do (and things to avoid). To Write! Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Writing! Explaining the persuasive effect the author’s argumentative techniques have on help to write the reader.
Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. And Responsibilities Of A Coach Essay! Trying to correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the help last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and materialistic, develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score.
As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Help To Write A Poem! Here’s a framework for on gangster genre how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. A Poem! If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the essay. Essay! Find a way to grade your essay.
If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of a poem time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for law essay analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the a poem time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test. Looking for essays genre a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program.
It customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from help Wellesley College with a BA in titles Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.
You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on help a poem Each SAT Section: Series: How to of a sports essay, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for help Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.
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cold war essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is to write hard to avoid the on gangster, feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of a poem articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in many regions of the nice essay titles, world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is help a poem essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial. Materialistic Essay? If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from help a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of materialistic essay a new era of conflict. And yet, all of to write a poem these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the nice essay titles, remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to help to write the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at materialistic essay its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to help a poem an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and writing law essay socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism.
The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is help to write a poem evident first of all in the total exhaustion of and responsibilities sports viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is not to say that there will no longer be events to a poem fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of international relations, for the victory of liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the nature of help historical change. THE NOTION of the end of help history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the essay, concept of history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from help to write his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to writing concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the a poem, product of his concrete historical and social environment and writing bibliography law essay not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the application of science and technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into help to write a poem, relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in on gangster genre, an absolute moment - a moment in which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to help a poem save Hegel from his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the bibliography, philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the help to write a poem, greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Essay? Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from to write a poem Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the Hegel of the Phenomenology of Mind , the Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. Writing Bibliography Law Essay? For as early as this Hegel saw in help, Napoleon's defeat of the tips for writing cover, Prussian monarchy at the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the help a poem, state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in for writing letter, light of the turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to help be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in this century and their attendant revolutions and upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to tips for writing letter implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of help a poem history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the dissertation, Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the transformation and help to write mastery of nature, the tips for writing cover, struggle for help to write a poem the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. Bibliography? But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching.
Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and to write spent the remainder of his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to essays assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the to write, contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of human consciousness, i.e. on the level of ideas - not the essay, trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of help to write work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena.
But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by letter, a bullet from the material world, the hand on the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in a prior state of consciousness - an a poem, idea similar to the one expressed by on gangster, John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of help to write earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in essay, the material world, indeed creates the material world in its own image. Consciousness is cause and to write a poem not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the hands of later thinkers. Marx reversed the tips for writing cover letter, priority of the real and the ideal completely, relegating the entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by a poem, the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of writing bibliography Marxism is our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and help to write a poem our disinclination to writing believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an a poem, empire whose economy is barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of modern thought is law essay characteristic not only of people on to write a poem, the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of essay many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on the Right what one might label the help to write, Wall Street Journal school of of a sports coach deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. Help To Write? It is precisely this kind of individual and essays genre his pursuit of material incentives that is help a poem posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.
Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and bibliography law essay the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of to write Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and materialistic essay America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Help To Write? Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. But in fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the materialistic essay, piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. To Write? The choices of leisure over income, or of the militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the of a coach, emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to help to write study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the on gangster genre, contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of help to write a poem deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of nice Asia in to write a poem, the past few decades as evidence of the viability of free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Tips An Effective? Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of help economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the writing bibliography, matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in to write, the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the material over the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. Help In London? But the deep defects of a poem socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over materialistic, the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in help, the realm of roles of a coach consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the help to write, material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in writing bibliography law essay, the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to help to write Kojeve that the consciousness of the for writing an effective cover letter, postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is a poem not to deny the essay, role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in the name of ideas that exist in a poem, the realm of the spirit alone, be it the nice titles, divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.
But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of help it, the essays genre, material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. I want to avoid the materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and help a poem politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to essays on gangster genre stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the content of the help, universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in sports coach essay, the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in help to write, the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in important social or political forces and movements, and tips an effective which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in help a poem, some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to writing bibliography liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of to write community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by a strong state that forged a new people on dissertation in london, the basis of help national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and essays Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and help a poem all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and tips letter Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and to write a poem this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the egalitarianism of nice essay modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. Help To Write? This is not to help in london say that there are not rich people and poor people in the United States, or that the a poem, gap between them has not grown in recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to in london do with the underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the help, historical legacy of premodern conditions. Thus black poverty in essays genre, the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of slavery and racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the help a poem, class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the dissertation, end of the to write, First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the essays genre, future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by its success outside of to write this region. But it is roles of a coach essay precisely in help a poem, the non-European world that one is most struck by the occurrence of major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in essay, Asia. Due to the strength and adaptability of the help a poem, indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of bibliography law essay imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is help to write easy today to for writing cover forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of help to write Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to materialistic liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in help, such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and for writing an effective letter it is questionable what relationship the factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.
Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto help to write a poem, uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in tips for writing an effective cover letter, turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and to write an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the titles, omnipresent signs advertising the a poem, products of Sony, Hitachi, and dissertation help JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the help, lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the rule of the bibliography, Shariah . Help To Write? Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of essays genre economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is help to write a poem that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of materialistic essay this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the help to write, larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. Nice Titles? It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in Asia, China. A Poem? The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of roles and responsibilities of a sports coach essay ideological attraction, and as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system.
Beginning with the famous third plenum of the help to write a poem, Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in materialistic essay, order to give peasants a taste of the to write a poem, universal homogenous state and thereby an incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from dissertation which he was able to extend the reform to help to write a poem other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and help openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in any way as a liberal democracy. At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the help a poem, new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to bibliography policy, and that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in to write, that country for essays the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the Chinese elite. It is help to write hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the essay, only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and recurred recently on to write a poem, the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for tips for writing cover letter change in help a poem, the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of essays on gangster genre world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the to write, world, whether they be guerrillas in essay, some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.
Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the world proletariat - that have put the help to write a poem, final nail in in london, the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to power: free markets and to write the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the of a sports coach, chances for success of Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the sphere of help to write economics or politics. But my purpose here is help not to help to write a poem analyze events in the short-term, or to make predictions for policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in for writing an effective cover letter, the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to matter little, however, for as long as the state itself refused to throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the help, system was capable of functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and essays on gangster genre defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on help a poem, the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is liberalism. And Responsibilities Essay? This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the help to write a poem, reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in essay titles, their support for free markets, to to write a poem the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to essay titles Milton Friedman.
There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the help, root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is help ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and help to write a poem prices. Roles And Responsibilities? After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of help to write a poem fatal flaws in the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and his lieutenants seem to materialistic essay understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and to write a poem other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the on gangster, need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and help a poem pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in and responsibilities sports coach, practice.
Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. To Write A Poem? The essence of Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in in london, the name of the demos. Help To Write? All of Lenin's vicious polemics against Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and law essay Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by help to write, a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to in london return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of a poem Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to the fact that the tips for writing an effective cover letter, democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and political spheres are highly subversive of some of the to write a poem, most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is of a terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of history it is help a poem not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in on gangster, the Soviet Union in the past few years: the help to write a poem, criticisms of the Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to help either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to say what they had privately understood for many years, namely, that the magical incantations of Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to help to write the West in bibliography, any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of a poem simple workers afraid of unemployment and inflation and dissertation in london of party officials fearful of help to write losing their jobs and genre privileges, is outspoken and help to write may be strong enough to essay force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is tradition, order, and authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of a poem some new and sports coach vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to help a poem liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable?
Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in writing bibliography, recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is to write inclined to say that the revival of dissertation help in london religion in some way attests to help a poem a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the emptiness at the core of essays on gangster liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the help to write, minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and communism.
But the doctrine has little appeal for non-Muslims, and dissertation in london it is hard to believe that the movement will take on to write a poem, any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is essay permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by nationalism and other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the help to write a poem, Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in this century have been spawned by sports essay, the nationalism of the developed world in to write a poem, various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in letter, the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the to write, world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in on gangster genre, terms of peoples who are forced to help live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in writing bibliography law essay, liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. A Poem? In the meantime, they have helped to spread the help in london, universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the to write, end of tips an effective history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and to write a poem will be a terrain of conflict for many years to come. But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. For Writing? Russia and China are not likely to help a poem join the developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. Materialistic Essay? How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the skin of ideology is a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the international system as such, and to understand the help, prospects for conflict one must look at essay the shape of the system - for example, whether it is bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the nations and regimes that constitute it. Help? This school in effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of roles of a sports coach essay human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the help a poem, USSR is shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to essay that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in to write a poem, such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on a substratum of materialistic permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. For the a poem, way in essays, which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by help a poem, a prior state of consciousness. In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the tips for writing an effective letter, doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from a crude belief in help to write, the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to the desire to give people of writing color access to the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and a poem played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and deformed outgrowth of writing bibliography nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over help a poem, all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to foreign policy, with the consequence that the dissertation, nineteenth-century model of great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the a poem, world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to on gangster genre believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to disappear from the face of the earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to help see the Common Marketization of dissertation world politics than the disintegration of the EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. To Write? Indeed, as our experiences in dissertation help in london, dealing with Europe on matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of help to write its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is materialistic therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in help, the rest of Europe. This is certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to cultivate influence in for writing letter, distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to a poem say that there are not troublesome aspects to contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the nice titles, reckless sale of ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and help to write a poem the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the law essay, Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. Help A Poem? But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the tips for writing an effective cover letter, liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for help to write a poem major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the present-day era. At the modern stage, the ability to build up material wealth at an accelerated rate on the basis of roles and responsibilities of a sports coach essay front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for help to write mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for roles and responsibilities sports coach essay those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is help dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to work harder, and in london its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in help, the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by essays on gangster, Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in a poem, history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for that power will continue to preoccupy us and tips slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is to write not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. And the death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of tips for writing an effective cover letter large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se.
For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and a poem nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an nice essay titles, important item on to write, the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and they are what appear to be passing from the dissertation, scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for help to write a poem recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the writing law essay, perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and to write conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the help in london, most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is help a poem available in nice titles, English entitled Introduction to the Reading of help to write Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). Dissertation? (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an help a poem, historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to roles essay the Philosophy of to write a poem History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text)
5. Essays Genre? Indeed, for Hegel the help a poem, very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an dissertation in london, aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the to write, idealist perspective. (back to text) 7. One need look no further than the recent performance of essay Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. Help? school system when compared to their black of genre Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm.
Nonetheless, neither country ion the help to write, eve of its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at roles sports coach the time of Justinian revolved around a conflict between the help to write, so-called monophysites and monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of on gangster will. This conflict corresponded to some extent to one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of a poem such conflicts in roles sports coach, antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to believe that men would kill each other over the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. Help? I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to essays on gangster genre the right of the to write a poem, user. Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the essay, structure of the to write, doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. Bibliography? I use the to write a poem, example of Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on purely formal arts, proved that the in london, universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to text) 13. This is not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to text)
14. This is to write particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the on gangster genre, Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the a poem, standpoint of writing classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to help text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the nice essay, war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of help a poem a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to bibliography law essay text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is to write a poem formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. (back to text)
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example mba essay EssayEdge offers all users free access to over 100 admissions essays accepted by the United States' top undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. To Write A Poem! The following Sample Admissions Essays are for Wharton, Tuck and Columbia. Sample MBA Admissions Essays - Content provided by EssayEdge's Harvard Editors. This section contains three pages of content: Prompt: What one nonprofessional activity do you find most inspirational and why? (Wharton) A little over two years ago I began tutoring high school students in dissertation in london, several types of mathematics, including preparation for to write a poem, the S.A.T. Test. While I did this initially to earn money, I have continued to tutor (often pro bono) because I enjoy the material and the contact with the students. I have always enjoyed math tremendously.
I can remember riding in a car for long distances as a child and continuously calculating average speeds and percentages of distances covered as we traveled. In college I took upper division math classes such as Real Analysis and Game Theory (and placed near the top of the roles of a curve) though they were not required for my major. All this time spent playing with math has left me with a deep understanding of the way numbers work and the many ways in which problems can be solved. When I first began tutoring I was stunned to find that most of the kids I worked with, although very bright, not only lacked the ability to to write solve complex problems, they were very uncomfortable with some of the writing bibliography basic principles of math. This discomfort led to fear and avoidance, and the avoidance led to more discomfort. Help To Write A Poem! A vicious cycle began. Essay! Instead of seeing math as a beautiful system in which arithmetic, algebra and geometry all worked together to allow one to solve problems, they saw it as a bunch of help jumbled rules which made little sense that they were forced to memorize. As a tutor, I found that it was important when starting with a new student to find out bibliography where his/her discomfort with math began. Often, this meant going back several years in a poem, their education to bibliography explain important basic concepts. For some students, fractions and help to write, decimals were the nice essay titles point at which math stopped making sense.
For many others, it was the help introduction of writing bibliography law essay letters to represent numbers in algebra. Some students found that identifying their weaknesses was an embarrassing process. Help! I explained to them that it was not their fault. Everyone comes to understand new concepts in math in a slightly different way, and the problem was that no teacher had taken the time to essays on gangster genre explain their problem area in a way which would make sense to them. Since math was a system, once they missed out on that one building block, it was not surprising that the rest of it did not make sense. Help A Poem! Our mission together would be to nice essay titles find the way in which the help system worked for them. Once we had identified the initial problem area, I would spend a lot of time getting the student to play with questions in that area from a lot of different perspectives. For example, if fractions were the problem, then I would create games to get the student to on gangster think of help to write a poem fractions in law essay, terms of division, ratios, decimals or other equivalent systems. This would often be a fairly unstructured process, as I wanted to to write see how the student's mind worked and keep them from feeling any anxiety. Usually it did not take long for the concepts to start becoming clear to on gangster the student, as he/she played with the numbers in the absence of the pressure of school. My goal was to not just white wash over a students weaknesses with a few rules which would be quickly forgotten, but to help them develop an understanding and help a poem, an appreciation for the underlying principles.
I found this process to be very satisfying for both myself and essay, the young men and women that I taught. It was a wonderful feeling to to write a poem have a student laugh out loud with relief as a principle which had been unclear and causing anxiety for years suddenly made sense. Once these old problem areas were cleared up it was usually quite simple to tips letter make clear the subjects that they were working on at the to write a poem time, especially since I already had an understanding of how they were best able to roles of a understand new concepts. Again, I found it important to get the help to write student to play with the new material and look at it in several ways so as to of a sports coach essay develop a true understanding of the material. I was quite successful as a tutor. One young man increased his Math S.A.T. by 150 points. Another student improved so dramatically in geometry, her test scores jumped from about 55 percent to over 90 percent, that her teacher kept her after class and asked if she was cheating.
Although most of help a poem my students did not improve this dramatically, I walked away from every lesson that I gave feeling that I had helped someone understand and enjoy math. I hope to be able to writing continue teaching, if only for a few hours a week, for the rest of my life. ** ADMISSIONS COMMITTEE COMMENTS: ** This essay shows that this applicant is dedicated not just to helping people, but to academics, learning, and math. His tutoring does not make us believe his sincerity; the thoughtfulness and to write a poem, detail with which he describes it do. He has put obvious time into developing an effective method of teaching.
The writer shows that he is essay, result-oriented by measuring his success in a poem, terms of and responsibilities real numbers and percentage increases. Someone who applies such standards of accountability to his extracurricular life is sure to bring the same standards to school and business. Prompt: Describe the to write a poem characteristics of an exceptional manager by nice essay, examining someone whom you have observed or with whom you have worked. Illustrate how his or her management style has influenced you. (Tuck) In management consulting, strong analytical skills are valued as much as, if not more than, effective managerial and leadership skills. Unfortunately, for some consultants, these characteristics, at times, are mutually exclusive. Help To Write! I was fortunate, however, to roles sports coach essay work with [name] on my first major project at help to write, [consulting firm]. As my projectmanager, he demonstrated a superior combination of leadership, managerial, and communication skills. As a result of our interaction, I learned several important lessons and tools that I used on tips an effective subsequent projects to improve my effectiveness as a team leader.
To begin, [name] is a true leader who exhibits courage and dedication. A powerful trait rarely found in the realm of business, courage is unique in its ability to unify and motivate people. Moreover, his courage is balanced appropriately with professionalism, strong values, and humility. He is sensitive to others’ feelings and recognizes that different people require different types of direction and treatment. Although he often works with diverse and help to write, difficult groups, he always seems able to dissertation help reach consensus and create a shared vision and purpose.
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